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Title 20

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Sec. 506(c), Pub. L. 105-220; 20 U.S.C. 9276(c).


65 FR 49411, Aug. 11, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A - Youth Councils
§ 664.100 What is the youth council?

(a) The duties and membership requirements of the youth council are described in WIA section 117(h) and 20 CFR 661.335 and 661.340.

(b) The purpose of the youth council is to provide expertise in youth policy and to assist the Local Board in:

(1) Developing and recommending local youth employment and training policy and practice;

(2) Broadening the youth employment and training focus in the community to incorporate a youth development perspective;

(3) Establishing linkages with other organizations serving youth in the local area; and

(4) Taking into account a range of issues that can have an impact on the success of youth in the labor market. (WIA sec. 117(h).)

§ 664.110 Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area?

(a) The Local Board, working with the youth council, is responsible for conducting oversight of local youth programs operated under the Act, to ensure both fiscal and programmatic accountability.

(b) Local program oversight is conducted in consultation with the local area's chief elected official.

(c) The Local Board may, after consultation with the CEO, delegate its responsibility for oversight of eligible youth providers, as well as other youth program oversight responsibilities, to the youth council, recognizing the advantage of delegating such responsibilities to the youth council whose members have expertise in youth issues. (WIA sec. 117(d); 117(h)(4).)

Subpart B - Eligibility for Youth Services
§ 664.200 Who is eligible for youth services?

An eligible youth is defined, under WIA sec. 101(13), as an individual who:

(a) Is age 14 through 21;

(b) Is a low income individual, as defined in the WIA section 101(25); and

(c) Is within one or more of the following categories:

(1) Deficient in basic literacy skills;

(2) School dropout;

(3) Homeless, runaway, or foster child;

(4) Pregnant or parenting;

(5) Offender; or

(6) Is an individual (including a youth with a disability) who requires additional assistance to complete an educational program, or to secure and hold employment. (WIA sec. 101(13).)

§ 664.205 How is the “deficient in basic literacy skills” criterion in § 664.200(c)(1) defined and documented?

(a) Definitions and eligibility documentation requirements regarding the “deficient in basic literacy skills” criterion in § 664.200(c)(1) may be established at the State or local level. These definitions may establish such criteria as are needed to address State or local concerns, and must include a determination that an individual:

(1) Computes or solves problems, reads, writes, or speaks English at or below the 8th grade level on a generally accepted standardized test or a comparable score on a criterion-referenced test; or

(2) Is unable to compute or solve problems, read, write, or speak English at a level necessary to function on the job, in the individual's family or in society. (WIA secs. 101(19), 203(12).)

(b) In cases where the State Board establishes State policy on this criterion, the policy must be included in the State plan. (WIA secs. 101(13)(C)(i), 101(19).)

§ 664.210 How is the “requires additional assistance to complete an educational program, or to secure and hold employment” criterion in § 664.200(c)(6) defined and documented?

Definitions and eligibility documentation requirements regarding the “requires additional assistance to complete an educational program, or to secure and hold employment” criterion of § 664.200(c)(6) may be established at the State or local level. In cases where the State Board establishes State policy on this criterion, the policy must be included in the State Plan. (WIA sec. 101(13)(C)(iv).)

§ 664.215 Must youth participants be registered to participate in the youth program?

(a) Yes, all youth participants must be registered.

(b) Registration is the process of collecting information to support a determination of eligibility.

(c) Equal opportunity data must be collected during the registration process on any individual who has submitted personal information in response to a request by the recipient for such information.

§ 664.220 Is there an exception to permit youth who are not low-income individuals to receive youth services?

Yes, up to five percent of youth participants served by youth programs in a local area may be individuals who do not meet the income criterion for eligible youth, provided that they are within one or more of the following categories:

(a) School dropout;

(b) Basic skills deficient, as defined in WIA section 101(4);

(c) Are one or more grade levels below the grade level appropriate to the individual's age;

(d) Pregnant or parenting;

(e) Possess one or more disabilities, including learning disabilities;

(f) Homeless or runaway;

(g) Offender; or

(h) Face serious barriers to employment as identified by the Local Board. (WIA sec. 129(c)(5).)

§ 664.230 Are the eligibility barriers for eligible youth the same as the eligibility barriers for the five percent of youth participants who do not have to meet income eligibility requirements?

No, the barriers listed in §§ 664.200 and 664.220 are not the same. Both lists of eligibility barriers include school dropout, homeless or runaway, pregnant or parenting, and offender, but each list contains barriers not included on the other list.

§ 664.240 May a local program use eligibility for free lunches under the National School Lunch Program as a substitute for the income eligibility criteria under title I of WIA?

No, the criteria for income eligibility under the National School Lunch Program are not the same as the Act's income eligibility criteria. Therefore, the school lunch list may not be used as a substitute for income eligibility to determine who is eligible for services under the Act.

§ 664.250 May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services?

Yes, even if the family of a disabled youth does not meet the income eligibility criteria, the disabled youth may be considered a low-income individual if the youth's own income:

(a) Meets the income criteria established in WIA section 101(25)(B); or

(b) Meets the income eligibility criteria for cash payments under any Federal, State or local public assistance program. (WIA sec. 101(25)(F).)

Subpart C - Out-of-School Youth
§ 664.300 Who is an “out-of-school youth”?

An out-of-school youth is an individual who:

(a) Is an eligible youth who is a school dropout; or

(b) Is an eligible youth who has either graduated from high school or holds a GED, but is basic skills deficient, unemployed, or underemployed. (WIA sec. 101(33).)

§ 664.310 When is dropout status determined, particularly for youth attending alternative schools?

A school dropout is defined as an individual who is no longer attending any school and who has not received a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent. A youth's dropout status is determined at the time of registration. A youth attending an alternative school at the time of registration is not a dropout. An individual who is out-of school at the time of registration and subsequently placed in an alternative school, may be considered an out-of-school youth for the purposes of the 30 percent expenditure requirement for out-of-school youth. (WIA sec. 101(39).)

§ 664.320 Does the requirement that at least 30 percent of youth funds be used to provide activities to out-of-school youth apply to all youth funds?

(a) Yes, the 30 percent requirement applies to the total amount of all funds allocated to a local area under WIA section 128(b)(2)(A) or (b)(3), except for local area expenditures for administrative purposes under 20 CFR 667.210(a)(2).

(b) Although it is not necessary to ensure that 30 percent of such funds spent on summer employment opportunities (or any other particular element of the youth program) are spent on out-of-school youth, the funds spent on these activities are included in the total to which the 30 percent requirement applies.

(c) There is a limited exception, at WIA section 129(c)(4)(B), under which certain small States may apply to the Secretary to reduce the minimum amount that must be spent on out-of-school youth. (WIA sec. 129(c)(4).)

Subpart D - Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters
§ 664.400 What is a local youth program?

A local youth program is defined as those youth activities offered by a Local Workforce Investment Board for a designated local workforce investment area, as specified in 20 CFR part 661.

§ 664.405 How must local youth programs be designed?

(a) The design framework of local youth programs must:

(1) Provide an objective assessment of each youth participant, that meets the requirements of WIA section 129(c)(1)(A), and includes a review of the academic and occupational skill levels, as well as the service needs, of each youth;

(2) Develop an individual service strategy for each youth participant that meets the requirements of WIA section 129(c)(1)(B), including identifying an age-appropriate career goal and consideration of the assessment results for each youth; and

(3) Provide preparation for postsecondary educational opportunities, provide linkages between academic and occupational learning, provide preparation for employment, and provide effective connections to intermediary organizations that provide strong links to the job market and employers.

(4) The requirement in WIA section 123 that eligible providers of youth services be selected by awarding a grant or contract on a competitive basis does not apply to the design framework component, such as services for intake, objective assessment and the development of individual service strategy, when these services are provided by the grant recipient/fiscal agent.

(b) The local plan must describe the design framework for youth program design in the local area, and how the ten program elements required in § 664.410 are provided within that framework.

(c) Local Boards must ensure appropriate links to entities that will foster the participation of eligible local area youth. Such links may include connections to:

(1) Local area justice and law enforcement officials;

(2) Local public housing authorities;

(3) Local education agencies;

(4) Job Corps representatives; and

(5) Representatives of other area youth initiatives, including those that serve homeless youth and other public and private youth initiatives.

(d) Local Boards must ensure that the referral requirements in WIA section 129(c)(3) for youth who meet the income eligibility criteria are met, including:

(1) Providing these youth with information regarding the full array of applicable or appropriate services available through the Local Board or other eligible providers, or One-Stop partners; and

(2) Referring these youth to appropriate training and educational programs that have the capacity to serve them either on a sequential or concurrent basis.

(e) In order to meet the basic skills and training needs of eligible applicants who do not meet the enrollment requirements of a particular program or who cannot be served by the program, each eligible youth provider must ensure that these youth are referred:

(1) For further assessment, as necessary, and

(2) To appropriate programs, in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(f) Local Boards must ensure that parents, youth participants, and other members of the community with experience relating to youth programs are involved in both the design and implementation of its youth programs.

(g) The objective assessment required under paragraph (a)(1) of this section or the individual service strategy required under paragraph (a)(2) of this section is not required if the program provider determines that it is appropriate to use a recent objective assessment or individual service strategy that was developed under another education or training program. (WIA section 129(c)(1).)

§ 664.410 Must local programs include each of the ten program elements listed in WIA section 129(c)(2) as options available to youth participants?

(a) Yes, local programs must make the following services available to youth participants:

(1) Tutoring, study skills training, and instruction leading to secondary school completion, including dropout prevention strategies;

(2) Alternative secondary school offerings;

(3) Summer employment opportunities directly linked to academic and occupational learning;

(4) Paid and unpaid work experiences, including internships and job shadowing, as provided in §§ 664.460 and 664.470;

(5) Occupational skill training;

(6) Leadership development opportunities, which include community service and peer-centered activities encouraging responsibility and other positive social behaviors;

(7) Supportive services, which may include the services listed in § 664.440;

(8) Adult mentoring for a duration of at least twelve (12) months, that may occur both during and after program participation;

(9) Followup services, as provided in § 664.450; and

(10) Comprehensive guidance and counseling, including drug and alcohol abuse counseling, as well as referrals to counseling, as appropriate to the needs of the individual youth.

(b) Local programs have the discretion to determine what specific program services will be provided to a youth participant, based on each participant's objective assessment and individual service strategy. (WIA sec. 129(c)(2).)

§ 664.420 What are leadership development opportunities?

Leadership development opportunities are opportunities that encourage responsibility, employability, and other positive social behaviors such as:

(a) Exposure to postsecondary educational opportunities;

(b) Community and service learning projects;

(c) Peer-centered activities, including peer mentoring and tutoring;

(d) Organizational and team work training, including team leadership training;

(e) Training in decision-making, including determining priorities; and

(f) Citizenship training, including life skills training such as parenting, work behavior training, and budgeting of resources. (WIA sec. 129(c)(2)(F).)

§ 664.430 What are positive social behaviors?

Positive social behaviors are outcomes of leadership opportunities, often referred to as soft skills, which are incorporated by many local programs as part of their menu of services. Positive social behaviors focus on areas that may include the following:

(a) Positive attitudinal development;

(b) Self esteem building;

(c) Openness to working with individuals from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds;

(d) Maintaining healthy lifestyles, including being alcohol and drug free;

(e) Maintaining positive relationships with responsible adults and peers, and contributing to the well being of one's community, including voting;

(f) Maintaining a commitment to learning and academic success;

(g) Avoiding delinquency;

(h) Postponed and responsible parenting; and

(i) Positive job attitudes and work skills. (WIA sec. 129(c)(2)(F).)

§ 664.440 What are supportive services for youth?

Supportive services for youth, as defined in WIA section 101(46), may include the following:

(a) Linkages to community services;

(b) Assistance with transportation;

(c) Assistance with child care and dependent care;

(d) Assistance with housing;

(e) Referrals to medical services; and

(f) Assistance with uniforms or other appropriate work attire and work-related tools, including such items as eye glasses and protective eye gear. (WIA sec. 129(c)(2)(G).)

§ 664.450 What are follow-up services for youth?

(a) Follow-up services for youth may include:

(1) The leadership development and supportive service activities listed in §§ 664.420 and 664.440;

(2) Regular contact with a youth participant's employer, including assistance in addressing work-related problems that arise;

(3) Assistance in securing better paying jobs, career development and further education;

(4) Work-related peer support groups;

(5) Adult mentoring; and

(6) Tracking the progress of youth in employment after training.

(b) All youth participants must receive some form of follow-up services for a minimum duration of 12 months. Follow-up services may be provided beyond twelve (12) months at the State or Local Board's discretion. The types of services provided and the duration of services must be determined based on the needs of the individual. The scope of these follow-up services may be less intensive for youth who have only participated in summer youth employment opportunities. (WIA sec. 129(c)(2)(I).)

§ 664.460 What are work experiences for youth?

(a) Work experiences are planned, structured learning experiences that take place in a workplace for a limited period of time. As provided in WIA section 129(c)(2)(D) and § 664.470, work experiences may be paid or unpaid.

(b) Work experience workplaces may be in the private, for-profit sector; the non-profit sector; or the public sector.

(c) Work experiences are designed to enable youth to gain exposure to the working world and its requirements. Work experiences are appropriate and desirable activities for many youth throughout the year. Work experiences should help youth acquire the personal attributes, knowledge, and skills needed to obtain a job and advance in employment. The purpose is to provide the youth participant with the opportunities for career exploration and skill development and is not to benefit the employer, although the employer may, in fact, benefit from the activities performed by the youth. Work experiences may be subsidized or unsubsidized and may include the following elements:

(1) Instruction in employability skills or generic workplace skills such as those identified by the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS);

(2) Exposure to various aspects of an industry;

(3) Progressively more complex tasks;

(4) Internships and job shadowing;

(5) The integration of basic academic skills into work activities;

(6) Supported work, work adjustment, and other transition activities;

(7) Entrepreneurship;

(8) Service learning;

(9) Paid and unpaid community service; and

(10) Other elements designed to achieve the goals of work experiences.

(d) In most cases, on-the-job training is not an appropriate work experiences activity for youth participants under age 18. Local program operators may choose, however, to use this service strategy for eligible youth when it is appropriate based on the needs identified by the objective assessment of an individual youth participant. (WIA sec. 129(c)(2)(D).)

§ 664.470 Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

Funds under the Act may be used to pay wages and related benefits for work experiences in the public; private, for-profit or non-profit sectors where the objective assessment and individual service strategy indicate that work experiences are appropriate. (WIA sec. 129(c)(2)(D).)

Subpart E - Concurrent Enrollment
§ 664.500 May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker programs concurrently?

(a) Yes, under the Act, eligible youth are 14 through 21 years of age. Adults are defined in the Act as individuals age 18 and older. Thus, individuals ages 18 through 21 may be eligible for both adult and youth programs. There is no specified age for the dislocated worker program.

(b) Individuals who meet the respective eligibility requirements may participate in adult and youth programs concurrently. Concurrent enrollment is allowable for youth served in programs under WIA titles I or II. Such individuals must be eligible under the youth or adult/dislocated worker eligibility criteria applicable to the services received. Local program operators may determine, for individuals in this age group, the appropriate level and balance of services under the youth, adult, dislocated worker, or other services.

(c) Local program operators must identify and track the funding streams which pay the costs of services provided to individuals who are participating in youth and adult/dislocated worker programs concurrently, and ensure that services are not duplicated.

§ 664.510 Are Individual Training Accounts allowed for youth participants?

No, however, individuals age 18 and above, who are eligible for training services under the adult and dislocated worker programs, may receive Individual Training Accounts through those programs. Requirements for concurrent participation requirements are set forth in § 664.500. To the extent possible, in order to enhance youth participant choice, youth participants should be involved in the selection of educational and training activities.

Subpart F - Summer Employment Opportunities
§ 664.600 Are Local Boards required to offer summer employment opportunities in the local youth program?

(a) Yes, Local Boards are required to offer summer youth employment opportunities that link academic and occupational learning as part of the menu of services required in § 664.410(a).

(b) Summer youth employment must provide direct linkages to academic and occupational learning, and may provide other elements and strategies as appropriate to serve the needs and goals of the participants.

(c) Local Boards may determine how much of available youth funds will be used for summer and for year-round youth activities.

(d) The summer youth employment opportunities element is not intended to be a stand-alone program. Local programs should integrate a youth's participation in that element into a comprehensive strategy for addressing the youth's employment and training needs. Youths who participate in summer employment opportunities must be provided with a minimum of twelve months of followup services, as required in § 664.450. (WIA sec. 129(c)(2)(C).)

§ 664.610 How is the summer employment opportunities element administered?

Chief elected officials and Local Boards are responsible for ensuring that the local youth program provides summer employment opportunities to youth. The chief elected officials (which may include local government units operating as a consortium) are the grant recipients for local youth funds, unless another entity is chosen to be grant recipient or fiscal agent under WIA section 117(d)(3)(B). If, in the administration of the summer employment opportunities element of the local youth program, providers other than the grant recipient/fiscal agent, are used to provide summer youth employment opportunities, these providers must be selected by awarding a grant or contract on a competitive basis, based on the recommendation of the youth council and on criteria contained in the State Plan. However, the selection of employers who are providing unsubsidized employment opportunities may be excluded from the competitive process. (WIA sec. 129(c)(2)(C).)

§ 664.620 Do the core indicators described in 20 CFR 666.100(a)(3) apply to participation in summer employment activities?

Yes, the summer employment opportunities element is one of a number of activities authorized by the WIA youth program. WIA section 136(b)(2) (A)(ii) and(B) provides specific core indicators of performance for youth, and requires that all participating youth be included in the determination of whether the local levels of performance are met. Program operators can help ensure positive outcomes for youth participants by providing them with continuity of services.

Subpart G - One-Stop Services to Youth
§ 664.700 What is the connection between the youth program and the One-Stop service delivery system?

(a) The chief elected official (or designee, under WIA section 117(d)(3)(B)), as the local grant recipient for the youth program is a required One-Stop partner and is subject to the requirements that apply to such partners, described in 20 CFR part 662.

(b) In addition to the provisions of 20 CFR part 662, connections between the youth program and the One-Stop system may include those that facilitate:

(1) The coordination and provision of youth activities;

(2) Linkages to the job market and employers;

(3) Access for eligible youth to the information and services required in §§ 664.400 and 664.410; and

(4) Other activities designed to achieve the purposes of the youth program and youth activities as described in WIA section 129(a). (WIA secs. 121(b)(1)(B)(i); 129.)

§ 664.710 Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible under the youth program through the One-Stop centers?

Yes, however, One-Stop services for non-eligible youth must be funded by programs that are authorized to provide services to such youth. For example, basic labor exchange services under the Wagner-Peyser Act may be provided to any youth.

Subpart H - Youth Opportunity Grants
§ 664.800 How are the recipients of Youth Opportunity Grants selected?

(a) Youth Opportunity Grants are awarded through a competitive selection process. The Secretary establishes appropriate application procedures, selection criteria, and an approval process for awarding Youth Opportunity Grants to applicants which can accomplish the purpose of the Act and use available funds in an effective manner in the Solicitation for Grant Applications announcing the competition.

(b) The Secretary distributes grants equitably among urban and rural areas by taking into consideration such factors as the following:

(1) The poverty rate in urban and rural communities;

(2) The number of people in poverty in urban and rural communities; and

(3) The quality of proposals received. (WIA sec.169(a) and (e).)

§ 664.810 How does a Local Board or other entity become eligible to receive a Youth Opportunity Grant?

(a) A Local Board is eligible to receive a Youth Opportunity Grant if it serves a community that:

(1) Has been designated as an empowerment zone (EZ) or enterprise community (EC) under section 1391 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986;

(2) Is located in a State that does not have an EZ or an EC and that has been designated by its Governor as a high poverty area; or

(3) Is one of two areas in a State that has been designated by the Governor as an area for which a local board may apply for a Youth Opportunity Grant, and that meets the poverty rate criteria in section 1392 (a)(4), (b), and (d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

(b) An entity other than a Local Board is eligible to receive a grant if that entity:

(1) Is a WIA Indian and Native American grant recipient under WIA section 166; and

(2) Serves a community that:

(i) Meets the poverty rate criteria in section 1392(a)(4), (b), and (d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; and

(ii) Is located on an Indian reservation or serves Oklahoma Indians or Alaska Native villages or Native groups, as provided in WIA section 169 (d)(2)(B). (WIA sec. 169(c) and (d).)

§ 664.820 Who is eligible to receive services under Youth Opportunity Grants?

All individuals ages 14 through 21 who reside in the community identified in the grant are eligible to receive services under the grant. (WIA sec. 169(a).)

§ 664.830 How are performance measures for Youth Opportunity Grants determined?

(a) The Secretary negotiates performance measures, including appropriate performance levels for each indicator, with each selected grantee, based on information contained in the application.

(b) Performance indicators for the measures negotiated under Youth Opportunity Grants are the indicators of performance provided in WIA sections 136(b)(2)(A) and (B). (WIA sec. 169(f).).