(a) Standard permit requirements. Each permit issued under this part shall include the following elements:
(1) Emissions limitations and standards, including those operational requirements and limitations that assure compliance with all applicable requirements at the time of permit issuance. Such requirements and limitations may include ARMs identified by the source in its part 71 permit application as approved by the permitting authority, provided that no ARM shall contravene any terms needed to comply with any otherwise applicable requirement or requirement of this part or circumvent any applicable requirement that would apply as a result of implementing the ARM.
(i) The permit shall specify and reference the origin of and authority for each term or condition, and identify any difference in form as compared to the applicable requirement upon which the term or condition is based.
(ii) The permit shall state that, where an applicable requirement of the Act is more stringent than an applicable requirement of 40 CFR parts 72 through 78, both provisions shall be incorporated into the permit and shall be enforceable by the Administrator.
(iii) If an applicable implementation plan allows a determination of an alternative emission limit at a part 71 source, equivalent to that contained in the plan, to be made in the permit issuance, renewal, or significant modification process, and the permitting authority elects to use such process, any permit containing such equivalency determination shall contain provisions to ensure that any resulting emissions limit has been demonstrated to be quantifiable, accountable, enforceable, and based on replicable procedures.
(2) Permit duration. The permitting authority shall issue permits for a fixed term of 5 years in the case of affected sources, and for a term not to exceed 5 years in the case of all other sources. Notwithstanding this requirement, the permitting authority shall issue permits for solid waste incineration units combusting municipal waste subject to standards under section 129(e) of the Act for a period not to exceed 12 years and shall review such permits at least every 5 years.
(3) Monitoring and related recordkeeping and reporting requirements.
(i) Each permit shall contain the following requirements with respect to monitoring:
(A) All monitoring and analysis procedures or test methods required under applicable monitoring and testing requirements, including part 64 of this chapter and any other procedures and methods that may be promulgated pursuant to sections 114(a)(3) or 504(b) of the Act. If more than one monitoring or testing requirement applies, the permit may specify a streamlined set of monitoring or testing provisions provided the specified monitoring or testing is adequate to assure compliance at least to the same extent as the monitoring or testing applicable requirements that are not included in the permit as a result of such streamlining;
(B) Where the applicable requirement does not require periodic testing or instrumental or noninstrumental monitoring (which may consist of recordkeeping designed to serve as monitoring), periodic monitoring sufficient to yield reliable data from the relevant time period that are representative of the source's compliance with the permit, as reported pursuant to paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section. Such monitoring requirements shall assure use of terms, test methods, units, averaging periods, and other statistical conventions consistent with the applicable requirement. Recordkeeping provisions may be sufficient to meet the requirements of this paragraph (a)(3)(i)(B); and
(C) As necessary, requirements concerning the use, maintenance, and, where appropriate, installation of monitoring equipment or methods.
(ii) With respect to recordkeeping, the permit shall incorporate all applicable recordkeeping requirements and require, where applicable, the following:
(A) Records of required monitoring information that include the following:
(1) The date, place as defined in the permit, and time of sampling or measurements;
(2) The date(s) analyses were performed;
(3) The company or entity that performed the analyses;
(4) The analytical techniques or methods used;
(5) The results of such analyses; and
(6) The operating conditions as existing at the time of sampling or measurement;
(B) Retention of records of all required monitoring data and support information for a period of at least 5 years from the date of the monitoring sample, measurement, report, or application. Support information includes all calibration and maintenance records and all original strip-chart recordings for continuous monitoring instrumentation, and copies of all reports required by the permit.
(iii) With respect to reporting, the permit shall incorporate all applicable reporting requirements and require the following:
(A) Submittal of reports of any required monitoring at least every 6 months. All instances of deviations from permit requirements must be clearly identified in such reports. All required reports must be certified by a responsible official consistent with § 71.5(d).
(B) Prompt reporting of deviations from permit requirements, including those attributable to upset conditions as defined in the permit, the probable cause of such deviations, and any corrective actions or preventive measures taken. Where the underlying applicable requirement contains a definition of prompt or otherwise specifies a time frame for reporting deviations, that definition or time frame shall govern. Where the underlying applicable requirement fails to address the time frame for reporting deviations, reports of deviations shall be submitted to the permitting authority based on the following schedule:
(1) For emissions of a hazardous air pollutant or a toxic air pollutant (as identified in an applicable regulation) that continue for more than an hour in excess of permit requirements, the report must be made with 24 hours of the occurrence.
(2) For emissions of any regulated air pollutant, excluding those listed in paragraph (a)(3)(iii)(B)(1) of this section, that continue for more than two hours in excess of permit requirements, the report must be made within 48 hours.
(3) For all other deviations from permit requirements, the report shall be contained in the report submitted in accordance with the timeframe given in paragraph (a)(3)(iii)(A).
(4) A permit may contain a more stringent reporting requirement than required by paragraphs (a)(3)(iii)(B)(1), (2), or (3).
If any of the above conditions are met, the source must notify the permitting authority by telephone or facsimile based on the timetable listed in paragraphs (a)(3)(iii)(B) (1) through (4) of this section. A written notice, certified consistent with § 71.5(d), must be submitted within 10 working days of the occurrence. All deviations reported under paragraph (a)(3)(iii)(A) of this section must also be identified in the 6 month report required under paragraph (a)(3)(iii)(A) of this section.
(C) For purposes of paragraph (a)(3)(iii)(B) of this section, deviation means any situation in which an emissions unit fails to meet a permit term or condition. A deviation is not always a violation. A deviation can be determined by observation or through review of data obtained from any testing, monitoring, or recordkeeping established in accordance with paragraphs (a)(3)(i) and (a)(3)(ii) of this section. For a situation lasting more than 24 hours which constitutes a deviation, each 24 hour period is considered a separate deviation. Included in the meaning of deviation are any of the following:
(1) A situation where emissions exceed an emission limitation or standard;
(2) A situation where process or emissions control device parameter values indicate that an emission limitation or standard has not been met;
(3) A situation in which observations or data collected demonstrates noncompliance with an emission limitation or standard or any work practice or operating condition required by the permit;
(4) A situation in which an exceedance or an excursion, as defined in part 64 of this chapter, occurs.
(i) No permit revision shall be required for increases in emissions that are authorized by allowances acquired pursuant to the acid rain program, provided that such increases do not require a permit revision under any other applicable requirement.
(ii) No limit shall be placed on the number of allowances held by the source. The source may not, however, use allowances as a defense to noncompliance with any other applicable requirement.
(5) A severability clause to ensure the continued validity of the various permit requirements in the event of a challenge to any portions of the permit.
(6) Provisions stating the following:
(i) The permittee must comply with all conditions of the part 71 permit. Any permit noncompliance constitutes a violation of the Act and is grounds for enforcement action; for permit termination, revocation and reissuance, or modification; or for denial of a permit renewal application.
(ii) Need to halt or reduce activity not a defense. It shall not be a defense for a permittee in an enforcement action that it would have been necessary to halt or reduce the permitted activity in order to maintain compliance with the conditions of this permit.
(iii) The permit may be modified, revoked, reopened, and reissued, or terminated for cause. The filing of a request by the permittee for a permit modification, revocation and reissuance, or termination, or of a notification of planned changes or anticipated noncompliance does not stay any permit condition.
(iv) The permit does not convey any property rights of any sort, or any exclusive privilege.
(v) The permittee shall furnish to the permitting authority, within a reasonable time, any information that the permitting authority may request in writing to determine whether cause exists for modifying, revoking and reissuing, or terminating the permit or to determine compliance with the permit. Upon request, the permittee shall also furnish to the permitting authority copies of records required to be kept by the permit or, in the case of a program delegated pursuant to § 71.10, for information claimed to be confidential, the permittee may furnish such records directly to the Administrator along with a claim of confidentiality.
(7) A provision to ensure that a part 71 source pays fees to the Administrator consistent with the fee schedule approved pursuant to § 71.9.
(8) Emissions trading. A provision stating that no permit revision shall be required, under any approved economic incentives, marketable permits, emissions trading and other similar programs or processes for changes that are provided for in the permit.
(9) Terms and conditions for reasonably anticipated AOSs identified by the source in its application as approved by the permitting authority. Such terms and conditions:
(i) Shall require the source, contemporaneously with making a change from one operating scenario to another, to record in a log at the permitted facility a record of the AOS under which it is operating;
(ii) May extend the permit shield described in paragraph (f) of this section to all terms and conditions under each such AOS; and
(iii) Must ensure that the terms and conditions of each AOS meet all applicable requirements and the requirements of this part. The permitting authority shall not approve a proposed AOS into the part 71 permit until the source has obtained all authorizations required under any applicable requirement relevant to that AOS.
(10) Terms and conditions, if the permit applicant requests them, for the trading of emissions increases and decreases in the permitted facility, to the extent that the applicable requirements provide for trading such increases and decreases without a case-by-case approval of each emissions trade. Such terms and conditions:
(ii) May extend the permit shield described in paragraph (f) of this section to all terms and conditions that allow such increases and decreases in emissions; and
(iii) Must meet all applicable requirements and requirements of this part.
(11) Permit expiration. A provision to ensure that a part 71 permit expires upon the earlier occurrence of the following events:
(i) twelve years elapses from the date of issuance to a solid waste incineration unit combusting municipal waste subject to standards under section 112(e) of the Act; or
(ii) five years elapses from the date of issuance; or
(iii) the source is issued a part 70 permit.
(12) Off Permit Changes. A provision allowing changes that are not addressed or prohibited by the permit, other than those subject to the requirements of 40 CFR parts 72 through 78 or those that are modifications under any provision of title I of the Act to be made without a permit revision, provided that the following requirements are met:
(i) Each such change shall meet all applicable requirements and shall not violate any existing permit term or condition;
(ii) Sources must provide contemporaneous written notice to the permitting authority (and EPA, in the case of a program delegated pursuant to § 71.10) of each such change, except for changes that qualify as insignificant under § 71.5(c)(11). Such written notice shall describe each such change, including the date, any change in emissions, pollutants emitted, and any applicable requirement that would apply as a result of the change;
(iii) The change shall not qualify for the shield under § 71.6(f);
(iv) The permittee shall keep a record describing changes made at the source that result in emissions of a regulated air pollutant subject to an applicable requirement, but not otherwise regulated under the permit, and the emissions resulting from those changes.
(13) Operational flexibility. Provisions consistent with paragraphs (a)(3)(i) through (iii) of this section to allow changes within a permitted facility without requiring a permit revision, if the changes are not modifications under any provision of title I of the Act and the changes do not exceed the emissions allowable under the permit (whether expressed therein as a rate of emissions or in terms of total emissions): Provided, that the facility provides the Administrator (in the case of a program delegated pursuant to § 71.10) and the permitting authority with written notification as required below in advance of the proposed changes, which shall be a minimum of 7 days.
(i) The permit shall allow the permitted source to make section 502(b)(10) changes without requiring a permit revision, if the changes are not modifications under any provision of title I of the Act and the changes do not exceed the emissions allowable under the permit (whether expressed therein as a rate of emissions or in terms of total emissions).
(A) For each such change, the written notification required above shall include a brief description of the change within the permitted facility, the date on which the change will occur, any change in emissions, and any permit term or condition that is no longer applicable as a result of the change.
(ii) The permit may provide for the permitted source to trade increases and decreases in emissions in the permitted facility, where the applicable implementation plan provides for such emissions trades without requiring a permit revision and based on the 7-day notice prescribed in this paragraph (a)(13)(ii) of this section. This provision is available in those cases where the permit does not already provide for such emissions trading.
(A) Under this paragraph (a)(13)(ii), the written notification required above shall include such information as may be required by the provision in the applicable implementation plan authorizing the emissions trade, including at a minimum, when the proposed change will occur, a description of each such change, any change in emissions, the permit requirements with which the source will comply using the emissions trading provisions of the applicable implementation plan, and the pollutants emitted subject to the emissions trade. The notice shall also refer to the provisions with which the source will comply in the applicable implementation plan and that provide for the emissions trade.
(B) The permit shield described in § 71.6(f) shall not extend to any change made under this paragraph (a)(13)(ii). Compliance with the permit requirements that the source will meet using the emissions trade shall be determined according to requirements of the applicable implementation plan authorizing the emissions trade.
(iii) The permit shall require the permitting authority, if a permit applicant requests it, to issue permits that contain terms and conditions, including all terms required under § 71.6 (a) and (c) to determine compliance, allowing for the trading of emissions increases and decreases in the permitted facility solely for the purpose of complying with a federally-enforceable emissions cap that is established in the permit independent of otherwise applicable requirements. The permit applicant shall include in its application proposed replicable procedures and permit terms that ensure the emissions trades are quantifiable and enforceable. The permitting authority shall not be required to include in the emissions trading provisions any emissions units for which emissions are not quantifiable or for which there are no replicable procedures to enforce the emissions trades. The permit shall also require compliance with all applicable requirements.
(A) Under this paragraph (a)(13)(iii), the written notification required above shall state when the change will occur and shall describe the changes in emissions that will result and how these increases and decreases in emissions will comply with the terms and conditions of the permit.
(B) The permit shield described in § 71.6(f) may extend to terms and conditions that allow such increases and decreases in emissions.
(b) Federally-enforceable requirements. All terms and conditions in a part 71 permit, including any provisions designed to limit a source's potential to emit, are enforceable by the Administrator and citizens under the Act.
(c) Compliance requirements. All part 71 permits shall contain the following elements with respect to compliance:
(1) Consistent with paragraph (a)(3) of this section, compliance certification, testing, monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements sufficient to assure compliance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Any document (including reports) required by a part 71 permit shall contain a certification by a responsible official that meets the requirements of § 71.5(d).
(2) Inspection and entry requirements that require that, upon presentation of credentials and other documents as may be required by law, the permittee shall allow the permitting authority or an authorized representative to perform the following:
(i) Enter upon the permittee's premises where a part 71 source is located or emissions-related activity is conducted, or where records must be kept under the conditions of the permit;
(ii) Have access to and copy, at reasonable times, any records that must be kept under the conditions of the permit;
(iii) Inspect at reasonable times any facilities, equipment (including monitoring and air pollution control equipment), practices, or operations regulated or required under the permit; and
(iv) As authorized by the Act, sample or monitor at reasonable times substances or parameters for the purpose of assuring compliance with the permit or applicable requirements.
(3) A schedule of compliance consistent with § 71.5(c)(8).
(4) Progress reports consistent with an applicable schedule of compliance and § 71.5(c)(8) to be submitted at least semiannually, or at a more frequent period if specified in the applicable requirement or by the permitting authority. Such progress reports shall contain the following:
(i) Dates for achieving the activities, milestones, or compliance required in the schedule of compliance, and dates when such activities, milestones or compliance were achieved; and
(ii) An explanation of why any dates in the schedule of compliance were not or will not be met, and any preventive or corrective measures adopted.
(5) Requirements for compliance certification with terms and conditions contained in the permit, including emission limitations, standards, or work practices. Permits shall include each of the following:
(i) The frequency (not less than annually or such more frequent periods as specified in the applicable requirement or by the permitting authority) of submissions of compliance certifications;
(ii) In accordance with § 71.6(a)(3), a means for monitoring the compliance of the source with its emissions limitations, standards, and work practices;
(iii) A requirement that the compliance certification include all of the following (provided that the identification of applicable information may cross-reference the permit or previous reports, as applicable):
(A) The identification of each term or condition of the permit that is the basis of the certification;
(B) The identification of the method(s) or other means used by the owner or operator for determining the compliance status with each term and condition during the certification period. Such methods and other means shall include, at a minimum, the methods and means required under paragraph (a)(3) of this section. If necessary, the owner or operator also shall identify any other material information that must be included in the certification to comply with section 113(c)(2) of the Act, which prohibits knowingly making a false certification or omitting material information;
(C) The status of compliance with the terms and conditions of the permit for the period covered by the certification, including whether compliance during the period was continuous or intermittent. The certification shall be based on the method or means designated in paragraph (c)(5)(iii)(B) of this section. The certification shall identify each deviation and take it into account in the compliance certification; and
(D) Such other facts as the permitting authority may require to determine the compliance status of the source.
(iv) A requirement that all compliance certifications be submitted to the Administrator as well as to the permitting authority.
(6) Such other provisions as the permitting authority may require.
(d) General permits.
(1) The permitting authority may, after notice and opportunity for public participation provided under § 71.11, issue a general permit covering numerous similar sources. Any general permit shall comply with all requirements applicable to other part 71 permits and shall identify criteria by which sources may qualify for the general permit. To sources that qualify, the permitting authority shall grant the conditions and terms of the general permit. Notwithstanding the shield provisions of paragraph (f) of this section, the source shall be subject to enforcement action for operation without a part 71 permit if the source is later determined not to qualify for the conditions and terms of the general permit. General permits shall not be authorized for affected sources under the acid rain program unless otherwise provided in 40 CFR parts 72 through 78.
(2) Part 71 sources that would qualify for a general permit must apply to the permitting authority for coverage under the terms of the general permit or must apply for a part 71 permit consistent with § 71.5. The permitting authority may, in the general permit, provide for applications which deviate from the requirements of § 71.5, provided that such applications meet the requirements of title V of the Act, and include all information necessary to determine qualification for, and to assure compliance with, the general permit. Without repeating the public participation procedures required under § 71.11, the permitting authority may grant a source's request for authorization to operate under a general permit, but such a grant shall not be a final permit action for purposes of judicial review.
(e) Temporary sources. The permitting authority may issue a single permit authorizing emissions from similar operations by the same source owner or operator at multiple temporary locations. The operation must be temporary and involve at least one change of location during the term of the permit. No affected source shall be permitted as a temporary source. Permits for temporary sources shall include the following:
(1) Conditions that will assure compliance with all applicable requirements at all authorized locations;
(2) Requirements that the owner or operator notify the permitting authority at least 10 days in advance of each change in location; and
(3) Conditions that assure compliance with all other provisions of this section.
(f) Permit shield.
(1) Except as provided in this part, the permitting authority may expressly include in a part 71 permit a provision stating that compliance with the conditions of the permit shall be deemed compliance with any applicable requirements as of the date of permit issuance, provided that:
(i) Such applicable requirements are included and are specifically identified in the permit; or
(ii) The permitting authority, in acting on the permit application or revision, determines in writing that other requirements specifically identified are not applicable to the source, and the permit includes the determination or a concise summary thereof.
(2) A part 71 permit that does not expressly state that a permit shield exists shall be presumed not to provide such a shield.
(3) Nothing in this paragraph or in any part 71 permit shall alter or affect the following:
(i) The provisions of section 303 of the Act (emergency orders), including the authority of the Administrator under that section;
(ii) The liability of an owner or operator of a source for any violation of applicable requirements prior to or at the time of permit issuance;
(iii) The applicable requirements of the acid rain program, consistent with section 408(a) of the Act; or
(iv) The ability of EPA to obtain information from a source pursuant to section 114 of the Act.
(g) Emergency provision -
(1) Definition. An “emergency” means any situation arising from sudden and reasonably unforeseeable events beyond the control of the source, including acts of God, which situation requires immediate corrective action to restore normal operation, and that causes the source to exceed a technology-based emission limitation under the permit, due to unavoidable increases in emissions attributable to the emergency. An emergency shall not include noncompliance to the extent caused by improperly designed equipment, lack of preventative maintenance, careless or improper operation, or operator error.
(2) Effect of an emergency. An emergency constitutes an affirmative defense to an action brought for noncompliance with such technology-based emission limitations if the conditions of paragraph (g)(3) of this section are met.
(3) The affirmative defense of emergency shall be demonstrated through properly signed, contemporaneous operating logs, or other relevant evidence that:
(i) An emergency occurred and that the permittee can identify the cause(s) of the emergency;
(ii) The permitted facility was at the time being properly operated;
(iii) During the period of the emergency the permittee took all reasonable steps to minimize levels of emissions that exceeded the emission standards, or other requirements in the permit; and
(iv) The permittee submitted notice of the emergency to the permitting authority within 2 working days of the time when emission limitations were exceeded due to the emergency. This notice fulfills the requirement of paragraph (a)(3)(iii)(B) of this section. This notice must contain a description of the emergency, any steps taken to mitigate emissions, and corrective actions taken.
(4) In any enforcement proceeding, the permittee seeking to establish the occurrence of an emergency has the burden of proof.
(5) This provision is in addition to any emergency or upset provision contained in any applicable requirement.
[61 FR 34228, July 1, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 54947, Oct. 22, 1997; 66 FR 12876, Mar. 1, 2001; 66 FR 55885, Nov. 5, 2001; 68 FR 38523, June 27, 2003; 74 FR 51440, Oct. 6, 2009; 79 FR 43667, July 28, 2014]