(a) Written direct testimony. Unless otherwise ordered by the ALJ, all direct hearing testimony for each party's initial case must be prepared and submitted in written form. The ALJ will determine whether rebuttal testimony, if allowed, must be submitted in written form.
(1) Prepared written testimony must:
(i) Have line numbers inserted in the left-hand margin of each page;
(ii) Be authenticated by an affidavit or declaration of the witness;
(iii) Be filed within 10 days after the date set for completion of discovery; and
(iv) Be offered as an exhibit during the hearing.
(2) Any witness submitting written testimony must be available for cross-examination at the hearing.
(b) Oral testimony. Oral examination of a witness in a hearing, including on cross-examination or redirect, must be conducted under oath and in the presence of the ALJ, with an opportunity for all parties to question the witness.
(c) Telephonic testimony. The ALJ may by order allow a witness to testify by telephonic conference call.
(1) The arrangements for the call must let each party listen to and speak to the witness and each other within the hearing of the ALJ.
(2) The ALJ will ensure the full identification of each speaker so the reporter can create a proper record.
(3) The ALJ may issue a subpoena under § 1.647 directing a witness to testify by telephonic conference call.