(a) Requirements and procedures.
(1) Each research facility other than a Federal research facility, shall register with the Secretary by completing and filing a properly executed form which will be furnished, upon request, by the Deputy Administrator. The registration form shall be filed with the Deputy Administrator for the State in which the research facility has its principal place of business, and shall be updated every 3 years by the completion and filing of a new registration form which will be provided by the Deputy Administrator. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, where a school or department of a university or college uses or intends to use live animals for research, tests, experiments, or teaching, the university or college rather than the school or department will be considered the research facility and will be required to register with the Secretary. An official who has the legal authority to bind the parent organization shall sign the registration form.
(2) In any situation in which a school or department of a university or college demonstrates to the Secretary that it is a separate legal entity and its operations and administration are independent of those of the university or college, the school or department will be registered rather than the university or college.
(3) A subsidiary of a business corporation, rather than the parent corporation, will be registered as a research facility unless the subsidiary is under such direct control of the parent corporation that the Secretary determines that it is necessary that the parent corporation be registered to effectuate the purposes of the Act.
(b) Acknowledgment of regulations and standards. APHIS will supply a copy of the regulations and standards in this subchapter with each registration form. The research facility shall acknowledge receipt of and shall agree to comply with the regulations and standards by signing a form provided for this purpose by APHIS, and by filing it with the Deputy Administrator.
(c) Notification of change of operation.
(1) A research facility shall notify the Deputy Administrator by certified mail of any change in the name, address, or ownership, or other change in operations affecting its status as a research facility, within 10 days after making such change.
(2) A research facility which has not used, handled, or transported animals for a period of at least 2 years may be placed in an inactive status by making a written request to the Deputy Administrator. A research facility shall file an annual report of its status (active or inactive). A research facility shall notify the Deputy Administrator in writing at least 10 days before using, handling, or transporting animals again after being in an inactive status.
(3) A research facility which goes out of business or which ceases to function as a research facility, or which changes its method of operation so that it no longer uses, handles, or transports animals, and which does not plan to use, handle, or transport animals at any time in the future, may have its registration canceled by making a written request to the Deputy Administrator. The research facility is responsible for reregistering and demonstrating its compliance with the Act and regulations should it start using, handling, or transporting animals at any time after its registration is canceled.
(d) No research facility shall interfere with, threaten, abuse (including verbally abuse), or harass any APHIS official who is in the course of carrying out his or her duties.
(a) The Chief Executive Officer of the research facility shall appoint an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), qualified through the experience and expertise of its members to assess the research facility's animal program, facilities, and procedures. Except as specifically authorized by law or these regulations, nothing in this part shall be deemed to permit the Committee or IACUC to prescribe methods or set standards for the design, performance, or conduct of actual research or experimentation by a research facility.
(b) IACUC membership.
(1) The members of each Committee shall be appointed by the Chief Executive Officer of the research facility;
(2) The Committee shall be composed of a Chairman and at least two additional members;
(3) Of the members of the Committee:
(i) At least one shall be a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, with training or experience in laboratory animal science and medicine, who has direct or delegated program responsibility for activities involving animals at the research facility;
(ii) At least one shall not be affiliated in any way with the facility other than as a member of the Committee, and shall not be a member of the immediate family of a person who is affiliated with the facility. The Secretary intends that such person will provide representation for general community interests in the proper care and treatment of animals;
(4) If the Committee consists of more than three members, not more than three members shall be from the same administrative unit of the facility.
(c) IACUC functions. With respect to activities involving animals, the IACUC, as an agent of the research facility, shall:
(1) Review, at least once every six months, the research facility's program for humane care and use of animals, using title 9, chapter I, subchapter A - Animal Welfare, as a basis for evaluation;
(2) Inspect, at least once every six months, all of the research facility's animal facilities, including animal study areas, using title 9, chapter I, subchapter A-Animal Welfare, as a basis for evaluation; Provided, however, That animal areas containing free-living wild animals in their natural habitat need not be included in such inspection;
(3) Prepare reports of its evaluations conducted as required by paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section, and submit the reports to the Institutional Official of the research facility; Provided, however, That the IACUC may determine the best means of conducting evaluations of the research facility's programs and facilities; and Provided, further, That no Committee member wishing to participate in any evaluation conducted under this subpart may be excluded. The IACUC may use subcommittees composed of at least two Committee members and may invite ad hoc consultants to assist in conducting the evaluations, however, the IACUC remains responsible for the evaluations and reports as required by the Act and regulations. The reports shall be reviewed and signed by a majority of the IACUC members and must include any minority views. The reports shall be updated at least once every six months upon completion of the required semiannual evaluations and shall be maintained by the research facility and made available to APHIS and to officials of funding Federal agencies for inspection and copying upon request. The reports must contain a description of the nature and extent of the research facility's adherence to this subchapter, must identify specifically any departures from the provisions of title 9, chapter I, subchapter A - Animal Welfare, and must state the reasons for each departure. The reports must distinguish significant deficiencies from minor deficiencies. A significant deficiency is one which, with reference to Subchapter A, and, in the judgment of the IACUC and the Institutional Official, is or may be a threat to the health or safety of the animals. If program or facility deficiencies are noted, the reports must contain a reasonable and specific plan and schedule with dates for correcting each deficiency. Any failure to adhere to the plan and schedule that results in a significant deficiency remaining uncorrected shall be reported in writing within 15 business days by the IACUC, through the Institutional Official, to APHIS and any Federal agency funding that activity;
(4) Review, and, if warranted, investigate concerns involving the care and use of animals at the research facility resulting from public complaints received and from reports of noncompliance received from laboratory or research facility personnel or employees;
(5) Make recommendations to the Institutional Official regarding any aspect of the research facility's animal program, facilities, or personnel training;
(6) Review and approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or withhold approval of those components of proposed activities related to the care and use of animals, as specified in paragraph (d) of this section;
(7) Review and approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or withhold approval of proposed significant changes regarding the care and use of animals in ongoing activities; and
(8) Be authorized to suspend an activity involving animals in accordance with the specifications set forth in paragraph (d)(6) of this section.
(d) IACUC review of activities involving animals.
(1) In order to approve proposed activities or proposed significant changes in ongoing activities, the IACUC shall conduct a review of those components of the activities related to the care and use of animals and determine that the proposed activities are in accordance with this subchapter unless acceptable justification for a departure is presented in writing; Provided, however, That field studies as defined in part 1 of this subchapter are exempt from this requirement. Further, the IACUC shall determine that the proposed activities or significant changes in ongoing activities meet the following requirements:
(i) Procedures involving animals will avoid or minimize discomfort, distress, and pain to the animals;
(ii) The principal investigator has considered alternatives to procedures that may cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress to the animals, and has provided a written narrative description of the methods and sources, e. g., the Animal Welfare Information Center, used to determine that alternatives were not available;
(iii) The principal investigator has provided written assurance that the activities do not unnecessarily duplicate previous experiments;
(iv) Procedures that may cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress to the animals will:
(A) Be performed with appropriate sedatives, analgesics or anesthetics, unless withholding such agents is justified for scientific reasons, in writing, by the principal investigator and will continue for only the necessary period of time;
(B) Involve, in their planning, consultation with the attending veterinarian or his or her designee;
(C) Not include the use of paralytics without anesthesia;
(v) Animals that would otherwise experience severe or chronic pain or distress that cannot be relieved will be painlessly euthanized at the end of the procedure or, if appropriate, during the procedure;
(vi) The animals' living conditions will be appropriate for their species in accordance with part 3 of this subchapter, and contribute to their health and comfort. The housing, feeding, and nonmedical care of the animals will be directed by the attending veterinarian or other scientist trained and experienced in the proper care, handling, and use of the species being maintained or studied;
(vii) Medical care for animals will be available and provided as necessary by a qualified veterinarian;
(viii) Personnel conducting procedures on the species being maintained or studied will be appropriately qualified and trained in those procedures;
(ix) Activities that involve surgery include appropriate provision for pre-operative and post-operative care of the animals in accordance with established veterinary medical and nursing practices. All survival surgery will be performed using aseptic procedures, including surgical gloves, masks, sterile instruments, and aseptic techniques. Major operative procedures on non-rodents will be conducted only in facilities intended for that purpose which shall be operated and maintained under aseptic conditions. Non-major operative procedures and all surgery on rodents do not require a dedicated facility, but must be performed using aseptic procedures. Operative procedures conducted at field sites need not be performed in dedicated facilities, but must be performed using aseptic procedures;
(x) No animal will be used in more than one major operative procedure from which it is allowed to recover, unless:
(A) Justified for scientific reasons by the principal investigator, in writing;
(B) Required as routine veterinary procedure or to protect the health or well-being of the animal as determined by the attending veterinarian; or
(C) In other special circumstances as determined by the Administrator on an individual basis. Written requests and supporting data should be sent to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Animal Care, 4700 River Road, Unit 84, Riverdale, Maryland 20737-1234;
(2) Prior to IACUC review, each member of the Committee shall be provided with a list of proposed activities to be reviewed. Written descriptions of all proposed activities that involve the care and use of animals shall be available to all IACUC members, and any member of the IACUC may obtain, upon request, full Committee review of those activities. If full Committee review is not requested, at least one member of the IACUC, designated by the chairman and qualified to conduct the review, shall review those activities, and shall have the authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or request full Committee review of any of those activities. If full Committee review is requested for a proposed activity, approval of that activity may be granted only after review, at a convened meeting of a quorum of the IACUC, and with the approval vote of a majority of the quorum present. No member may participate in the IACUC review or approval of an activity in which that member has a conflicting interest (e.g., is personally involved in the activity), except to provide information requested by the IACUC, nor may a member who has a conflicting interest contribute to the constitution of a quorum;
(3) The IACUC may invite consultants to assist in the review of complex issues arising out of its review of proposed activities. Consultants may not approve or withhold approval of an activity, and may not vote with the IACUC unless they are also members of the IACUC;
(4) The IACUC shall notify principal investigators and the research facility in writing of its decision to approve or withhold approval of those activities related to the care and use of animals, or of modifications required to secure IACUC approval. If the IACUC decides to withhold approval of an activity, it shall include in its written notification a statement of the reasons for its decision and give the principal investigator an opportunity to respond in person or in writing. The IACUC may reconsider its decision, with documentation in Committee minutes, in light of the information provided by the principal investigator;
(5) The IACUC shall conduct continuing reviews of activities covered by this subchapter at appropriate intervals as determined by the IACUC, but not less than annually;
(6) The IACUC may suspend an activity that it previously approved if it determines that the activity is not being conducted in accordance with the description of that activity provided by the principal investigator and approved by the Committee. The IACUC may suspend an activity only after review of the matter at a convened meeting of a quorum of the IACUC and with the suspension vote of a majority of the quorum present;
(7) If the IACUC suspends an activity involving animals, the Institutional Official, in consultation with the IACUC, shall review the reasons for suspension, take appropriate corrective action, and report that action with a full explanation to APHIS and any Federal agency funding that activity; and
(8) Proposed activities and proposed significant changes in ongoing activities that have been approved by the IACUC may be subject to further appropriate review and approval by officials of the research facility. However, those officials may not approve an activity involving the care and use of animals if it has not been approved by the IACUC.
(e) A proposal to conduct an activity involving animals, or to make a significant change in an ongoing activity involving animals, must contain the following:
(1) Identification of the species and the approximate number of animals to be used;
(2) A rationale for involving animals, and for the appropriateness of the species and numbers of animals to be used;
(3) A complete description of the proposed use of the animals;
(4) A description of procedures designed to assure that discomfort and pain to animals will be limited to that which is unavoidable for the conduct of scientifically valuable research, including provision for the use of analgesic, anesthetic, and tranquilizing drugs where indicated and appropriate to minimize discomfort and pain to animals; and
(5) A description of any euthanasia method to be used.
(a) It shall be the responsibility of the research facility to ensure that all scientists, research technicians, animal technicians, and other personnel involved in animal care, treatment, and use are qualified to perform their duties. This responsibility shall be fulfilled in part through the provision of training and instruction to those personnel.
(b) Training and instruction shall be made available, and the qualifications of personnel reviewed, with sufficient frequency to fulfill the research facility's responsibilities under this section and § 2.31.
(c) Training and instruction of personnel must include guidance in at least the following areas:
(1) Humane methods of animal maintenance and experimentation, including:
(i) The basic needs of each species of animal;
(ii) Proper handling and care for the various species of animals used by the facility;
(iii) Proper pre-procedural and post-procedural care of animals; and
(iv) Aseptic surgical methods and procedures;
(2) The concept, availability, and use of research or testing methods that limit the use of animals or minimize animal distress;
(3) Proper use of anesthetics, analgesics, and tranquilizers for any species of animals used by the facility;
(4) Methods whereby deficiencies in animal care and treatment are reported, including deficiencies in animal care and treatment reported by any employee of the facility. No facility employee, Committee member, or laboratory personnel shall be discriminated against or be subject to any reprisal for reporting violations of any regulation or standards under the Act;
(5) Utilization of services (e.g., National Agricultural Library, National Library of Medicine) available to provide information:
(i) On appropriate methods of animal care and use;
(ii) On alternatives to the use of live animals in research;
(iii) That could prevent unintended and unnecessary duplication of research involving animals; and
(iv) Regarding the intent and requirements of the Act.
(a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section:
(1) Each research facility shall employ an attending veterinarian under formal arrangements. In the case of a part-time attending veterinarian or consultant arrangements, the formal arrangements shall include a written program of veterinary care and regularly scheduled visits to the research facility;
(2) Each research facility shall assure that the attending veterinarian has appropriate authority to ensure the provision of adequate veterinary care and to oversee the adequacy of other aspects of animal care and use; and
(3) The attending veterinarian shall be a voting member of the IACUC; Provided, however, That a research facility with more than one Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) may appoint to the IACUC another DVM with delegated program responsibility for activities involving animals at the research facility.
(b) Each research facility shall establish and maintain programs of adequate veterinary care that include:
(1) The availability of appropriate facilities, personnel, equipment, and services to comply with the provisions of this subchapter;
(2) The use of appropriate methods to prevent, control, diagnose, and treat diseases and injuries, and the availability of emergency, weekend, and holiday care;
(3) Daily observation of all animals to assess their health and well-being; Provided, however, That daily observation of animals may be accomplished by someone other than the attending veterinarian; and Provided, further, That a mechanism of direct and frequent communication is required so that timely and accurate information on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian;
(4) Guidance to principal investigators and other personnel involved in the care and use of animals regarding handling, immobilization, anesthesia, analgesia, tranquilization, and euthanasia; and
(5) Adequate pre-procedural and post-procedural care in accordance with current established veterinary medical and nursing procedures.
(a) The research facility shall maintain the following IACUC records:
(1) Minutes of IACUC meetings, including records of attendance, activities of the Committee, and Committee deliberations;
(2) Records of proposed activities involving animals and proposed significant changes in activities involving animals, and whether IACUC approval was given or withheld; and
(3) Records of semiannual IACUC reports and recommendations (including minority views), prepared in accordance with the requirements of § 2.31(c)(3) of this subpart, and forwarded to the Institutional Official.
(b) Every research facility shall make, keep, and maintain records or forms which fully and correctly disclose the following information concerning each live dog or cat purchased or otherwise acquired, owned, held, or otherwise in their possession or under their control, transported, euthanized, sold, or otherwise disposed of by the research facility. The records shall include any offspring born of any animal while in the research facility's possession or under its control:
(1) The name and address of the person from whom a dog or cat was purchased or otherwise acquired, whether or not the person is required to be licensed or registered under the Act;
(2) The USDA license or registration number of the person if he or she is licensed or registered under the Act;
(3) The vehicle license number and State, and the driver's license number (or photographic identification card for nondrivers issued by a State) and State of the person, if he or she is not licensed or registered under the Act;
(4) The date of acquisition of each dog or cat;
(5) The official USDA tag number or tattoo assigned to each dog or cat under § 2.38(g) of this subpart;
(6) A description of each dog or cat which shall include:
(i) The species and breed or type of animal;
(ii) The sex;
(iii) The date of birth or approximate age; and
(iv) The color and any distinctive markings;
(7) Any identification number or mark assigned to each dog or cat by the research facility;
(8) If dogs or cats are acquired from any person not licensed or registered under the Act and not a pound or shelter, the research facility must obtain a certification that the animals were born and raised on the person's premises and that the person has sold fewer than 25 dogs and/or cats that year.
(c) In addition to the information required to be kept and maintained by every research facility concerning each live dog or cat under paragraph (a) of this section, every research facility transporting, selling, or otherwise disposing of any live dog or cat to another person, shall make and maintain records or forms which fully and correctly disclose the following information:
(1) The name and address of the person to whom a live dog or cat is transported, sold, or otherwise disposed of;
(2) The date of transportation, sale, euthanasia, or other disposition of the animal; and
(3) The method of transportation, including the name of the initial carrier or intermediate handler, or if a privately owned vehicle is used to transport the dog or cat, the name of the owner of the privately owned vehicle.
(1) The USDA Interstate and International Certificate of Health Examination for Small Animals (APHIS Form 7001) and Record of Aquisition and Dogs and Cats on Hand (APHIS Form 7005) are forms which may be used by research facilities to keep and maintain the information required by paragraph (b) of this section.
(2) The USDA Interstate and International Certificate of Health Examination for Small Animals (APHIS Form 7001) and Record of Disposition of Dogs and Cats (APHIS Form 7006) are forms which may be used by research facilities to keep and maintain the information required by paragraph (c) of this section.
(e) One copy of the record containing the information required by paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section shall accompany each shipment of any live dog or cat sold or otherwise disposed of by a research facility; Provided, however, That, except as provided in § 2.133 of this part, information that indicates the source and date of acquisition of any dog or cat need not appear on the copy of the record accompanying the shipment. One copy of the record containing the information required by paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section shall be retained by the research facility.
(f) All records and reports shall be maintained for at least three years. Records that relate directly to proposed activities and proposed significant changes in ongoing activities reviewed and approved by the IACUC shall be maintained for the duration of the activity and for an additional three years after completion of the activity. All records shall be available for inspection and copying by authorized APHIS or funding Federal agency representatives at reasonable times. APHIS inspectors will maintain the confidentiality of the information and will not remove the materials from the research facilities' premises unless there has been an alleged violation, they are needed to investigate a possible violation, or for other enforcement purposes. Release of any such materials, including reports, summaries, and photographs that contain trade secrets or commercial or financial information that is privileged or confidential will be governed by applicable sections of the Freedom of Information Act. Whenever the Administrator notifies a research facility in writing that specified records shall be retained pending completion of an investigation or proceeding under the Act, the research facility shall hold those records until their disposition is authorized in writing by the Administrator.
(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0036)
(a) The reporting facility shall be that segment of the research facility, or that department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States, that uses or intends to use live animals in research, tests, experiments, or for teaching. Each reporting facility shall submit an annual report to the Deputy Administrator for the State where the facility is located on or before December 1 of each calendar year. The report shall be signed and certified by the CEO or Institutional Official, and shall cover the previous Federal fiscal year.
(b) The annual report shall:
(1) Assure that professionally acceptable standards governing the care, treatment, and use of animals, including appropriate use of anesthetic, analgesic, and tranquilizing drugs, prior to, during, and following actual research, teaching, testing, surgery, or experimentation were followed by the research facility;
(2) Assure that each principal investigator has considered alternatives to painful procedures;
(3) Assure that the facility is adhering to the standards and regulations under the Act, and that it has required that exceptions to the standards and regulations be specified and explained by the principal investigator and approved by the IACUC. A summary of all such exceptions must be attached to the facility's annual report. In addition to identifying the IACUC-approved exceptions, this summary must include a brief explanation of the exceptions, as well as the species and number of animals affected;
(4) State the location of all facilities where animals were housed or used in actual research, testing, teaching, or experimentation, or held for these purposes;
(5) State the common names and the numbers of animals upon which teaching, research, experiments, or tests were conducted involving no pain, distress, or use of pain-relieving drugs. Routine procedures (e.g., injections, tattooing, blood sampling) should be reported with this group;
(6) State the common names and the numbers of animals upon which experiments, teaching, research, surgery, or tests were conducted involving accompanying pain or distress to the animals and for which appropriate anesthetic, analgesic, or tranquilizing drugs were used;
(7) State the common names and the numbers of animals upon which teaching, experiments, research, surgery, or tests were conducted involving accompanying pain or distress to the animals and for which the use of appropriate anesthetic, analgesic, or tranquilizing drugs would have adversely affected the procedures, results, or interpretation of the teaching, research, experiments, surgery, or tests. An explanation of the procedures producing pain or distress in these animals and the reasons such drugs were not used shall be attached to the annual report;
(8) State the common names and the numbers of animals being bred, conditioned, or held for use in teaching, testing, experiments, research, or surgery but not yet used for such purposes.
Each Federal research facility shall establish an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee which shall have the same composition, duties, and responsibilities required of nonfederal research facilities by § 2.31 with the following exceptions:
(a) The Committee shall report deficiencies to the head of the Federal agency conducting the research rather than to APHIS; and
(b) The head of the Federal agency conducting the research shall be responsible for all corrective action to be taken at the facility and for the granting of all exceptions to inspection protocol.
(a) Information as to business: furnishing of same by research facilities. Each research facility shall furnish to any APHIS official any information concerning the business of the research facility which the APHIS official may request in connection with the enforcement of the provisions of the Act, the regulations, and the standards in this subchapter. The information shall be furnished within a reasonable time and as may be specified in the request for information.
(b) Access and inspection of records and property.
(1) Each research facility shall, during business hours, allow APHIS officials:
(i) To enter its place of business;
(ii) To examine records required to be kept by the Act and the regulations in this part;
(iii) To make copies of the records;
(iv) To inspect the facilities, property, and animals, as the APHIS officials consider necessary to enforce the provisions of the Act, the regulations, and the standards in this subchapter; and
(v) To document, by the taking of photographs and other means, conditions and areas of noncompliance.
(2) The use of a room, table or other facilities necessary for the proper examination of the records and for inspection of the property or animals shall be extended to APHIS officials by the research facility.
(c) Publication of lists of research facilities subject to the provisions of this part. APHIS will publish on its website lists of research facilities registered in accordance with the provisions of this subpart. The lists may also be obtained upon request from the Deputy Administrator.
(d) Inspection for missing animals. Each research facility shall allow, upon request and during business hours, police or officers of other law enforcement agencies with general law enforcement authority (not those agencies whose duties are limited to enforcement of local animal regulations) to enter its place of business to inspect animals and records for the purpose of seeking animals that are missing, under the following conditions:
(1) The police or other law officer shall furnish to the research facility a written description of the missing animal and the name and address of its owner before making a search;
(2) The police or other law officer shall abide by all security measures required by the research facility to prevent the spread of disease, including the use of sterile clothing, footwear, and masks where required, or to prevent the escape of an animal.
(e) Confiscation and destruction of animals.
(1) If an animal being held by a research facility is not being used to carry out research, testing, or experimentation, and is found by an APHIS official to be suffering as a result of the failure of the research facility to comply with any provision of the regulations or the standards set forth in this subchapter, the APHIS official shall make a reasonable effort to notify the research facility of the condition of the animal(s) and request that the condition be corrected and that adequate care be given to alleviate the animal's suffering or distress, or that the animal(s) be destroyed by euthanasia. In the event that the research facility refuses to comply with this request, the APHIS official may confiscate the animal(s) for care, treatment, or disposal as indicated in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, if, in the opinion of the Administrator, the circumstances indicate the animal's health is in danger.
(2) In the event that the APHIS official is unable to locate or notify the research facility as required in this section, the APHIS official shall contact a local police or other law officer to accompany him or her to the premises and shall provide for adequate care when necessary to alleviate the animal's suffering. If, in the opinion of the Administrator, the condition of the animal(s) cannot be corrected by this temporary care, the APHIS official shall confiscate the animal(s).
(3) Confiscated animals may be placed, by sale or donation, with other registrants or licensees that comply with the standards and regulations and can provide proper care, or they may be euthanized. The research facility from which the animals were confiscated shall bear all costs incurred in performing the placement or euthanasia activities authorized by this section.
(1) Handling of all animals shall be done as expeditiously and carefully as possible in a manner that does not cause trauma, overheating, excessive cooling, behavioral stress, physical harm, or unnecessary discomfort.
(i) Physical abuse shall not be used to train, work, or otherwise handle animals.
(ii) Deprivation of food or water shall not be used to train, work, or otherwise handle animals; Provided, however: That the short-term withholding of food or water from animals, when specified in an IACUC-approved activity that includes a description of monitoring procedures, is allowed by these regulations.
(g) Identification of dogs and cats.
(1) All live dogs or cats, including those from any exempt source, delivered for transportation, transported, purchased or otherwise acquired, sold, or disposed of by a research facility, shall be identified at the time of such delivery for transportation, purchase, sale, disposal, or acquisition in one of the following ways:
(i) By the official tag or tattoo which was affixed to the animal at the time it was acquired by the research facility, as required by this section; or
(ii) By a tag, tattoo, or collar, applied to the live dog or cat by the research facility and which individually identifies the dog or cat by number.
(2) All official tag or tattoo numbers shall be correctly listed in the records of purchase, acquisition, disposal, or sale which shall be maintained in accordance with § 2.35.
(3) Unweaned puppies or kittens need not be individually identified while they are maintained as a litter with their dam in the same primary enclosure, provided the dam has been individually identified.
(4) The official tag shall be made of a durable alloy such as brass, bronze, or steel, or of a durable plastic. Aluminum of a sufficient thickness to assure the tag is durable and legible may also be used. The tag may be circular in shape and not less than 11/4 inches in diameter, or oblong and flat in shape and not less than 2 inches by3/4 inch, and riveted to an acceptable collar.
(5) Each tag shall have the following information embossed or stamped on so that it is easily readable:
(i) The letters “USDA”;
(ii) Numbers identifying the State and dealer, exhibitor, or research facility (e.g., 39-AB); and
(iii) Numbers identifying the animal (e.g., 82488).
(6) Official tags shall be serially numbered and shall be applied to dogs or cats in the manner set forth in this section in as close to consecutive numerical order as possible. No tag number shall be used to identify more than one animal or shall be reused within a 5-year period.
(7) Research facilities may obtain, at their own expense, official tags from commercial tag manufacturers. At the time the research facility is registered, the Department will assign identification letters and numbers to be used on the official tags.
(8) Each research facility shall be held accountable for all official tags acquired. In the event an official tag is lost from a dog or cat while in the possession of a research facility, the facility shall make a diligent effort to locate and reapply the tag to the proper animal. If the lost tag is not located, the research facility shall affix another official tag to the animal in the manner prescribed in this section and record the tag number on the official records.
(9) When a dog or cat wearing or identified by an official tag arrives at a research facility, the facility may continue to use that tag to identify the dog or cat or the tag may be replaced as indicated in paragraph (g)(1) of this section. All tags removed by a research facility shall be retained and disposed of as indicated in this section.
(10) Where a dog or cat to which is affixed or which is identified by an official tag is euthanized, or dies from other causes, the research facility shall remove and retain the tag for the required period, as set forth in paragraph (g)(11) of this section.
(11) All official tags removed and retained by a research facility shall be held until called for by an APHIS official or for a period of 1 year.
(12) When official tags are removed from animals for disposal, the tags must be disposed of so as to preclude their reuse for animal identification. No animal identification number shall be used within any 5-year period following its previous use.
(h) Health certification.
(1) No research facility, including a Federal research facility, shall deliver to any intermediate handler or carrier for transportation, in commerce, or shall transport in commerce any dog, cat, or nonhuman primate unless the dog, cat, or nonhuman primate is accompanied by a health certificate executed and issued by a licensed veterinarian. The health certificate shall state that:
(i) The licensed veterinarian inspected the dog, cat, or nonhuman primate on a specified date which shall not be more than 10 days prior to the delivery of the dog, cat, or nonhuman primate for transportation; and
(ii) When so inspected, the dog, cat, or nonhuman primate appeared to the licensed veterinarian to be free of any infectious disease or physical abnormality which would endanger the animal(s) or other animals or endanger public health.
(2) The Secretary may provide exceptions to the health certification requirement on an individual basis for animals shipped to a research facility for purposes of research, testing, or experimentation when the research facility requires animals not eligible for certification. Requests should be addressed to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Animal Care, 4700 River Road, Unit 84, Riverdale, Maryland 20737-1234.
(3) The U.S. Interstate and International Certificate of Health Examination for Small Animals (APHIS Form 7001) may be used for health certification by a licensed veterinarian as required by this section.
(i) Holding of animals. If any research facility obtains prior approval of the Deputy Administrator, it may arrange to have another person hold animals: Provided, That:
(1) The other person agrees, in writing, to comply with the regulations in this part and the standards in part 3 of this subchapter, and to allow inspection of the premises by an APHIS official during business hours;
(2) The animals remain under the total control and responsibility of the research facility; and
(3) The Institutional Official agrees, in writing, that the other person or premises is a recognized animal site under its research facility registration. APHIS Form 7009 shall be used for approval.
(j) Holding period. Research facilities that obtain dogs and cats from sources other than dealers, exhibitors, and exempt persons shall hold the animals for 5 full days, not including the day of acquisition, after acquiring the animal, excluding time in transit, before they may be used by the facility. Research facilities shall comply with the identification of animals requirements set forth in § 2.38(g) during this period.
(k) Compliance with standards and prohibitions.
(1) Each research facility shall comply in all respects with the regulations set forth in subpart C of this part and the standards set forth in part 3 of this subchapter for the humane handling, care, treatment, housing, and transportation of animals; Provided, however, That exceptions to the standards in part 3 and the provisions of subpart C of this part may be made only when such exceptions are specified and justified in the proposal to conduct the activity and are approved by the IACUC.
(2) No person shall obtain live dogs or cats by use of false pretenses, misrepresentation, or deception.
(3) No person shall acquire, buy, sell, exhibit, use for research, transport, or offer for transportation, any stolen animal.
(l) Contingency planning.
(1) Research facilities must develop, document, and follow an appropriate plan to provide for the humane handling, treatment, transportation, housing, and care of their animals in the event of an emergency or disaster (one which could reasonably be anticipated and expected to be detrimental to the good health and well-being of the animals in their possession). Such contingency plans must:
(i) Identify situations the facility might experience that would trigger the need for the measures identified in a contingency plan to be put into action including, but not limited to, emergencies such as electrical outages, faulty HVAC systems, fires, and animal escapes, as well as natural disasters the facility is most likely to experience.
(ii) Outline specific tasks required to be carried out in response to the identified emergencies or disasters including, but not limited to, detailed animal evacuation instructions or shelter-in-place instructions and provisions for providing backup sources of food and water as well as sanitation, ventilation, bedding, veterinary care, etc.;
(iii) Identify a chain of command and who (by name or by position title) will be responsible for fulfilling these tasks; and
(iv) Address how response and recovery will be handled in terms of materials, resources, and training needed.
(2) For current registrants, the contingency plan must be in place by July 29, 2013. For research facilities registered after this date, the contingency plan must be in place prior to conducting regulated activities. The plan must be reviewed by the research facility on at least an annual basis to ensure that it adequately addresses the criteria listed in paragraph (l)(1) of this section. Each registrant must maintain documentation of their annual reviews, including documenting any amendments or changes made to their plan since the previous year's review, such as changes made as a result of recently predicted, but historically unforeseen, circumstances (e.g., weather extremes). Contingency plans, as well as all annual review documentation and training records, must be made available to APHIS and any funding Federal agency representatives upon request. Facilities maintaining or otherwise handling marine mammals in captivity must also comply with the requirements of § 3.101(b) of this subchapter.
(3) The facility must provide and document participation in and successful completion of training for its personnel regarding their roles and responsibilities as outlined in the plan. For current registrants, training of facility personnel must be completed by September 27, 2013; for research facilities registered after July 29, 2013, training of facility personnel must be completed within 60 days of the facility putting its contingency plan in place. Employees hired 30 days or more before the contingency plan is put in place must also be trained by that date. For employees hired less than 30 days before that date or after that date, training must be conducted within 30 days of their start date. Any changes to the plan as a result of the annual review must be communicated to employees through training which must be conducted within 30 days of making the changes.
[54 FR 36147, Aug. 31, 1989, as amended at 58 FR 39129, July 22, 1993; 59 FR 67612, Dec. 30, 1994; 60 FR 13895, Mar. 15, 1995; 63 FR 62926, Nov. 10, 1998; 69 FR 42101, July 14, 2004; 77 FR 76823, Dec. 31, 2012; 85 FR 28797, May 13, 2020]