69 FR 9499, Feb. 27, 2004, unless otherwise noted.
The purpose of this subpart is to provide definitions for terms used in this part.
The definitions in this subpart are applicable to this part, except as otherwise provided.
Alternative transportation systems means modes of transportation other than private vehicles, including methods to improve system performance such as transportation demand management, congestion management, and intelligent transportation systems. These mechanisms help reduce the use of private vehicles and thus improve overall efficiency of transportation systems and facilities.
Elements means the components of a bridge important from a structural, user, or cost standpoint. Examples are decks, joints, bearings, girders, abutments, and piers.
Federal Lands Highway Program (FLHP) means a federally funded program established in 23 U.S.C. 204 to address transportation needs of Federal and Indian lands.
Indian lands bridge management system (BMS) means a systematic process used by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or Indian Tribal Governments (ITGs) for analyzing bridge data to make forecasts and recommendations, and provides the means by which bridge maintenance, rehabilitation, and replacement programs and policies may be efficiently considered.
Indian lands congestion management system (CMS) means a systematic process used by the BIA or ITGs for managing congestion that provides information on transportation system performance and alternative strategies for alleviating congestion and enhancing the mobility of persons and goods to levels that meet Federal, State and local needs.
Indian lands pavement management system (PMS) means a systematic process used by the BIA or ITGs that provides information for use in implementing cost-effective pavement reconstruction, rehabilitation, and preventive maintenance programs and policies, and that results in pavement designed to accommodate current and forecasted traffic in a safe, durable, and cost-effective manner.
Indian lands safety management system (SMS) means a systematic process used by the BIA or ITGs with the goal of reducing the number and severity of traffic accidents by ensuring that all opportunities to improve roadway safety are identified, considered, implemented and evaluated, as appropriate, during all phases of highway planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance by providing information for selecting and implementing effective highway safety strategies and projects.
Indian reservation road (IRR) means a public road that is located within or provides access to an Indian reservation or Indian trust land or restricted Indian land that is not subject to fee title alienation without the approval of the Federal government, or Indian and Alaska Native villages, groups, or communities in which Indians and Alaskan Natives reside, whom the Secretary of the Interior has determined are eligible for services generally available to Indians under Federal laws specifically applicable to Indians.
Indian Reservation Roads (IRR) Program means a part of the FLHP established in 23 U.S.C. 204 to address the transportation needs of federally recognized ITGs.
Indian Reservation Roads transportation improvement program (IRRTIP) means a multi-year, financially constrained list by year, State, and tribe of IRR-funded projects selected by ITGs that are programmed for construction in the next 3 to 5 years.
Indian Reservation Roads transportation plan means a document setting out a tribe's long-range transportation priorities and needs. The IRR transportation plan, which can be developed by either the tribe or the BIA on behalf of that tribe, is developed through the IRR transportation planning process pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 204 and 25 CFR part 170.
Indian Tribal Government (ITG) means a duly formed governing body of an Indian or Alaska Native Tribe, Band, Nation, Pueblo, Village, or Community that the Secretary of the Interior acknowledges to exist as an Indian tribe pursuant to the Federally Recognized Indian Tribe List Act of 1994, 25 U.S.C. 479a.
Indian tribe (tribe) means any Indian tribe, nation, band, pueblo, rancheria, colony, or community, including any Alaska Native Village, or regional or village corporation as defined or established under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act which is federally recognized by the U.S. government for special programs and services provided by the Secretary of the Interior to Indians because of their status as Indians.
Intelligent transportation system (ITS) means electronics, communications, or information processing used singly or in combination to improve the efficiency and safety of a surface transportation system.
Life-cycle cost analysis means an evaluation of costs incurred over the life of a project allowing a comparative analysis between or among various alternatives. Life-cycle cost analysis promotes consideration of total cost, to include maintenance and operation expenditures. Comprehensive life-cycle cost analysis includes all economic variables essential to the evaluation: Safety costs associated with maintenance and rehabilitation projects, agency capital cost, and life-cycle maintenance costs.
Operations means those activities associated with managing, controlling, and regulating highway traffic.
Secretary means the Secretary of Transportation.
Serviceability means the degree to which a bridge provides satisfactory service from the point of view of its users.
State means any one of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, or Puerto Rico.
Transportation facilities means roads, streets, bridges, parking areas, transit vehicles, and other related transportation infrastructure.
The purpose of this subpart is to implement 23 U.S.C. 204 which requires the Secretary and the Secretary of each appropriate Federal land management agency to the extent appropriate, to develop by rule safety, bridge, pavement, and congestion management systems for roads funded under the FLHP.
The provisions in this subpart are applicable to the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the Indian Tribal Governments (ITGs) that are responsible for satisfying these requirements for management systems pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 204.
(a) The BIA, in consultation with the tribes, shall develop, establish and implement nationwide pavement, bridge, and safety management systems for federally and tribally owned IRRs. The BIA may tailor the nationwide management systems to meet the agency's goals, policies, and needs, after considering the input from the tribes, and using professional engineering and planning judgment to determine the required nature and extent of systems coverage consistent with the intent and requirements of this rule.
(b) The BIA and the FHWA, in consultation with the tribes, shall develop an implementation plan for each of the nationwide management systems. These plans will include, but are not limited to, the following: Overall goals and policies concerning the nationwide management systems, each agency's responsibilities for developing and implementing the nationwide management systems, implementation schedule, data sources, including the need to accommodate State and local data, and cost estimate.
(c) Indian tribes may develop, establish, and implement tribal management systems under a self-determination contract or self-governance annual funding agreement. The tribe may tailor the management systems to meet its goals, policies, and needs, using professional engineering and planning judgment to determine the required nature and extent of systems coverage consistent with the intent and requirements of this rule.
(d) The BIA, in consultation with the tribes, shall develop criteria for cases in which tribal management systems are not appropriate.
(e) The BIA, in consultation with the tribes, or the tribes under a self-determination contract or self-governance annual funding agreement, may incorporate data provided by States and local governments into the nationwide or tribal management systems, as appropriate, for State and locally owned IRRs.
(f) The BIA, in consultation with the tribes, shall develop and implement procedures for the development, establishment, implementation and operation of nationwide management systems. If a tribe develops tribal management systems, the tribe shall develop and implement procedures for the development, establishment, implementation and operation of tribal management systems. The procedures shall include:
(1) A description of each management system;
(2) A process to operate and maintain the management systems and their associated databases;
(3) A process for data collection, processing, analysis and updating for each management system;
(4) A process for ensuring the results of the management systems are considered in the development of IRR transportation plans and transportation improvement programs and in making project selection decisions under 23 U.S.C. 204; and
(5) A process for the analysis and coordination of all management systems outputs to systematically operate, maintain, and upgrade existing transportation assets cost-effectively;
(g) All management systems shall use databases with a common or coordinated reference system that can be used to geolocate all database information.
(h) Existing data sources may be used by the BIA and the tribes to the maximum extent possible to meet the management system requirements.
(i) A nationwide congestion management system is not required. The BIA and the FHWA, in consultation with the tribes, shall develop criteria for determining when congestion management systems are required for BIA or tribal transportation facilities providing access to and within the Indian reservations. Either the tribes or the BIA, in consultation with the tribes, shall develop, establish and implement congestion management systems for the transportation facilities that meet the criteria.
(j) The BIA shall develop an appropriate means to evaluate the effectiveness of the nationwide management systems in enhancing transportation investment decisions and improving the overall efficiency of the affected transportation systems and facilities. This evaluation is to be conducted periodically, preferably as part of the BIA planning process to assist the FHWA in evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of the management systems as a component of the IRR program, and may include consultation with the tribes, as appropriate.
(k) The management systems shall be operated so investment decisions based on management system outputs can be accomplished at the BIA region and tribal level and can be utilized throughout the transportation planning process.
The IRR program management funds may be used to accomplish nationwide management system activities. For tribal management system activities, the IRR two percent tribal transportation planning or construction funds may be used. (Refer to 23 U.S.C. 204(b) and 204(j)). These funds are to be administered in accordance with the procedures and requirements applicable to the funds.
In addition to the requirements provided in § 973.204, the PMS must meet the following requirements:
(a) The BIA shall have PMS coverage for all federally and tribally owned, paved IRRs included in the IRR inventory.
(b) Where a tribe collects data for the tribe's PMS, the tribe shall provide the data to the BIA to be used in the nationwide PMS.
(c) The nationwide and tribal PMSs may be based on the concepts described in the AASHTO's “Pavement Management Guide.”
(d) The nationwide and tribal PMSs may be utilized at various levels of technical complexity depending on the nature of the pavement network. These different levels may depend on mileage, functional classes, volumes, loading, usage, surface type, or other criteria the BIA and ITGs deem appropriate.
(e) A PMS shall be designed to fit the BIA's or tribes' goals, policies, criteria, and needs using the following components, at a minimum, as a basic framework for a PMS:
(1) A database and an ongoing program for the collection and maintenance of the inventory, inspection, cost, and supplemental data needed to support the PMS. The minimum PMS database shall include:
(i) An inventory of the physical pavement features including the number of lanes, length, width, surface type, functional classification, and shoulder information;
(ii) A history of project dates and types of construction, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and preventive maintenance. If some of the inventory or historic data is difficult to establish, it may be collected when preservation or reconstruction work is performed;
(iii) A condition survey that includes ride, distress, rutting, and surface friction (as appropriate);
(iv) Traffic information including volumes and vehicle classification (as appropriate); and
(v) Data for estimating the costs of actions.
(2) A system for applying network level analytical procedures that are capable of analyzing data for all federally and tribally owned IRR in the inventory or any subset. The minimum analyses shall include:
(i) A pavement condition analysis that includes ride, distress, rutting, and surface friction (as appropriate);
(ii) A pavement performance analysis that includes present and predicted performance and an estimate of the remaining service life (performance and remaining service life to be developed with time); and
(iii) An investment analysis that:
(A) Identifies alternative strategies to improve pavement conditions;
(B) Estimates costs of any pavement improvement strategy;
(C) Determines maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation strategies for pavements using life cycle cost analysis or a comparable procedure;
(D) Performs short and long term budget forecasting; and
(E) Recommends optimal allocation of limited funds by developing a prioritized list of candidate projects over a predefined planning horizon (both short and long term).
(f) For any roads in the inventory or subset thereof, PMS reporting requirements shall include, but are not limited to, percentage of roads in good, fair, and poor condition.
In addition to the requirements provided in § 973.204, the BMS must meet the following requirements:
(a) The BIA shall have a nationwide BMS for the federally and tribally owned IRR bridges that are funded under the FLHP and required to be inventoried and inspected under 23 CFR 650, subpart C, National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS).
(b) Where a tribe collects data for the tribe's BMS, the tribe shall provide the data to the BIA to be used in the nationwide BMS.
(c) The nationwide and tribal BMSs may be based on the concepts described in the AASHTO's “Guidelines for Bridge Management Systems.”
(d) A BMS shall be designed to fit the BIA's or tribe's goals, policies, criteria, and needs using the following components, as a minimum, as a basic framework for a BMS:
(1) A database and an ongoing program for the collection and maintenance of the inventory, inspection, cost, and supplemental data needed to support the BMS. The minimum BMS database shall include:
(i) The inventory data described by the NBIS (23 CFR part 650, subpart C);
(ii) Data characterizing the severity and extent of deterioration of bridge components;
(iii) Data for estimating the cost of improvement actions;
(iv) Traffic information including volumes and vehicle classification (as appropriate); and
(v) A history of conditions and actions taken on each bridge, excluding minor or incidental maintenance.
(2) A systematic procedure for applying network level analytical procedures that are capable of analyzing data for all bridges in the inventory or any subset. The minimum analyses shall include:
(i) A prediction of performance and estimate of the remaining service life of structural and other key elements of each bridge, both with and without intervening actions; and
(ii) A recommendation for optimal allocation of limited funds by developing a prioritized list of candidate projects over a predefined planning horizon (both short and long term).
(e) The BMS may include the capability to perform an investment analysis (as appropriate, considering size of structure, traffic volume, and structural condition). The investment analysis may include the ability to:
(1) Identify alternative strategies to improve bridge condition, safety and serviceability;
(2) Estimate the costs of any strategies ranging from maintenance of individual elements to full bridge replacement;
(3) Determine maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation strategies for bridge elements using life cycle cost analysis or a comparable procedure; and
(4) Perform short and long term budget forecasting.
(f) For any bridge in the inventory or subset thereof, BMS reporting requirements shall include, but are not limited to, percentage of non-deficient bridges.
In addition to the requirements provided in § 973.204, the SMS must meet the following requirements:
(a) The BIA shall have a nationwide SMS for all federally and tribally owned IRR and public transit facilities included in the IRR inventory.
(b) Where a tribe collects data for the tribe's SMS, the tribe shall provide the data to the BIA to be used in the nationwide SMS.
(c) The nationwide and tribal SMS may be based on the guidance in “Safety Management Systems: Good Practices for Development and Implementation.”
(d) The BIA and ITGs shall utilize the SMSs to ensure that safety is considered and implemented as appropriate in all phases of transportation system planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operations.
(e) The nationwide and tribal SMSs may be utilized at various levels of complexity depending on the nature of the IRR facility involved.
(f) An SMS shall be designed to fit the BIA's or ITG's goals, policies, criteria, and needs using, as a minimum, the following components as a basic framework for an SMS:
(1) A database and an ongoing program for the collection and maintenance of the inventory, inspection, cost, and supplemental data needed to support the SMS. The minimum SMS database shall include:
(i) Accident records;
(ii) An inventory of safety hardware including signs, guardrails, and lighting appurtenances (including terminals); and
(iii) Traffic information including volume and vehicle classification (as appropriate).
(2) Development, establishment and implementation of procedures for:
(i) Routinely maintaining and upgrading safety appurtenances including highway-rail crossing warning devices, signs, highway elements, and operational features where appropriate;
(ii) Routinely maintaining and upgrading safety features of transit facilities;
(iii) Identifying and investigating hazardous or potentially hazardous transportation system safety problems, roadway locations and features; and
(iv) Establishing countermeasures and setting priorities to correct the identified hazards and potential hazards.
(3) A process for communication, coordination, and cooperation among the organizations responsible for the roadway, human, and vehicle safety elements;
(4) Development and implementation of public information and education activities on safety needs, programs, and countermeasures which affect safety on the BIA's and ITG's transportation systems; and
(5) Identification of skills, resources and training needs to implement safety programs for highway and transit facilities and the development of a program to carry out necessary training.
(g) While the SMS applies to all federally and tribally owned IRRs in the IRR inventory, the extent of system requirements (e.g., data collection, analyses, and standards) for low volume roads may be tailored to be consistent with the functional classification of the roads. However, adequate requirements should be included for each BIA functional classification to provide for effective inclusion of safety decisions in the administration of transportation by the BIA and ITGs.
(h) For any transportation facilities in the IRR inventory or subset thereof, SMS reporting requirements shall include, but are not limited to, the following:
(1) Accident types such as right-angle, rear-end, left turn, head-on, sideswipe, pedestrian-related, run-off-road, fixed object, and parked vehicle;
(2) Accident severity per year measured as number of accidents with fatalities, injuries, and property damage only; and
(3) Accident rates measured as number of accidents (fatalities, injuries, and property damage only) per 100 million vehicle miles of travel, number of accidents (fatalities, injuries, and property damage only) per 1000 vehicles, or number of accidents (fatalities, injuries, and property damage only) per mile.
(a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the level at which transportation system performance is no longer acceptable due to traffic interference. The BIA and the FHWA, in consultation with the tribes, shall develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific federally or tribally owned IRR transportation system that is experiencing congestion. Either the tribe or the BIA, in consultation with the tribe, shall consider the results of the CMS in the development of the IRR transportation plan and the IRRTIP, when selecting strategies for implementation that provide the most efficient and effective use of existing and future transportation facilities to alleviate congestion and enhance mobility.
(b) In addition to the requirements provided in § 973.204, the CMS must meet the following requirements:
(1) For those BIA or tribal transportation systems that require a CMS, consideration shall be given to strategies that reduce private automobile travel and improve existing transportation system efficiency. Approaches may include the use of alternate mode studies and implementation plans as components of the CMS.
(2) A CMS will:
(i) Identify and document measures for congestion (e.g., level of service);
(ii) Identify the causes of congestion;
(iii) Include processes for evaluating the cost and effectiveness of alternative strategies;
(iv) Identify the anticipated benefits of appropriate alternative traditional and nontraditional congestion management strategies;
(v) Determine methods to monitor and evaluate the performance of the multi-modal transportation system; and
(vi) Appropriately consider the following example categories of strategies, or combinations of strategies for each area:
(A) Transportation demand management measures;
(B) Traffic operational improvements;
(C) Public transportation improvements;
(D) ITS technologies; and
(E) Additional system capacity.