The hospital must be constructed, arranged, and maintained to ensure the safety of the patient, and to provide facilities for diagnosis and treatment and for special hospital services appropriate to the needs of the community.
(a) Standard: Buildings. The condition of the physical plant and the overall hospital environment must be developed and maintained in such a manner that the safety and well-being of patients are assured.
(1) There must be emergency power and lighting in at least the operating, recovery, intensive care, and emergency rooms, and stairwells. In all other areas not serviced by the emergency supply source, battery lamps and flashlights must be available.
(2) There must be facilities for emergency gas and water supply.
(b) Standard: Life safety from fire.
(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section -
(i) The hospital must meet the applicable provisions and must proceed in accordance with the Life Safety Code (NFPA 101 and Tentative Interim Amendments TIA 12-1, TIA 12-2, TIA 12-3, and TIA 12-4.) Outpatient surgical departments must meet the provisions applicable to Ambulatory Health Care Occupancies, regardless of the number of patients served.
(ii) Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, corridor doors and doors to rooms containing flammable or combustible materials must be provided with positive latching hardware. Roller latches are prohibited on such doors.
(2) In consideration of a recommendation by the State survey agency or Accrediting Organization or at the discretion of the Secretary, may waive, for periods deemed appropriate, specific provisions of the Life Safety Code, which would result in unreasonable hardship upon a hospital, but only if the waiver will not adversely affect the health and safety of the patients.
(3) The provisions of the Life Safety Code do not apply in a State where CMS finds that a fire and safety code imposed by State law adequately protects patients in hospitals.
(4) The hospital must have procedures for the proper routine storage and prompt disposal of trash.
(5) The hospital must have written fire control plans that contain provisions for prompt reporting of fires; extinguishing fires; protection of patients, personnel and guests; evacuation; and cooperation with fire fighting authorities.
(6) The hospital must maintain written evidence of regular inspection and approval by State or local fire control agencies.
(7) A hospital may install alcohol-based hand rub dispensers in its facility if the dispensers are installed in a manner that adequately protects against inappropriate access;
(8) When a sprinkler system is shut down for more than 10 hours, the hospital must:
(i) Evacuate the building or portion of the building affected by the system outage until the system is back in service, or
(ii) Establish a fire watch until the system is back in service.
(9) Buildings must have an outside window or outside door in every sleeping room, and for any building constructed after July 5, 2016 the sill height must not exceed 36 inches above the floor. Windows in atrium walls are considered outside windows for the purposes of this requirement.
(i) The sill height requirement does not apply to newborn nurseries and rooms intended for occupancy for less than 24 hours.
(ii) The sill height in special nursing care areas of new occupancies must not exceed 60 inches.
(c) Standard: Building safety. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the hospital must meet the applicable provisions and must proceed in accordance with the Health Care Facilities Code (NFPA 99 and Tentative Interim Amendments TIA 12-2, TIA 12-3, TIA 12-4, TIA 12-5 and TIA 12-6).
(1) Chapters 7, 8, 12, and 13 of the adopted Health Care Facilities Code do not apply to a hospital.
(2) If application of the Health Care Facilities Code required under paragraph (c) of this section would result in unreasonable hardship for the hospital, CMS may waive specific provisions of the Health Care Facilities Code, but only if the waiver does not adversely affect the health and safety of patients.
(d) Standard: Facilities. The hospital must maintain adequate facilities for its services.
(1) Diagnostic and therapeutic facilities must be located for the safety of patients.
(2) Facilities, supplies, and equipment must be maintained to ensure an acceptable level of safety and quality.
(3) The extent and complexity of facilities must be determined by the services offered.
(4) There must be proper ventilation, light, and temperature controls in pharmaceutical, food preparation, and other appropriate areas.
(e) The standards incorporated by reference in this section are approved for incorporation by reference by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may inspect a copy at the CMS Information Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. If any changes in this edition of the Code are incorporated by reference, CMS will publish a document in the Federal Register to announce the changes.
(1) National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169, www.nfpa.org, 1.617.770.3000.
(i) NFPA 99, Standards for Health Care Facilities Code of the National Fire Protection Association 99, 2012 edition, issued August 11, 2011.
(ii) TIA 12-2 to NFPA 99, issued August 11, 2011.
(iii) TIA 12-3 to NFPA 99, issued August 9, 2012.
(iv) TIA 12-4 to NFPA 99, issued March 7, 2013.
(v) TIA 12-5 to NFPA 99, issued August 1, 2013.
(vi) TIA 12-6 to NFPA 99, issued March 3, 2014.
(vii) NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, 2012 edition, issued August 11, 2011;
(viii) TIA 12-1 to NFPA 101, issued August 11, 2011.
(ix) TIA 12-2 to NFPA 101, issued October 30, 2012.
(x) TIA 12-3 to NFPA 101, issued October 22, 2013.
(xi) TIA 12-4 to NFPA 101, issued October 22, 2013.
[51 FR 22042, June 17, 1986, as amended at 53 FR 11509, Apr. 7, 1988; 68 FR 1386, Jan. 10, 2003; 69 FR 49267, Aug. 11, 2004; 70 FR 15238, Mar. 25, 2005; 71 FR 55340, Sept. 22, 2006; 81 FR 26899, May 4, 2016; 81 FR 42548, June 30, 2016]