(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section, agencies will charge interest, penalties, and administrative costs on debts owed to the United States as specified in 31 U.S.C. 3717. If not included in the agency's demand notice, an agency will mail or deliver a written notice to the debtor, at the debtor's most recent address available to the agency, explaining the agency's requirements concerning these charges except where these requirements are included in a contractual or repayment agreement. These charges will continue to accrue until the debt is paid in full or otherwise resolved through compromise, termination, or waiver of the charges.
(b) Agencies will charge interest on debts owed the United States except as otherwise required by law and as provided in paragraph (i) of this section for debts owed to CCC and FSA. In charging such interest, agencies will apply the following provisions:
(1) Interest will accrue from the date of delinquency, or as otherwise provided by law.
(2) Unless otherwise established in a contract, repayment agreement, or by law, the rate of interest charged will be the rate established annually by the Secretary of the Treasury in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 3717. Pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 3717, an agency may charge a higher rate of interest if it reasonably determines that a higher rate is necessary to protect the rights of the United States. The agency must document the reason(s) for its determination that the higher rate is necessary.
(3) The rate of interest, as initially charged, will remain fixed for the duration of the indebtedness. When a debtor defaults on a repayment agreement and requests to enter into a new agreement, the agency may require payment of interest at a new rate that reflects the current value of funds to the Treasury at the time the new agreement is executed. Interest will not be compounded, that is, interest will not be charged on interest, penalties, or administrative costs required by this section. If, however, a debtor defaults on a previous repayment agreement, charges that accrued but were not collected under the defaulted agreement will be added to the principal under the new repayment agreement.
(c) Agencies will assess administrative costs incurred for processing and handling delinquent debts. The calculation of administrative costs will be based on actual costs incurred or upon estimated costs as determined by the assessing agency.
(d) Unless otherwise established in a contract, repayment agreement, or by law, agencies will charge a penalty, as specified in 31 U.S.C. 3717(e)(2), not to exceed six percent a year on the amount due on a debt that is delinquent for more than 90 days. This charge will accrue from the date of delinquency.
(e) Agencies may increase an “administrative debt” by the cost of living adjustment in lieu of charging interest and penalties under this section. “Administrative debt” includes, but is not limited to, a debt based on fines, penalties, and overpayments, but does not include a debt based on the extension of government credit, such as those arising from loans and loan guarantees. The cost of living adjustment is the percentage by which the Consumer Price Index for the month of June of the calendar year preceding the adjustment exceeds the Consumer Price Index for the month of June of the calendar year in which the debt was determined or last adjusted. Increases to administrative debts will be computed annually. Agencies may use this alternative only when there is a legitimate reason to do so, such as when calculating interest and penalties on a debt would be extremely difficult because of the age of the debt.
(f) When a debt is paid in partial or installment payments, amounts received by the agency will be applied first to outstanding penalties, second to administrative charges (when applicable), third to interest, and last to principal, except as otherwise required by law.
(g) Agencies will waive the collection of interest and administrative charges imposed pursuant to this section (that is, this does not apply to interest or administrative penalties determined by an applicable agreement or instrument such as a loan contract) on the portion of the debt that is paid within 30 days after the date on which interest began to accrue. Agencies may extend this 30-day period on a case-by-case basis. In addition, agencies may waive interest, penalties, and administrative costs charged under this section, in whole or in part, without regard to the amount of the debt, either under the criteria specified in the Federal standards for the compromise of debts (31 CFR part 902), or if the agency determines that collection of these charges is against equity and good conscience or is not in the interest of the United States.
(h) Agencies are authorized to impose interest and related charges on debts not subject to 31 U.S.C. 3717, in accordance with common law. Agencies will consult OGC before imposing interest and related charges under common law for any debt.
(1) For debts resulting from CCC loans made in accordance with chapter XIV of this title:
(i) Late payment interest will begin to accrue from the date on which a claim is established. In addition, an additional charge of 3 percent per year will be assessed on a portion of a debt that remains unpaid 60 days after the date on which a claim was established. Such rate will be assessed retroactively from the date of claim establishment and apply on a daily basis and will continue to be used until the delinquent debt has been paid.
(ii) Penalty charges, administrative costs and interest will continue to accrue if a debtor makes a request for appeal as provided by any agency or USDA-wide appeal regulation Collection by offset will continue during the appeal process unless prohibited by statute. If the debtor ultimately wins an appeal and the debt is found to be incorrect, CCC will credit the debtor's debt for the amount of penalty charges, administrative costs, and interest that has accrued from the date such charges were initiated on the portion determined in the appeal to not be due.
(2) Late payment interest provisions of this section do not apply to FSA and CCC debts owed by Federal agencies and State and local governments. Interest on debts owed by such entities will be assessed at the rate of interest charged by the U.S. Treasury for funds borrowed by CCC on the day the debt became delinquent.
(3) Late payment interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs may be waived by FSA or CCC in full or in part, if it is determined by the agency that such action is in the Government's interest.
(4) The provisions of this section do not apply to CCC foreign debt.