(a) Except as provided under paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section, any physical or operational change to an existing facility which results in an increase in the emission rate to the atmosphere of any pollutant to which a standard applies shall be considered a modification within the meaning of section 111 of the Act. Upon modification, an existing facility shall become an affected facility for each pollutant to which a standard applies and for which there is an increase in the emission rate to the atmosphere.
(b) Emission rate shall be expressed as kg/hr of any pollutant discharged into the atmosphere for which a standard is applicable. The Administrator shall use the following to determine emission rate:
(1) Emission factors as specified in the latest issue of “Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors,” EPA Publication No. AP-42, or other emission factors determined by the Administrator to be superior to AP-42 emission factors, in cases where utilization of emission factors demonstrates that the emission level resulting from the physical or operational change will either clearly increase or clearly not increase.
(2) Material balances, continuous monitor data, or manual emission tests in cases where utilization of emission factors as referenced in paragraph (b)(1) of this section does not demonstrate to the Administrator's satisfaction whether the emission level resulting from the physical or operational change will either clearly increase or clearly not increase, or where an owner or operator demonstrates to the Administrator's satisfaction that there are reasonable grounds to dispute the result obtained by the Administrator utilizing emission factors as referenced in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. When the emission rate is based on results from manual emission tests or continuous monitoring systems, the procedures specified in appendix C of this part shall be used to determine whether an increase in emission rate has occurred. Tests shall be conducted under such conditions as the Administrator shall specify to the owner or operator based on representative performance of the facility. At least three valid test runs must be conducted before and at least three after the physical or operational change. All operating parameters which may affect emissions must be held constant to the maximum feasible degree for all test runs.
(c) The addition of an affected facility to a stationary source as an expansion to that source or as a replacement for an existing facility shall not by itself bring within the applicability of this part any other facility within that source.
(e) The following shall not, by themselves, be considered modifications under this part:
(2) An increase in production rate of an existing facility, if that increase can be accomplished without a capital expenditure on that facility.
(3) An increase in the hours of operation.
(4) Use of an alternative fuel or raw material if, prior to the date any standard under this part becomes applicable to that source type, as provided by § 60.1, the existing facility was designed to accommodate that alternative use. A facility shall be considered to be designed to accommodate an alternative fuel or raw material if that use could be accomplished under the facility's construction specifications as amended prior to the change. Conversion to coal required for energy considerations, as specified in section 111(a)(8) of the Act, shall not be considered a modification.
(5) The addition or use of any system or device whose primary function is the reduction of air pollutants, except when an emission control system is removed or is replaced by a system which the Administrator determines to be less environmentally beneficial.
(6) The relocation or change in ownership of an existing facility.
(f) Special provisions set forth under an applicable subpart of this part shall supersede any conflicting provisions of this section.
(g) Within 180 days of the completion of any physical or operational change subject to the control measures specified in paragraph (a) of this section, compliance with all applicable standards must be achieved.
(h) No physical change, or change in the method of operation, at an existing electric utility steam generating unit shall be treated as a modification for the purposes of this section provided that such change does not increase the maximum hourly emissions of any pollutant regulated under this section above the maximum hourly emissions achievable at that unit during the 5 years prior to the change.
(i) Repowering projects that are awarded funding from the Department of Energy as permanent clean coal technology demonstration projects (or similar projects funded by EPA) are exempt from the requirements of this section provided that such change does not increase the maximum hourly emissions of any pollutant regulated under this section above the maximum hourly emissions achievable at that unit during the five years prior to the change.
(1) Repowering projects that qualify for an extension under section 409(b) of the Clean Air Act are exempt from the requirements of this section, provided that such change does not increase the actual hourly emissions of any pollutant regulated under this section above the actual hourly emissions achievable at that unit during the 5 years prior to the change.
(2) This exemption shall not apply to any new unit that:
(i) Is designated as a replacement for an existing unit;
(ii) Qualifies under section 409(b) of the Clean Air Act for an extension of an emission limitation compliance date under section 405 of the Clean Air Act; and
(iii) Is located at a different site than the existing unit.
(k) The installation, operation, cessation, or removal of a temporary clean coal technology demonstration project is exempt from the requirements of this section. A temporary clean coal control technology demonstration project, for the purposes of this section is a clean coal technology demonstration project that is operated for a period of 5 years or less, and which complies with the State implementation plan for the State in which the project is located and other requirements necessary to attain and maintain the national ambient air quality standards during the project and after it is terminated.
(l) The reactivation of a very clean coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit is exempt from the requirements of this section.