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PART 600 - MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS
Authority:

5 U.S.C. 561 and 16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.

Source:

61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A - General
§ 600.5 Purpose and scope.

(a) This part contains general provisions governing the operation of the eight Regional Fishery Management Councils established by the Magnuson-Stevens Act and describes the Secretary's role and responsibilities under the Act. The Councils are institutions created by Federal law and must conform to the uniform standards established by the Secretary in this part.

(b) This part also governs all foreign fishing under the Magnuson-Stevens Act, prescribes procedures for the conduct of preemption hearings under section 306(b) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, and collects the general provisions common to all domestic fisheries governed by this chapter.

(c) This part also governs fishing capacity reduction programs under the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 65 FR 31443, May 18, 2000]

§ 600.10 Definitions.

Unless defined otherwise in other parts of Chapter VI, the terms in this chapter have the following meanings:

Administrator means the Administrator of NOAA (Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere) or a designee.

Advisory group means a Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC), Fishing Industry Advisory Committee (FIAC), or Advisory Panel (AP) established by a Council under the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

Advisory panel (AP) means a committee formed, selected, and formally designated as a Magnuson-Stevens Act Section 302(g)(2) advisory panel by the Council's Statement of organization, practices, and procedures (SOPP), or by a formal charge to the committee made by the chair and recorded in the Council's minutes, to assist it in carrying out its functions. An AP may include individuals who are not members of the Council.

Agent, for the purpose of foreign fishing (subpart F), means a person appointed and maintained within the United States who is authorized to receive and respond to any legal process issued in the United States to an owner and/or operator of a vessel operating under a permit and of any other vessel of that Nation fishing subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. Any diplomatic official accepting such an appointment as designated agent waives diplomatic or other immunity in connection with such process.

Aggregate or summary form means confidential data structured in such a way that the identity of the submitter cannot be determined either from the present release of the data or in combination with other releases.

Albacore means the species Thunnus alalunga, or a part thereof.

Allocated species means any species or species group allocated to a foreign nation under § 600.517 for catching by vessels of that Nation.

Allocation means direct and deliberate distribution of the opportunity to participate in a fishery among identifiable, discrete user groups or individuals.

Allowable chemical means a substance, generally used to immobilize marine life so it can be captured alive, that, when introduced into the water, does not take Gulf and South Atlantic prohibited coral (as defined at 50 CFR 622.2) and is allowed by Florida or Hawaii or the U.S. Pacific Insular Area for the harvest of tropical fish.

Anadromous species means species of fish that spawn in fresh or estuarine waters of the United States and that migrate to ocean waters.

Angling means fishing for, attempting to fish for, catching or attempting to catch fish by any person (angler) with a hook attached to a line that is hand-held or by rod and reel made for this purpose.

Area of custody means any vessel, building, vehicle, live car, pound, pier or dock facility where fish might be found.

Assistant Administrator means the Assistant Administrator for Fisheries, NOAA, or a designee.

Atlantic tunas means bluefin, albacore, bigeye, skipjack, and yellowfin tunas found in the Atlantic Ocean.

Atlantic Tunas Convention Act means the Atlantic Tunas Convention Act of 1975, 16 U.S.C. 971-971h.

Authorized officer means:

(1) Any commissioned, warrant, or petty officer of the USCG;

(2) Any special agent or fishery enforcement officer of NMFS;

(3) Any officer designated by the head of any Federal or state agency that has entered into an agreement with the Secretary and the Commandant of the USCG to enforce the provisions of the Magnuson-Stevens Act or any other statute administered by NOAA; or

(4) Any USCG personnel accompanying and acting under the direction of any person described in paragraph (1) of this definition.

Authorized species means any species or species group that a foreign vessel is authorized to retain in a joint venture by a permit issued under Activity Code 4 as described by § 600.501(c).

Automatic reel means a reel that remains attached to a vessel when in use from which a line and attached hook(s) are deployed. The line is payed out from and retrieved on the reel electrically or hydraulically.

Bandit gear means vertical hook and line gear with rods that are attached to the vessel when in use. Lines are retrieved by manual, electric, or hydraulic reels.

Barrier net means a small-mesh net used to capture coral reef or coastal pelagic fishes.

Bigeye tuna means the species Thunnus obesus, or a part thereof.

Billfish means Atlantic billfish (blue marlin, white marlin, sailfish, longbill spearfish, or roundscale spearfish).

Bluefin tuna means the species Thunnus thynnus, or a part thereof.

Blue marlin means the species Makaira nigricans, or a part thereof.

Bully net means a circular frame attached at right angles to a pole and supporting a conical bag of webbing.

Buoy gear means fishing gear consisting of a float and one or more lines suspended therefrom. A hook or hooks are on the lines at or near the end. The float and line(s) drift freely and are retrieved periodically to remove catch and rebait hooks.

Carcass means a fish in whole condition or that portion of a fish that has been gilled and/or gutted and the head and some or all fins have been removed, but that is otherwise in whole condition.

Cast net means a circular net with weights attached to the perimeter.

Catch limit means the total allowable harvest or take from a single fishing trip or day, as defined in this section.

Catch, take, or harvest includes, but is not limited to, any activity that results in killing any fish or bringing any live fish on board a vessel.

Center means one of the five NMFS Fisheries Science Centers.

Charter boat means a vessel less than 100 gross tons (90.8 mt) that meets the requirements of the U.S. Coast Guard to carry six or fewer passengers for hire.

Coast Guard Commander means one of the commanding officers of the Coast Guard units specified in Table 1 of § 600.502, or a designee.

Codend means the terminal, closed end of a trawl net.

Compensation fishing means fishing conducted for the purpose of recovering costs associated with resource surveys and scientific studies that support the management of a fishery, or to provide incentive for participation in such studies. Compensation fishing may include fishing during or subsequent to such surveys or studies.

Confidential statistics are those submitted as a requirement of an FMP and that reveal the business or identity of the submitter.

Conservation engineering means the development and assessment of fishing technologies and fishing techniques designed to conserve target and non-target species, and may include the study of fish behavior and the development and testing of new gear technologies and fishing techniques to minimize bycatch and any adverse effects on essential fish habitat and promote efficient harvest of target species. Conservation engineering may include the assessment of existing fishing technologies applied in novel ways. An example would be assessing the ability of a bycatch reduction device (BRD), designed and proven in one fishery, to reduce bycatch in another fishery. Conservation engineering meeting the definition of scientific research activity is not fishing.

Continental shelf fishery resources means the species listed under section 3(7) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

Council means one of the eight Regional Fishery Management Councils established by the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

Data, statistics, and information are used interchangeably.

Dealer means the person who first receives fish by way of purchase, barter, or trade.

Designated representative means the person appointed by a foreign nation and maintained within the United States who is responsible for transmitting information to and submitting reports from vessels of that Nation and establishing observer transfer arrangements for vessels in both directed and joint venture activities.

Dip net means a small mesh bag, sometimes attached to a handle, shaped and framed in various ways. It is operated by hand or partially by mechanical power to capture the fish.

Directed fishing, for the purpose of foreign fishing (subpart F), means any fishing by the vessels of a foreign nation for allocations of fish granted that Nation under § 600.517.

Director means the Director of the Office of Sustainable Fisheries, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910.

Discard means to release or return fish to the sea, whether or not such fish are brought fully on board a fishing vessel.

Dredge means a gear consisting of a mouth frame attached to a holding bag constructed of metal rings or mesh.

Drop net means a small, usually circular net with weight around the perimeter and a float in the center.

Essential fish habitat (EFH) means those waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding, or growth to maturity. For the purpose of interpreting the definition of essential fish habitat: “Waters” include aquatic areas and their associated physical, chemical, and biological properties that are used by fish and may include aquatic areas historically used by fish where appropriate; “substrate” includes sediment, hard bottom, structures underlying the waters, and associated biological communities; “necessary” means the habitat required to support a sustainable fishery and the managed species' contribution to a healthy ecosystem; and “spawning, breeding, feeding, or growth to maturity” covers a species' full life cycle.

Exclusive economic zone (EEZ) means the zone established by Presidential Proclamation 5030, 3 CFR part 22, dated March 10, 1983, and is that area adjacent to the United States which, except where modified to accommodate international boundaries, encompasses all waters from the seaward boundary of each of the coastal states to a line on which each point is 200 nautical miles (370.40 km) from the baseline from which the territorial sea of the United States is measured.

Exempted educational activity means an activity that would otherwise be considered fishing, conducted by an educational institution accredited by a recognized national or international accreditation body, of limited scope and duration, that is otherwise prohibited by this chapter VI, but that is authorized by the appropriate Regional Administrator or Director for educational purposes, i.e., the instruction of an individual or group, and authorized capture of only the amount of fish necessary to demonstrate the lesson.

Exempted or experimental fishing means fishing from a vessel of the United States that involves activities otherwise prohibited by this chapter VI, but that are authorized under an exempted fishing permit (EFP). The regulations in § 600.745 refer exclusively to exempted fishing. References elsewhere in this chapter to experimental fishing mean exempted fishing under this part.

Fillet means to remove slices of fish flesh from the carcass by cuts made parallel to the backbone.

Fish means:

(1) When used as a noun, means any finfish, mollusk, crustacean, or parts thereof, and all other forms of marine animal and plant life other than marine mammals and birds.

(2) When used as a verb, means to engage in “fishing,” as defined below.

Fishery means:

(1) One or more stocks of fish that can be treated as a unit for purposes of conservation and management and that are identified on the basis of geographic, scientific, technical, recreational, or economic characteristics, or method of catch; or

(2) Any fishing for such stocks.

Fishery management unit (FMU) means a fishery or that portion of a fishery identified in an FMP relevant to the FMP's management objectives. The choice of an FMU depends on the focus of the FMP's objectives, and may be organized around biological, geographic, economic, technical, social, or ecological perspectives.

Fishery resource means any fish, any stock of fish, any species of fish, and any habitat of fish.

Fishing, or to fish means any activity, other than scientific research conducted by a scientific research vessel, that involves:

(1) The catching, taking, or harvesting of fish;

(2) The attempted catching, taking, or harvesting of fish;

(3) Any other activity that can reasonably be expected to result in the catching, taking, or harvesting of fish; or

(4) Any operations at sea in support of, or in preparation for, any activity described in paragraphs (1), (2), or (3) of this definition.

Fishing industry advisory committee (FIAC) means an advisory group formed and selected by a regional fishery management council under the authority of the Magnuson-Stevens Act section 302(g)(3)(A) and formally designated in the Council's SOPP or by a formal charge to the FIAC made by the chair and recorded in the Council's minutes. A FIAC is not an “advisory panel” as defined under this section.

Fishing vessel means any vessel, boat, ship, or other craft that is used for, equipped to be used for, or of a type that is normally used for:

(1) Fishing; or

(2) Aiding or assisting one or more vessels at sea in the performance of any activity relating to fishing, including, but not limited to, preparation, supply, storage, refrigeration, transportation, or processing.

Fish weir means a large catching arrangement with a collecting chamber that is made of non-textile material (wood, wicker) instead of netting as in a pound net.

Foreign fishing means fishing by a foreign fishing vessel.

Foreign fishing vessel (FFV) means any fishing vessel other than a vessel of the United States, except those foreign vessels engaged in recreational fishing, as defined in this section.

Gear conflict means any incident at sea involving one or more fishing vessels:

(1) In which one fishing vessel or its gear comes into contact with another vessel or the gear of another vessel; and

(2) That results in the loss of, or damage to, a fishing vessel, fishing gear, or catch.

Gillnet means a panel of netting, suspended vertically in the water by floats along the top and weights along the bottom, to entangle fish that attempt to pass through it.

Governing International Fishery Agreement (GIFA) means an agreement between the United States and a foreign nation or Nations under section 201(c) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

Grants Officer means the NOAA official authorized to sign, on behalf of the Government, the cooperative agreement providing funds to support the Council's operations and functions.

Greenwich mean time (GMT) means the local mean time at Greenwich, England. All times in this part are GMT unless otherwise specified.

Handgear means handline, harpoon, or rod and reel.

Hand harvest means harvesting by hand.

Handline means fishing gear that is set and pulled by hand and consists of one vertical line to which may be attached leader lines with hooks.

Harass means to unreasonably interfere with an individual's work performance, or to engage in conduct that creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive environment.

Harpoon or harpoon gear means fishing gear consisting of a pointed dart or iron attached to the end of a line several hundred feet in length, the other end of which is attached to a floatation device. Harpoon gear is attached to a pole or stick that is propelled only by hand, and not by mechanical means.

Headboat means a vessel that holds a valid Certificate of Inspection issued by the U.S. Coast Guard to carry passengers for hire.

Hook and line means one or more hooks attached to one or more lines (can include a troll).

Hoop net means a cone-shaped or flat net which may or may not have throats and flues stretched over a series of rings or hoops for support.

Industry means both recreational and commercial fishing, and includes the harvesting, processing, and marketing sectors.

International radio call sign (IRCS) means the unique radio identifier assigned a vessel by the appropriate authority of the flag state.

Joint venture means any operation by a foreign vessel assisting fishing by U.S. fishing vessels, including catching, scouting, processing and/or support. (A joint venture generally entails a foreign vessel processing fish received from U.S. fishing vessels and conducting associated support activities.)

Lampara net means a surround net with the sections of netting made and joined to create bagging. It is hauled with purse rings and is generally much smaller in size than a purse seine net.

Land means to begin offloading fish, to offload fish, or to arrive in port or at a dock, berth, beach, seawall, or ramp.

Limited access system means a system that limits participation in a fishery to those satisfying certain eligibility criteria or requirements contained in a fishery management plan or associated regulation.

Longbill spearfish means the species Tetrapturus pfluegeri, or a part thereof.

Longline means a line that is deployed horizontally and to which gangions and hooks or pots are attached. Longlines can be stationary, anchored, or buoyed lines that may be hauled manually, electrically, or hydraulically.

Magnuson-Stevens Act means the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.), formerly known as the Magnuson Act.

Metric ton (mt) means 1,000 kg (2,204.6 lb).

nm means nautical mile (6,076 ft (1,852 m)).

Official number means the documentation number issued by the USCG or the certificate number issued by a state or by the USCG for an undocumented vessel.

Operator, with respect to any vessel, means the master or other individual aboard and in charge of that vessel.

Optimum yield (OY) means the amount of fish that:

(1) Will provide the greatest overall benefit to the Nation, particularly with respect to food production and recreational opportunities, and taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems;

(2) Is prescribed as such on the basis of the maximum sustainable yield from the fishery, as reduced by any relevant economic, social, or ecological factor; and

(3) In the case of an overfished fishery, provides for rebuilding to a level consistent with producing the maximum sustainable yield in such fishery.

Owner, with respect to any vessel, means:

(1) Any person who owns that vessel in whole or in part;

(2) Any charterer of the vessel, whether bareboat, time, or voyage;

(3) Any person who acts in the capacity of a charterer, including, but not limited to, parties to a management agreement, operating agreement, or any similar agreement that bestows control over the destination, function, or operation of the vessel; or

(4) Any agent designated as such by a person described in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of this definition.

Pelagic longline means a longline that is suspended by floats in the water column and that is not fixed to or in contact with the ocean bottom.

Plan Team means a Council working group selected from agencies, institutions, and organizations having a role in the research and/or management of fisheries, whose primary purpose is to assist the Council in the preparation and/or review of FMPs, amendments, and supporting documents for the Council, and/or SSC and AP.

Postmark means independently verifiable evidence of the date of mailing, such as a U.S. Postal Service postmark, or other private carrier postmark, certified mail receipt, overnight mail receipt, or a receipt issued upon hand delivery to a representative of NMFS authorized to collect fishery statistics.

Pot means trap.

Powerhead means any device with an explosive charge, usually attached to a spear gun, spear, pole, or stick, that may or may not fire a projectile upon contact.

Predominately means, with respect to fishing in a fishery, that more fishing on a stock or stocks of fish covered by the FMP occurs, or would occur in the absence of regulations, within or beyond the EEZ than occurs in the aggregate within the boundaries of all states off the coasts of which the fishery is conducted.

Processing, for the purpose of foreign fishing (subpart F), means any operation by an FFV to receive fish from foreign or U.S. fishing vessels and/or the preparation of fish, including, but not limited to, cleaning, cooking, canning, smoking, salting, drying, or freezing, either on the FFV's behalf or to assist other foreign or U.S. fishing vessels.

Product recovery rate (PRR) means a ratio expressed as a percentage of the weight of processed product divided by the round weight of fish used to produce that amount of product.

Prohibited species, with respect to a foreign vessel, means any species of fish that that vessel is not specifically allocated or authorized to retain, including fish caught or received in excess of any allocation or authorization.

Purchase means the act or activity of buying, trading, or bartering, or attempting to buy, trade, or barter.

Purse seine means a floated and weighted encircling net that is closed by means of a drawstring threaded through rings attached to the bottom of the net.

Recreational fishing, with respect to a foreign vessel, means any fishing from a foreign vessel not operated for profit and not operated for the purpose of scientific research. It may not involve the sale, barter, or trade of part or all of the catch (see § 600.513).

Retain on board means to fail to return fish to the sea after a reasonable opportunity to sort the catch.

Region means one of six NMFS Regional Offices responsible for administering the management and development of marine resources of the United States in their respective geographical regions.

Regional Administrator means the Administrator of one of the six NMFS Regions described in Table 1 to § 600.502, or a designee.

Regional Program Officer means the NMFS official designated in the terms and conditions of the grant award responsible for monitoring, recommending, and reviewing any technical aspects of the application for Federal assistance and the award.

Rod and reel means a hand-held (including rod holder) fishing rod with a manually or electrically operated reel attached.

Round means a whole fish - one that has not been gilled, gutted, beheaded, or definned.

Roundscale spearfish means the species Tetrapturus georgii, or a part thereof.

Round weight means the weight of the whole fish before processing or removal of any part.

Sailfish means the species Istiophorus platypterus, or a part thereof.

Sale or sell means the act or activity of transferring property for money or credit, trading, or bartering, or attempting to so transfer, trade, or barter.

Science and Research Director (also referred to as “Center Director” ) means the Director of one of the six NMFS Fisheries Science Centers described in Table 1 to § 600.502, or a designee.

Scientific cruise means the period of time during which a scientific research vessel is operated in furtherance of a scientific research project, beginning when the vessel leaves port to undertake the project and ending when the vessel completes the project as provided for in the applicable scientific research plan.

Scientific research activity is, for the purposes of this part, an activity in furtherance of a scientific fishery investigation or study that would meet the definition of fishing under the Magnuson-Stevens Act, but for the exemption applicable to scientific research activity conducted from a scientific research vessel. Scientific research activity includes, but is not limited to, sampling, collecting, observing, or surveying the fish or fishery resources within the EEZ, at sea, on board scientific research vessels, to increase scientific knowledge of the fishery resources or their environment, and to test a hypothesis as part of a planned, directed investigation or study conducted according to methodologies generally accepted as appropriate for scientific research. At-sea scientific fishery investigations address one or more topics involving taxonomy, biology, physiology, behavior, disease, aging, growth, mortality, migration, recruitment, distribution, abundance, ecology, stock structure, bycatch or other collateral effects of fishing, conservation engineering, and catch estimation of fish species considered to be a component of the fishery resources within the EEZ. Scientific research activity does not include the collection and retention of fish outside the scope of the applicable research plan, or the testing of fishing gear. Data collection designed to capture and land quantities of fish for product development, market research, and/or public display are not scientific research activities. For foreign vessels, such data collection activities are considered scientific research if they are carried out in full cooperation with the United States.

Scientific research plan means a detailed, written formulation, prepared in advance of the research, for the accomplishment of a scientific research project. At a minimum, a sound scientific research plan should include:

(1) A description of the nature and objectives of the project, including the hypothesis or hypotheses to be tested.

(2) The experimental design of the project, including a description of the methods to be used, the type and class of any vessel(s) to be used, and a description of sampling equipment.

(3) The geographical area(s) in which the project is to be conducted.

(4) The expected date of first appearance and final departure of the research vessel(s) to be employed, and deployment and removal of equipment, as appropriate.

(5) The expected quantity and species of fish to be taken and their intended disposition, and, if significant amounts of a managed species or species otherwise restricted by size or sex are needed, an explanation of such need.

(6) The name, address, and telephone/telex/fax number of the sponsoring organization and its director.

(7) The name, address, and telephone/telex/fax number, and curriculum vitae of the person in charge of the project and, where different, the person in charge of the research project on board the vessel.

(8) The identity of any vessel(s) to be used including, but not limited to, the vessel's name, official documentation number and IRCS, home port, and name, address, and telephone number of the owner and master.

Scientific research vessel means a vessel owned or chartered by, and controlled by, a foreign government agency, U.S. Government agency (including NOAA or institutions designated as federally funded research and development centers), U.S. state or territorial agency, university (or other educational institution accredited by a recognized national or international accreditation body), international treaty organization, or scientific institution. In order for a domestic commercial fishing vessel to meet this definition, it must be under the control of a qualifying agency or institution, and operate in accordance with a scientific research plan, for the duration of the scientific research activity. In order for a vessel that is owned or chartered and controlled by a foreign government to meet this definition, the vessel must have scientific research as its exclusive mission during the scientific activity in question, and the vessel operations must be conducted in accordance with a scientific research plan.

Scouting means any operation by a vessel exploring (on the behalf of an FFV or U.S. fishing vessel) for the presence of fish by visual, acoustic, or other means that do not involve the catching of fish.

Secretary means the Secretary of Commerce or a designee.

Seine means a net with long narrow wings, that is rigged with floats and weights.

Skipjack tuna means the species Katsuwonus pelamis, or a part thereof.

Slurp gun means a tube-shaped suction device that operates somewhat like a syringe by sucking up the fish.

Snare means a device consisting of a pole to which is attached a line forming at its end a loop with a running knot that tightens around the fish when the line is pulled.

Spear means a sharp, pointed, or barbed instrument on a shaft. Spears can be operated manually or shot from a gun or sling.

State means each of the several states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other Commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.

State employee means any employee of the state agency responsible for developing and monitoring the state's program for marine and/or anadromous fisheries.

Statement of Organization, Practices, and Procedures (SOPP) means a statement by each Council describing its organization, practices, and procedures as required under section 302(f)(6) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

Stock assessment means the process of collecting and analyzing biological and statistical information to determine the changes in the abundance of fishery stocks in response to fishing, and, to the extent possible, to predict future trends of stock abundance. Stock assessments are based on resource surveys; knowledge of the habitat requirements, life history, and behavior of the species; the use of environmental indices to determine impacts on stocks; and catch statistics. Stock assessments are used as a basis to “assess and specify the present and probable future condition of a fishery” (as is required by the Magnuson-Stevens Act), and are summarized in the Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation or similar document.

Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation (SAFE) means a document or set of documents that provides Councils with a summary of the most recent biological condition of species in an FMU, and the social and economic condition of the recreational and commercial fishing industries and the fish processing industries. It summarizes, on a periodic basis, the best available scientific information concerning the past, present, and possible future condition of the stocks and fisheries being managed under Federal regulation.

Submersible means a manned or unmanned device that functions or operates primarily underwater and is used to harvest fish, i.e., precious corals, with mechanical arms.

Substantially (affects) means, for the purpose of subpart G, with respect to whether a state's action or omission will substantially affect the carrying out of an FMP for a fishery, that those effects are important or material, or considerable in degree. The effects of a state's action or omission for purposes of this definition include effects upon:

(1) The achievement of the FMP's goals or objectives for the fishery;

(2) The achievement of OY from the fishery on a continuing basis;

(3) The attainment of the national standards for fishery conservation and management (as set forth in section 301(a) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act) and compliance with other applicable law; or

(4) The enforcement of regulations implementing the FMP.

Support means any operation by a vessel assisting fishing by foreign or U.S. vessels, including supplying water, fuel, provisions, fish processing equipment, or other supplies to a fishing vessel.

Swordfish means the species Xiphias gladius, or a part thereof.

Tangle net dredge means dredge gear consisting of weights and flimsy netting that hangs loosely in order to immediately entangle fish.

Total length (TL) means the straight-line distance from the tip of the snout to the tip of the tail (caudal fin) while the fish is lying on its side, normally extended.

Trammel net means a net consisting of two or more panels of netting, suspended vertically in the water column by a common float line and a common weight line. One panel of netting has a larger mesh size than the other(s) in order to entrap fish in a pocket.

Transship means offloading and onloading or otherwise transferring fish or fish products and/or transporting fish or products made from fish.

Trap means a portable, enclosed device with one or more gates or entrances and one or more lines attached to surface floats. Also called a pot.

Trawl means a cone or funnel-shaped net that is towed through the water, and can include a pair trawl that is towed simultaneously by two boats.

Trip means the time period that begins when a fishing vessel departs from a dock, berth, beach, seawall, ramp, or port to carry out fishing operations and that terminates with a return to a dock, berth, beach, seawall, ramp, or port.

U.S. observer or observer means any person serving in the capacity of an observer employed by NMFS, either directly or under contract, or certified as a supplementary observer by NMFS.

Vessel of the United States or U.S. vessel means:

(1) Any vessel documented under chapter 121 of title 46, United States Code;

(2) Any vessel numbered under chapter 123 of title 46, United States Code, and measuring less than 5 net tons;

(3) Any vessel numbered under chapter 123 of title 46, United States Code, and used exclusively for pleasure; or

(4) Any vessel not equipped with propulsion machinery of any kind and used exclusively for pleasure.

White Marlin means the species Kajikia albidus, or a part thereof.

Yellowfin tuna means the species Thunnus albacares, or a part thereof.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 14646, Mar. 27, 1997; 62 FR 66551, Dec. 19, 1997; 63 FR 7073, 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 64 FR 4036, Jan. 27, 1999; 64 FR 29133, May 28, 1999; 64 FR 67516, Dec. 2, 1999; 67 FR 2375, Jan. 17, 2002; 67 FR 64312, Oct. 18, 2002; 69 FR 30240, May 27, 2004; 73 FR 67810, Nov. 17, 2008; 74 FR 42792, Aug. 25, 2009; 75 FR 59149, Sept. 27, 2010; 75 FR 57701, Sept. 22, 2010]

§ 600.15 Other acronyms.

(a) Fishery management terms.

(1) ABC - acceptable biological catch

(2) ATCA -Atlantic Tunas Convention Act

(3) BFT (Atlantic bluefin tuna) means the subspecies of bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus thynnus, or a part thereof, that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean.

(4) BSD means the ICCAT bluefin tuna statistical document.

(5) CCC-Council coordination committee

(6) DAH - estimated domestic annual harvest

(7) DAP - estimated domestic annual processing

(8) EIS - environmental impact statement

(9) EY - equilibrium yield

(10) FIAC-Fishing industry advisory committee

(11) FMP - fishery management plan

(12) ICCAT means the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas.

(13) JVP - joint venture processing

(14) MSY - maximum sustainable yield

(15) PMP - preliminary FMP

(16) TAC - total allowable catch

(17) TALFF - total allowable level of foreign fishing

(b) Legislation.

(1) APA - Administrative Procedure Act

(2) CZMA - Coastal Zone Management Act

(3) ESA - Endangered Species Act

(4) FACA - Federal Advisory Committee Act

(5) FOIA - Freedom of Information Act

(6) FLSA - Fair Labor Standards Act

(7) MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act

(8) MPRSA - Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act

(9) NEPA - National Environmental Policy Act

(10) PA - Privacy Act

(11) PRA - Paperwork Reduction Act

(12) RFA - Regulatory Flexibility Act

(c) Federal agencies.

(1) CEQ - Council on Environmental Quality

(2) DOC - Department of Commerce

(3) DOI - Department of the Interior

(4) DOS - Department of State

(5) EPA - Environmental Protection Agency

(6) FWS - Fish and Wildlife Service

(7) GSA - General Services Administration

(8) NMFS - National Marine Fisheries Service

(9) NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

(10) OMB - Office of Management and Budget

(11) OPM - Office of Personnel Management

(12) SBA - Small Business Administration

(13) USCG - United States Coast Guard

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7073, Feb. 12, 1998; 64 FR 29134, May 28, 1999; 75 FR 59149, Sept. 27, 2010]

Subpart B - Regional Fishery Management Councils
§ 600.105 Intercouncil boundaries.

(a) New England and Mid-Atlantic Councils. The boundary begins at the intersection point of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New York at 41°18′16.249″ N. lat. and 71°54′28.477″ W. long. and proceeds south 37°22′32.75″ East to the point of intersection with the outward boundary of the EEZ as specified in the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

(b) Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic Councils. The boundary begins at the seaward boundary between the States of Virginia and North Carolina (36°33′01.0″ N. lat), and proceeds due east to the point of intersection with the outward boundary of the EEZ as specified in the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

(c) South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Councils. The boundary coincides with the line of demarcation between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, which begins at the intersection of the outer boundary of the EEZ, as specified in the Magnuson-Stevens Act, and 83°00′ W. long., proceeds northward along that meridian to 24°35′ N. lat., (near the Dry Tortugas Islands), thence eastward along that parallel, through Rebecca Shoal and the Quicksand Shoal, to the Marquesas Keys, and then through the Florida Keys to the mainland at the eastern end of Florida Bay, the line so running that the narrow waters within the Dry Tortugas Islands, the Marquesas Keys and the Florida Keys, and between the Florida Keys and the mainland, are within the Gulf of Mexico.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 75 FR 59149, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.110 Intercouncil fisheries.

If any fishery extends beyond the geographical area of authority of any one Council, the Secretary may -

(a) Designate a single Council to prepare the FMP for such fishery and any amendments to such FMP, in consultation with the other Councils concerned; or

(b) Require that the FMP and any amendments be prepared jointly by all the Councils concerned.

(1) A jointly prepared FMP or amendment must be adopted by a majority of the voting members, present and voting, of each participating Council. Different conservation and management measures may be developed for specific geographic areas, but the FMP should address the entire geographic range of the stock(s).

(2) In the case of joint FMP or amendment preparation, one Council will be designated as the “administrative lead.” The “administrative lead” Council is responsible for the preparation of the FMP or any amendments and other required documents for submission to the Secretary.

(3) None of the Councils involved in joint preparation may withdraw without Secretarial approval. If Councils cannot agree on approach or management measures within a reasonable period of time, the Secretary may designate a single Council to prepare the FMP or may issue the FMP under Secretarial authority.

§ 600.115 Statement of organization, practices, and procedures (SOPP).

(a) Councils are required to publish and make available to the public a SOPP in accordance with such uniform standards as are prescribed by the Secretary (section 302(f)(6)) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. The purpose of the SOPP is to inform the public how the Council operates within the framework of the Secretary's uniform standards.

(b) Amendments to current SOPPs must be consistent with the guidelines in this section, subpart C of this part, the terms and conditions of the cooperative agreement (the funding agreement between the Council and NOAA that establishes Council funding and mandates specific requirements regarding the use of those funds), the statutory requirements of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, and other applicable law. Upon approval of a Council's SOPP amendment by the Secretary, a notice of availability must be published in the Federal Register that includes an Internet address from which the amended SOPP may be read and downloaded and a mailing address to which the public may write to request copies.

(c) Councils may deviate, where lawful, from the guidelines with appropriate supporting rationale, and Secretarial approval of each amendment to a SOPP would constitute approval of any such deviations for that particular Council.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 75 FR 59149, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.117 Council coordination committee (CCC).

(a) The Councils may establish a Council coordination committee (CCC) consisting of the chairs, vice chairs, and executive directors of each of the eight Councils or other Council members or staff, in order to discuss issues of relevance to all Councils.

(b) The CCC is not subject to the requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App. 2). Procedures for announcing and conducting open and closed meetings of the CCC shall be in accordance with § 600.135.

[75 FR 59150, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.120 Employment practices.

(a) Council staff positions must be filled solely on the basis of merit, fitness for duty, competence, and qualifications. Employment actions must be free from discrimination based on race, religion, color, national origin, sex, age, disability, reprisal, sexual orientation, status as a parent, or on any additional bases protected by applicable Federal, state, or local law.

(b) The annual pay rates for Council staff positions shall be consistent with the pay rates established for General Schedule Federal employees as set forth in 5 U.S.C. 5332, and the Alternative Personnel Management System for the U.S. Department of Commerce (62 FR 67434). The Councils have the discretion to adjust pay rates and pay increases based on cost of living (COLA) differentials in their geographic locations. COLA adjustments in pay rates and pay increases may be provided for staff members whose post of duty is located in Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Puerto Rico.

(1) No pay adjustment based on geographic location shall exceed the COLA and locality pay adjustments available to Federal employees in the same geographic area.

(2) [Reserved]

(c) Salary increases funded in lieu of life and medical/dental policies are not permitted.

(d) Unused sick leave may be accumulated without limit, or up to a maximum number of days and contribution per day, as specified by the Council in its SOPP. Distributions of accumulated funds for unused sick leave may be made to the employee upon his or her retirement, or to his or her estate upon his or her death, as established by the Council in its SOPP.

(e) Each Council may pay for unused annual leave upon separation, retirement, or death of an employee.

(f) One or more accounts shall be maintained to pay for unused sick or annual leave as authorized under paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, and will be funded from the Council's annual operating allowances. Councils have the option to deposit funds into these account(s) at the end of the budget period if unobligated balances remain. Interest earned on these account(s) will be maintained in the account(s), along with the principal, for the purpose of payment of unused annual and sick leave only. These account(s), including interest, may be carried over from year to year. Budgeting for accrued leave will be identified in the “Other” object class categories section of the SF-424A.

(g) A Council must notify the NOAA Office of General Counsel before seeking outside legal advice, which may be for technical assistance not available from NOAA. If the Council is seeking legal services in connection with an employment practices question, the Council must first notify the Department of Commerce's Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Administration, Employment and Labor Law Division. A Council may not contract for the provision of legal services on a continuing basis.

[66 FR 57886, Nov. 19, 2001]

§ 600.125 Budgeting, funding, and accounting.

(a) Council grant activities are governed by 15 CFR part 14 (Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements with Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and other Non-Profit and Commercial Organizations), 2 CFR part 230 (Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations), 15 CFR part 14 (Audit Requirements for Institutions of Higher Education and Other Non-Profit Organizations), and the terms and conditions of the cooperative agreement.

(b) Councils may not independently enter into agreements, including grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements, whereby they will receive funds for services rendered. All such agreements must be approved and entered into by NOAA on behalf of the Councils.

(c) Councils are not authorized to accept gifts or contributions directly. All such donations must be directed to the NMFS Regional Administrator in accordance with applicable Department of Commerce regulations.

[66 FR 57887, Nov. 19, 2001, as amended at 75 FR 59150, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.130 Protection of confidentiality of statistics.

Each Council must establish appropriate procedures for ensuring the confidentiality of the statistics that may be submitted to it by Federal or state authorities and may be voluntarily submitted to it by private persons, including, but not limited to (also see § 600.405):

(a) Procedures for the restriction of Council member, employee, or advisory group access and the prevention of conflicts of interest, except that such procedures must be consistent with procedures of the Secretary.

(b) In the case of statistics submitted to the Council by a state, the confidentiality laws and regulations of that state.

§ 600.133 Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC).

(a) Each Council shall establish, maintain, and appoint the members of an SSC to assist it in the development, collection, evaluation, and peer review of such statistical, biological, economic, social, and other scientific information as is relevant to such Council's development and amendment of any fishery management plan.

(b) Each SSC shall provide its Council ongoing scientific advice for fishery management decisions, including recommendations for acceptable biological catch, preventing overfishing, maximum sustainable yield, and achieving rebuilding targets, and reports on stock status and health, bycatch, habitat status, social and economic impacts of management measures, and sustainability of fishing practices.

(c) Members appointed by the Councils to the SSCs shall be Federal employees, State employees, academicians, or independent experts and shall have strong scientific or technical credentials and experience.

(d) An SSC shall hold its meetings in conjunction with the meetings of the Council, to the extent practicable.

[75 FR 59150, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.134 Stipends.

Stipends are available, subject to the availability of appropriations, to members of committees formally designated as SSCs under Sec. 301(g)(1)(a) or APs under Sec. 302(g)(2) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act who are not employed by the Federal Government or a State marine fisheries agency. For the purposes of this section, a state marine fisheries agency includes any state or tribal agency that has conservation, management, or enforcement responsibility for any marine fishery resource.

[75 FR 59150, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.135 Meeting procedures.

(a) Regular meetings. Public notice of a regular meeting, including the meeting agenda, of each Council, CCC, SSC, AP, FIAC, or other committees established under Magnuson-Stevens Act, Sec. 302(g), must be published in the Federal Register at least 14 calendar days prior to the meeting date. Appropriate notice by any means that will result in wide publicity in the major fishing ports of the region (and in other major fishing ports having a direct interest in the affected fishery) must be given. E-mail notification and website postings alone are not sufficient. The published agenda of a regular meeting may not be modified to include additional matters for Council action without public notice given at least 14 calendar days prior to the meeting date, unless such modification is necessary to address an emergency under section 305(c) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, in which case public notice shall be given immediately. Drafts of all regular public meeting notices must be received by NMFS headquarters office at least 23 calendar days before the first day of the regular meeting. Councils must ensure that all public meetings are accessible to persons with disabilities, and that the public can make timely requests for language interpreters or other auxiliary aids at public meetings.

(b) Emergency meetings. Drafts of emergency public notices must be transmitted to the NMFS headquarters office at least 5 working days prior to the first day of the emergency meeting. Although notices of and agendas for emergency meetings are not required to be published in the Federal Register, notices of emergency meetings must be promptly announced through any means that will result in wide publicity in the major fishing ports of the region. E-mail notification and website postings alone are not sufficient.

(c) Closed meetings. After proper notification by any means that will result in wide publicity in the major fishing ports within the region and, having included in the notification the time and place of the meeting and the reason for closing any meeting or portion thereof to the public, a Council, CCC, SSC, AP, FIAC, or other committees:

(1) Must close any meeting, or portion thereof, that concerns information bearing a national security classification.

(2) May close any meeting, or portion thereof, that concerns matters or information pertaining to national security, employment matters, or briefings on litigation in which the Council is interested.

(3) May close any meeting, or portion thereof, that concerns internal administrative matters other than employment. Examples of other internal administrative matters include candidates for appointment to AP, SSC, and other subsidiary bodies and public decorum or medical conditions of members of a Council or its subsidiary bodies. In deciding whether to close a portion of a meeting to discuss internal administrative matters, the Council, CCC, SSC, AP, FIAC, or other committees should consider not only the privacy interests of individuals whose conduct or qualifications may be discussed, but also the interest of the public in being informed of Council operations and actions.

(d) Without the notice required by paragraph (c) of this section, a Council, CCC, SSC, AP, FIAC, or other committees may briefly close a portion of a meeting to discuss employment or other internal administrative matters. The closed portion of a meeting that is closed without notice may not exceed two hours.

(e) Before closing a meeting or portion thereof, the Council, CCC, SSC, AP, FIAC, or other committees should consult with the NOAA Office of General Counsel to ensure that the matters to be discussed fall within the exceptions to the requirement to hold public meetings described in paragraph (c) of this section.

(f) Actions that affect the public, although based on discussions in closed meetings, must be taken in public. For example, appointments to an AP must be made in the public part of the meeting; however, a decision to take disciplinary action against a Council employee need not be announced to the public.

(g) A majority of the voting members of any Council constitute a quorum for Council meetings, but one or more such members designated by the Council may hold hearings.

(h) Decisions of any Council are by majority vote of the voting members present and voting (except for a vote to propose removal of a Council member, see 50 CFR 600.230). Voting by proxy is permitted only pursuant to 50 CFR 600.205 (b). An abstention does not affect the unanimity of a vote.

(i) Voting members of the Council who disagree with the majority on any issue to be submitted to the Secretary, including principal state officials raising federalism issues, may submit a written statement of their reasons for dissent. If any Council member elects to file such a statement, it should be submitted to the Secretary at the same time the majority report is submitted.

[66 FR 57887, Nov. 19, 2001, as amended at 75 FR 59150, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.140 Procedure for proposed regulations.

(a) Each Council must establish a written procedure for proposed regulations consistent with section 303(c) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. The procedure must describe how the Council deems proposed regulations necessary or appropriate for the purposes of implementing a fishery management plan or a plan amendment, or making modifications to regulations implementing a fishery management plan or plan amendment. In addition, the procedure must describe how the Council submits proposed regulations to the Secretary.

(b) The Councils must include the procedure for proposed regulations in its SOPP, see § 600.115, or other written documentation that is available to the public.

[75 FR 59150, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.150 Disposition of records.

(a) Council records must be handled in accordance with NOAA records management office procedures. All records and documents created or received by Council employees while in active duty status belong to the Federal Government. When employees leave the Council, they may not take the original or file copies of records with them.

(b) Each Council is required to maintain documents generally available to the public on its Internet site. Documents for posting must include: fishery management plans and their amendments for the fisheries for which the Council is responsible, drafts of fishery management plans and plan amendments under consideration, analysis of actions the Council has under review, minutes or official reports of past meetings of the Council and its committees, materials provided by the Council staff to Council members in preparation for meetings, and other Council documents of interest to the public. For documents too large to maintain on the Web site, not available electronically, or seldom requested, the Council must provide copies of the documents for viewing at the Council office during regular business hours or may provide the documents through the mail.

[66 FR 57887, Nov. 19, 2001, as amended at 75 FR 59151, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.155 Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests.

(a) FOIA requests received by a Council should be coordinated promptly with the appropriate NMFS Regional Office. The Region will forward the request to the NOAA FOIA Officer to secure a FOIA number and log the request into FOIAonline. The Region will also obtain clearance from the NOAA General Counsel's Office concerning initial determination for denial of requested information.

(b) FOIA request processing will be controlled and documented in the Region. The requests should be forwarded to the NOAA FOIA Officer who will enter the request into FOIAonline. The request will be assigned an official FOIA number and due date. In the event the Region determines that the requested information is exempt from disclosure, in full or in part, under the FOIA, the denial letter prepared for the Assistant Administrator's signature, along with the “Foreseeable Harm” Memo and list of documents to be withheld, must be cleared through the NMFS FOIA Liaison. Upon completion, a copy of the signed letter transmitting the information to the requester should be posted to FOIAonline by NMFS.

[80 FR 57738, Sept. 25, 2015]

Subpart C - Council Membership
§ 600.205 Principal state officials and their designees.

(a) Only a full-time state employee of the state agency responsible for marine and/or anadromous fisheries shall be appointed by a constituent state Governor as the principal state official for purposes of section 302(b) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

(b) A principal state official may name his/her designee(s) to act on his/her behalf at Council meetings. Individuals designated to serve as designees of a principal state official on a Council, pursuant to section 302(b)(1)(A) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, must be a resident of the state and be knowledgeable and experienced, by reason of his or her occupational or other experience, scientific expertise, or training, in the fishery resources of the geographic area of concern to the Council.

(c) New or revised appointments by state Governors of principal state officials and new or revised designations by principal state officials of their designees(s) must be delivered in writing to the appropriate NMFS Regional Administrator and the Council chair at least 48 hours before the individual may vote on any issue before the Council. A designee may not name another designee. Written appointment of the principal state official must indicate his or her employment status, how the official is employed by the state fisheries agency, and whether the official's full salary is paid by the state. Written designation(s) by the principal state official must indicate how the designee is knowledgeable and experienced in fishery resources of the geographic area of concern to the Council, the County in which the designee resides, and whether the designee's salary is paid by the state.

[66 FR 57888, Nov. 19, 2001]

§ 600.207 Pacific Fishery Management Council Tribal Indian representative and alternate.

(a) The tribal Indian representative to the Pacific Fishery Management Council may designate an alternate during the period of the representative's term. The designee must be knowledgeable concerning tribal rights, tribal law, and the fishery resources of the geographical area concerned.

(b) New or revised designations of an alternate by the tribal Indian representative must be delivered in writing to the appropriate NMFS Regional Administrator and the Council chair at least 48 hours before the designee may vote on any issue before the Council. In that written document, the tribal Indian representative must indicate how the designee meets the knowledge requirements under paragraph (a) of this section.

[75 FR 59151, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.210 Terms of Council members.

(a) Voting members (other than principal state officials, the Regional Administrators, or their designees) are appointed for a term of 3 years and, except as discussed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, may be reappointed. A voting member's Council service of 18 months or more during a term of office will be counted as service for the entire 3-year term.

(b) The anniversary date for measuring terms of membership is August 11. The Secretary may designate a term of appointment shorter than 3 years, if necessary, to provide for balanced expiration of terms of office. Members may not serve more than three consecutive terms.

(c) A member who has completed three consecutive terms will be eligible for appointment to another term one full year after completion of the third consecutive term.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7073, Feb. 12, 1998; 75 FR 59151, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.215 Council nomination and appointment procedures.

(a) General.

(1) Each year, the 3-year terms for approximately one-third of the appointed members of the Councils expire. The Secretary of Commerce (Secretary) will appoint or new members or will reappoint seated members to another term to fill the seats being vacated.

(2) There are two categories of seats to which voting members are appointed: “Obligatory” and “At-large.”

(i) Obligatory seats are state specific. Each constituent state is entitled to one seat on the Council on which it is a member, except that the State of Alaska is entitled to five seats and the State of Washington is entitled to two seats on the North Pacific Fishery Management Council. When the term of a state's obligatory member is expiring or when that seat becomes vacant before the expiration of its term, the governor of that state must submit the names of at least three qualified individuals to fill that Council seat.

(ii) The Magnuson-Stevens Act also provides for appointment, by the Secretary, of one treaty Indian tribal representative to the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council). To fill that seat, the Secretary solicits written nominations from the heads of governments of those Indian Tribes with federally recognized fishing rights from the States of California, Oregon, Washington, or Idaho. The list of nominees must contain a total of at least three individuals who are knowledgeable and experienced regarding the fishery resources under the authority of the Pacific Council. The Secretary will appoint one tribal Indian representative from this list to the Pacific Council for a term of 3 years and rotate the appointment among the tribes.

(iii) At-large seats are regional. When the term of an at-large member is expiring or when that seat becomes vacant before the expiration of a term, the governors of all constituent states of that Council must each submit the names of at least three qualified individuals to fill the seat.

(b) Responsibilities of State Governors.

(1) Council members are selected by the Secretary from lists of nominees submitted by Governors of the constituent states, pursuant to section 302(b)(2)(C) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. For each applicable vacancy, a Governor must submit the names of at least three nominees who meet the qualification requirements of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. A Governor must provide a statement explaining how each of his/her nominees meet the qualification requirements, and must also provide appropriate documentation to the Secretary that each nomination was made in consultation with commercial and recreational fishing interests of that state and that each nominee is knowledgeable and experienced by reason of his or her occupational or other experience, scientific expertise, or training in one or more of the following ways related to the fishery resources of the geographical area of concern to the Council:

(i) Commercial fishing or the processing or marketing of fish, fish products, or fishing equipment;

(ii) Fishing for pleasure, relaxation, or consumption, or experience in any business supporting fishing;

(iii) Leadership in a state, regional, or national organization whose members participate in a fishery in the Council's area of authority;

(iv) The management and conservation of natural resources, including related interactions with industry, government bodies, academic institutions, and public agencies. This includes experience serving as a member of a Council, Advisory Panel, Scientific and Statistical Committee, or Fishing Industry Advisory Committee;

(v) Representing consumers of fish or fish products through participation in local, state, or national organizations, or performing other activities specifically related to the education or protection of consumers of marine resources; or

(vi) Teaching, journalism, writing, consulting, practicing law, or researching matters related to fisheries, fishery management, and marine resource conservation.

(2) To assist in identifying qualifications, each nominee must furnish to the appropriate governor's office a current resume, or equivalent, describing career history - with particular attention to experience related to the criteria in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Nominees may provide such information in any format they wish.

(3) A constituent State Governor must determine the state of residency of each of his/her nominees. A Governor may not nominate a non-resident of that state for appointment to a Council seat obligated to that state. A Governor may nominate residents of another constituent state of a Council for appointment to an at large seat on that Council.

(4) If, at any time during a term, a member changes residency to another state that is not a constituent state of that Council, or a member appointed to an obligatory seat changes residency to any other state, the member may no longer vote and must resign from the Council. For purposes of this paragraph, a state resident is an individual who maintains his/her principal residence within that constituent state and who, if applicable, pays income taxes to that state and/or to another appropriate jurisdiction within that state.

(5) When the terms of both an obligatory member and an at-large member expire concurrently, the Governor of the state holding the expiring obligatory seat may indicate that the nominees who were not selected for appointment to the obligatory seat may be considered for appointment to an at-large seat, provided that the resulting total number of nominees submitted by that governor for the expiring at-large seat is no fewer than three different nominees.

(c) Nominees to the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council.

(1) The Governors of States submitting nominees to the Secretary for appointment to the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council shall include:

(i) At least one nominee each from the commercial, recreational, and charter fishing sectors, except that an individual who owns or operates a fish farm outside the United States shall not be considered to be a representative of the commercial or recreational sector; and

(ii) At least one other individual who is knowledgeable regarding the conservation and management of fisheries resources in the jurisdiction of the Council.

(2) Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, if the Secretary determines that the list of names submitted by the Governor does not meet the requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the Secretary shall:

(i) Publish a notice in the Federal Register asking the residents of that State to submit the names and pertinent biographical data of individuals who would meet the requirements of this section that were not met for appointment to the Council; and

(ii) Add the name of any qualified individual submitted by the public who meets the requirements of this section that were not met to the list of names submitted by the Governor.

(3) The requirements of this paragraph (c) shall expire at the end of fiscal year 2012, meaning through September 30, 2012.

(d) Responsibilities of eligible tribal Indian governments. The tribal Indian representative on the Pacific Council will be selected by the Secretary from a list of no fewer than three individuals submitted by the tribal Indian governments with federally recognized fishing rights from California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, pursuant to section 302(b)(5) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. To assist in assessing the qualifications of each nominee, each head of an appropriate tribal Indian government must furnish to the Assistant Administrator a current resume, or equivalent, describing the nominee's qualifications, with emphasis on knowledge and experience related to the fishery resources affected by recommendations of the Pacific Council. Prior service on the Pacific Council in a different capacity will not disqualify nominees proposed by tribal Indian governments.

(e) Nomination deadlines. Nomination packages (governors' letters and completed nomination kits) must be forwarded by express mail under a single mailing to arrive at the address specified by the Assistant Administrator by March 15. For appointments outside the normal cycle, the Secretary will provide a deadline for receipt of nominations to the affected Council and state governors.

(1) Obligatory seats.

(i) The Governor of the state for which the term of an obligatory seat is expiring should submit the names of at least three qualified individuals to fill that seat by the March 15 deadline. The Secretary will appoint to the Pacific Fishery Management Council a representative of an Indian tribe from a list of no fewer than three individuals submitted by the tribal Indian governments.

(ii) If the Governor or tribal Indian governments fail to provide a nomination letter and at least three complete nomination kits by March 15, the obligatory seat will remain vacant until all required information has been received and processed and the Secretary has made the appointment.

(2) At-large seats.

(i) If a Governor chooses to submit nominations for an at-large seat, he/she must submit lists that contain at least three qualified nominees for each vacant seat. A nomination letter and a nomination kit for each qualified nominee must be forwarded by express mail under a single mailing to arrive at the address specified by the Assistant Administrator by March 15.

(ii) Nomination packages that are not substantially complete by March 15 may be returned to the nominating Governor. At-large members will be appointed from among the nominations submitted by the governors who complied with the nomination requirements.

(f) Responsibilities of the Secretary.

(1) The Secretary must, to the extent practicable, ensure a fair and balanced apportionment, on a rotating or other basis, of the active participants (or their representatives) in the commercial and recreational fisheries in the Council's area of authority. Further, the Secretary must take action to ensure, to the extent practicable, that those persons dependent for their livelihood upon the fisheries in the Council's area of authority are fairly represented as voting members on the Councils.

(2) The Secretary will review each list submitted by a governor or the tribal Indian governments to ascertain whether the individuals on the list are qualified for the vacancy. If the Secretary determines that a nominee is not qualified, the Secretary will notify the appropriate Governor or tribal Indian government of that determination. The Governor or tribal Indian government shall then submit a revised list of nominees or resubmit the original list with an additional explanation of the qualifications of the nominee in question. The Secretary reserves the right to determine whether nominees are qualified.

(3) The Secretary will select the appointees from lists of qualified nominees provided by the Governors of the constituent Council states or of the tribal Indian governments that are eligible to nominate candidates for that vacancy.

(i) For Governor-nominated seats, the Secretary will select an appointee for an obligatory seat from the list of qualified nominees submitted by the governor of the state. In filling expiring at-large seats, the Secretary will select an appointee(s) for an at-large seat(s) from the list of all qualified candidates submitted. The Secretary will consider only complete slates of nominees submitted by the governors of the Council's constituent states. When an appointed member vacates his/her seat prior to the expiration of his/her term, the Secretary will fill the vacancy for the remainder of the term by selecting from complete nomination letters and kits that are timely and contain the required number of candidates.

(ii) For the tribal Indian seat, the Secretary will solicit nominations of individuals for the list referred to in paragraph (c) of this section only from those Indian tribes with federally recognized fishing rights from California, Oregon, Washington, or Idaho. The Secretary will consult with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior, to determine which Indian tribes may submit nominations. Any vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of any term shall be filled in the same manner as described in paragraphs (d)(1) and (2) of this section, except that the Secretary may use the list referred to in paragraph (b)(1) of this section from which the vacating member was chosen. The Secretary shall rotate the appointment among the tribes, taking into consideration:

(A) The qualifications of the individuals on the list referred to in paragraph (c) of this section.

(B) The various rights of the Indian tribes involved, and judicial cases that set out the manner in which these rights are to be exercised.

(C) The geographic area in which the tribe of the representative is located.

(D) The limitation that no tribal Indian representative shall serve more than three consecutive terms in the Indian tribal seat.

[64 FR 4600, Jan. 29, 1999, as amended at 75 FR 59151, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.220 Oath of office.

As trustees of the nation's fishery resources, all voting members must take an oath specified by the Secretary as follows: “I, [name of the person taking oath], as a duly appointed member of a Regional Fishery Management Council established under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, hereby promise to conserve and manage the living marine resources of the United States of America by carrying out the business of the Council for the greatest overall benefit of the Nation. I recognize my responsibility to serve as a knowledgeable and experienced trustee of the Nation's marine fisheries resources, being careful to balance competing private or regional interests, and always aware and protective of the public interest in those resources. I commit myself to uphold the provisions, standards, and requirements of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act and other applicable law, and shall conduct myself at all times according to the rules of conduct prescribed by the Secretary of Commerce. This oath is given freely and without mental reservation or purpose of evasion.”

[75 FR 59152, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.225 Rules of conduct.

(a) Council members, as Federal office holders, and Council employees are subject to most Federal criminal statutes covering bribery, conflict-of-interest, disclosure of confidential information, and lobbying with appropriated funds.

(b) The Councils are responsible for maintaining high standards of ethical conduct among themselves, their staffs, and their advisory groups. In addition to abiding by the applicable Federal conflict of interest statutes, both members and employees of the Councils must comply with the following standards of conduct:

(1) No employee of a Council may use his or her official authority or influence derived from his or her position with the Council for the purpose of interfering with or affecting the result of an election to or a nomination for any national, state, county, or municipal elective office.

(2) Council members, employees, and contractors must comply with the Federal Cost Principles Applicable to Regional Fishery Management Council Grants and Cooperative Agreements, especially with regard to lobbying, and other restrictions with regard to lobbying as specified in § 600.227 of this part.

(3) No employee of a Council may be deprived of employment, position, work, compensation, or benefit provided for or made possible by the Magnuson-Stevens Act on account of any political activity or lack of such activity in support of or in opposition to any candidate or any political party in any national, state, county, or municipal election, or on account of his or her political affiliation.

(4) No Council member or employee may pay, offer, promise, solicit, or receive from any person, firm, or corporation a contribution of money or anything of value in consideration of either support or the use of influence or the promise of support or influence in obtaining for any person any appointive office, place, or employment under the Council.

(5) No employee of a Council may have a direct or indirect financial interest that conflicts with the fair and impartial conduct of his or her Council duties.

(6) No Council member, employee of a Council, or member of a Council advisory group may use or allow the use, for other than official purposes, of information obtained through or in connection with his or her Council employment that has not been made available to the general public.

(7) No Council member or employee of the Council may engage in criminal, infamous, dishonest, notoriously immoral, or disgraceful conduct.

(8) No Council member or employee of the Council may use Council property on other than official business. Such property must be protected and preserved from improper or deleterious operation or use.

(9)

(i) Except as provided in § 600.235(h) or in 18 U.S.C. 208, no Council member may participate personally and substantially as a member through decision, approval, disapproval, recommendation, the rendering of advice, investigation, or otherwise, in a particular matter in which the member, the member's spouse, minor child, general partner, organization in which the member is serving as officer, director, trustee, general partner, or employee, or any person or organization with whom the member is negotiating or has any arrangement concerning prospective employment, has a financial interest. (Note that this financial interest is broader than the one defined in § 600.235(a).)

(ii) No Council member may participate personally and substantially as a member through decision, approval, disapproval, recommendation, the rendering of advice, investigation, or otherwise, in a particular matter primarily of individual concern, such as a contract, in which he or she has a financial interest, even if the interest has been disclosed in accordance with § 600.235.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 63 FR 64185, Nov. 19, 1998; 75 FR 59152, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.227 Lobbying.

(a) Council members, employees and contractors must comply with the requirements of 31 U.S.C. 1352 and Department of Commerce implementing regulations published at 15 CFR part 28, “New Restrictions on Lobbying.” These provisions generally prohibit the use of Federal funds for lobbying the Executive or Legislative Branches of the Federal Government in connection with the award. Because the Councils receive in excess of $100,000 in Federal funding, the regulations mandate that the Councils must complete Form SF-LLL, “Disclosure of Lobbying Activities,” regarding the use of non Federal funds for lobbying. The Form SF-LLL shall be submitted within 30 days following the end of the calendar quarter in which there occurs any event that requires disclosure or that materially affects the accuracy of the information contained in any disclosure form previously filed. The recipient must submit the Forms SF-LLL, including those received from subrecipients, contractors, and subcontractors, to the Grants Officer.

(b) Council members, employees, and contractors must comply with the Federal Cost Principles Applicable to Regional Fishery Management Council Grants and Cooperative Agreements summarized as follows:

(1) Title 2 CFR part 230 - Cost Principles for Nonprofit Organizations (OMB CircularA-122) is applicable to the Federal assistance awards issued to the Councils.

(2) The purpose of the cost principles at 2 CFR part 230 is to define what costs can be paid on Federal awards issued to non-profit organizations. The regulation establishes both general principles and detailed items of costs.

(3) Under 2 CFR part 230, costs for certain lobbying activities are unallowable as charges to Federal awards. These activities would include any attempts to influence:

(i) The introduction of Federal or state legislation;

(ii) The enactment or modification of any pending legislation by preparing, distributing, or using publicity or propaganda, or by urging members of the general public to contribute to or to participate in any demonstration, march, rally, fundraising drive, lobbying campaign, or letter writing or telephone campaign.

(4) Generally, costs associated with providing a technical and factual presentation directly related to the performance of a grant, through hearing testimony, statements, or letters to Congress or a state legislature are allowable if made in response to a documented request.

(5) Costs associated with lobbying to influence state legislation in order to reduce the cost or to avoid material impairment of the organization's authority to perform the grant are also allowable.

[75 FR 59152, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.230 Removal.

The Secretary may remove for cause any Secretarially appointed member of a Council in accordance with section 302(b)(6) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, wherein the Council concerned first recommends removal of that member by not less than two-thirds of the voting members. A recommendation of a Council to remove a member must be made in writing to the Secretary and accompanied by a statement of the reasons upon which the recommendation is based.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7073, Feb. 12, 1998]

§ 600.235 Financial disclosure and recusal.

(a) Definitions. For purposes of § 600.235:

Affected individual means an individual who is -

(1) Nominated by the Governor of a state or appointed by the Secretary of Commerce to serve as a voting member of a Council in accordance with section 302(b)(2) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act; or

(2) A representative of an Indian tribe appointed to the Pacific Council by the Secretary of Commerce under section 302(b)(5) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act who is not subject to disclosure and recusal requirements under the laws of an Indian tribal government.

(3) A member of an SSC shall be treated as an affected individual for the purposes of paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(5) through (b)(7), and (i) of this section.

Close causal link means that a Council decision would reasonably be expected to directly impact or affect the financial interests of an affected individual.

Council decision means approval of a fishery management plan (FMP) or FMP amendment (including any proposed regulations); request for amendment to regulations implementing an FMP; finding that an emergency exists involving any fishery (including recommendations for responding to the emergency); and comments to the Secretary on FMPs or amendments developed by the Secretary. It does not include a vote by a committee of a Council.

Designated official means an attorney designated by the NOAA General Counsel.

Expected and substantially disproportionate benefit means a positive or negative impact with regard to a Council decision that is likely to affect a fishery or sector of a fishery in which the affected individual has a significant financial interest.

Financial Interest Form means NOAA Form 88-195, “STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL INTERESTS For Use By Voting Members of, and Nominees to, the Regional Fishery Management Councils, and Members of the Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC)” or such other form as the Secretary may prescribe.

Financial interest in harvesting, processing, lobbying, advocacy, or marketing

(1) includes:

(i) Stock, equity, or other ownership interests in, or employment with, any company, business, fishing vessel, or other entity or employment with any entity that has any percentage ownership in or by another entity engaging in any harvesting, processing, lobbying, advocacy, or marketing activity in any fishery under the jurisdiction of the Council concerned;

(ii) Stock, equity, or other ownership interests in, or employment with, any company or other entity or employment with any entity that has any percentage ownership in or by another entity that provides equipment or other services essential to harvesting, processing, lobbying, advocacy, or marketing activities in any fishery under the jurisdiction of the Council concerned, such as a chandler or a dock operation;

(iii) Employment with, or service as an officer, director, or trustee of, an association whose members include companies, vessels, or other entities engaged in any harvesting, processing, lobbying, advocacy, or marketing activities, or companies or other entities providing services essential to harvesting, processing, lobbying, advocacy, or marketing activities in any fishery under the jurisdiction of the Council concerned; and

(iv) Employment with an entity that has any percentage ownership in or by another entity providing consulting, legal, or representational services to any entity engaging in, or providing equipment or services essential to harvesting, processing, lobbying, advocacy, or marketing activities in any fishery under the jurisdiction of the Council concerned, or to any association whose members include entities engaged in the activities described in paragraphs (1)(i) and (ii) of this definition;

(2) Does not include stock, equity, or other ownership interests in, or employment with, an entity engaging in scientific fisheries research in any fishery under the jurisdiction of the Council concerned, unless it is covered under paragraph (1) of this definition. A financial interest in such entities is covered by 18 U.S.C. 208, the Federal conflict-of-interest statute.

Significant financial interest means:

(1) A greater than 10-percent interest in the total harvest of the fishery or sector of the fishery affected by the Council decision;

(2) A greater than 10-percent interest in the marketing or processing of the total harvest of the fishery or sector of the fishery affected by the Council decision; or

(3) Full or partial ownership of more than 10 percent of the vessels using the same gear type within the fishery or sector of the fishery affected by the Council decision.

(b) Reporting.

(1) The Magnuson-Stevens Act requires the disclosure of any financial interest in harvesting, processing, lobbying, advocacy, or marketing activity that is being, or will be, undertaken within any fishery over which the Council concerned has jurisdiction. An affected individual must disclose such financial interest held by that individual; the affected individual's spouse, minor child, partner; or any organization (other than the Council) in which that individual is serving as an officer, director, trustee, partner, or employee. The information required to be reported must be disclosed on the Financial Interest Form (as defined in paragraph (a) of this section), or such other form as the Secretary may prescribe.

(2) The Financial Interest Form must be filed by each nominee for Secretarial appointment to the Council with the Assistant Administrator by April 15 or, if nominated after March 15, one month after nomination by the Governor. A seated voting member appointed by the Secretary must file a Financial Interest Form with the Executive Director of the appropriate Council within 45 days of taking office; must file an update of his or her statement with the Executive Director of the appropriate Council within 30 days of the time any such financial interest is acquired or substantially changed by the affected individual or the affected individual's spouse, minor child, partner, or any organization (other than the Council) in which that individual is serving as an officer, director, trustee, partner, or employee; and must update his or her form annually and file that update with the Executive Director of the appropriate Council by February 1 of each year, regardless of whether any information has changed on that form.

(3) The Executive Director must, in a timely manner, provide copies of and updates to the Financial Interest Forms of appointed Council members to the NMFS Regional Administrator, the Regional Attorney who advises the Council, the Department of Commerce Assistant General Counsel for Administration, and the NMFS Office of Sustainable Fisheries. These completed Financial Interest Forms shall be kept on file in the office of the NMFS Regional Administrator and at the Council offices, and shall be made available for public inspection at such offices during normal office hours. In addition, the forms shall be made available at each Council meeting or hearing and shall be posted for download from the Internet on the Council's website.

(4) Councils must retain the Financial Interest Form for a Council member for at least 5 years after the expiration of that individual's last term.

(5) The Regional Administrator must retain the Financial Interest Form for a Council member for 20 years from the date the form is signed by the Council member or in accordance with the current NOAA records schedule.

(6) An individual being considered for appointment to an SSC must file the Financial Interest Form with the Regional Administrator for the geographic area concerned within 45 days prior to appointment. A member of the SSC must file an update of his or her statement with the Regional Administrator for the geographic area concerned within 30 days of the time any such financial interest is acquired or substantially changed by the SSC member or the SSC member's spouse, minor child, partner, or any organization (other than the Council) in which that individual is serving as an officer, director, trustee, partner, or employee; and must update his or her form annually and file that update with the Regional Administrator by February 1 of each year.

(7) An individual who serves as an SSC member to more than one Council shall file Financial Interest Forms with each Regional Administrator for the geographic areas concerned.

(8) The Regional Administrator must retain the Financial Interest Forms of all SSC members for at least five years after the expiration of that individual's term on the SSC. Such forms are not subject to sections 302(j)(5)(B) and (C) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

(c) Restrictions on voting.

(1) No affected individual may vote on any Council decision that would have a significant and predictable effect on a financial interest disclosed in his/her report filed under paragraph (b) of this section.

(2) As used in this section, a Council decision will be considered to have a “significant and predictable effect on a financial interest” if there is a close causal link between the decision and an expected and substantially disproportionate benefit to the financial interest in harvesting, processing, lobbying, advocacy, or marketing of any affected individual or the affected individual's spouse, minor child, partner, or any organization (other than the Council) in which that individual is serving as an officer, director, trustee, partner, or employee, relative to the financial interests of other participants in the same gear type or sector of the fishery. The relative financial interests of the affected individual and other participants will be determined with reference to the most recent fishing year for which information is available. However, for fisheries in which IFQs are assigned, the percentage of IFQs assigned to the affected individual will be the determining factor.

(3) In making a determination under paragraph (f) of this section as to whether a Council decision will have a significant and predictable effect on an affected individual's financial interests, the designated official will:

(i) Initially determine whether the action before the Council is a Council decision, and whether the affected individual has any financial interest in the fishery or sector of the fishery affected by the action.

(ii) If the designated official determines that the action is not a Council decision or that the affected individual does not have any financial interest in the fishery or sector of the fishery affected by the action, the designated official's inquiry ends and the designated official will determine that a voting recusal is not required under 50 CFR 600.235.

(iii) However, if the designated official determines that the action is a Council decision and that the affected individual has a financial interest in the fishery or sector of the fishery affected by the Council decision, a voting recusal is required under 50 CFR 600.235 if there is:

(A) An expected and substantially disproportionate benefit to the affected individual's financial interest (see paragraph (c)(5) of this section), and

(B) A close causal link (see paragraph (c)(4) of this section) between the Council decision and the expected and substantially disproportionate benefit to the affected individual's financial interest.

(4) A close causal link for Council decisions that either require or do not require implementing regulations is determined as follows:

(i) For all Council decisions that require implementing regulations and that affect a fishery or sector of a fishery in which an affected individual has a financial interest, a close causal link exists unless:

(A) The chain of causation between the Council decision and the affected individual's financial interest is attenuated or is contingent on the occurrence of events that are speculative or that are independent of and unrelated to the Council decision; or

(B) There is no real, as opposed to speculative, possibility that the Council decision will affect the affected individual's financial interest.

(ii) For Council decisions that do not require implementing regulations, a close causal link exists if there is a real, as opposed to speculative, possibility that the Council decision will affect the affected individual's financial interest.

(5) A designated official will determine that an expected and substantially disproportionate benefit exists if an affected individual has a significant financial interest (see paragraph (c)(6) of this section) in the fishery or sector of the fishery that is likely to be positively or negatively affected by the Council decision. The magnitude of the positive or negative impact is not determinative of whether there is an expected and substantially disproportionate benefit. The determining factor is the affected individual's significant financial interest in the fishery or sector of the fishery affected by the Council decision.

(6) When calculating significant financial interest, the designated official will rely on certain information.

(i) The information to be used is as follows:

(A) The designated official will use the information included in the Financial Interest Form and any other reliable and probative information provided in writing.

(B) The designated official may contact an affected individual to better understand the reported financial interest or any information provided in writing.

(C) The designated official will presume that the information reported on the Financial Interest Form is true and correct and the designated official is not responsible for determining the veracity of the reported information when preparing a determination under paragraph (f) of this section.

(D) If an affected individual does not provide information concerning the specific percentage of ownership of a financial interest reported on his or her Financial Interest Form, the designated official will attribute all harvesting, processing, or marketing activity of, and vessels owned by, the financial interest to the affected individual.

(ii) The designated official will apply the following principles when calculating an affected individual's financial interests relative to the significant financial interest thresholds for the fishery or sector of the fishery affected by the action. For purposes of this paragraph, use of the term “company” includes any business, vessel, or other entity.

(A) For attributions concerning direct ownership (companies owned by or that employ an affected individual) the designated official will attribute to an affected individual all harvesting, processing, and marketing activity of, and all vessels owned by, a company when the affected individual owns 100 percent of that company. If an affected individual owns less than 100 percent of a company, the designated official will attribute to the affected individual the harvesting, processing, and marketing activity of, and vessels owned by, the company commensurate with the affected individual's percentage of ownership. The designated official will attribute to an affected individual all harvesting, processing, and marketing activity of, and all vessels owned by, a company that employs the affected individual.

(B) For attributions concerning indirect ownership (companies owned by an affected individual's company or employer) the designated official will attribute to the affected individual the harvesting, processing, and marketing activity of, and vessels owned by, a company that is owned by that affected individual's company or employer commensurate with the affected individual's percentage ownership in the directly owned company, and the directly owned company's ownership in the indirectly owned company.

(C) For attributions concerning parent ownership (companies that own some percentage of an affected individual's company or employer) the designated official will attribute to an affected individual all harvesting, processing, and marketing activity of, and all vessels owned by, a company that owns fifty percent or more of a company that is owned by the affected individual or that employs the affected individual. The designated official will not attribute to an affected individual the harvesting, processing, or marketing activity of, or any vessels owned by, a company that owns less than fifty percent of a company that is owned by the affected individual or that employs the affected individual.

(D) For attributions concerning employment or service with associations or organizations, an affected individual may be employed by or serve, either compensated or unpaid, as an officer, director, board member or trustee of an association or organization. The designated official will not attribute to the affected individual the vessels owned by, or the harvesting, processing, or marketing activity conducted by, the members of that association or organization if such organization or association, as an entity separate from its members, does not own any vessels and is not directly engaged in harvesting, processing or marketing. However, if such organization or association receives from NMFS an allocation of harvesting or processing privileges, owns vessels, or is directly engaged in harvesting, processing or marketing, the designated official will attribute to the affected individual the vessels owned by, and all harvesting, processing, and marketing activity of, that association or organization.

(E) For the financial interests of a spouse, partner or minor child, the designated official will consider the following factors for ownership and employment.

(1) For the financial interests of a spouse, partner or minor child related to ownership, the designated official will attribute to an affected individual all harvesting, processing, and marketing activity of, and all vessels owned by, a company when the affected individual's spouse, partner or minor child owns 100 percent of that company. If an affected individual's spouse, partner or minor child owns less than 100 percent of a company, the designated official will attribute to the affected individual the harvesting, processing, and marketing activity of, and vessels owned by, the company commensurate with the spouse's, partner's or minor child's percentage of ownership.

(2) For the financial interests of a spouse, partner or minor child related to employment, the designated official will not attribute to an affected individual the harvesting, processing, or marketing activity of, or any vessels owned by, a company that employs the affected individual's spouse, partner or minor child when the spouse's, partner's or minor child's compensation are not influenced by, or fluctuate with, the financial performance of the company. The designated official will attribute to an affected individual all harvesting, processing, and marketing activity of, and all vessels owned by, a company that employs the Council member's spouse, partner or minor child when the spouse's, partner's or minor child's compensation are influenced by, or fluctuate with, the financial performance of the company.

(7) A member of an SSC is not subject to the restrictions on voting under this section.

(d) Voluntary recusal. An affected individual who believes that a Council decision would have a significant and predictable effect on that individual's financial interest disclosed under paragraph (b) of this section may, at any time before a vote is taken, announce to the Council an intent not to vote on the decision and identify the financial interest that would be affected.

(e) Participation in deliberations. Notwithstanding paragraph (c) of this section, an affected individual who is recused from voting under this section may participate in Council and committee deliberations relating to the decision, after notifying the Council of the voting recusal and identifying the financial interest that would be affected.

(f) Process and procedure for determination.

(1) At the request of an affected individual, and as provided under paragraphs (c)(3)-(6) of this section, the designated official shall determine for the record whether a Council decision would have a significant and predictable effect on that individual's financial interest. Unless subject to confidentiality requirements, all information considered will be made part of the public record for the decision. The affected individual may request a determination by notifying the designated official -

(i) Within a reasonable time before the Council meeting at which the Council decision will be made; or

(ii) During a Council meeting before a Council vote on the decision.

(2) The designated official may initiate a determination on the basis of -

(i) His or her knowledge of the fishery and the financial interests disclosed by an affected individual; or

(ii) Written and signed information received within a reasonable time before a Council meeting or, if the issue could not have been anticipated before the meeting, during a Council meeting before a Council vote on the decision.

(3) At the beginning of each Council meeting, or during a Council meeting at any time reliable and probative information is received, the designated official shall announce the receipt of information relevant to a determination concerning recusal, the nature of that information, and the identity of the submitter of such information.

(4) If the designated official determines that the affected individual may not vote, the individual may state for the record how he or she would have voted. A Council Chair may not allow such an individual to cast a vote.

(5) A reversal of a determination under paragraph (g) of this section may not be treated as cause for invalidation or reconsideration by the Secretary of a Council's decision.

(6) Regional Recusal Determination Procedure Handbooks shall be developed for reach NMFS Region.

(i) Each NMFS Regional Office, in conjunction with NOAA Office of General Counsel, will publish and make available to the public its Regional Recusal Determination Procedure Handbook, which explains the process and procedure typically followed in preparing and issuing recusal determinations.

(ii) A Regional Recusal Determination Procedure Handbook must include:

(A) A statement that the Regional Recusal Determination Procedure Handbook is intended as guidance to describe the recusal determination process and procedure typically followed within the region.

(B) Identification of the Council(s) to which the Regional Recusal Determination Procedure Handbook applies. If the Regional Recusal Determination Procedure Handbook applies to multiple Councils, any procedure that applies to a subset of those Councils should clearly identify the Council(s) to which the procedure applies.

(C) A description of the process for identifying the fishery or sector of the fishery affected by the action before the Council.

(D) A description of the process for preparing and issuing a recusal determination relative to the timing of a Council decision.

(E) A description of the process by which the Council, Council members, and the public will be made aware of recusal determinations.

(F) A description of the process for identifying the designated official(s) who will prepare recusal determinations and attend Council meetings.

(iii) A Regional Recusal Determination Procedure Handbook may include additional material related to the region's process and procedure for recusal determinations not specifically identified in paragraph (f)(6)(ii) of this section. A Regional Recusal Determination Procedure Handbook may be revised at any time upon agreement by the NMFS Regional Office and NOAA Office of General Counsel.

(g) Review of determinations.

(1) Any Council member may file a written request to the NOAA General Counsel for review of the designated official's determination. A request for review must be received within 10 days of the determination.

(2) A Council member may request a review of any aspect of the recusal determination, including but not limited to, whether the action is a Council decision, the description of the fishery or sector of the fishery affected by the Council action, the calculation of an affected individual's financial interests or the finding of a significant financial interest, and the existence of a close causal link. A request for review must include a full statement in support of the review, including a concise statement as to why the Council member believes that the recusal determination is in error and why the designated official's determination should be reversed.

(3) If the request for review is from a Council member other than the affected individual whose vote is at issue, the requester must provide a copy of the request to the affected individual at the same time it is submitted to the NOAA General Counsel. The affected individual may submit a response to the NOAA General Counsel within 10 days from the date of his/her receipt of the request for review.

(4) The NOAA General Counsel must complete the review and issue a decision within 30 days from the date of receipt of the request for review. The NOAA General Counsel will limit the review to the record before the designated official at the time of the determination, the request, and any response.

(h) The provisions of 18 U.S.C. 208 regarding conflicts of interest do not apply to an affected individual who is a voting member of a Council appointed by the Secretary, as described under section 302(j)(1)(A)(ii) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, and who is in compliance with the requirements of this section for filing a Financial Interest Form. The provisions of 18 U.S.C. 208 do not apply to a member of an SSC, unless that individual is an officer or employee of the United States or is otherwise covered by the requirements of 18 U.S.C. 208.

(i) It is unlawful for an affected individual to knowingly and willfully fail to disclose, or to falsely disclose, any financial interest as required by this section, or to knowingly vote on a Council decision in violation of this section. In addition to the penalties applicable under § 600.735, a violation of this provision may result in removal of the affected individual from Council or SSC membership.

[63 FR 64185, Nov. 19, 1998, as amended at 75 FR 59152, Sept. 27, 2010; 85 FR 56182, Sept. 11, 2020]

§ 600.240 Security assurances.

(a) DOC Office of Security will issue security assurances to Council members following completion of favorable background investigations. A Council member's appointment is conditional until such time as the background investigation has been favorably adjudicated. The Secretary will revoke the member's appointment if that member receives an unfavorable background investigation. In instances in which Council members may need to discuss, at closed meetings, materials classified for national security purposes, the agency or individual (e.g., Department of State, U.S. Coast Guard) providing such classified information will be responsible for ensuring that Council members and other attendees have the appropriate security clearances.

(b) Each nominee to a Council is required to complete a Certification of Status form (“form”). All nominees must certify, pursuant to the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938, whether they serve as an agent of a foreign principal. Each nominee must certify, date, sign, and return the form with his or her completed nomination kit. Nominees will not be considered for appointment to a Council if they have not filed this form. Any nominee who currently is an agent of a foreign principal will not be eligible for appointment to a Council, and therefore should not be nominated by a Governor for appointment.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended 75 FR 59153, Sept. 27, 2010]

§ 600.245 Council member compensation.

(a) All voting Council members whose eligibility for compensation has been established in accordance with NOAA guidelines will be paid through the cooperative agreement as a direct line item on a contractual basis without deductions being made for Social Security or Federal and state income taxes. A report of compensation will be furnished each year by the member's Council to the proper Regional Program Officer, as required by the Internal Revenue Service. Such compensation may be paid on a full day's basis, whether in excess of 8 hours a day or less than 8 hours a day. The time is compensable where the individual member is required to expend a significant private effort that substantially disrupts the daily routine to the extent that a work day is lost to the member. “Homework” time in preparation for formal Council meetings is not compensable.

(b) Non-government Council members receive compensation for:

(1) Days spent in actual attendance at a meeting of the Council or jointly with another Council.

(2) Travel on the day preceding or following a scheduled meeting that precluded the member from conducting his normal business on the day in question.

(3) Meetings of standing committees of the Council if approved in advance by the Chair.

(4) Individual member meeting with scientific and technical advisors, when approved in advance by the Chair and a substantial portion of any day is spent at the meeting.

(5) Conducting or attending hearings, when authorized in advance by the Chair.

(6) Other meetings involving Council business when approved in advance by the Chair.

(c) The Executive Director of each Council must submit to the appropriate Regional Office annually a report, approved by the Council Chair, of Council member compensation authorized. This report shall identify, for each member, amount paid, dates, and location and purpose of meetings attended.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 66 FR 57888, Nov. 19, 2001]

§ 600.250 Council member training.

(a) The Secretary shall provide a training course covering a variety of topics relevant to matters before the Councils and shall make the training course available to all Council members and staff and staff from NMFS regional offices and science centers. To the extent resources allow, the Secretary will make the training available to Council committee and advisory panel members.

(b) Council members appointed after January 12, 2007, shall, within one year of appointment, complete the training course developed by the Secretary. Any Council member who completed such a training course within 24 months of January 12, 2007, is considered to have met the training requirement of this section.

[75 FR 59154, Sept. 27, 2010]

Subpart D - National Standards
§ 600.305 General.

(a) Purpose.

(1) This subpart establishes guidelines, based on the national standards, to assist in the development and review of FMPs, amendments, and regulations prepared by the Councils and the Secretary.

(2) In developing FMPs, the Councils have the initial authority to ascertain factual circumstances, to establish management objectives, and to propose management measures that will achieve the objectives. The Secretary will determine whether the proposed management objectives and measures are consistent with the national standards, other provisions of the Magnuson-Stevens Act (MSA), and other applicable law. The Secretary has an obligation under section 301(b) of the MSA to inform the Councils of the Secretary's interpretation of the national standards so that they will have an understanding of the basis on which FMPs will be reviewed.

(3) The national standards are statutory principles that must be followed in any FMP. The guidelines summarize Secretarial interpretations that have been, and will be, applied under these principles. The guidelines are intended as aids to decision-making; FMPs formulated according to the guidelines will have a better chance for expeditious Secretarial review, approval, and implementation. FMPs that are not formulated according to the guidelines may not be approved by the Secretary if the FMP or FMP amendment is inconsistent with the MSA or other applicable law (16 U.S.C. 1854(a)(3)).

(b) Fishery management objectives.

(1) Each FMP, whether prepared by a Council or by the Secretary, should identify what the FMP is designed to accomplish (i.e., the management objectives to be attained in regulating the fishery under consideration). In establishing objectives, Councils balance biological constraints with human needs, reconcile present and future costs and benefits, and integrate the diversity of public and private interests. If objectives are in conflict, priorities should be established among them.

(2) To reflect the changing needs of the fishery over time, Councils should reassess the FMP's management objectives on a regular basis.

(3) How objectives are defined is important to the management process. Objectives should address the problems of a particular fishery. The objectives should be clearly stated, practicably attainable, framed in terms of definable events and measurable benefits, and based upon a comprehensive rather than a fragmentary approach to the problems addressed. An FMP should make a clear distinction between objectives and the management measures chosen to achieve them. The objectives of each FMP provide the context within which the Secretary will judge the consistency of an FMP's conservation and management measures with the national standards.

(c) Stocks that require conservation and management.

(1) Magnuson-Stevens Act section 302(h)(1) requires a Council to prepare an FMP for each fishery under its authority that requires (or in other words, is in need of) conservation and management. 16 U.S.C. 1852(h)(1). Not every fishery requires Federal management. Any stocks that are predominately caught in Federal waters and are overfished or subject to overfishing, or likely to become overfished or subject to overfishing, are considered to require conservation and management. Beyond such stocks, Councils may determine that additional stocks require “conservation and management.” (See Magnuson-Stevens Act definition at 16 U.S.C. 1802(5)). Based on this definition of conservation and management, and other relevant provisions of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, a Council should consider the following non-exhaustive list of factors when deciding whether additional stocks require conservation and management:

(i) The stock is an important component of the marine environment.

(ii) The stock is caught by the fishery.

(iii) Whether an FMP can improve or maintain the condition of the stock.

(iv) The stock is a target of a fishery.

(v) The stock is important to commercial, recreational, or subsistence users.

(vi) The fishery is important to the Nation or to the regional economy.

(vii) The need to resolve competing interests and conflicts among user groups and whether an FMP can further that resolution.

(viii) The economic condition of a fishery and whether an FMP can produce more efficient utilization.

(ix) The needs of a developing fishery, and whether an FMP can foster orderly growth.

(x) The extent to which the fishery is already adequately managed by states, by state/Federal programs, or by Federal regulations pursuant to other FMPs or international commissions, or by industry self-regulation, consistent with the requirements of the Magnuson-Stevens Act and other applicable law.

(2) In evaluating factors in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) through (x) of this section, a Council should consider the specific circumstances of a fishery, based on the best scientific information available, to determine whether there are biological, economic, social and/or operational concerns that can and should be addressed by Federal management.

(3) When considering adding a stock to an FMP, no single factor is dispositive or required. One or more of the above factors, and any additional considerations that may be relevant to the particular stock, may provide the basis for determining that a stock requires conservation and management. Based on the factor in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, if the amount and/or type of catch that occurs in Federal waters is a significant contributing factor to the stock's status, such information would weigh heavily in favor of adding a stock to an FMP. However, Councils should consider the factor in paragraph (c)(1)(x) of this section before deciding to include a stock in an FMP. In many circumstances, adequate management of a fishery by states, state/Federal programs, or another Federal FMP would weigh heavily against a Federal FMP action. See, e.g., 16 U.S.C. 1851(a)(7) and 1856(a)(3).

(4) When considering removing a stock from, or continuing to include a stock in, an FMP, Councils should prepare a thorough analysis of factors in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) through (x) of this section, and any additional considerations that may be relevant to the particular stock. As mentioned in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, if the amount and/or type of catch that occurs in Federal waters is a significant contributing factor to the stock's status, such information would weigh heavily in favor of continuing to include a stock in an FMP. Councils should consider weighting the factors as follows. Factors in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section should be considered first, as they address maintaining a fishery resource and the marine environment. See 16 U.S.C. 1802(5)(A). These factors weigh in favor of continuing to include a stock in an FMP. Councils should next consider factors in paragraphs (c)(1)(iv) through (ix) of this section, which set forth key economic, social, and other reasons contained within the MSA for an FMP action. See 16 U.S.C. 1802(5)(B). Finally, a Council should consider the factor in paragraph (c)(1)(x) of this section before deciding to remove a stock from, or continue to include a stock in, an FMP. In many circumstances, adequate management of a fishery by states, state/Federal programs, or another Federal FMP would weigh in favor of removing a stock from an FMP. See e.g., 16 U.S.C. 1851(a)(7) and 1856(a)(3).

(5) Councils may choose to identify stocks within their FMPs as ecosystem component (EC) species (see § § 600.305(d)(13) and 600.310(d)(1)) if a Council determines that the stocks do not require conservation and management based on the considerations and factors in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. EC species may be identified at the species or stock level, and may be grouped into complexes. Consistent with National Standard 9, MSA section 303(b)(12), and other applicable MSA sections, management measures can be adopted in order to, for example, collect data on the EC species, minimize bycatch or bycatch mortality of EC species, protect the associated role of EC species in the ecosystem, and/or to address other ecosystem issues.

(6) A stock or stock complex may be identified in more than one FMP. In this situation, the relevant Councils should choose which FMP will be the primary FMP in which reference points for the stock or stock complex will be established. In other FMPs, the stock or stock complex may be identified as “other managed stocks” and management measures that are consistent with the objectives of the primary FMP can be established.

(7) Councils should periodically review their FMPs and the best scientific information available and determine if the stocks are appropriately identified. As appropriate, stocks should be reclassified within an FMP, added to or removed from an existing FMP, or added to a new FMP, through an FMP amendment that documents the rationale for the decision.

(d) Word usage within the National Standard Guidelines. The word usage refers to all regulations in this subpart.

(1) Must is used, instead of “shall”, to denote an obligation to act; it is used primarily when referring to requirements of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the logical extension thereof, or of other applicable law.

(2) Shall is used only when quoting statutory language directly, to avoid confusion with the future tense.

(3) Should is used to indicate that an action or consideration is strongly recommended to fulfill the Secretary's interpretation of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, and is a factor reviewers will look for in evaluating a statement of organization, practices, and procedures (SOPP) or an FMP.

(4) May is used in a permissive sense.

(5) Will is used descriptively, as distinguished from denoting an obligation to act or the future tense.

(6) Could is used when giving examples, in a hypothetical, permissive sense.

(7) Can is used to mean “is able to,” as distinguished from “may.”

(8) Examples are given by way of illustration and further explanation. They are not inclusive lists; they do not limit options.

(9) Analysis, as a paragraph heading, signals more detailed guidance as to the type of discussion and examination an FMP should contain to demonstrate compliance with the standard in question.

(10) Council includes the Secretary, as applicable, when preparing FMPs or amendments under section 304(c) and (g) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

(11) Target stocks are stocks or stock complexes that fishers seek to catch for sale or personal use, including such fish that are discarded for economic or regulatory reasons as defined under Magnuson-Stevens Act section 3(9) and 3(38).

(12) Non-target species and non-target stocks are fish caught incidentally during the pursuit of target stocks in a fishery. Non-target stocks may require conservation and management and, if so, must be included in a FMP and be identified at the stock or stock complex level. If non-target species are not in need of conservation and management, they may be identified in an FMP as ecosystem component species.

(13) Ecosystem Component Species (see §§ 600.305(c)(5) and 600.310(d)(1)) are stocks that a Council or the Secretary has determined do not require conservation and management, but desire to list in an FMP in order to achieve ecosystem management objectives.

(e) Relationship of National Standard 1 to other national standards - General. National Standard 1 addresses preventing overfishing and achieving optimum yield. See 16 U.S.C. 1851(a)(1) and 50 CFR 600.310. National Standards 2 through 10 provide further requirements for conservation and management measures in FMPs. See 16 U.S.C. 1851(a)(2) through (10) and 50 CFR 600.315 through 600.355. Below is a description of how some of the other National Standards intersect with National Standard 1.

(1) National Standard 2 (see § 600.315). Management measures and reference points to implement NS1 must be based on the best scientific information available. When data are insufficient to estimate reference points directly, Councils should develop reasonable proxies to the extent possible (also see § 600.310(e)(1)(v)(B)). In cases where scientific data are severely limited, effort should also be directed to identifying and gathering the needed data. SSCs should advise their Councils regarding the best scientific information available for fishery management decisions.

(2) National Standard 3 (see § 600.320). Reference points should generally be specified in terms of the level of stock aggregation for which the best scientific information is available (also see § 600.310(e)(1)(ii) and (iii)).

(3) National Standard 6 (see § 600.335). Councils must build into the reference points and control rules appropriate consideration of risk, taking into account uncertainties in estimating harvest, stock conditions, life history parameters, or the effects of environmental factors.

(4) National Standard 8 (see § 600.345). National Standard 8 addresses economic and social considerations and minimizing to the extent practicable adverse economic impacts on fishing communities within the context of preventing overfishing and rebuilding overfished stocks as required under National Standard 1 and other MSA provisions. Calculation of OY as reduced from maximum sustainable yield (MSY) also includes consideration of economic and social factors, but the combination of management measures chosen to achieve the OY must principally be designed to prevent overfishing and rebuild overfished stocks.

(5) National Standard 9 (see § 600.350). Evaluation of stock status with respect to reference points must take into account mortality caused by bycatch. In addition, the estimation of catch should include the mortality of fish that are discarded.

[81 FR 71893, Oct. 18, 2016]

§ 600.310 National Standard 1 - Optimum Yield.

(a) Standard 1. Conservation and management measures shall prevent overfishing while achieving, on a continuing basis, the optimum yield (OY) from each fishery for the U.S. fishing industry.

(b) General.

(1) The guidelines set forth in this section describe fishery management approaches to meet the objectives of National Standard 1 (NS1), and include guidance on:

(i) Specifying maximum sustainable yield (MSY) and OY;

(ii) Specifying status determination criteria (SDC) so that overfishing and overfished determinations can be made for stocks and stock complexes in an FMP;

(iii) Preventing overfishing and achieving OY, incorporation of scientific and management uncertainty in control rules, and adaptive management using annual catch limits (ACL) and measures to ensure accountability (i.e., accountability measures (AMs)); and

(iv) Rebuilding stocks and stock complexes.

(2) Overview of Magnuson-Stevens Act concepts and provisions related to NS1 -

(i) MSY. The Magnuson-Stevens Act establishes MSY as the basis for fishery management and requires that: The fishing mortality rate must not jeopardize the capacity of a stock or stock complex to produce MSY; the abundance of an overfished stock or stock complex must be rebuilt to a level that is capable of producing MSY; and OY must not exceed MSY.

(ii) OY. The determination of OY is a decisional mechanism for resolving the Magnuson-Stevens Act's conservation and management objectives, achieving an FMP's objectives, and balancing the various interests that comprise the greatest overall benefits to the Nation. OY is based on MSY as reduced under paragraphs (e)(3)(iii)(A) and (B) of this section. The most important limitation on the specification of OY is that the choice of OY and the conservation and management measures proposed to achieve it must prevent overfishing.

(iii) ACLs and AMs. Any FMP shall establish a mechanism for specifying ACLs in the FMP (including a multiyear plan), implementing regulations, or annual specifications, at a level such that overfishing does not occur in the fishery, including measures to ensure accountability (Magnuson-Stevens Act section 303(a)(15)).

(iv) Reference points. SDC, MSY, OY, acceptable biological catch (ABC), and ACL, which are described further in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section, are collectively referred to as “reference points.”

(v) Scientific advice. The Magnuson-Stevens Act has requirements regarding scientific and statistical committees (SSC) of the Regional Fishery Management Councils, including but not limited to, the following provisions (paragraphs (b)(2)(v)(A) through (D) of this section). See the National Standard 2 guidelines for further guidance on SSCs and the peer review process (§ 600.315).

(A) Each Regional Fishery Management Council shall establish an SSC as described in section 302(g)(1)(A) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

(B) Each SSC shall provide its Regional Fishery Management Council recommendations for ABC as well as other scientific advice, as described in Magnuson-Stevens Act section 302(g)(1)(B).

(C) The Secretary and each Regional Fishery Management Council may establish a peer review process for that Council for scientific information used to advise the Council about the conservation and management of a fishery (see Magnuson-Stevens Act section 302(g)(1)(E)). If a peer review process is established, it should investigate the technical merits of stock assessments and other scientific information to be used by the SSC or agency or international scientists, as appropriate. For Regional Fishery Management Councils, the peer review process is not a substitute for the SSC and both the SSC and peer review process should work in conjunction with each other. For the Secretary, which does not have an SSC, the peer review process should provide the scientific information necessary.

(D) Each Council shall develop ACLs for each of its managed fisheries that may not exceed the “fishing level recommendations” of its SSC or peer review process (Magnuson-Stevens Act section 302(h)(6)). The SSC recommendation that is the most relevant to ACLs is ABC, as both ACL and ABC are levels of annual catch.

(3) Approach for setting limits and accountability measures, including targets, for consistency with NS1. When specifying limits and accountability measures, Councils must take an approach that considers uncertainty in scientific information and management control of the fishery. These guidelines describe how the Councils could address uncertainty such that there is a low risk that limits are exceeded as described in paragraphs (f)(2) and (g)(4) of this section.

(4) Vulnerability. A stock's vulnerability to fishing pressure is a combination of its productivity, which depends upon its life history characteristics, and its susceptibility to the fishery. Productivity refers to the capacity of the stock to produce MSY and to recover if the population is depleted, and susceptibility is the potential for the stock to be impacted by the fishery, which includes direct captures, as well as indirect impacts of the fishery (e.g., loss of habitat quality).

(c) Summary of items to include in FMPs related to NS1. This section provides a summary of items that Councils must include in their FMPs and FMP amendments in order to address ACL, AM, and other aspects of the NS1 guidelines. Councils must describe fisheries data for the stocks and stock complexes in their FMPs, or associated public documents such as Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation (SAFE) Reports. For all stocks and stock complexes that require conservation and management (see § 600.305(c)), the Councils must evaluate and describe the following items in their FMPs and amend the FMPs, if necessary, to align their management objectives to end or prevent overfishing and to achieve OY:

(1) MSY and SDC (see paragraphs (e)(1) and (2) of this section).

(2) OY at the stock, stock complex, or fishery level and provide the OY specification analysis (see paragraph (e)(3) of this section).

(3) ABC control rule (see paragraph (f)(2) of this section).

(4) Mechanisms for specifying ACLs (see paragraph (f)(4) of this section).

(5) AMs (see paragraph (g) of this section).

(6) Stocks and stock complexes that have statutory exceptions from ACLs and AMs (see paragraph (h)(1) of this section) or which fall under limited circumstances which require different approaches to meet the Magnuson-Stevens Act requirements (see paragraph (h)(2) of this section).

(d) Stocks and stock complexes -

(1) Introduction. As described in § 600.305(c), Councils should identify in their FMPs the stocks that require conservation and management. Such stocks must have ACLs, other reference points, and accountability measures. Other stocks that are identified in an FMP (i.e., EC species or stocks that the fishery interacts with but are managed primarily under another FMP, see § 600.305(c)(5) through (6)) do not require ACLs, other reference points, or accountability measures.

(2) Stock complex. Stocks that require conservation and management can be grouped into stock complexes. A “stock complex” is a tool to manage a group of stocks within a FMP.

(i) At the time a stock complex is established, the FMP should provide, to the extent practicable, a full and explicit description of the proportional composition of each stock in the stock complex. Stocks may be grouped into complexes for various reasons, including where stocks in a multispecies fishery cannot be targeted independent of one another; where there is insufficient data to measure a stock's status relative to SDC; or when it is not feasible for fishermen to distinguish individual stocks among their catch. Where practicable, the group of stocks should have a similar geographic distribution, life history characteristics, and vulnerabilities to fishing pressure such that the impact of management actions on the stocks is similar. The vulnerability of individual stocks should be considered when determining if a particular stock complex should be established or reorganized, or if a particular stock should be included in a complex.

(ii) Indicator stocks.

(A) An indicator stock is a stock with measurable and objective SDC that can be used to help manage and evaluate more poorly known stocks that are in a stock complex.

(B) Where practicable, stock complexes should include one or more indicator stocks (each of which has SDC and ACLs). Otherwise, stock complexes may be comprised of: Several stocks without an indicator stock (with SDC and an ACL for the complex as a whole), or one or more indicator stocks (each of which has SDC and management objectives) with an ACL for the complex as a whole (this situation might be applicable to some salmon species). Councils should review the available quantitative or qualitative information (e.g., catch trends, changes in vulnerability, fish health indices, etc.) of stocks within a complex on a regular basis to determine if they are being sustainably managed.

(C) If an indicator stock is used to evaluate the status of a complex, it should be representative of the typical vulnerability of stocks within the complex. If the stocks within a stock complex have a wide range of vulnerability, they should be reorganized into different stock complexes that have similar vulnerabilities; otherwise the indicator stock should be chosen to represent the more vulnerable stocks within the complex. In instances where an indicator stock is less vulnerable than other members of the complex, management measures should be more conservative so that the more vulnerable members of the complex are not at risk from the fishery.

(D) More than one indicator stock can be selected to provide more information about the status of the complex.

(E) When indicator stocks are used, the stock complex's MSY could be listed as “unknown,” while noting that the complex is managed on the basis of one or more indicator stocks that do have known stock-specific MSYs, or suitable proxies, as described in paragraph (e)(1)(v) of this section.

(e) Features of MSY, SDC, and OY -

(1) MSY. Each FMP must include an estimate of MSY for the stocks and stock complexes that require conservation and management. MSY may also be specified for the fishery as a whole.

(i) Definitions.

(A) MSY is the largest long-term average catch or yield that can be taken from a stock or stock complex under prevailing ecological, environmental conditions and fishery technological characteristics (e.g., gear selectivity), and the distribution of catch among fleets.

(B) MSY fishing mortality rate (Fmsy) is the fishing mortality rate that, if applied over the long term, would result in MSY.

(C) MSY stock size (Bmsy) means the long-term average size of the stock or stock complex, measured in terms of spawning biomass or other appropriate measure of the stock's reproductive potential that would be achieved by fishing at Fmsy.

(ii) MSY for stocks. MSY should be estimated for each stock based on the best scientific information available (see § 600.315).

(iii) MSY for stock complexes. When stock complexes are used, MSY should be estimated for one or more indicator stocks or for the complex as a whole (see paragraph (d)(2)(ii)).

(iv) Methods of estimating MSY for an aggregate group of stocks. Estimating MSY for an aggregate group of stocks (including stock complexes and the fishery as a whole) can be done using models that account for multi-species interactions, composite properties for a group of similar species, biomass (energy) flow and production patterns, or other relevant factors (see paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C) of this section).

(v) Specifying MSY.

(A) Because MSY is a long-term average, it need not be estimated annually, but it must be based on the best scientific information available (see § 600.315), and should be re-estimated as required by changes in long-term environmental or ecological conditions, fishery technological characteristics, or new scientific information.

(B) When data are insufficient to estimate MSY directly, Councils should adopt other measures of reproductive potential that can serve as reasonable proxies for MSY, Fmsy, and Bmsy.

(C) The MSY for a stock or stock complex is influenced by its interactions with other stocks in its ecosystem and these interactions may shift as multiple stocks in an ecosystem are fished. Ecological and environmental information should be taken into account, to the extent practicable, when assessing stocks and specifying MSY. Ecological and environmental information that is not directly accounted for in the specification of MSY can be among the ecological factors considered when setting OY below MSY.

(D) As MSY values are estimates or are based on proxies, they will have some level of uncertainty associated with them. The degree of uncertainty in the estimates should be identified, when practicable, through the stock assessment process and peer review (see § 600.335), and should be taken into account when specifying the ABC Control rule (see paragraph (f)(2) of this section).

(2) Status determination criteria -

(i) Definitions.

(A) Status determination criteria (SDC) mean the measurable and objective factors, MFMT, OFL, and MSST, or their proxies, that are used to determine if overfishing has occurred, or if the stock or stock complex is overfished. Magnuson-Stevens Act (section 3(34)) defines both “overfishing” and “overfished” to mean a rate or level of fishing mortality that jeopardizes the capacity of a fishery to produce the MSY on a continuing basis. To avoid confusion, this section clarifies that “overfished” relates to biomass of a stock or stock complex, and “overfishing” pertains to a rate or level of removal of fish from a stock or stock complex.

(B) Overfishing occurs whenever a stock or stock complex is subjected to a level of fishing mortality or total catch that jeopardizes the capacity of a stock or stock complex to produce MSY on a continuing basis.

(C) Maximum fishing mortality threshold (MFMT) means the level of fishing mortality (i.e. F), on an annual basis, above which overfishing is occurring. The MFMT or reasonable proxy may be expressed either as a single number (a fishing mortality rate or F value), or as a function of spawning biomass or other measure of reproductive potential.

(D) Overfishing limit (OFL) means the annual amount of catch that corresponds to the estimate of MFMT applied to a stock or stock complex's abundance and is expressed in terms of numbers or weight of fish.

(E) Overfished. A stock or stock complex is considered “overfished” when its biomass has declined below MSST.

(F) Minimum stock size threshold (MSST) means the level of biomass below which the capacity of the stock or stock complex to produce MSY on a continuing basis has been jeopardized.

(G) Approaching an overfished condition. A stock or stock complex is approaching an overfished condition when it is projected that there is more than a 50 percent chance that the biomass of the stock or stock complex will decline below the MSST within two years.

(ii) Specification of SDC and overfishing and overfished determinations. Each FMP must describe how objective and measurable SDCs will be specified, as described in paragraphs (e)(2)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section. To be measurable and objective, SDC must be expressed in a way that enables the Council to monitor the status of each stock or stock complex in the FMP. Applying the SDC set forth in the FMP, the Secretary determines if overfishing is occurring and whether the stock or stock complex is overfished (Magnuson-Stevens Act section 304(e)). SDCs are often based on fishing rates or biomass levels associated with MSY or MSY based proxies. When data are not available to specify SDCs based on MSY or MSY proxies, alternative types of SDCs that promote sustainability of the stock or stock complex can be used. For example, SDC could be based on recent average catch, fish densities derived from visual census surveys, length/weight frequencies, or other methods. In specifying SDC, a Council must provide an analysis of how the SDC were chosen and how they relate to reproductive potential of stocks of fish within the fishery. If alternative types of SDCs are used, the Council should explain how the approach will promote sustainability of the stock or stock complex on a long term basis. A Council should consider a process that allows SDCs to be quickly updated to reflect the best scientific information available. In the case of internationally-managed stocks, the Council may decide to use the SDCs defined by the relevant international body. In this instance, the SDCs should allow the Council to monitor the status of a stock or stock complex, recognizing that the SDCs may not be defined in such a way that a Council could monitor the MFMT, OFL, or MSST as would be done with a domestically managed stock or stock complex.

(A) SDC to Determine Overfishing Status. Each FMP must specify a method used to determine the overfishing status for each stock or stock complex. For domestically-managed stocks or stock complexes, one of the following methods (described in (e)(2)(ii)(A)(1) and (2) of this section) should be specified. If the necessary data to use one of the methods described in either subparagraph (e)(2)(ii)(A)(1) or (2) is not available, a Council may use an alternate type of overfishing SDC as described in paragraph (e)(2)(ii).

(1) Fishing Mortality Rate Exceeds MFMT. Exceeding the MFMT for a period of 1 year constitutes overfishing.

(2) Catch Exceeds the OFL. Exceeding the annual OFL for 1 year constitutes overfishing.

(3) Multi-Year Approach to Determine Overfishing Status. Subparagraphs (e)(2)(ii)(A) (1) and (2) establish methods to determine overfishing status based on a period of 1 year. As stated in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A), a Council should specify, within the FMP, which of these methods will be used to determine overfishing status. However, in certain circumstances, a Council may utilize a multi-year approach to determine overfishing status based on a period of no more than 3 years. The Council should identify in its FMP or FMP amendment, circumstances when the multi-year approach is appropriate and will be used. Such circumstances may include situations where there is high uncertainty in the estimate of F in the most recent year, cases where stock abundance fluctuations are high and assessments are not timely enough to forecast such changes, or other circumstances where the most recent catch or F data does not reflect the overall status of the stock. The multi-year approach to determine overfishing status may not be used to specify future annual catch limits at levels that do not prevent overfishing.

(B) SDC to determine overfished status. The MSST or reasonable proxy must be expressed in terms of spawning biomass or other measure of reproductive potential. MSST should be between1/2 Bmsy and Bmsy, and could be informed by the life history of the stock, the natural fluctuations in biomass associated with fishing at MFMT over the long-term, the requirements of internationally-managed stocks, or other considerations.

(C) Where practicable, all sources of mortality including that resulting from bycatch, scientific research catch, and all fishing activities should be accounted for in the evaluation of stock status with respect to reference points.

(iii) Relationship of SDC to environmental and habitat change. Some short-term environmental changes can alter the size of a stock or stock complex without affecting its long-term reproductive potential. Long-term environmental changes may affect both the short-term size of the stock or stock complex and the long-term reproductive potential of the stock or stock complex.

(A) If environmental changes cause a stock or stock complex to fall below its MSST without affecting its long-term reproductive potential, fishing mortality must be constrained sufficiently to allow rebuilding within an acceptable time frame (see also paragraph (j)(3)(i) of this section). SDC should not be respecified.

(B) If environmental, ecosystem, or habitat changes affect the long-term reproductive potential of the stock or stock complex, one or more components of the SDC must be respecified. Once SDC have been respecified, fishing mortality may or may not have to be reduced, depending on the status of the stock or stock complex with respect to the new criteria.

(C) If manmade environmental changes are partially responsible for a stock or stock complex's biomass being below MSST, in addition to controlling fishing mortality, Councils should recommend restoration of habitat and other ameliorative programs, to the extent possible (see also the guidelines issued pursuant to section 305(b) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act for Council actions concerning essential fish habitat).

(iv) Secretarial approval of SDC. Secretarial approval or disapproval of proposed SDC will be based on consideration of whether the proposal:

(A) Is based on the best scientific information available;

(B) Contains the elements described in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section;

(C) Provides a basis for objective measurement of the status of the stock or stock complex against the criteria; and

(D) Is operationally feasible.

(3) Optimum yield. For stocks that require conservation and management, OY may be established at the stock, stock complex, or fishery level.

(i) Definitions -

(A) Optimum yield (OY). Magnuson-Stevens Act section (3)(33) defines “optimum,” with respect to the yield from a fishery, as the amount of fish that will provide the greatest overall benefit to the Nation, particularly with respect to food production and recreational opportunities and taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems; that is prescribed on the basis of the MSY from the fishery, as reduced by any relevant economic, social, or ecological factor; and, in the case of an overfished fishery, that provides for rebuilding to a level consistent with producing the MSY in such fishery.

(B) In NS1, use of the phrase “achieving, on a continuing basis, the OY from each fishery” means: producing, from each stock, stock complex, or fishery, an amount of catch that is, on average, equal to the Council's specified OY; prevents overfishing; maintains the long term average biomass near or above Bmsy; and rebuilds overfished stocks and stock complexes consistent with timing and other requirements of section 304(e)(4) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act and paragraph (j) of this section.

(ii) General. OY is a long-term average amount of desired yield from a stock, stock complex, or fishery. An FMP must contain conservation and management measures, including ACLs and AMs, to achieve OY on a continuing basis, and provisions for information collection that are designed to determine the degree to which OY is achieved. These measures should allow for practical and effective implementation and enforcement of the management regime. If these measures cannot meet the dual requirements of NS1 (preventing overfishing while achieving, on a continuing basis, OY), Councils should either modify the measures or reexamine their OY specifications to ensure that the dual NS1 requirements can be met.

(iii) Assessing OY. An FMP must contain an assessment and specification of OY (MSA section 303(a)(3)). The assessment should include: a summary of information utilized in making such specification; an explanation of how the OY specification will produce the greatest benefits to the nation and prevent overfishing and rebuild overfished stocks; and a consideration of the economic, social, and ecological factors relevant to the management of a particular stock, stock complex, or fishery. Consistent with Magnuson-Stevens Act section 302(h)(5), the assessment and specification of OY should be reviewed on a continuing basis, so that it is responsive to changing circumstances in the fishery.

(A) Determining the greatest benefit to the Nation. In determining the greatest benefit to the Nation, the values that should be weighed and receive serious attention when considering the economic, social, or ecological factors used in reducing MSY, or its proxy, to obtain OY are:

(1) The benefits of food production derived from providing seafood to consumers; maintaining an economically viable fishery together with its attendant contributions to the national, regional, and local economies; and utilizing the capacity of the Nation's fishery resources to meet nutritional needs.

(2) The benefits of recreational opportunities reflect the quality of both the recreational fishing experience and non-consumptive fishery uses such as ecotourism, fish watching, and recreational diving. Benefits also include the contribution of recreational fishing to the national, regional, and local economies and food supplies.

(3) The benefits of protection afforded to marine ecosystems are those resulting from maintaining viable populations (including those of unexploited species), maintaining adequate forage for all components of the ecosystem, maintaining evolutionary and ecological processes (e.g., disturbance regimes, hydrological processes, nutrient cycles), maintaining productive habitat, maintaining the evolutionary potential of species and ecosystems, and accommodating human use.

(B) Economic, Ecological, and Social Factors. Councils should consider the management objectives of their FMPs and their management framework to determine the relevant social, economic, and ecological factors used to determine OY. There will be inherent trade-offs when determining the objectives of the fishery. The following is a non-exhaustive list of potential considerations for social, economic, and ecological factors.

(1) Social factors. Examples are enjoyment gained from recreational fishing, avoidance of gear conflicts and resulting disputes, preservation of a way of life for fishermen and their families, and dependence of local communities on a fishery (e.g., involvement in fisheries and ability to adapt to change). Consideration may be given to fishery-related indicators (e.g., number of fishery permits, number of commercial fishing vessels, number of party and charter trips, landings, ex-vessel revenues etc.) and non-fishery related indicators (e.g., unemployment rates, percent of population below the poverty level, population density, etc.), and preference for a particular type of fishery (e.g., size of the fishing fleet, type of vessels in the fleet, permissible gear types). Other factors that may be considered include the effects that past harvest levels have had on fishing communities, the cultural place of subsistence fishing, obligations under tribal treaties, proportions of affected minority and low-income groups, and worldwide nutritional needs.

(2) Economic factors. Examples are prudent consideration of the risk of overharvesting when a stock's size or reproductive potential is uncertain (see § 600.335(c)(2)(i)), satisfaction of consumer and recreational needs, and encouragement of domestic and export markets for U.S. harvested fish. Other factors that may be considered include: The value of fisheries, the level of capitalization, the decrease in cost per unit of catch afforded by an increase in stock size, the attendant increase in catch per unit of effort, alternate employment opportunities, and economic contribution to fishing communities, coastal areas, affected states, and the nation.

(3) Ecological factors. Examples include impacts on EC species, forage fish stocks, other fisheries, predator-prey or competitive interactions, marine mammals, threatened or endangered species, and birds. Species interactions that have not been explicitly taken into account when calculating MSY should be considered as relevant factors for setting OY below MSY. In addition, consideration should be given to managing forage stocks for higher biomass than Bmsy to enhance and protect the marine ecosystem. Also important are ecological or environmental conditions that stress marine organisms or their habitat, such as natural and manmade changes in wetlands or nursery grounds, and effects of pollutants on habitat and stocks.

(iv) Specifying OY. If the estimates of MFMT and current biomass are known with a high level of certainty and management controls can accurately limit catch, then OY could be set very close to MSY, assuming no other reductions are necessary for social, economic, or ecological factors. To the degree that such MSY estimates and management controls are lacking or unavailable, OY should be set farther from MSY.

(A) The OY can be expressed in terms of numbers or weight of fish, and either as a single value or a range. When it is not possible to specify OY quantitatively, OY may be described qualitatively.

(B) The determination of OY is based on MSY, directly or through proxy. However, even where sufficient scientific data as to the biological characteristics of the stock do not exist, or where the period of exploitation or investigation has not been long enough for adequate understanding of stock dynamics, or where frequent large-scale fluctuations in stock size diminish the meaningfulness of the MSY concept, OY must still be established based on the best scientific information available.

(C) An OY established at a fishery level may not exceed the sum of the MSY values for each of the stocks or stocks complexes within the fishery. Aggregate level MSY estimates could be used as a basis for specifying OY for the fishery (see paragraph (e)(1)(iv) of this section). When aggregate level MSY is estimated, single stock MSY estimates can also be used to inform single stock management. For example, OY could be specified for a fishery, while other reference points are specified for individual stocks in order to prevent overfishing on each stock within the fishery.

(D) For internationally-managed stocks, fishing levels that are agreed upon by the U.S. at the international level are considered to be consistent with OY requirements under the MSA and these guidelines.

(v) OY and foreign fishing. Section 201(d) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act provides that fishing by foreign nations is limited to that portion of the OY that will not be harvested by vessels of the United States. The FMP must include an assessment to address the following, as required by section 303(a)(4) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act:

(A) The OY specification is the basis for establishing any total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

(B) Part of the OY may be held as a reserve to allow for domestic annual harvest (DAH). If an OY reserve is established, an adequate mechanism should be included in the FMP to permit timely release of the reserve to domestic or foreign fishermen, if necessary.

(C) DAH. Councils and/or the Secretary must consider the capacity of, and the extent to which, U.S. vessels will harvest the OY on an annual basis. Estimating the amount that U.S. fishing vessels will actually harvest is required to determine the surplus.

(D) Domestic annual processing (DAP). Each FMP must assess the capacity of U.S. processors. It must also assess the amount of DAP, which is the sum of two estimates: The estimated amount of U.S. harvest that domestic processors will process, which may be based on historical performance or on surveys of the expressed intention of manufacturers to process, supported by evidence of contracts, plant expansion, or other relevant information; and the estimated amount of fish that will be harvested by domestic vessels, but not processed (e.g., marketed as fresh whole fish, used for private consumption, or used for bait).

(E) Joint venture processing (JVP). When DAH exceeds DAP, the surplus is available for JVP.

(f) Acceptable biological catch and annual catch limits -

(1) Definitions. -

(i) Catch is the total quantity of fish, measured in weight or numbers of fish, taken in commercial, recreational, subsistence, tribal, and other fisheries. Catch includes fish that are retained for any purpose, as well as mortality of fish that are discarded.

(ii) Acceptable biological catch (ABC) is a level of a stock or stock complex's annual catch, which is based on an ABC control rule that accounts for the scientific uncertainty in the estimate of OFL, any other scientific uncertainty, and the Council's risk policy.

(iii) Annual catch limit (ACL) is a limit on the total annual catch of a stock or stock complex, which cannot exceed the ABC, that serves as the basis for invoking AMs. An ACL may be divided into sector-ACLs (see paragraph (f)(4) of this section).

(iv) Control rule is a policy for establishing a limit or target catch level that is based on the best scientific information available and is established by the Council in consultation with its SSC.

(v) Management uncertainty refers to uncertainty in the ability of managers to constrain catch so that the ACL is not exceeded, and the uncertainty in quantifying the true catch amounts (i.e., estimation errors). The sources of management uncertainty could include: Late catch reporting; misreporting; underreporting of catches; lack of sufficient inseason management, including inseason closure authority; or other factors.

(vi) Scientific uncertainty refers to uncertainty in the information about a stock and its reference points. Sources of scientific uncertainty could include: Uncertainty in stock assessment results; uncertainty in the estimates of MFMT, MSST, the biomass of the stock, and OFL; time lags in updating assessments; the degree of retrospective revision of assessment results; uncertainty in projections; uncertainties due to the choice of assessment model; longer-term uncertainties due to potential ecosystem and environmental effects; or other factors.

(2) ABC control rule. -

(i) For stocks and stock complexes required to have an ABC, each Council must establish an ABC control rule that accounts for scientific uncertainty in the OFL and for the Council's risk policy, and that is based on a comprehensive analysis that shows how the control rule prevents overfishing. The Council's risk policy could be based on an acceptable probability (at least 50 percent) that catch equal to the stock's ABC will not result in overfishing, but other appropriate methods can be used. When determining the risk policy, Councils could consider the economic, social, and ecological trade-offs between being more or less risk averse. The Council's choice of a risk policy cannot result in an ABC that exceeds the OFL. The process of establishing an ABC control rule may involve science advisors or the peer review process established under Magnuson-Stevens Act section 302(g)(1)(E).

(ii) The ABC control rule must articulate how ABC will be set compared to the OFL based on the scientific knowledge about the stock or stock complex and taking into account scientific uncertainty (see paragraph (f)(1)(vi) of this section). The ABC control rule should consider reducing fishing mortality as stock size declines below Bmsy and as scientific uncertainty increases, and may establish a stock abundance level below which fishing would not be allowed. When scientific uncertainty cannot be directly calculated, such as when proxies are used, then a proxy for the uncertainty should be established based on the best scientific information, including comparison to other stocks. The control rule may be used in a tiered approach to address different levels of scientific uncertainty. Councils can develop ABC control rules that allow for changes in catch limits to be phased-in over time or to account for the carry-over of some of the unused portion of the ACL from one year to the next. The Council must articulate within its FMP when the phase-in and/or carry-over provisions of the control rule can and cannot be used and how each provision prevents overfishing, based on a comprehensive analysis.

(A) Phase-in ABC control rules. Large changes in catch limits due to new scientific information about the status of the stock can have negative short-term effects on a fishing industry. To help stabilize catch levels as stock assessments are updated, a Council may choose to develop a control rule that phases in changes to ABC over a period of time, not to exceed 3 years, as long as overfishing is prevented each year (i.e., the phased-in catch level cannot exceed the OFL in any year). In addition, the Councils should evaluate the appropriateness of phase-in provisions for stocks that are overfished and/or rebuilding, as the overriding goal for such stocks is to rebuild them in as short a time as possible.

(B) Carry-over ABC control rules. An ABC control rule may include provisions for the carry-over of some of the unused portion of an ACL (i.e., an ACL underage) from one year to increase the ABC for the next year, based on the increased stock abundance resulting from the fishery harvesting less than the full ACL. The resulting ABC recommended by the SSC must prevent overfishing and must consider scientific uncertainty consistent with the Council's risk policy. Carry-over provisions could also allow an ACL to be adjusted upwards as long as the revised ACL does not exceed the specified ABC. When considering whether to use a carry-over provision, Councils should consider the likely reason for the ACL underage. ACL underages that result from management uncertainty (e.g., premature fishery closure) may be appropriate circumstances for considering a carry-over provision. ACL underages that occur as a result of poor or unknown stock status may not be appropriate to consider in a carry-over provision. In addition, the Councils should evaluate the appropriateness of carry-over provisions for stocks that are overfished and/or rebuilding, as the overriding goal for such stocks is to rebuild them in as short a time as possible.

(3) Specification of ABC. ABC may not exceed OFL (see paragraph (e)(2)(i)(D) of this section). Councils and their SSC should develop a process by which the SSC can access the best scientific information available when implementing the ABC control rule (i.e., specifying the ABC). The SSC must recommend the ABC to the Council. An SSC may recommend an ABC that differs from the result of the ABC control rule calculation, based on factors such as data uncertainty, recruitment variability, declining trends in population variables, and other factors, but must provide an explanation for the deviation. For Secretarial FMPs or amendments, agency scientists or a peer review process would provide the scientific advice to establish ABC. For internationally-assessed stocks, an ABC as defined in these guidelines is not required if stocks fall under the international exception (see paragraph (h)(1)(ii) of this section). While the ABC is allowed to equal OFL, NMFS expects that in most cases ABC will be reduced from OFL to reduce the probability that overfishing might occur.

(i) Expression of ABC. ABC should be expressed in terms of catch, but may be expressed in terms of landings as long as estimates of bycatch and any other fishing mortality not accounted for in the landings are incorporated into the determination of ABC.

(ii) ABC for overfished stocks. For overfished stocks and stock complexes, a rebuilding ABC must be set to reflect the annual catch that is consistent with the schedule of fishing mortality rates (i.e., Frebuild) in the rebuilding plan.

(4) Setting the annual catch limit -

(i) General. ACL cannot exceed the ABC and may be set annually or on a multiyear plan basis. ACLs in coordination with AMs must prevent overfishing (see MSA section 303(a)(15)). If an Annual Catch Target (ACT), or functional equivalent, is not used, management uncertainty should be accounted for in the ACL. If a Council recommends an ACL which equals ABC, and the ABC is equal to OFL, the Secretary may presume that the proposal would not prevent overfishing, in the absence of sufficient analysis and justification for the approach. A “multiyear plan” as referenced in section 303(a)(15) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act is a plan that establishes harvest specifications or harvest guidelines for each year of a time period greater than 1 year. A multiyear plan must include a mechanism for specifying ACLs for each year with appropriate AMs to prevent overfishing and maintain an appropriate rate of rebuilding if the stock or stock complex is in a rebuilding plan. A multiyear plan must provide that, if an ACL is exceeded for a year, then AMs are implemented for the next year consistent with paragraph (g)(3) of this section.

(ii) Sector-ACLs. A Council may, but is not required to, divide an ACL into sector-ACLs. If sector-ACLs are used, sector-AMs should also be specified. “Sector,” for purposes of this section, means a distinct user group to which separate management strategies and separate catch quotas apply. Examples of sectors include the commercial sector, recreational sector, or various gear groups within a fishery. If the management measures for different sectors differ in the degree of management uncertainty, then sector-ACLs may be necessary so that appropriate AMs can be developed for each sector. If a Council chooses to use sector-ACLs, the sum of sector-ACLs must not exceed the stock or stock complex level ACL. The system of ACLs and AMs designed must be effective in protecting the stock or stock complex as a whole. Even if sector-ACLs and sector-AMs are established, additional AMs at the stock or stock complex level may be necessary.

(iii) ACLs for State-Federal Fisheries. For stocks or stock complexes that have harvest in state or territorial waters, FMPs and FMP amendments should include an ACL for the overall stock that may be further divided. For example, the overall ACL could be divided into a Federal-ACL and state-ACL. However, NMFS recognizes that Federal management is limited to the portion of the fishery under Federal authority. See 16 U.S.C. 1856. When stocks are co-managed by Federal, state, tribal, and/or territorial fishery managers, the goal should be to develop collaborative conservation and management strategies, and scientific capacity to support such strategies (including AMs for state or territorial and Federal waters), to prevent overfishing of shared stocks and ensure their sustainability.

(iv) Relationship between OY and the ACL framework. The dual goals of NS1 are to prevent overfishing and achieve OY on a continuing basis. The ABC is an upper limit on catch that prevents overfishing within an established framework of risk and other considerations. As described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, ecological, economic, and social factors, as well as values associated with determining the greatest benefit to the Nation, are important considerations in specifying OY. These types of considerations can also be considered in the ACL framework. For example, an ACL (or ACT) could be set lower than the ABC to account for ecological, economic, and social factors (e.g., needs of forage fish, promoting stability, addressing market conditions, etc.). Additionally, economic, social, or ecological trade-offs could be evaluated when determining the risk policy for an ABC control rule (see paragraph (f)(2) of this section). While OY is a long-term average amount of desired yield, there is, for each year, an amount of fish that is consistent with achieving the long-term OY. A Council can choose to express OY on an annual basis, in which case the FMP or FMP amendment should indicate that the OY is an “annual OY.” An annual OY cannot exceed the ACL.

(g) Accountability measures (AMs) -

(1) Introduction. AMs are management controls to prevent ACLs, including sector-ACLs, from being exceeded, and to correct or mitigate overages of the ACL if they occur. AMs should address and minimize both the frequency and magnitude of overages and correct the problems that caused the overage in as short a time as possible. NMFS identifies two categories of AMs, inseason AMs and AMs for when the ACL is exceeded. The FMP should identify what sources of data will be used to implement AMs (e.g., inseason data, annual catch compared to the ACL, or multi-year averaging approach).

(2) Inseason AMs. Whenever possible, FMPs should include inseason monitoring and management measures to prevent catch from exceeding ACLs. Inseason AMs could include, but are not limited to: An annual catch target (see paragraph (g)(4) of this section); closure of a fishery; closure of specific areas; changes in gear; changes in trip size or bag limits; reductions in effort; or other appropriate management controls for the fishery. If final data or data components of catch are delayed, Councils should make appropriate use of preliminary data, such as landed catch, in implementing inseason AMs. FMPs should contain inseason closure authority giving NMFS the ability to close fisheries if it determines, based on data that it deems sufficiently reliable, that an ACL has been exceeded or is projected to be reached, and that closure of the fishery is necessary to prevent overfishing. For fisheries without inseason management control to prevent the ACL from being exceeded, AMs should utilize ACTs that are set below ACLs so that catches do not exceed the ACL.

(3) AMs for when the ACL is exceeded. On an annual basis, the Council must determine as soon as possible after the fishing year if an ACL was exceeded. If an ACL was exceeded, AMs must be implemented as soon as possible to correct the operational issue that caused the ACL overage, as well as any biological consequences to the stock or stock complex resulting from the overage when it is known. These AMs could include, among other things, modifications of inseason AMs, the use or modification of ACTs, or overage adjustments. The type of AM chosen by a Council will likely vary depending on the sector of the fishery, status of the stock, the degree of the overage, recruitment patterns of the stock, or other pertinent information. If an ACL is set equal to zero and the AM for the fishery is a closure that prohibits fishing for a stock, additional AMs are not required if only small amounts of catch (including bycatch) occur, and the catch is unlikely to result in overfishing. For stocks and stock complexes in rebuilding plans, the AMs should include overage adjustments that reduce the ACLs in the next fishing year by the full amount of the overage, unless the best scientific information available shows that a reduced overage adjustment, or no adjustment, is needed to mitigate the effects of the overage.

(4) Annual Catch Target (ACT) and ACT control rule. ACTs, or the functional equivalent, are recommended in the system of AMs so that ACL is not exceeded. An ACT is an amount of annual catch of a stock or stock complex that is the management target of the fishery, and accounts for management uncertainty in controlling the catch at or below the ACL. ACT control rules can be used to articulate how management uncertainty is accounted for in setting the ACT. ACT control rules can be developed by the Council, in coordination with the SSC, to help the Council account for management uncertainty.

(5) AMs based on multi-year average data. Some fisheries have highly variable annual catches and lack reliable inseason or annual data on which to base AMs. If there are insufficient data upon which to compare catch to ACL, AMs could be based on comparisons of average catch to average ACL over a three-year moving average period or, if supported by analysis, some other appropriate multi-year period. Councils should explain why basing AMs on a multi-year period is appropriate. Evaluation of the moving average catch to the average ACL must be conducted annually, and if the average catch exceeds the average ACL, appropriate AMs should be implemented consistent with paragraph (g)(3) of this section.

(6) AMs for State-Federal Fisheries. For stocks or stock complexes that have harvest in state or territorial waters, FMPs and FMP amendments must, at a minimum, have AMs for the portion of the fishery under Federal authority. Such AMs could include closing the EEZ when the Federal portion of the ACL is reached, or the overall stock's ACL is reached, or other measures.

(7) Performance Standard. If catch exceeds the ACL for a given stock or stock complex more than once in the last four years, the system of ACLs and AMs should be reevaluated, and modified if necessary, to improve its performance and effectiveness. If AMs are based on multi-year average data, the performance standard is based on a comparison of the average catch to the average ACL. A Council could choose a higher performance standard (e.g., a stock's catch should not exceed its ACL more often than once every five or six years) for a stock that is particularly vulnerable to the effects of overfishing, if the vulnerability of the stock has not already been accounted for in the ABC control rule.

(h) Establishing ACL mechanisms and AMs in FMPs. FMPs or FMP amendments must establish ACL mechanisms and AMs for all stocks and stock complexes that require conservation and management (see § 600.305(c)), unless paragraph (h)(1) of this section is applicable. These mechanisms should describe the annual or multiyear process by which ACLs, AMs, and other reference points such as OFL and ABC will be established.

(1) Exceptions from ACL and AM requirements -

(i) Life cycle. Section 303(a)(15) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act “shall not apply to a fishery for species that have a life cycle of approximately 1 year unless the Secretary has determined the fishery is subject to overfishing of that species” (Pub. L. 109-479 104(b)(2)). This exception applies to a stock for which the average age of spawners in the population is approximately 1 year or less. While exempt from the ACL and AM requirements, FMPs or FMP amendments for these stocks must have SDC, MSY, OY, ABC, and an ABC control rule.

(ii) International fishery agreements. Section 303(a)(15) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act applies “unless otherwise provided for under an international agreement in which the United States participates” (Pub. L. 109-479 104(b)(1)). This exception applies to stocks or stock complexes subject to management under an international agreement, which is defined as “any bilateral or multilateral treaty, convention, or agreement which relates to fishing and to which the United States is a party” (see Magnuson-Stevens Act section 3(24)). These stocks would still need to have SDC, MSY, and OY.

(2) Flexibility in application of NS1 guidelines. There are limited circumstances that may not fit the standard approaches to specification of reference points and management measures set forth in these guidelines. These include, among other things, conservation and management of Endangered Species Act listed species, harvests from aquaculture operations, stocks with unusual life history characteristics (e.g., Pacific salmon, where the spawning potential for a stock is spread over a multi-year period), and stocks for which data are not available either to set reference points based on MSY or MSY proxies, or to manage to reference points based on MSY or MSY proxies. In these circumstances, Councils may propose alternative approaches for satisfying requirements of the Magnuson-Stevens Act other than those set forth in these guidelines. Councils must document their rationale for any alternative approaches in an FMP or FMP amendment, which will be reviewed for consistency with the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

(i) Fisheries data. In their FMPs, or associated public documents such as SAFE reports as appropriate, Councils must describe general data collection methods, as well as any specific data collection methods used for all stocks and stock complexes in their FMPs, including:

(1) Sources of fishing mortality (both landed and discarded), including commercial and recreational catch and bycatch in other fisheries;

(2) Description of the data collection and estimation methods used to quantify total catch mortality in each fishery, including information on the management tools used (e.g., logbooks, vessel monitoring systems, observer programs, landings reports, fish tickets, processor reports, dealer reports, recreational angler surveys, or other methods); the frequency with which data are collected and updated; and the scope of sampling coverage for each fishery; and

(3) Description of the methods used to compile catch data from various catch data collection methods and how those data are used to determine the relationship between total catch at a given point in time and the ACL for stocks and stock complexes that require conservation and management.

(j) Council actions to address overfishing and rebuilding for stocks and stock complexes -

(1) Notification. The Secretary will immediately notify in writing a Regional Fishery Management Council whenever the Secretary determines that:

(i) Overfishing is occurring;

(ii) A stock or stock complex is overfished;

(iii) A stock or stock complex is approaching an overfished condition; or

(iv) Existing remedial action taken for the purpose of ending previously identified overfishing or rebuilding a previously identified overfished stock or stock complex has not resulted in adequate progress (see MSA section 304(e)).

(2) Timing of actions -

(i) If a stock or stock complex is undergoing overfishing. Upon notification that a stock or stock complex is undergoing overfishing, a Council should immediately begin working with its SSC (or agency scientists or peer review processes in the case of Secretarially-managed fisheries) to ensure that the ABC is set appropriately to end overfishing. Councils should evaluate the cause of overfishing, address the issue that caused overfishing, and reevaluate their ACLs and AMs to make sure they are adequate.

(ii) If a stock or stock complex is overfished or approaching an overfished condition. Upon notification that a stock or stock complex is overfished or approaching an overfished condition, a Council must prepare and implement an FMP, FMP amendment, or proposed regulations within two years of notification, consistent with the requirements of section 304(e)(3) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. Council actions should be submitted to NMFS within 15 months of notification to ensure sufficient time for the Secretary to implement the measures, if approved.

(3) Overfished fishery. -

(i) Where a stock or stock complex is overfished, a Council must specify a time period for rebuilding the stock or stock complex based on factors specified in Magnuson-Stevens Act section 304(e)(4). This target time for rebuilding (Ttarget) shall be as short as possible, taking into account: The status and biology of any overfished stock, the needs of fishing communities, recommendations by international organizations in which the U.S. participates, and interaction of the stock within the marine ecosystem. In addition, the time period shall not exceed 10 years, except where biology of the stock, other environmental conditions, or management measures under an international agreement to which the U.S. participates, dictate otherwise. SSCs (or agency scientists or peer review processes in the case of Secretarial actions) shall provide recommendations for achieving rebuilding targets (see Magnuson-Stevens Act section 302(g)(1)(B)). The above factors enter into the specification of Ttarget as follows:

(A) The minimum time for rebuilding a stock (Tmin). Tmin means the amount of time the stock or stock complex is expected to take to rebuild to its MSY biomass level in the absence of any fishing mortality. In this context, the term “expected” means to have at least a 50 percent probability of attaining the Bmsy, where such probabilities can be calculated. The starting year for the Tmin calculation should be the first year that the rebuilding plan is expected to be implemented.

(B) The maximum time for rebuilding a stock or stock complex to its Bmsy (Tmax ).

(1) If Tmin for the stock or stock complex is 10 years or less, then Tmax is 10 years.

(2) If Tmin for the stock or stock complex exceeds 10 years, then one of the following methods can be used to determine Tmax:

(i) Tmin plus the length of time associated with one generation time for that stock or stock complex. “Generation time” is the average length of time between when an individual is born and the birth of its offspring,

(ii) The amount of time the stock or stock complex is expected to take to rebuild to Bmsy if fished at 75 percent of MFMT, or

(iii) Tmin multiplied by two.

(3) In situations where Tmin exceeds 10 years, Tmax establishes a maximum time for rebuilding that is linked to the biology of the stock. When selecting a method for determining Tmax, a Council, in consultation with its SSC, should consider the relevant biological data and scientific uncertainty of that data, and must provide a rationale for its decision based on the best scientific information available. One of the methods listed in subparagraphs (j)(3)(i)(B)(2)(ii) and (iii) may be appropriate, for example, if given data availability and the life history characteristics of the stock, there is high uncertainty in the estimate of generation time, or if generation time does not accurately reflect the productivity of the stock.

(C) Target time to rebuilding a stock or stock complex (Ttarget ). Ttarget is the specified time period for rebuilding a stock that is considered to be as short a time as possible, taking into account the factors described in paragraph (j)(3)(i) of this section. Ttarget shall not exceed Tmax, and the fishing mortality associated with achieving Ttarget is referred to as Frebuild.

(ii) Council action addressing an overfished fishery must allocate both overfishing restrictions and recovery benefits fairly and equitably among sectors of the fishery.

(iii) For fisheries managed under an international agreement, Council action addressing an overfished fishery must reflect traditional participation in the fishery, relative to other nations, by fishermen of the United States.

(iv) Adequate Progress. The Secretary shall review rebuilding plans at routine intervals that may not exceed two years to determine whether the plans have resulted in adequate progress toward ending overfishing and rebuilding affected fish stocks (MSA section 304(e)(7)). Such reviews could include the review of recent stock assessments, comparisons of catches to the ACL, or other appropriate performance measures. The Secretary may find that adequate progress is not being made if Frebuild or the ACL associated with Frebuild is exceeded, and AMs are not correcting the operational issue that caused the overage, nor addressing any biological consequences to the stock or stock complex resulting from the overage when it is known (see paragraph (g)(3) of this section). A lack of adequate progress may also be found when the rebuilding expectations of a stock or stock complex are significantly changed due to new and unexpected information about the status of the stock. If a determination is made under this provision, the Secretary will notify the appropriate Council and recommend further conservation and management measures, and the Council must develop and implement a new or revised rebuilding plan within two years (see MSA sections 304(e)(3) and (e)(7)(B)). For Secretarially-managed fisheries, the Secretary would take immediate action necessary to achieve adequate progress toward rebuilding and ending overfishing.

(v) While a stock or stock complex is rebuilding, revising rebuilding timeframes (i.e., Ttarget and Tmax) or Frebuild is not necessary, unless the Secretary finds that adequate progress is not being made.

(vi) If a stock or stock complex has not rebuilt by Tmax, then the fishing mortality rate should be maintained at its current Frebuild or 75 percent of the MFMT, whichever is less, until the stock or stock complex is rebuilt or the fishing mortality rate is changed as a result of the Secretary finding that adequate progress is not being made.

(4) Emergency actions and interim measures. If a Council is developing a rebuilding plan or revising an existing rebuilding plan due to a lack of adequate progress (see MSA section 304(e)(7)), the Secretary may, in response to a Council request, implement interim measures that reduce, but do not necessarily end, overfishing (see MSA section 304(e)(6)) if all of the following criteria are met:

(i) The interim measures are needed to address an unanticipated and significantly changed understanding of the status of the stock or stock complex;

(ii) Ending overfishing immediately is expected to result in severe social and/or economic impacts to a fishery; and

(iii) The interim measures will ensure that the stock or stock complex will increase its current biomass through the duration of the interim measures.

(5) Discontinuing a rebuilding plan based on new scientific information. A Council may discontinue a rebuilding plan for a stock or stock complex before it reaches Bmsy if the Secretary determines that the stock was not overfished in the year that the overfished determination (see MSA section 304(e)(3)) was based on and has never been overfished in any subsequent year including the current year.

(k) International overfishing. If the Secretary determines that a fishery is overfished or approaching a condition of being overfished due to excessive international fishing pressure, and for which there are no management measures (or no effective measures) to end overfishing under an international agreement to which the United States is a party, then the Secretary and/or the appropriate Council shall take certain actions as provided under Magnuson-Stevens Act section 304(i). The Secretary, in cooperation with the Secretary of State, must immediately take appropriate action at the international level to end the overfishing. In addition, within one year after the determination, the Secretary and/or appropriate Council shall:

(1) Develop recommendations for domestic regulations to address the relative impact of the U.S. fishing vessels on the stock. Council recommendations should be submitted to the Secretary.

(2) Develop and submit recommendations to the Secretary of State, and to the Congress, for international actions that will end overfishing in the fishery and rebuild the affected stocks, taking into account the relative impact of vessels of other nations and vessels of the United States on the relevant stock. Councils should, in consultation with the Secretary, develop recommendations that take into consideration relevant provisions of the Magnuson-Stevens Act and NS1 guidelines, including section 304(e) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act and paragraph (j)(3)(iii) of this section, and other applicable laws. For highly migratory species in the Pacific, recommendations from the Western Pacific, North Pacific, or Pacific Councils must be developed and submitted consistent with Magnuson-Stevens Reauthorization Act section 503(f), as appropriate.

(3) Considerations for assessing “relative impact.” “Relative impact” under paragraphs (k)(1) and (2) of this section may include consideration of factors that include, but are not limited to: Domestic and international management measures already in place, management history of a given nation, estimates of a nation's landings or catch (including bycatch) in a given fishery, and estimates of a nation's mortality contributions in a given fishery. Information used to determine relative impact must be based upon the best available scientific information.

(l) Exceptions to requirements to prevent overfishing. Exceptions to the requirement to prevent overfishing could apply under certain limited circumstances. Harvesting one stock at its optimum level may result in overfishing of another stock when the two stocks tend to be caught together (This can occur when the two stocks are part of the same fishery or if one is bycatch in the other's fishery). Before a Council may decide to allow this type of overfishing, an analysis must be performed and the analysis must contain a justification in terms of overall benefits, including a comparison of benefits under alternative management measures, and an analysis of the risk of any stock or stock complex falling below its MSST. The Council may decide to allow this type of overfishing if the fishery is not overfished and the analysis demonstrates that all of the following conditions are satisfied:

(1) Such action will result in long-term net benefits to the Nation;

(2) Mitigating measures have been considered and it has been demonstrated that a similar level of long-term net benefits cannot be achieved by modifying fleet behavior, gear selection/configuration, or other technical characteristics in a manner such that no overfishing would occur; and

(3) The resulting rate of fishing mortality will not cause any stock or stock complex to fall below its MSST more than 50 percent of the time in the long term, although it is recognized that persistent overfishing is expected to cause the affected stock to fall below its Bmsy more than 50 percent of the time in the long term.

[81 FR 71895, Oct. 18, 2016]

§ 600.315 National Standard 2 - Scientific Information.

(a) Standard 2. Conservation and management measures shall be based upon the best scientific information available.

(1) Fishery conservation and management require high quality and timely biological, ecological, environmental, economic, and sociological scientific information to effectively conserve and manage living marine resources. Successful fishery management depends, in part, on the thorough analysis of this information, and the extent to which the information is applied for:

(i) Evaluating the potential impact that conservation and management measures will have on living marine resources, essential fish habitat (EFH), marine ecosystems, fisheries participants, fishing communities, and the nation; and

(ii) Identifying areas where additional management measures are needed.

(2) Scientific information that is used to inform decision making should include an evaluation of its uncertainty and identify gaps in the information. Management decisions should recognize the biological (e.g., overfishing), ecological, sociological, and economic (e.g., loss of fishery benefits) risks associated with the sources of uncertainty and gaps in the scientific information.

(3) Information-limited fisheries, commonly referred to as “data-poor” fisheries, may require use of simpler assessment methods and greater use of proxies for quantities that cannot be directly estimated, as compared to data-rich fisheries.

(4) Scientific information includes, but is not limited to, factual input, data, models, analyses, technical information, or scientific assessments. Scientific information includes data compiled directly from surveys or sampling programs, and models that are mathematical representations of reality constructed with primary data. The complexity of the model should not be the defining characteristic of its value; the data requirements and assumptions associated with a model should be commensurate with the resolution and accuracy of the available primary data. Scientific information includes established and emergent scientific information. Established science is scientific knowledge derived and verified through a standard scientific process that tends to be agreed upon often without controversy. Emergent science is relatively new knowledge that is still evolving and being verified, therefore, may potentially be uncertain and controversial. Emergent science should be considered more thoroughly, and scientists should be attentive to effective communication of emerging science.

(5) Science is a dynamic process, and new scientific findings constantly advance the state of knowledge. Best scientific information is, therefore, not static and ideally entails developing and following a research plan with the following elements: Clear statement of objectives; conceptual model that provides the framework for interpreting results, making predictions, or testing hypotheses; study design with an explicit and standardized method of collecting data; documentation of methods, results, and conclusions; peer review, as appropriate; and communication of findings.

(6) Criteria to consider when evaluating best scientific information are relevance, inclusiveness, objectivity, transparency and openness, timeliness, verification and validation, and peer review, as appropriate.

(i) Relevance. Scientific information should be pertinent to the current questions or issues under consideration and should be representative of the fishery being managed. In addition to the information collected directly about the fishery being managed, relevant information may be available about the same species in other areas, or about related species. For example, use of proxies may be necessary in data-poor situations. Analysis of related stocks or species may be a useful tool for inferring the likely traits of stocks for which stock-specific data are unavailable or are not sufficient to produce reliable estimates. Also, if management measures similar to those being considered have been introduced in other regions and resulted in particular behavioral responses from participants or business decisions from industry, such social and economic information may be relevant.

(ii) Inclusiveness. Three aspects of inclusiveness should be considered when developing and evaluating best scientific information:

(A) The relevant range of scientific disciplines should be consulted to encompass the scope of potential impacts of the management decision.

(B) Alternative scientific points of view should be acknowledged and addressed openly when there is a diversity of scientific thought.

(C) Relevant local and traditional knowledge (e.g., fishermen's empirical knowledge about the behavior and distribution of fish stocks) should be obtained, where appropriate, and considered when evaluating the BSIA.

(iii) Objectivity. Scientific information should be accurate, with a known degree of precision, without addressable bias, and presented in an accurate, clear, complete, and balanced manner. Scientific processes should be free of undue nonscientific influences and considerations.

(iv) Transparency and openness.

(A) The Magnuson-Stevens Act provides broad public and stakeholder access to the fishery conservation and management process, including access to the scientific information upon which the process and management measures are based. Public comment should be solicited at appropriate times during the review of scientific information. Communication with the public should be structured to foster understanding of the scientific process.

(B) Scientific information products should describe data collection methods, report sources of uncertainty or statistical error, and acknowledge other data limitations. Such products should explain any decisions to exclude data from analysis. Scientific products should identify major assumptions and uncertainties of analytical models. Finally, such products should openly acknowledge gaps in scientific information.

(v) Timeliness. Mandatory management actions should not be delayed due to limitations in the scientific information or the promise of future data collection or analysis. In some cases, due to time constraints, results of important studies or monitoring programs may be considered for use before they are fully complete. Uncertainties and risks that arise from an incomplete study should be acknowledged, but interim results may be better than no results to help inform a management decision. Sufficient time should be allotted to audit and analyze recently acquired information to ensure its reliability. Data collection methods are expected to be subjected to appropriate review before providing data used to inform management decisions.

(A) For information that needs to be updated on a regular basis, the temporal gap between information collection and management implementation should be as short as possible, subject to regulatory constraints, and such timing concerns should be explicitly considered when developing conservation and management measures. Late submission of scientific information to the Council process should be avoided if the information has circumvented the review process. Data collection is a continuous process, therefore analysis of scientific information should specify a clear time point beyond which new information would not be considered in that analysis and would be reserved for use in subsequent analytical updates.

(B) Historical information should be evaluated for its relevance to inform the current situation. For example, some species' life history characteristics might not change over time. Other historical data (e.g., abundance, environmental, catch statistics, market and trade trends) provide time-series information on changes in fish populations, fishery participation, and fishing effort that may inform current management decisions.

(vi) Verification and validation. Methods used to produce scientific information should be verified and validated to the extent possible.

(A) Verification means that the data and procedures used to produce the scientific information are documented in sufficient detail to allow reproduction of the analysis by others with an acceptable degree of precision. External reviewers of scientific information require this level of documentation to conduct a thorough review.

(B) Validation refers to the testing of analytical methods to ensure that they perform as intended. Validation should include whether the analytical method has been programmed correctly in the computer software, the accuracy and precision of the estimates is adequate, and the estimates are robust to model assumptions. Models should be tested using simulated data from a population with known properties to evaluate how well the models estimate those characteristics and to correct for known bias to achieve accuracy. The concept of validation using simulation testing should be used, to the extent possible, to evaluate how well a management strategy meets management objectives.

(vii) Peer review. Peer review is a process used to ensure that the quality and credibility of scientific information and scientific methods meet the standards of the scientific and technical community. Peer review helps ensure objectivity, reliability, and integrity of scientific information. The peer review process is an organized method that uses peer scientists with appropriate and relevant expertise to evaluate scientific information. The scientific information that supports conservation and management measures considered by the Secretary or a Council should be peer reviewed, as appropriate. Factors to consider when determining whether to conduct a peer review and if so, the appropriate level of review, include the novelty and complexity of the scientific information to be reviewed, the level of previous review and the importance of the information to be reviewed to the decision making process. Routine updates based on previously reviewed methods require less review than novel methods or data. If formal peer review is not practicable due to time or resource constraints, the development and analysis of scientific information used in or in support of fishery management actions should be as transparent as possible, in accordance with paragraph (a)(6)(iv) of this section. Other applicable guidance on peer review can be found in the Office of Management and Budget Final Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review.

(b) Peer review process. The Secretary and each Council may establish a peer review process for that Council for scientific information used to advise about the conservation and management of the fishery. 16 U.S.C. 1852(g)(1)(E). A peer review process is not a substitute for an SSC and should work in conjunction with the SSC (see § 600.310(b)(2)(v)(C)). This section provides guidance and standards that should be followed in order to establish a peer review process per Magnuson-Stevens Act section 302(g)(1)(E).

(1) The objective or scope of the peer review, the nature of the scientific information to be reviewed, and timing of the review should be considered when selecting the type of peer review to be used. The process established by the Secretary and Council should focus on providing review for information that has not yet undergone rigorous peer review, but that must be peer reviewed in order to provide reliable, high quality scientific advice for fishery conservation and management. Duplication of previously conducted peer review should be avoided.

(i) Form of process. The peer review process may include or consist of existing Council committees or panels if they meet the standards identified herein. The Secretary and Council have discretion to determine the appropriate peer review process for a specific information product. A peer review can take many forms, including individual letter or written reviews and panel reviews.

(ii) Timing. The peer review should, to the extent practicable, be conducted early in the process of producing scientific information or a work product, so peer review reports are available for the SSC to consider in its evaluation of scientific information for its Council and the Secretary. The timing will depend in part on the scope of the review. For instance, the peer review of a new or novel method or model should be conducted before there is an investment of time and resources in implementing the model and interpreting the results. The results of this type of peer review may contribute to improvements in the model or assessment.

(iii) Scope of work. The scope of work or charge (sometimes called the terms of reference) of any peer review should be determined in advance of the selection of reviewers. The scope of work contains the objectives of the peer review, evaluation of the various stages of the science, and specific recommendations for improvement of the science. The scope of work should be carefully designed, with specific technical questions to guide the peer review process; it should ask peer reviewers to ensure that scientific uncertainties are clearly identified and characterized, it should allow peer reviewers the opportunity to offer a broad evaluation of the overall scientific or technical product under review, as well as to make recommendations regarding areas of missing information, future research, data collection, and improvements in methodologies, and it must not change during the course of the peer review. The scope of work may not request reviewers to provide advice on policy or regulatory issues (e.g., amount of precaution used in decision-making) which are within the purview of the Secretary and the Councils, or to make formal fishing level recommendations which are within the purview of the SSC.

(2) Peer reviewer selection. The selection of participants in a peer review should be based on expertise, independence, and a balance of viewpoints, and be free of conflicts of interest.

(i) Expertise and balance. Peer reviewers must be selected based on scientific expertise and experience relevant to the disciplines of subject matter to be reviewed. The group of reviewers that constitute the peer review should reflect a balance in perspectives, to the extent practicable, and should have sufficiently broad and diverse expertise to represent the range of relevant scientific and technical perspectives to complete the objectives of the peer review.

(ii) Conflict of interest. Peer reviewers who are federal employees must comply with all applicable federal ethics requirements. Potential reviewers who are not federal employees must be screened for conflicts of interest in accordance with the NOAA Policy on Conflicts of Interest for Peer Review Subject to OMB's Peer Review Bulletin or other applicable rules or guidelines.

(A) Under the NOAA policy, peer reviewers must not have any conflicts of interest with the scientific information, subject matter, or work product under review, or any aspect of the statement of work for the peer review. For purposes of this section, a conflict of interest is any financial or other interest which conflicts with the service of the individual on a review panel because it: could significantly impair the reviewer's objectivity, or could create an unfair competitive advantage for a person or organization.

(B) No individual can be appointed to a review panel if that individual has a conflict of interest that is relevant to the functions to be performed. For reviews requiring highly specialized expertise, the limited availability of qualified reviewers might result in an exception when a conflict of interest is unavoidable; in this situation, the conflict must be promptly and publicly disclosed. Conflicts of interest include, but are not limited to, the personal financial interests and investments, employer affiliations, and consulting arrangements, grants, or contracts of the individual and of others with whom the individual has substantial common financial interests, if these interests are relevant to the functions to be performed.

(iii) Independence. Peer reviewers must not have contributed or participated in the development of the work product or scientific information under review. For peer review of products of higher novelty or controversy, a greater degree of independence is necessary to ensure credibility of the peer review process. Peer reviewer responsibilities should rotate across the available pool of qualified reviewers or among the members on a standing peer review panel to prevent a peer reviewer from repeatedly reviewing the same scientific information, recognizing that, in some cases, repeated service by the same reviewer may be needed because of limited availability of specialized expertise.

(3) Transparency. A transparent process is one that ensures that background documents and reports from peer review are publicly available, subject to Magnuson-Stevens Act confidentiality requirements, and allows the public full and open access to peer review panel meetings. The evaluation and review of scientific information by the Councils, SSCs or advisory panels must be conducted in accordance with meeting procedures at § 600.135. Consistent with that section, public notice of peer review panel meetings should be announced in the Federal Register with a minimum of 14 days and with an aim of 21 days before the review to allow public comments during meetings. Background documents should be available for public review in a timely manner prior to meetings. Peer review reports describing the scope and objectives of the review, findings in accordance with each objective, and conclusions should be publicly available. Names and organizational affiliations of reviewers also should be publicly available.

(4) Publication of the peer review process. The Secretary will announce the establishment of a peer review process under Magnuson-Stevens Act section 302(g)(1)(E) in the Federal Register along with a brief description of the process. In addition, detailed information on such processes will be made publicly available on the Council's Web site, and updated as necessary.

(c) SSC scientific evaluation and advice to the Council. Each scientific and statistical committee shall provide its Council ongoing scientific advice for fishery management decisions, including recommendations for acceptable biological catch, preventing overfishing, maximum sustainable yield, achieving rebuilding targets, and reports on stock status and health, bycatch, habitat status, social and economic impacts of management measures, and sustainability of fishing practices. 16 U.S.C. 1852(g)(1)(B).

(1) SSC scientific advice and recommendations to its Council are based on scientific information that the SSC determines to meet the guidelines for best scientific information available as described in paragraph (a) of this section. SSCs may conduct peer reviews or evaluate peer reviews to provide clear scientific advice to the Council. Such scientific advice should attempt to resolve conflicting scientific information, so that the Council will not need to engage in debate on technical merits. Debate and evaluation of scientific information is the role of the SSC.

(2) An SSC member may participate in a peer review when such participation is beneficial to the peer review due to the expertise and institutional memory of that member, or beneficial to the Council's advisory body by allowing that member to make a more informed evaluation of the scientific information. Participation of an SSC member in a peer review should not impair the ability of that member to fulfill his or her responsibilities to the SSC.

(3) If an SSC as a body conducts a peer review established under Magnuson-Stevens Act section 302(g)(1)(E) or individual members of an SSC participate in such a peer review, the SSC members must meet the peer reviewer selection criteria as described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. In addition, the financial disclosure requirements under § 600.235, Financial Disclosure for Councils and Council committees, apply. When the SSC as a body is conducting a peer review, it should strive for consensus and must meet the transparency guidelines under paragraphs (a)(6)(iv) and (b)(3) of this section. If consensus cannot be reached, minority viewpoints should be recorded.

(4) The SSC's evaluation of a peer review conducted by a body other than the SSC should consider the extent and quality of peer review that has already taken place. For Councils with extensive and detailed peer review processes (e.g., a process established pursuant to Magnuson-Stevens Act section 302(g)(1)(E)), the evaluation by the SSC of the peer reviewed information should not repeat the previously conducted and detailed technical peer review. However, SSCs must maintain their role as advisors to the Council about scientific information that comes from a peer review process. Therefore, the peer review of scientific information used to advise the Council, including a peer review process established by the Secretary and the Council under Magnuson-Stevens Act section 302(g)(1)(E), should be conducted early in the scientific evaluation process in order to provide the SSC with reasonable opportunity to consider the peer review report and make recommendations to the Council as required under Magnuson-Stevens Act section 302(g)(1)(B).

(5) If an SSC disagrees with the findings or conclusions of a peer review, in whole or in part, the SSC must prepare a report outlining the areas of disagreement, and the rationale and information used by the SSC for making its determination. This report must be made publicly available.

(6) Annual catch limits (ACLs) developed by a Council may not exceed its SSC's fishing level recommendations. 16 U.S.C. 1852(h)(6). Per the National Standard 1 Guidelines, the SSC fishing level recommendation that is most relevant to ACLs is acceptable biological catch (ABC), as both ACL and ABC are levels of annual catch (see § 600.310(b)(2)(v)(D)). The SSC is expected to take scientific uncertainty into account when making its ABC recommendation (§ 600.310(f)(4)). The ABC recommendation may be based upon input and recommendations from the peer review process. Any such peer review related to such recommendations should be conducted early in the process as described in paragraph (c)(4) of this section. The SSC should resolve differences between its recommendations and any relevant peer review recommendations per paragraph (c)(5) of this section.

(d) SAFE Report. The term SAFE (Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation) report, as used in this section, refers to a public document or a set of related public documents, that provides the Secretary and the Councils with a summary of scientific information concerning the most recent biological condition of stocks, stock complexes, and marine ecosystems in the fishery management unit (FMU), essential fish habitat (EFH), and the social and economic condition of the recreational and commercial fishing interests, fishing communities, and the fish processing industries. Each SAFE report must be scientifically based with appropriate citations of data sources and information. Each SAFE report summarizes, on a periodic basis, the best scientific information available concerning the past, present, and possible future condition of the stocks, EFH, marine ecosystems, and fisheries being managed under Federal regulation.

(1) The Secretary has the responsibility to ensure that SAFE reports are prepared and updated or supplemented as necessary whenever new information is available to inform management decisions such as status determination criteria (SDC), overfishing level (OFL), optimum yield, or ABC values (§ 600.310(c)). The SAFE report and any comments or reports from the SSC must be available to the Secretary and Council for making management decisions for each FMP to ensure that the best scientific information available is being used. The Secretary or Councils may utilize any combination of personnel from Council, State, Federal, university, or other sources to acquire and analyze data and produce the SAFE report.

(2) The SAFE report provides information to the Councils and the Secretary for determining annual catch limits (§ 600.310(f)(5)) for each stock in the fishery; documenting significant trends or changes in the resource, marine ecosystems, and fishery over time; implementing required EFH provisions (§ 600.815(a)(10)); and assessing the relative success of existing relevant state and Federal fishery management programs. The SAFE report should contain an explanation of information gaps and highlight needs for future scientific work. Information on bycatch and safety for each fishery should also be summarized. In addition, the SAFE report may be used to update or expand previous environmental and regulatory impact documents and ecosystem descriptions.

(3) Each SAFE report should contain the following scientific information when it exists:

(i) Information on which to base catch specifications and status determinations, including the most recent stock assessment documents and associated peer review reports, and recommendations and reports from the Council's SSC.

(A) A description of the SDC (e.g., maximum fishing mortality rate threshold and minimum stock size threshold for each stock or stock complex in the fishery) (§ 600.310(e)(2)).

(B) Information on OFL and ABC, preventing overfishing, and achieving rebuilding targets. Documentation of the data collection, estimation methods, and consideration of uncertainty in formulating catch specification recommendations should be included (§ 600.310(f)(2)). The best scientific information available to determine whether overfishing is occurring with respect to any stock or stock complex, whether any stock or stock complex is overfished, whether the rate or level of fishing mortality applied to any stock or stock complex is approaching the maximum fishing mortality threshold, and whether the size of any stock or stock complex is approaching the minimum stock size threshold; and

(C) The best scientific information available in support of management measures necessary to rebuild an overfished stock or stock complex (if any) in the fishery to a level consistent with producing the MSY in that fishery.

(ii) Information on sources of fishing mortality (both landed and discarded), including commercial and recreational catch and bycatch in other fisheries and a description of data collection and estimation methods used to quantify total catch mortality, as required by the National Standard 1 Guidelines (§ 600.310(i)).

(iii) Information on bycatch of non-target species for each fishery.

(iv) Information on EFH to be included in accordance with the EFH provisions (§ 600.815(a)(10)) .

(v) Pertinent economic, social, community, and ecological information for assessing the success and impacts of management measures or the achievement of objectives of each FMP.

(4) Transparency in the fishery management process is enhanced by complementing the SAFE report with the documentation of previous management actions taken by the Council or Secretary including a summary of the previous ACLs, ACTs, and accountability measures (AMs), and assessment of management uncertainty.

(5) To facilitate the use of the information in the SAFE report, and its availability to the Council, NMFS, and the public:

(i) The SAFE report should contain, or be supplemented by, a summary of the information and an index or table of contents to the components of the report. Sources of information in the SAFE report should be referenced, unless the information is proprietary.

(ii) The SAFE report or compilation of documents that comprise the SAFE report and index must be made available by the Council or NMFS on a readily accessible Web site.

(e) FMP development.

(1) FMPs must take into account the best scientific information available at the time of preparation. Between the initial drafting of an FMP and its submission for final review, new information often becomes available. This new information should be incorporated into the final FMP where practicable; but it is unnecessary to start the FMP process over again, unless the information indicates that drastic changes have occurred in the fishery that might require revision of the management objectives or measures.

(2) The fact that scientific information concerning a fishery is incomplete does not prevent the preparation and implementation of an FMP (see related §§ 600.320(d)(2) and 600.340(b)).

(3) An FMP must specify whatever information fishermen and processors will be required or requested to submit to the Secretary. Information about harvest within state waters, as well as in the EEZ, may be collected if it is needed for proper implementation of the FMP and cannot be obtained otherwise. Scientific information collections for stocks managed cooperatively by Federal and State governments should be coordinated with the appropriate state jurisdictions, to the extent practicable, to ensure harvest information is available for the management of stocks that utilize habitats in state and federal managed waters. The FMP should explain the practical utility of the information specified in monitoring the fishery, in facilitating inseason management decisions, and in judging the performance of the management regime; it should also consider the effort, cost, or social impact of obtaining it.

(4) An FMP should identify scientific information needed from other sources to improve understanding and management of the resource, marine ecosystem, the fishery, and fishing communities.

(5) The information submitted by various data suppliers should be comparable and compatible, to the maximum extent possible.

(6) FMPs should be amended on a timely basis, as new information indicates the necessity for change in objectives or management measures consistent with the conditions described in paragraph (d) of this section (SAFE reports). Paragraphs (e)(1) through (5) of this section apply equally to FMPs and FMP amendments.

[78 FR 43086, July 19, 2013]

§ 600.320 National Standard 3 - Management Units.

(a) Standard 3. To the extent practicable, an individual stock of fish shall be managed as a unit throughout its range, and interrelated stocks of fish shall be managed as a unit or in close coordination.

(b) General. The purpose of this standard is to induce a comprehensive approach to fishery management. The geographic scope of the fishery, for planning purposes, should cover the entire range of the stocks(s) of fish, and not be overly constrained by political boundaries.

(c) Unity of management. Cooperation and understanding among entities concerned with the fishery (e.g., Councils, states, Federal Government, international commissions, foreign nations) are vital to effective management. Where management of a fishery involves multiple jurisdictions, coordination among the several entities should be sought in the development of an FMP. Where a range overlaps Council areas, one FMP to cover the entire range is preferred.

(d) Management unit. The term “management unit” means a fishery or that portion of a fishery identified in an FMP as relevant to the FMP's management objectives.

(1) Basis. The choice of a management unit depends on the focus of the FMP's objectives, and may be organized around biological, geographic, economic, technical, social, or ecological perspectives.

(2) Conservation and management measures. FMPs should include conservation and management measures for that part of the management unit within U.S. waters, although the Secretary can ordinarily implement them only within the EEZ. The measures need not be identical for each geographic area within the management unit, if the FMP justifies the differences. A management unit may contain stocks of fish for which there is not enough information available to specify MSY and OY or their proxies.

(e) Analysis. An FMP should include discussion of the following:

(1) The range and distribution of the stocks, as well as the patterns of fishing effort and harvest.

(2) Alternative management units and reasons for selecting a particular one. A less-than-comprehensive management unit may be justified if, for example, complementary management exists or is planned for a separate geographic area or for a distinct use of the stocks, or if the unmanaged portion of the resource is immaterial to proper management.

(3) Management activities and habitat programs of adjacent states and their effects on the FMP's objectives and management measures. Where state action is necessary to implement measures within state waters to achieve FMP objectives, the FMP should identify what state action is necessary, discuss the consequences of state inaction or contrary action, and make appropriate recommendations. The FMP should also discuss the impact that Federal regulations will have on state management activities.

(4) Management activities of other countries having an impact on the fishery, and how the FMP's management measures are designed to take into account these impacts. International boundaries may be dealt with in several ways. For example:

(i) By limiting the management unit's scope to that portion of the stock found in U.S. waters;

(ii) By estimating MSY for the entire stock and then basing the determination of OY for the U.S. fishery on the portion of the stock within U.S. waters; or

(iii) By referring to treaties or cooperative agreements.

[81 FR 71903, Oct. 18, 2016]

§ 600.325 National Standard 4 - Allocations.

(a) Standard 4. Conservation and management measures shall not discriminate between residents of different states. If it becomes necessary to allocate or assign fishing privileges among various U.S. fishermen, such allocation shall be:

(1) Fair and equitable to all such fishermen.

(2) Reasonably calculated to promote conservation.

(3) Carried out in such manner that no particular individual, corporation, or other entity acquires an excessive share of such privileges.

(b) Discrimination among residents of different states. An FMP may not differentiate among U.S. citizens, nationals, resident aliens, or corporations on the basis of their state of residence. An FMP may not incorporate or rely on a state statute or regulation that discriminates against residents of another state. Conservation and management measures that have different effects on persons in various geographic locations are permissible if they satisfy the other guidelines under Standard 4. Examples of these precepts are:

(1) An FMP that restricted fishing in the EEZ to those holding a permit from state X would violate Standard 4 if state X issued permits only to its own citizens.

(2) An FMP that closed a spawning ground might disadvantage fishermen living in the state closest to it, because they would have to travel farther to an open area, but the closure could be justified under Standard 4 as a conservation measure with no discriminatory intent.

(c) Allocation of fishing privileges. An FMP may contain management measures that allocate fishing privileges if such measures are necessary or helpful in furthering legitimate objectives or in achieving the OY, and if the measures conform with paragraphs (c)(3)(i) through (c)(3)(iii) of this section.

(1) Definition. An “allocation” or “assignment” of fishing privileges is a direct and deliberate distribution of the opportunity to participate in a fishery among identifiable, discrete user groups or individuals. Any management measure (or lack of management) has incidental allocative effects, but only those measures that result in direct distributions of fishing privileges will be judged against the allocation requirements of Standard 4. Adoption of an FMP that merely perpetuates existing fishing practices may result in an allocation, if those practices directly distribute the opportunity to participate in the fishery. Allocations of fishing privileges include, for example, per-vessel catch limits, quotas by vessel class and gear type, different quotas or fishing seasons for recreational and commercial fishermen, assignment of ocean areas to different gear users, and limitation of permits to a certain number of vessels or fishermen.

(2) Analysis of allocations. Each FMP should contain a description and analysis of the allocations existing in the fishery and of those made in the FMP. The effects of eliminating an existing allocation system should be examined. Allocation schemes considered, but rejected by the Council, should be included in the discussion. The analysis should relate the recommended allocations to the FMP's objectives and OY specification, and discuss the factors listed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(3) Factors in making allocations. An allocation of fishing privileges must be fair and equitable, must be reasonably calculated to promote conservation, and must avoid excessive shares. These tests are explained in paragraphs (c)(3)(i) through (c)(3)(iii) of this section:

(i) Fairness and equity.

(A) An allocation of fishing privileges should be rationally connected to the achievement of OY or with the furtherance of a legitimate FMP objective. Inherent in an allocation is the advantaging of one group to the detriment of another. The motive for making a particular allocation should be justified in terms of the objectives of the FMP; otherwise, the disadvantaged user groups or individuals would suffer without cause. For instance, an FMP objective to preserve the economic status quo cannot be achieved by excluding a group of long-time participants in the fishery. On the other hand, there is a rational connection between an objective of harvesting shrimp at their maximum size and closing a nursery area to trawling.

(B) An allocation of fishing privileges may impose a hardship on one group if it is outweighed by the total benefits received by another group or groups. An allocation need not preserve the status quo in the fishery to qualify as “fair and equitable,” if a restructuring of fishing privileges would maximize overall benefits. The Council should make an initial estimate of the relative benefits and hardships imposed by the allocation, and compare its consequences with those of alternative allocation schemes, including the status quo. Where relevant, judicial guidance and government policy concerning the rights of treaty Indians and aboriginal Americans must be considered in determining whether an allocation is fair and equitable.

(ii) Promotion of conservation. Numerous methods of allocating fishing privileges are considered “conservation and management” measures under section 303 of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. An allocation scheme may promote conservation by encouraging a rational, more easily managed use of the resource. Or, it may promote conservation (in the sense of wise use) by optimizing the yield in terms of size, value, market mix, price, or economic or social benefit of the product. To the extent that rebuilding plans or other conservation and management measures that reduce the overall harvest in a fishery are necessary, any harvest restrictions or recovery benefits must be allocated fairly and equitably among the commercial, recreational, and charter fishing sectors of the fishery.

(iii) Avoidance of excessive shares. An allocation scheme must be designed to deter any person or other entity from acquiring an excessive share of fishing privileges, and to avoid creating conditions fostering inordinate control, by buyers or sellers, that would not otherwise exist.

(iv) Other factors. In designing an allocation scheme, a Council should consider other factors relevant to the FMP's objectives. Examples are economic and social consequences of the scheme, food production, consumer interest, dependence on the fishery by present participants and coastal communities, efficiency of various types of gear used in the fishery, transferability of effort to and impact on other fisheries, opportunity for new participants to enter the fishery, and enhancement of opportunities for recreational fishing.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 24234, May 1, 1998]

§ 600.330 National Standard 5 - Efficiency.

(a) Standard 5. Conservation and management measures shall, where practicable, consider efficiency in the utilization of fishery resources; except that no such measure shall have economic allocation as its sole purpose.

(b) Efficiency in the utilization of resources -

(1) General. The term “utilization” encompasses harvesting, processing, marketing, and non-consumptive uses of the resource, since management decisions affect all sectors of the industry. In considering efficient utilization of fishery resources, this standard highlights one way that a fishery can contribute to the Nation's benefit with the least cost to society: Given a set of objectives for the fishery, an FMP should contain management measures that result in as efficient a fishery as is practicable or desirable.

(2) Efficiency. In theory, an efficient fishery would harvest the OY with the minimum use of economic inputs such as labor, capital, interest, and fuel. Efficiency in terms of aggregate costs then becomes a conservation objective, where “conservation” constitutes wise use of all resources involved in the fishery, not just fish stocks.

(i) In an FMP, management measures may be proposed that allocate fish among different groups of individuals or establish a system of property rights. Alternative measures examined in searching for an efficient outcome will result in different distributions of gains and burdens among identifiable user groups. An FMP should demonstrate that management measures aimed at efficiency do not simply redistribute gains and burdens without an increase in efficiency.

(ii) Management regimes that allow a fishery to operate at the lowest possible cost (e.g., fishing effort, administration, and enforcement) for a particular level of catch and initial stock size are considered efficient. Restrictive measures that unnecessarily raise any of those costs move the regime toward inefficiency. Unless the use of inefficient techniques or the creation of redundant fishing capacity contributes to the attainment of other social or biological objectives, an FMP may not contain management measures that impede the use of cost-effective techniques of harvesting, processing, or marketing, and should avoid creating strong incentives for excessive investment in private sector fishing capital and labor.

(c) Limited access. A “system for limiting access,” which is an optional measure under section 303(b) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, is a type of allocation of fishing privileges that may be considered to contribute to economic efficiency or conservation. For example, limited access may be used to combat overfishing, overcrowding, or overcapitalization in a fishery to achieve OY. In an unutilized or underutilized fishery, it may be used to reduce the chance that these conditions will adversely affect the fishery in the future, or to provide adequate economic return to pioneers in a new fishery. In some cases, limited entry is a useful ingredient of a conservation scheme, because it facilitates application and enforcement of other management measures.

(1) Definition. Limited access (or limited entry) is a management technique that attempts to limit units of effort in a fishery, usually for the purpose of reducing economic waste, improving net economic return to the fishermen, or capturing economic rent for the benefit of the taxpayer or the consumer. Common forms of limited access are licensing of vessels, gear, or fishermen to reduce the number of units of effort, and dividing the total allowable catch into fishermen's quotas (a stock-certificate system). Two forms (i.e., Federal fees for licenses or permits in excess of administrative costs, and taxation) are not permitted under the Magnuson-Stevens Act, except for fees allowed under section 304(d)(2).

(2) Factors to consider. The Magnuson-Stevens Act ties the use of limited access to the achievement of OY. An FMP that proposes a limited access system must consider the factors listed in section 303(b)(6) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act and in § 600.325(c)(3). In addition, it should consider the criteria for qualifying for a permit, the nature of the interest created, whether to make the permit transferable, and the Magnuson-Stevens Act's limitations on returning economic rent to the public under section 304(d). The FMP should also discuss the costs of achieving an appropriate distribution of fishing privileges.

(d) Analysis. An FMP should discuss the extent to which overcapitalization, congestion, economic waste, and inefficient techniques in the fishery reduce the net benefits derived from the management unit and prevent the attainment and appropriate allocation of OY. It should also explain, in terms of the FMP's objectives, any restriction placed on the use of efficient techniques of harvesting, processing, or marketing. If, during FMP development, the Council considered imposing a limited-entry system, the FMP should analyze the Council's decision to recommend or reject limited access as a technique to achieve efficient utilization of the resources of the fishing industry.

(e) Economic allocation. This standard prohibits only those measures that distribute fishery resources among fishermen on the basis of economic factors alone, and that have economic allocation as their only purpose. Where conservation and management measures are recommended that would change the economic structure of the industry or the economic conditions under which the industry operates, the need for such measures must be justified in light of the biological, ecological, and social objectives of the FMP, as well as the economic objectives.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 63 FR 24234, May 1, 1998]

§ 600.335 National Standard 6 - Variations and Contingencies.

(a) Standard 6. Conservation and management measures shall take into account and allow for variations among, and contingencies in, fisheries, fishery resources, and catches.

(b) Conservation and management. Each fishery exhibits unique uncertainties. The phrase “conservation and management” implies the wise use of fishery resources through a management regime that includes some protection against these uncertainties. The particular regime chosen must be flexible enough to allow timely response to resource, industry, and other national and regional needs. Continual data acquisition and analysis will help the development of management measures to compensate for variations and to reduce the need for substantial buffers. Flexibility in the management regime and the regulatory process will aid in responding to contingencies.

(c) Variations.

(1) In fishery management terms, variations arise from biological, social, and economic occurrences, as well as from fishing practices. Biological uncertainties and lack of knowledge can hamper attempts to estimate stock size and strength, stock location in time and space, environmental/habitat changes, and ecological interactions. Economic uncertainty may involve changes in foreign or domestic market conditions, changes in operating costs, drifts toward overcapitalization, and economic perturbations caused by changed fishing patterns. Changes in fishing practices, such as the introduction of new gear, rapid increases or decreases in harvest effort, new fishing strategies, and the effects of new management techniques, may also create uncertainties. Social changes could involve increases or decreases in recreational fishing, or the movement of people into or out of fishing activities due to such factors as age or educational opportunities.

(2) Every effort should be made to develop FMPs that discuss and take into account these vicissitudes. To the extent practicable, FMPs should provide a suitable buffer in favor of conservation. Allowances for uncertainties should be factored into the various elements of an FMP. Examples are:

(i) Reduce OY. Lack of scientific knowledge about the condition of a stock(s) could be reason to reduce OY.

(ii) Establish a reserve. Creation of a reserve may compensate for uncertainties in estimating domestic harvest, stock conditions, or environmental factors.

(iii) Adjust management techniques. In the absence of adequate data to predict the effect of a new regime, and to avoid creating unwanted variations, a Council could guard against producing drastic changes in fishing patterns, allocations, or practices.

(iv) Highlight habitat conditions. FMPs may address the impact of pollution and the effects of wetland and estuarine degradation on the stocks of fish; identify causes of pollution and habitat degradation and the authorities having jurisdiction to regulate or influence such activities; propose recommendations that the Secretary will convey to those authorities to alleviate such problems; and state the views of the Council on unresolved or anticipated issues.

(d) Contingencies. Unpredictable events - such as unexpected resource surges or failures, fishing effort greater than anticipated, disruptive gear conflicts, climatic conditions, or environmental catastrophes - are best handled by establishing a flexible management regime that contains a range of management options through which it is possible to act quickly without amending the FMP or even its regulations.

(1) The FMP should describe the management options and their consequences in the necessary detail to guide the Secretary in responding to changed circumstances, so that the Council preserves its role as policy-setter for the fishery. The description should enable the public to understand what may happen under the flexible regime, and to comment on the options.

(2) FMPs should include criteria for the selection of management measures, directions for their application, and mechanisms for timely adjustment of management measures comprising the regime. For example, an FMP could include criteria that allow the Secretary to open and close seasons, close fishing grounds, or make other adjustments in management measures.

(3) Amendment of a flexible FMP would be necessary when circumstances in the fishery change substantially, or when a Council adopts a different management philosophy and objectives.

§ 600.340 National Standard 7 - Costs and Benefits.

(a) Standard 7. Conservation and management measures shall, where practicable, minimize costs and avoid unnecessary duplication.

(b) Alternative management measures. Management measures should not impose unnecessary burdens on the economy, on individuals, on private or public organizations, or on Federal, state, or local governments. Factors such as fuel costs, enforcement costs, or the burdens of collecting data may well suggest a preferred alternative.

(c) Analysis. The supporting analyses for FMPs should demonstrate that the benefits of fishery regulation are real and substantial relative to the added research, administrative, and enforcement costs, as well as costs to the industry of compliance. In determining the benefits and costs of management measures, each management strategy considered and its impacts on different user groups in the fishery should be evaluated. This requirement need not produce an elaborate, formalistic cost/benefit analysis. Rather, an evaluation of effects and costs, especially of differences among workable alternatives, including the status quo, is adequate. If quantitative estimates are not possible, qualitative estimates will suffice.

(1) Burdens. Management measures should be designed to give fishermen the greatest possible freedom of action in conducting business and pursuing recreational opportunities that are consistent with ensuring wise use of the resources and reducing conflict in the fishery. The type and level of burden placed on user groups by the regulations need to be identified. Such an examination should include, for example: Capital outlays; operating and maintenance costs; reporting costs; administrative, enforcement, and information costs; and prices to consumers. Management measures may shift costs from one level of government to another, from one part of the private sector to another, or from the government to the private sector. Redistribution of costs through regulations is likely to generate controversy. A discussion of these and any other burdens placed on the public through FMP regulations should be a part of the FMP's supporting analyses.

(2) Gains. The relative distribution of gains may change as a result of instituting different sets of alternatives, as may the specific type of gain. The analysis of benefits should focus on the specific gains produced by each alternative set of management measures, including the status quo. The benefits to society that result from the alternative management measures should be identified, and the level of gain assessed.

[81 FR 71904, Oct. 18, 2016]

§ 600.345 National Standard 8 - Communities.

(a) Standard 8. Conservation and management measures shall, consistent with the conservation requirements of the Magnuson-Stevens Act (including the prevention of overfishing and rebuilding of overfished stocks), take into account the importance of fishery resources to fishing communities by utilizing economic and social data that are based upon the best scientific information available in order to:

(1) Provide for the sustained participation of such communities; and

(2) To the extent practicable, minimize adverse economic impacts on such communities.

(b) General.

(1) This standard requires that an FMP take into account the importance of fishery resources to fishing communities. This consideration, however, is within the context of the conservation requirements of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. Deliberations regarding the importance of fishery resources to affected fishing communities, therefore, must not compromise the achievement of conservation requirements and goals of the FMP. Where the preferred alternative negatively affects the sustained participation of fishing communities, the FMP should discuss the rationale for selecting this alternative over another with a lesser impact on fishing communities. All other things being equal, where two alternatives achieve similar conservation goals, the alternative that provides the greater potential for sustained participation of such communities and minimizes the adverse economic impacts on such communities would be the preferred alternative.

(2) This standard does not constitute a basis for allocating resources to a specific fishing community nor for providing preferential treatment based on residence in a fishing community.

(3) The term “fishing community” means a community that is substantially dependent on or substantially engaged in the harvest or processing of fishery resources to meet social and economic needs, and includes fishing vessel owners, operators, and crew, and fish processors that are based in such communities. A fishing community is a social or economic group whose members reside in a specific location and share a common dependency on commercial, recreational, or subsistence fishing or on directly related fisheries-dependent services and industries (for example, boatyards, ice suppliers, tackle shops).

(4) The term “sustained participation” means continued access to the fishery within the constraints of the condition of the resource.

(c) Analysis.

(1) FMPs must examine the social and economic importance of fisheries to communities potentially affected by management measures. For example, severe reductions of harvests for conservation purposes may decrease employment opportunities for fishermen and processing plant workers, thereby adversely affecting their families and communities. Similarly, a management measure that results in the allocation of fishery resources among competing sectors of a fishery may benefit some communities at the expense of others.

(2) An appropriate vehicle for the analyses under this standard is the fishery impact statement required by section 303(a)(9) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. Qualitative and quantitative data may be used, including information provided by fishermen, dealers, processors, and fisheries organizations and associations. In cases where data are severely limited, effort should be directed to identifying and gathering needed data.

(3) To address the sustained participation of fishing communities that will be affected by management measures, the analysis should first identify affected fishing communities and then assess their differing levels of dependence on and engagement in the fishery being regulated. The analysis should also specify how that assessment was made. The best available data on the history, extent, and type of participation of these fishing communities in the fishery should be incorporated into the social and economic information presented in the FMP. The analysis does not have to contain an exhaustive listing of all communities that might fit the definition; a judgment can be made as to which are primarily affected. The analysis should discuss each alternative's likely effect on the sustained participation of these fishing communities in the fishery.

(4) The analysis should assess the likely positive and negative social and economic impacts of the alternative management measures, over both the short and the long term, on fishing communities. Any particular management measure may economically benefit some communities while adversely affecting others. Economic impacts should be considered both for individual communities and for the group of all affected communities identified in the FMP. Impacts of both consumptive and non-consumptive uses of fishery resources should be considered.

(5) A discussion of social and economic impacts should identify those alternatives that would minimize adverse impacts on these fishing communities within the constraints of conservation and management goals of the FMP, other national standards, and other applicable law.

[63 FR 24234, May 1, 1998, as amended at 73 FR 67810, Nov. 17, 2008]

§ 600.350 National Standard 9 - Bycatch.

(a) Standard 9. Conservation and management measures shall, to the extent practicable:

(1) Minimize bycatch; and

(2) To the extent bycatch cannot be avoided, minimize the mortality of such bycatch.

(b) General. This national standard requires Councils to consider the bycatch effects of existing and planned conservation and management measures. Bycatch can, in two ways, impede efforts to protect marine ecosystems and achieve sustainable fisheries and the full benefits they can provide to the Nation. First, bycatch can increase substantially the uncertainty concerning total fishing-related mortality, which makes it more difficult to assess the status of stocks, to set the appropriate OY and define overfishing levels, and to ensure that OYs are attained and overfishing levels are not exceeded. Second, bycatch may also preclude other more productive uses of fishery resources.

(c) Definition - Bycatch. The term “bycatch” means fish that are harvested in a fishery, but that are not sold or kept for personal use.

(1) Inclusions. Bycatch includes the discard of whole fish at sea or elsewhere, including economic discards and regulatory discards, and fishing mortality due to an encounter with fishing gear that does not result in capture of fish (i.e., unobserved fishing mortality).

(2) Exclusions. Bycatch excludes the following:

(i) Fish that legally are retained in a fishery and kept for personal, tribal, or cultural use, or that enter commerce through sale, barter, or trade.

(ii) Fish released alive under a recreational catch-and-release fishery management program. A catch-and-release fishery management program is one in which the retention of a particular species is prohibited. In such a program, those fish released alive would not be considered bycatch.

(iii) Fish harvested in a commercial fishery managed by the Secretary under Magnuson-Stevens Act sec. 304(g) or the Atlantic Tunas Convention Act of 1975 (16 U.S.C. 971d) or highly migratory species harvested in a commercial fishery managed by a Council under the Magnuson-Stevens Act or the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Convention Implementation Act, that are not regulatory discards and that are tagged and released alive under a scientific tagging and release program established by the Secretary.

(d) Minimizing bycatch and bycatch mortality. The priority under this standard is first to avoid catching bycatch species where practicable. Fish that are bycatch and cannot be avoided must, to the extent practicable, be returned to the sea alive. Any proposed conservation and management measure that does not give priority to avoiding the capture of bycatch species must be supported by appropriate analyses. In their evaluation, the Councils must consider the net benefits to the Nation, which include, but are not limited to: Negative impacts on affected stocks; incomes accruing to participants in directed fisheries in both the short and long term; incomes accruing to participants in fisheries that target the bycatch species; environmental consequences; non-market values of bycatch species, which include non-consumptive uses of bycatch species and existence values, as well as recreational values; and impacts on other marine organisms. To evaluate conservation and management measures relative to this and other national standards, as well as to evaluate total fishing mortality, Councils must -

(1) Promote development of a database on bycatch and bycatch mortality in the fishery to the extent practicable. A review and, where necessary, improvement of data collection methods, data sources, and applications of data must be initiated for each fishery to determine the amount, type, disposition, and other characteristics of bycatch and bycatch mortality in each fishery for purposes of this standard and of section 303(a)(11) and (12) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. Bycatch should be categorized to focus on management responses necessary to minimize bycatch and bycatch mortality to the extent practicable. When appropriate, management measures, such as at-sea monitoring programs, should be developed to meet these information needs.

(2) For each management measure, assess the effects on the amount and type of bycatch and bycatch mortality in the fishery. Most conservation and management measures can affect the amounts of bycatch or bycatch mortality in a fishery, as well as the extent to which further reductions in bycatch are practicable. In analyzing measures, including the status quo, Councils should assess the impacts of minimizing bycatch and bycatch mortality, as well as consistency of the selected measure with other national standards and applicable laws. The benefits of minimizing bycatch to the extent practicable should be identified and an assessment of the impact of the selected measure on bycatch and bycatch mortality provided. Due to limitations on the information available, fishery managers may not be able to generate precise estimates of bycatch and bycatch mortality or other effects for each alternative. In the absence of quantitative estimates of the impacts of each alternative, Councils may use qualitative measures. Information on the amount and type of bycatch should be summarized in the SAFE reports.

(3) Select measures that, to the extent practicable, will minimize bycatch and bycatch mortality.

(i) A determination of whether a conservation and management measure minimizes bycatch or bycatch mortality to the extent practicable, consistent with other national standards and maximization of net benefits to the Nation, should consider the following factors:

(A) Population effects for the bycatch species.

(B) Ecological effects due to changes in the bycatch of that species (effects on other species in the ecosystem).

(C) Changes in the bycatch of- other species of fish and the resulting population and ecosystem effects.

(D) Effects on marine mammals and birds.

(E) Changes in fishing, processing, disposal, and marketing costs.

(F) Changes in fishing practices and behavior of fishermen.

(G) Changes in research, administration, and enforcement costs and management effectiveness.

(H) Changes in the economic, social, or cultural value of fishing activities and nonconsumptive uses of fishery resources.

(I) Changes in the distribution of benefits and costs.

(J) Social effects.

(ii) The Councils should adhere to the precautionary approach found in the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (Article 6.5), which is available from the Director, Publications Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy, when faced with uncertainty concerning any of the factors listed in this paragraph (d)(3).

(4) Monitor selected management measures. Effects of implemented measures should be evaluated routinely. Monitoring systems should be established prior to fishing under the selected management measures. Where applicable, plans should be developed and coordinated with industry and other concerned organizations to identify opportunities for cooperative data collection, coordination of data management for cost efficiency, and avoidance of duplicative effort.

(e) Other considerations. Other applicable laws, such as the MMPA, the ESA, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, require that Councils consider the impact of conservation and management measures on living marine resources other than fish; i.e., marine mammals and birds.

[63 FR 24235, May 1, 1998, as amended at 73 FR 67811, Nov. 17, 2008]

§ 600.355 National Standard 10 - Safety of Life at Sea.

(a) Standard 10. Conservation and management measures shall, to the extent practicable, promote the safety of human life at sea.

(b) General.

(1) Fishing is an inherently dangerous occupation where not all hazardous situations can be foreseen or avoided. The standard directs Councils to reduce that risk in crafting their management measures, so long as they can meet the other national standards and the legal and practical requirements of conservation and management. This standard is not meant to give preference to one method of managing a fishery over another.

(2) The qualifying phrase “to the extent practicable” recognizes that regulation necessarily puts constraints on fishing that would not otherwise exist. These constraints may create pressures on fishermen to fish under conditions that they would otherwise avoid. This standard instructs the Councils to identify and avoid those situations, if they can do so consistent with the legal and practical requirements of conservation and management of the resource.

(3) For the purposes of this national standard, the safety of the fishing vessel and the protection from injury of persons aboard the vessel are considered the same as “safety of human life at sea. The safety of a vessel and the people aboard is ultimately the responsibility of the master of that vessel. Each master makes many decisions about vessel maintenance and loading and about the capabilities of the vessel and crew to operate safely in a variety of weather and sea conditions. This national standard does not replace the judgment or relieve the responsibility of the vessel master related to vessel safety. The Councils, the USCG, and NMFS, through the consultation process of paragraph (d) of this section, will review all FMPs, amendments, and regulations during their development to ensure they recognize any impact on the safety of human life at sea and minimize or mitigate that impact where practicable.

(c) Safety considerations. The following is a non-inclusive list of safety considerations that should be considered in evaluating management measures under national standard 10.

(1) Operating environment. Where and when a fishing vessel operates is partly a function of the general climate and weather patterns of an area. Typically, larger vessels can fish farther offshore and in more adverse weather conditions than smaller vessels. An FMP should try to avoid creating situations that result in vessels going out farther, fishing longer, or fishing in weather worse than they generally would have in the absence of management measures. Where these conditions are unavoidable, management measures should mitigate these effects, consistent with the overall management goals of the fishery.

(2) Gear and vessel loading requirements. A fishing vessel operates in a very dynamic environment that can be an extremely dangerous place to work. Moving heavy gear in a seaway creates a dangerous situation on a vessel. Carrying extra gear can also significantly reduce the stability of a fishing vessel, making it prone to capsizing. An FMP should consider the safety and stability of fishing vessels when requiring specific gear or requiring the removal of gear from the water. Management measures should reflect a sensitivity to these issues and provide methods of mitigation of these situations wherever possible.

(3) Limited season and area fisheries. Fisheries where time constraints for harvesting are a significant factor and with no flexibility for weather, often called “derby” fisheries, can create serious safety problems. To participate fully in such a fishery, fishermen may fish in bad weather and overload their vessel with catch and/or gear. Where these conditions exist, FMPs should attempt to mitigate these effects and avoid them in new management regimes, as discussed in paragraph (e) of this section.

(d) Consultation. During preparation of any FMP, FMP amendment, or regulation that might affect safety of human life at sea, the Council should consult with the USCG and the fishing industry as to the nature and extent of any adverse impacts. This consultation may be done through a Council advisory panel, committee, or other review of the FMP, FMP amendment, or regulations. Mitigation, to the extent practicable, and other safety considerations identified in paragraph (c) of this section should be included in the FMP.

(e) Mitigation measures. There are many ways in which an FMP may avoid or provide alternative measures to reduce potential impacts on safety of human life at sea. The following is a list of some factors that could be considered when management measures are developed:

(1) Setting seasons to avoid hazardous weather.

(2) Providing for seasonal or trip flexibility to account for bad weather (weather days).

(3) Allowing for pre- and post-season “soak time” to deploy and pick up fixed gear, so as to avoid overloading vessels with fixed gear.

(4) Tailoring gear requirements to provide for smaller or lighter gear for smaller vessels.

(5) Avoiding management measures that require hazardous at-sea inspections or enforcement if other comparable enforcement could be accomplished as effectively.

(6) Limiting the number of participants in the fishery.

(7) Spreading effort over time and area to avoid potential gear and/or vessel conflicts.

(8) Implementing management measures that reduce the race for fish and the resulting incentives for fishermen to take additional risks with respect to vessel safety.

[63 FR 24236, May 1, 1998]

Subpart E - Confidentiality of Statistics
§ 600.405 Types of statistics covered.

NOAA is authorized under the Magnuson-Stevens Act and other statutes to collect proprietary or confidential commercial or financial information. This part applies to all pertinent data required to be submitted to the Secretary with respect to any FMP including, but not limited to, information regarding the type and quantity of fishing gear used, catch by species in numbers of fish or weight thereof, areas in which fishing occurred, time of fishing, number of hauls, and the estimated processing capacity of, and the actual processing capacity utilized by, U.S. fish processors.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998]

§ 600.410 Collection and maintenance of statistics.

(a) General.

(1) All statistics required to be submitted to the Secretary are provided to the Assistant Administrator.

(2) After receipt, the Assistant Administrator will remove all identifying particulars from the statistics if doing so is consistent with the needs of NMFS and good scientific practice.

(3) Appropriate safeguards as specified by NOAA Directives, or other NOAA or NMFS internal procedures, apply to the collection and maintenance of all statistics, whether separated from identifying particulars or not, so as to ensure their confidentiality.

(b) Collection agreements with states.

(1) The Assistant Administrator may enter into an agreement with a state authorizing the state to collect statistics on behalf of the Secretary.

(2) NMFS will not enter into a cooperative collection agreement with a state unless the state has authority to protect the statistics from disclosure in a manner at least as protective as these regulations.

§ 600.415 Access to statistics.

(a) General. In determining whether to grant a request for access to confidential data, the following information will be taken into consideration (also see § 600.130):

(1) The specific types of data required.

(2) The relevance of the data to conservation and management issues.

(3) The duration of time access will be required: continuous, infrequent, or one-time.

(4) An explanation of why the availability of aggregate or non-confidential summaries of data from other sources would not satisfy the requested needs.

(b) Federal employees. Statistics submitted as a requirement of an FMP and that reveal the identity of the submitter will only be accessible to the following:

(1) Personnel within NMFS responsible for the collection, processing, and storage of the statistics.

(2) Federal employees who are responsible for FMP development, monitoring, and enforcement.

(3) Personnel within NMFS performing research that requires confidential statistics.

(4) Other NOAA personnel on a demonstrable need-to-know basis.

(5) NOAA/NMFS contractors or grantees who require access to confidential statistics to perform functions authorized by a Federal contract or grant.

(c) State personnel. Upon written request, confidential statistics will only be accessible if:

(1) State employees demonstrate a need for confidential statistics for use in fishery conservation and management.

(2) The state has entered into a written agreement between the Assistant Administrator and the head of the state's agency that manages marine and/or anadromous fisheries. The agreement shall contain a finding by the Assistant Administrator that the state has confidentiality protection authority comparable to the Magnuson-Stevens Act and that the state will exercise this authority to limit subsequent access and use of the data to fishery management and monitoring purposes.

(d) Councils. Upon written request by the Council Executive Director, access to confidential data will be granted to:

(1) Council employees who are responsible for FMP development and monitoring.

(2) A Council for use by the Council for conservation and management purposes, with the approval of the Assistant Administrator. In addition to the information described in paragraph (a) of this section, the Assistant Administrator will consider the following in deciding whether to grant access:

(i) The possibility that Council members might gain personal or competitive advantage from access to the data.

(ii) The possibility that the suppliers of the data would be placed at a competitive disadvantage by public disclosure of the data at Council meetings or hearings.

(3) A contractor of the Council for use in such analysis or studies necessary for conservation and management purposes, with approval of the Assistant Administrator and execution of an agreement with NMFS as described by NOAA Administrative Order (NAO) 216-100.

(e) Prohibitions. Persons having access to these data are prohibited from unauthorized use or disclosure and are subject to the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 1905, 16 U.S.C. 1857, and NOAA/NMFS internal procedures, including NAO 216-100.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998]

§ 600.420 Control system.

(a) The Assistant Administrator maintains a control system to protect the identity of submitters of statistics required by an FMP. The control system:

(1) Identifies those persons who have access to the statistics.

(2) Contains procedures to limit access to confidential data to authorized users.

(3) Provides for safeguarding the data.

(b) This system requires that all persons who have authorized access to the data be informed of the confidentiality of the data. These persons are required to sign a statement that they:

(1) Have been informed that the data are confidential.

(2) Have reviewed and are familiar with the procedures to protect confidential statistics.

§ 600.425 Release of statistics.

(a) The Assistant Administrator will not release to the public any statistics required to be submitted under an FMP in a form that would identify the submitter, except as required by law.

(b) All requests from the public for statistics submitted in response to a requirement of an FMP will be processed consistent with the NOAA FOIA regulations (15 CFR part 903), NAO 205-14, Department of Commerce Administrative Orders 205-12 and 205-14 and 15 CFR part 4.

(c) NOAA does not release or allow access to confidential information in its possession to members of Council advisory groups, except as provided by law.

Subpart F - Foreign Fishing
§ 600.501 Vessel permits.

(a) General.

(1) Each FFV fishing under the Magnuson-Stevens Act must have on board a permit issued under this section, unless it is engaged only in recreational fishing.

(2) Permits issued under this section do not authorize FFV's or persons to harass, capture, or kill marine mammals. No marine mammals may be taken in the course of fishing unless that vessel has on board a currently valid Authorization Certificate under the MMPA. Regulations governing the taking of marine mammals incidental to commercial fishing operations are contained in 50 CFR part 229 of this title.

(b) Responsibility of owners and operators. The owners and operators of each FFV are jointly and severally responsible for compliance with the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the applicable GIFA, this subpart, and any permit issued under the Magnuson-Stevens Act and this subpart. The owners and operators of each FFV bear civil responsibility for the acts of their employees and agents constituting violations, regardless of whether the specific acts were authorized or even forbidden by the employer or principal, and regardless of knowledge concerning the occurrence.

(c) Activity codes. Permits to fish under this subpart may be issued by the Assistant Administrator for the activities described in this paragraph, but the permits may be modified by regulations of this subpart and by the conditions and restrictions attached to the permit (see paragraphs (e)(1)(v) and (l) of this section). The Assistant Administrator may issue a permit, as appropriate, for one or more of the activity codes listed. Only vessels of nations having a GIFA with the United States may be issued permits for activity codes 1 through 9. A GIFA is not required for a vessel to be issued a permit for activity code 10. The activity codes are described as follows:

(1) Activity Code 1. Catching, scouting, processing, transshipping, and supporting foreign vessels. Activity is limited to fish harvested or to be harvested by foreign vessels in the EEZ.

(2) Activity Code 2. Processing, scouting, transshipping, and supporting foreign vessels. Activity is limited to fish harvested or to be harvested by foreign vessels in the EEZ.

(3) Activity Code 3. Transshipping, scouting, and supporting foreign vessels. Activity is limited to fish harvested or to be harvested by foreign vessels in the EEZ.

(4) Activity Code 4. Processing, scouting, transshipping, and supporting U.S. vessels delivering fish to foreign vessels. Activity is limited to the receipt of unprocessed fish harvested or to be harvested by U.S. vessels.

(5) Activity Code 5. Transshipping, scouting, and supporting foreign vessels. Transshipment limited to fish received or to be received from foreign vessels processing fish from U.S. harvesting vessels.

(6) Activity Code 6. Transshipping, scouting, and supporting U.S. vessels. Transshipment limited to U.S.-harvested fish processed on board U.S. vessels.

(7) Activity Code 7. Processing, transshipping, and supporting foreign vessels. Activity limited to fish harvested or to be harvested by foreign vessels seaward of the EEZ.

(8) Activity Code 8. Transshipping and supporting foreign vessels. Activity is limited to fish harvested or to be harvested seaward of the EEZ by foreign vessels or fish duly authorized for processing in the internal waters of one of the states.

(9) Activity Code 9. Supporting U.S. fishing vessels and U.S. fish processing vessels and any foreign fishing vessels authorized under any activity code under paragraph (c) of this subpart.

(10) Activity Code 10. Transshipping at sea for the purpose of transporting fish or fish products from a point within the EEZ or, with the concurrence of a state, within the boundaries of that state, to a point outside the United States.

(d) Application.

(1) Applications for FFV permits authorizing activity codes 1 through 9 must be submitted by an official representative of a foreign nation to the DOS. Applications for permits authorizing activity codes 1 through 9 are available from, and should be submitted to, DOS, OES/OMC, Washington, DC 20520. Applications for FFV permits authorizing activity code 10 may be submitted by any person to the Assistant Administrator. Applications for permits authorizing activity code 10 are available from NMFS, Attn: Office of International Affairs, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910. All applicants should allow 90 days for review and comment by the public, involved governmental agencies, and appropriate Councils and for processing before the anticipated date to begin fishing. The permit application fee must be paid at the time of application according to § 600.518.

(2) Applicants must provide complete and accurate information requested on the permit application form.

(3) Applicants for FFV's that will support U.S. vessels in joint ventures (Activity Code 4) must provide the additional information specified by the permit application form.

(4) Each applicant may request to substitute one FFV for another of the same flag by submitting a new application form and a short explanation of the reason for the substitution to the appropriate address listed at paragraph (d)(1) of this section. Each substitution is considered a new application, and a new application fee must be paid. NMFS will promptly process an application for a vessel replacing a permitted FFV that is disabled or decommissioned, once the appropriate Council(s) and governmental agencies have been notified of the substituted application.

(e) Issuance.

(1) Permits may be issued to an FFV by the Assistant Administrator after -

(i) The Assistant Administrator determines that the fishing described in the application will meet the requirements of the Magnuson-Stevens Act and approves the permit application.

(ii) The applicant has paid the fees and provided any assurances required by the Secretary in accordance with the provisions of § 600.518.

(iii) The applicant has appointed an agent.

(iv) The applicant has identified a designated representative.

(v) The applicant has accepted the general “conditions and restrictions” of receiving permits, as required by section 204(b)(7) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, and any “additional restrictions” attached to the permit for the conservation and management of fishery resources or for the prevention of significant impairment of the national defense or security interests.

(2) The DOS will provide permits for activity codes 1 through 9 to the official representative of the applicant foreign nation. The Assistant Administrator will provide permits for activity code 10 directly to the applicant.

(3) An approved permit will contain -

(i) The name and IRCS of the FFV and its permit number.

(ii) The permitted fisheries and/or activity codes.

(iii) The date of issuance and expiration date, if other than December 31.

(iv) All conditions and restrictions, and any additional restrictions and technical modifications appended to the permit.

(4) Permits are not issued for boats that are launched from larger vessels. Any enforcement action that results from the activities of a launched boat will be taken against the permitted vessel.

(f) Duration. A permit is valid from its date of issuance to its date of expiration, unless it is revoked or suspended or the nation issuing the FFV's documents does not accept amendments to the permit made by the Assistant Administrator in accordance with the procedures of paragraph (l) of this section. The permit will be valid for no longer than the calendar year in which it was issued.

(g) Transfer. Permits are not transferable or assignable. A permit is valid only for the FFV to which it is issued.

(h) Display. Each FFV operator must have a properly completed permit form available on board the FFV when engaged in fishing activities and must produce it at the request of an authorized officer or observer.

(i) Suspension and revocation. NMFS may apply sanctions to an FFV's permit by revoking, suspending, or imposing additional permit restrictions on the permit under 15 CFR part 904, if the vessel is involved in the commission of any violation of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the GIFA, or this subpart; if an agent and a designated representative are not maintained in the United States; if a civil penalty or criminal fine imposed under the Magnuson-Stevens Act has become overdue; or as otherwise specified in the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

(j) Fees. Permit application fees are described in § 600.518.

(k) Change in application information. The applicant must report, in writing, any change in the information supplied under paragraph (d) of this section to the Assistant Administrator within 15 calendar days after the date of the change. Failure to report a change in the ownership from that described in the current application within the specified time frame voids the permit, and all penalties involved will accrue to the previous owner.

(l) Permit amendments.

(1) The Assistant Administrator may amend a permit by adding “additional restrictions” for the conservation and management of fishery resources covered by the permit, or for the national defense or security if the Assistant Administrator determines that such interests would be significantly impaired without such restrictions. Compliance with the added additional restrictions is a condition of the permit. Violations of added additional restrictions will be treated as violations of this subpart.

(2) The Assistant Administrator may make proposed additional restrictions effective immediately, if necessary, to prevent substantial harm to a fishery resource of the United States, to allow for the continuation of ongoing fishing operations, or to allow for fishing to begin at the normal time for opening of the fishery.

(3) The Assistant Administrator will send proposed additional restrictions to each Nation whose vessels are affected (via the Secretary of State), to the appropriate Councils, and to the Commandant of the Coast Guard. NMFS will, at the same time, publish a document of any significant proposed additional restrictions in the Federal Register. The document will include a summary of the reasons underlying the proposal, and the reasons that any proposed additional restrictions are made effective immediately.

(4) The Nation whose vessels are involved, the owners of the affected vessels, their representatives, the agencies specified in paragraph (l)(3) of this section, and the public may submit written comments on the proposed additional restrictions within 30 days after publication in the Federal Register.

(5) The Assistant Administrator will make a final decision regarding the proposed additional restrictions as soon as practicable after the end of the comment period. The Assistant Administrator will provide the final additional restrictions to the Nation whose vessels are affected (via the Secretary of State) according to the procedures of paragraph (e) of this section. The Assistant Administrator will include with the final additional restrictions to the Nation, a response to comments submitted.

(6) Additional restrictions may be modified by following the procedures of paragraphs (l)(2) through (l)(5) of this section.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 64 FR 39019, July 21, 1999; 76 FR 59305, Sept. 26, 2011]

§ 600.502 Vessel reports.

(a) The operator of each FFV must report the FFV's activities to the USCG and NMFS as specified in this section.

(b) All reports required by this section must be in English and in the formats specified in the permit additions and restrictions. Reports must be delivered via private or commercial communications facilities, facsimile, or other electronic means acceptable to NMFS and the USCG, directly to the appropriate NMFS Region or Center and USCG commander. Weekly reports must also be delivered directly to the appropriate NMFS Region or Center (see tables 1 and 2 of this section). (The required reports may be delivered to the closest USCG communication station as indicated in table 3 of this section or other USCG communication station only if adequate private or commercial communications facilities have not been successfully contacted.) Radio reports must be made via radiotelegraphy, Telex, or facsimile where available. For the purposes of this section, a message is considered “transmitted” when its receipt is acknowledged by a communications facility and considered “delivered” upon its receipt by the offices of the appropriate USCG commander, NMFS Regional Office, or NMFS Center identified in table 2 of this section. Reports required by this section may be submitted by the vessel's designated representative; however, the operator of the FFV is responsible for the correct and timely filing of all required reports.

(c) Activity reports. The operator of each FFV must report the FFV's movements and activities before or upon the event, as specified in this paragraph (c). Appropriate forms, instructions, codes, and examples are contained in the conditions and restrictions of the FFV's permit. Each FFV report must contain the following information: The message identifier “VESREP” to indicate it is a vessel activity report, FFV name, international radio call sign IRCS, date (month and day based on GMT), time (hour and minute GMT), position (latitude and longitude to the nearest degree and minute) where required, area (by fishing area code) where required, the appropriate action code, confirmation codes where required, and the other information specified in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(11) of this section.

(1) “BEGIN”. Each operator must specify the date, time, position, and area the FFV will actually “BEGIN” fishing in the EEZ and the species (by species code), product (by product code), and quantity of all fish and fish products (by product weight to the nearest hundredth of a metric ton) on board when entering the EEZ (action code “BEGIN”). The message must be delivered at least 24 hours before the vessel begins to fish.

(2) “DEPART”. Each operator must specify the date, time, position, and area the FFV will “DEPART” the EEZ to embark or debark an observer, to visit a U.S. port, to conduct a joint venture in internal waters, or to otherwise temporarily leave an authorized fishing area, but not depart the seaward limit of the EEZ (action code “DEPART”). The message must be transmitted before the FFV departs the present fishing area and delivered within 24 hours of its transmittal.

(3) “RETURN”. Each operator must specify the date, time, position, and area the FFV will “RETURN” to the EEZ following a temporary departure, and the species (by species code), product (by product code), and quantity of all fish and fish products (by product weight to the nearest hundredth of a metric ton) on board that were received in a joint venture in internal waters (action code “RETURN”). The message must be transmitted before returning to the EEZ and delivered within 24 hours of its transmittal.

(4) “SHIFT”. Each operator must report each SHIFT in fishing area (as described for each fishery) by specifying the date, time, and position the FFV will start fishing, and the new area (action code “SHIFT”). The message must be transmitted before leaving the original area and delivered within 24 hours of its transmittal. If a foreign vessel operates within 20 nautical miles (37.04 km) of a fishing area boundary, its operator may submit in one message the shift reports for all fishing area shifts occurring during 1 fishing day (0001-2400 GMT). This message must be transmitted prior to the last shift expected to be made in the day and delivered within 24 hours of its transmittal.

(5) “JV OPS”. Each operator must specify the date, time, position, and area at which the FFV will “START” joint venture operations (action code “START JV OPS”) or “END” joint venture operations (action code “END JV OPS”). These reports must be made in addition to other activity reports made under this section. Each message must be transmitted before the event and delivered within 24 hours of its transmittal.

(6) “TRANSFER”. The operator of each FFV that anticipates a transshipping operation in which the FFV will receive fish or fisheries products must specify the date, time, position and area the FFV will conduct the “TRANSFER” and the name and IRCS of the other FFV or U.S. vessel involved (action code “TRANSFER”). The report must include the permit activity code under which the transfer will be made. The message must be transmitted prior to the transfer and delivered within 24 hours of its transmittal. The movement of raw fish from a permitted foreign catching vessel or, under an Activity Code 4, from a U.S. fishing vessel to the reporting processing vessel and the return of nets or codends is not considered a transfer.

(7) “OFFLOADED”. Each operator must specify the date, time, position, and area the FFV “OFFLOADED” fish or fisheries products TO another FFV or a U.S. vessel in a transfer, the other FFV's or U.S. vessel's name, IRCS, Permit Activity Code under which the transfer was made, species (by species code) and quantity of fish and fisheries products (by product code and by product weight, to the nearest hundredth of a metric ton) offloaded (action code “OFFLOADED TO”). The message must be transmitted within 12 hours after the transfer is completed and delivered within 24 hours of its transmittal and before the FFV ceases fishing in the EEZ.

(8) “RECEIVED”. Each operator must specify the date, time, position and area the vessel “RECEIVED” fish or fisheries products FROM another FFV in a transfer, the other FFV's or U.S. vessel's name, IRCS, Permit Activity Code under which the receipt was made, species (by species code) and quantity of fish and fisheries products (by product code and by product weight, to the nearest hundredth of a metric ton) received (action code “RECEIVED FROM”). The message must be transmitted within 12 hours after the transfer is completed and delivered within 24 hours of its transmittal and before the vessel ceases fishing in the EEZ.

(9) “CEASE”. Each operator must specify the date, time, position, and area the FFV will “CEASE” fishing in order to leave the EEZ (action code “CEASE”). The message must be delivered at least 24 hours before the FFV's departure.

(10) “CHANGE”. Each operator must report any “CHANGE” TO the FFV's operations if the position or time of an event specified in an activity report will vary more than 5 nautical miles (9.26 km) or 4 hours from that previously reported, by sending a revised message inserting the word “CHANGE” in front of the previous report, repeating the name, IRCS, date, and time of the previous report, adding the word “TO” and the complete revised text of the new report (action code “CHANGE TO”). Changes to reports specifying an early beginning of fishing by an FFV or other changes to reports contained in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(9) of this section must be transmitted and delivered as if the “CHANGE” report were the original message.

(11) “CANCEL”. Each operator wanting to “CANCEL” a previous report may do so by sending a revised message, and inserting the word “CANCEL” in front of the previous report's vessel name, IRCS, date, time and action code canceled (action code “CANCEL”). The message must be transmitted and delivered prior to the date and time of the event in the original message.

(d) The operator of an FFV will be in violation of paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(9) of this section if the FFV does not pass within 5 nautical miles (9.26 km) of the position given in the report within 4 hours of the time given in the report.

(e) The notices required by this section may be provided for individual or groups of FFV's (on a vessel-by-vessel basis) by authorized persons. An FFV operator may retransmit reports on the behalf of another FFV, if authorized by that FFV's operator. This does not relieve the individual vessel operator of the responsibility of filing required reports. In these cases, the message format should be modified so that each line of text under “VESREP” is a separate vessel report.

(f) Weekly reports.

(1) The operator of each FFV in the EEZ must submit appropriate weekly reports through the Nation's designated representative. The report must arrive at the address and time specified in paragraph (g) of this section. The reports may be sent by facsimile or Telex, but a completed copy of the report form must be mailed or hand delivered to confirm the Telex. Appropriate forms, instructions, codes, and examples are contained in the conditions and restrictions of the FFV's permit. Designated representatives may include more than one vessel report in a facsimile or Telex message, if the information is submitted on a vessel-by-vessel basis. Requests for corrections to previous reports must be submitted through the Nation's designated representative and mailed or hand-delivered, together with a written explanation of the reasons for the errors. The appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director may accept or reject any correction and initiate any appropriate civil penalty actions.

(2) Weekly catch report (CATREP). The operator of each FFV must submit a weekly catch report stating any catch (Activity Code 1) in round weight of each species or species group allocated to that Nation by area and days fished in each area for the weekly period Sunday through Saturday, GMT, as modified by the fishery in which the FFV is engaged. Foreign vessels delivering unsorted, unprocessed fish to a processing vessel are not required to submit CATREP's, if that processing vessel (Activity Code 2) submits consolidated CATREP's for all fish received during each weekly period. No report is required for FFV's that do not catch or receive foreign-caught fish during the reporting period.

(3) Weekly receipts report (RECREP). The operator of each FFV must submit a weekly report stating any receipts of U.S.-harvested fish in a joint venture (Activity Code 4) for the weekly period Sunday through Saturday, GMT, as modified by the fishery in which the FFV is engaged, for each fishing area, by authorized or prohibited species or species group; days fish received; round weight retained or returned to the U.S. fishing vessel; number of codends received; and number of vessels transferring codends. The report must also include the names of U.S. fishing vessels transferring codends during the week. No report is required for FFV's that do not receive any U.S.-harvested fish during the reporting period.

(4) Marine mammal report (MAMREP). The operator of each FFV must submit a weekly report stating any incidental catch or receipt of marine mammals (Activity Codes 1 or 2 and/or 4), the geographical position caught, the condition of the animal, number caught (if more than one of the same species and condition), and nationality of the catching vessel for the period Sunday through Saturday, GMT, as modified by the fishery in which the vessel is engaged. Foreign catching vessels delivering unsorted, unprocessed fish to processing vessel are not required to submit MAMREP's, provided that the processing or factory vessel (Activity Code 2) submits consolidated MAMREP's for all fish received during each weekly period. FFV's receiving U.S.-harvested fish in a joint venture (Activity Code 4) must submit consolidated reports for U.S. vessels operating in the joint venture. No report is required for FFV's that do not catch or receive marine mammals during the reporting period.

(g) Submission instructions for weekly reports. The designated representative for each FFV must submit weekly reports in the prescribed format to the appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director of NMFS by 1900 GMT on the Wednesday following the end of the reporting period. However, by agreement with the appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director, the designated representative may submit weekly reports to some other facility of NMFS.

(h) Alternative reporting procedures. As an alternative to the use of the specific procedures provided, an applicant may submit proposed reporting procedures for a general type of fishery operation (i.e., transshipments under Activity Code 10) to the appropriate Regional Administrator and the USCG commander (see tables 1 and 2 to § 600.502 of this chapter). With the agreement of the USCG commander, the Regional Administrator may authorize the use of alternative reporting procedures.

Table 1 to § 600.502 - Addresses

NMFS regional administrators NMFS science and research directors U.S. Coast Guard
commanders
Administrator, Northeast Region, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, One Blackburn Drive, Gloucester, MA 01930-2298 Director, Northeast Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 166 Water St., Woods Hole, MA 02543-1097 Commander, Atlantic Area, U.S. Coast Guard, 431 Crawford St., Portsmouth, VA 23704.
Administrator, Southeast Region, National Marine Fisheries Service, 263 13th Ave. South, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 Director, Southeast Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 75 Virginia Beach Drive, Miami, FL 33149 Commander, Atlantic Area, U.S. Coast Guard, Governor's Island, New York 10004.
Administrator, Northwest Region, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 7600 Sand Point Way, NE, BIN C15700, Bldg. 1, Seattle, WA 98115 Director, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 2725 Montlake Blvd. East, Seattle, WA 98112-2097 Commander, Pacific Area, U.S. Coast Guard, Government Island, Alameda, CA 94501.
Administrator, Alaska Region, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, P.O. Box 21668, Juneau, AK 99802-1668 Director, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 7600 Sand Point Way, NE, BIN C15700, Bldg. 4, Seattle, WA 98115-0070 Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, P.O. Box 25517, Juneau, AK 99802.
Administrator, Southwest Region, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 501 West Ocean Blvd., Suite 4200, Long Beach, CA 90802-4213 Director, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, P.O. Box 271, La Jolla, CA 92038-0271 Commander, Fourteenth Coast Guard District, 300 Ala Moana Blvd., Honolulu, HI 96850.
Administrator, Pacific Islands Region, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 1845 Wasp Blvd., Bldg. 176, Honolulu, HI 96818 Director, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 1845 Wasp Blvd., Bldg. 176, Honolulu, HI 96818 Commander, Fourteenth Coast Guard District, 300 Ala Moana Blvd., Honolulu, HI 96850.

Table 2 to § 600.502 - Areas of Responsibility of NMFS and U.S. Coast Guard Offices

Area of responsibility/fishery National Marine Fisheries Service U.S. Coast Guard
Atlantic Ocean North of Cape Hatteras Director, Northeast Science Center, Attn: Observer Program Commander, Atlantic Area.
Atlantic Ocean South of Cape Hatteras Director, Northeast Science Center, Attn: Observer Program Commander, Atlantic Area.
Atlantic Tunas, Swordfish, Billfish and Sharks Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries Commander, Atlantic Area.
Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea Administrator, Southeast Region Commander, Atlantic Area.
Pacific Ocean off the States of California, Oregon, and Washington Administrator, Northwest Region Commander, Pacific Area.
North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea off Alaska Administrator, Alaska Region Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.
Pacific Ocean off Hawaii, American Samoa, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and U.S. Insular Possessions in the Central and Western Pacific Administrator, Pacific Islands Region Commander, Fourteenth Coast Guard District.

Table 3 to § 600.502 - U.S. Coast Guard Communications Stations and Frequencies

U.S. Coast Guard communications station Radiotelephone
IRCS Channel1 GMT time
Boston NMF A-E 2330-1100.
B,C All.
D 1100-2330.
E (On request).
CAMSLANT Chesapeake (Portsmouth, VA) NMN A 2330-1100.
B,C All.
D 1100-2330.
E (On request).
New Orleans NMG A 2330-1100.
B,C All.
D 1100-2330.
E (On request).
CAMSPAC Point Reyes (San Francisco, CA) NMC A-D All.
E (On request).
Honolulu NMO A-D All.
E (On request).
Kodiak NOJ A-D All.
E (On request).
Letter Shore transmit Ship transmit
A 4426.0 4134.0
B 6501.0 6200.0
C 8764.0 8240.0
D 13089.0 12242.0
E 17314.0 16432.0

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7073, Feb. 12, 1998; 64 FR 39020, July 21, 1999; 69 FR 8341, Feb. 24, 2004; 76 FR 34902, June 15, 2011; 79 FR 64111, Oct. 28, 2014]

§ 600.503 Vessel and gear identification.

(a) Vessel identification.

(1) The operator of each FFV assigned an IRCS must display that call sign amidships on both the port and starboard sides of the deckhouse or hull, so that it is visible from an enforcement vessel, and on an appropriate weather deck so it is visible from the air.

(2) The operator of each FFV not assigned an IRCS, such as a small trawler associated with a mothership or one of a pair of trawlers, must display the IRCS of the associated vessel, followed by a numerical suffix. (For example, JCZM-1, JCZM-2, etc., would be displayed on small trawlers not assigned an IRCS operating with a mothership whose IRCS is JCZM; JANP-1 would be displayed by a pair trawler not assigned an IRCS operating with a trawler whose IRCS is JANP.)

(3) The vessel identification must be in a color in contrast to the background and must be permanently affixed to the FFV in block Roman alphabet letters and Arabic numerals at least 1 m in height for FFV's over 20 m in length, and at least 0.5 m in height for all other FFV's.

(b) Navigational lights and shapes. Each FFV must display the lights and shapes prescribed by the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (TIAS 8587, and 1981 amendment TIAS 10672), for the activity in which the FFV is engaged (as described at 33 CFR part 81).

(c) Gear identification.

(1) The operator of each FFV must ensure that all deployed fishing gear that is not physically and continuously attached to an FFV:

(i) Is clearly marked at the surface with a buoy displaying the vessel identification of the FFV (see paragraph (a) of this section) to which the gear belongs.

(ii) Has attached a light visible for 2 nautical miles (3.70 km) at night in good visibility.

(iii) Has a radio buoy.

Trawl codends passed from one vessel to another are considered continuously attached gear and are not required to be marked.

(2) The operator of each FFV must ensure that deployed longlines, strings of traps or pots, and gillnets are marked at the surface at each terminal end with: (see paragraphs (c)(1)(i) through (c)(1)(iii) of this section).

(3) Additional requirements may be specified for the fishery in which the vessel is engaged.

(4) Unmarked or incorrectly identified fishing gear may be considered abandoned and may be disposed of in accordance with applicable Federal regulations by any authorized officer.

(d) Maintenance. The operator of each FFV must -

(1) Keep the vessel and gear identification clearly legible and in good repair.

(2) Ensure that nothing on the FFV obstructs the view of the markings from an enforcement vessel or aircraft.

(3) Ensure that the proper navigational lights and shapes are displayed for the FFV's activity and are properly functioning.

§ 600.504 Facilitation of enforcement.

(a) General.

(1) The owner, operator, or any person aboard any FFV subject to this subpart must immediately comply with instructions and signals issued by an authorized officer to stop the FFV; to move the FFV to a specified location; and to facilitate safe boarding and inspection of the vessel, its gear, equipment, records, and fish and fish products on board for purposes of enforcing the Magnuson-Stevens Act and this subpart.

(2) The operator of each FFV must provide vessel position or other information when requested by an authorized officer within the time specified in the request.

(b) Communications equipment.

(1) Each FFV must be equipped with a VHF-FM radiotelephone station located so that it may be operated from the wheelhouse. Each operator must maintain a continuous listening watch on channel 16 (156.8 mHz).

(2) Each FFV must be equipped with a radiotelephone station capable of communicating via 2182 kHz (SSB) radiotelephony and at least one set of working frequencies identified in table 3 to § 600.502 appropriate to the fishery in which the FFV is operating. Each operator must monitor and be ready to communicate via 2182 kHz (SSB) radiotelephone each day from 0800 GMT to 0830 GMT and 2000 to 2030 GMT, and in preparation for boarding.

(3) FFV's that are not equipped with processing facilities and that deliver all catches to a foreign processing vessel are exempt from the requirements of paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(4) FFV's with no IRCS that do not catch fish and are used as auxiliary vessels to handle codends, nets, equipment, or passengers for a processing vessel are exempt from the requirements of paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section.

(5) The appropriate Regional Administrator, with the agreement of the appropriate USCG commander, may, upon request by a foreign nation, accept alternatives to the radio requirements of this section to certain FFV's or types of FFV's operating in a fishery, provided they are adequate for the communications needs of the fishery.

(c) Communications procedures.

(1) Upon being approached by a USCG vessel or aircraft, or other vessel or aircraft with an authorized officer aboard, the operator of any FFV subject to this subpart must be alert for communications conveying enforcement instructions. The enforcement unit may communicate by channel 16 VHF-FM radiotelephone, 2182 kHz (SSB) radiotelephone, message block from an aircraft, flashing light or flag signals from the International Code of Signals, hand signal, placard, loudhailer, or other appropriate means. The following signals, extracted from the International Code of Signals, are among those that may be used.

(i) “AA, AA, AA, etc.”, which is the call for an unknown station. The signaled vessel should respond by identifying itself or by illuminating the vessel identification required by § 600.505.

(ii) “RY-CY”, meaning “You should proceed at slow speed, a boat is coming to you”.

(iii) “SQ3”, meaning “You should stop or heave to; I am going to board you”.

(iv) “L”, meaning “You should stop your vessel instantly.”

(2) Failure of an FFV's operator to stop the vessel when directed to do so by an authorized officer using VHF-FM radiotelephone (channel 16), 2182 kHz (SSB) radiotelephone (where required), message block from an aircraft, flashing light signal, flaghoist, or loudhailer constitutes a violation of this subpart.

(3) The operator of or any person aboard an FFV who does not understand a signal from an enforcement unit and who is unable to obtain clarification by radiotelephone or other means must consider the signal to be a command to stop the FFV instantly.

(d) Boarding. The operator of an FFV signaled for boarding must -

(1) Monitor 2182 kHz (SSB) radiotelephone and channel 16 (156.8 mHz) VHF-FM radiotelephone.

(2) Stop immediately and lay to or maneuver in such a way as to maintain the safety of the FFV and facilitate boarding by the authorized officer and the boarding party or an observer.

(3) Provide the authorized officer, boarding party, or observer a safe pilot ladder. The operator must ensure the pilot ladder is securely attached to the FFV and meets the construction requirements of Regulation 17, Chapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974 (TIAS 9700 and 1978 Protocol, TIAS 10009), or a substantially equivalent national standard approved by letter from the Assistant Administrator, with agreement with the USCG. Safe pilot ladder standards are summarized below:

(i) The ladder must be of a single length of not more than 9 m (30 ft), capable of reaching the water from the point of access to the FFV, accounting for all conditions of loading and trim of the FFV and for an adverse list of 15°. Whenever the distance from sea level to the point of access to the ship is more than 9 m (30 ft), access must be by means of an accommodation ladder or other safe and convenient means.

(ii) The steps of the pilot ladder must be -

(A) Of hardwood, or other material of equivalent properties, made in one piece free of knots, having an efficient non-slip surface; the four lowest steps may be made of rubber of sufficient strength and stiffness or of other suitable material of equivalent characteristics.

(B) Not less than 480 mm (19 inches) long, 115 mm (4.5 inches) wide, and 25 mm (1 inch) in depth, excluding any non-slip device.

(C) Equally spaced not less than 300 millimeters (12 inches) nor more than 380 mm (15 inches) apart and secured in such a manner that they will remain horizontal.

(iii) No pilot ladder may have more than two replacement steps that are secured in position by a method different from that used in the original construction of the ladder.

(iv) The side ropes of the ladder must consist of two uncovered manila ropes not less than 60 mm (2.25 inches) in circumference on each side (or synthetic ropes of equivalent size and equivalent or greater strength). Each rope must be continuous, with no joints below the top step.

(v) Battens made of hardwood, or other material of equivalent properties, in one piece and not less than 1.80 m (5 ft 10 inches) long must be provided at such intervals as will prevent the pilot ladder from twisting. The lowest batten must be on the fifth step from the bottom of the ladder and the interval between any batten and the next must not exceed nine steps.

(vi) Where passage onto or off the ship is by means of a bulwark ladder, two handhold stanchions must be fitted at the point of boarding or leaving the FFV not less than 0.70 m (2 ft 3 inches) nor more than 0.80 m (2 ft 7 inches) apart, not less than 40 mm (2.5 inches) in diameter, and must extend not less than 1.20 m (3 ft 11 inches) above the top of the bulwark.

(4) When necessary to facilitate the boarding or when requested by an authorized officer or observer, provide a manrope, safety line, and illumination for the ladder; and

(5) Take such other actions as necessary to ensure the safety of the authorized officer and the boarding party and to facilitate the boarding and inspection.

(e) Access and records.

(1) The owner and operator of each FFV must provide authorized officers access to all spaces where work is conducted or business papers and records are prepared or stored, including but not limited to, personal quarters and areas within personal quarters.

(2) The owner and operator of each FFV must provide to authorized officers all records and documents pertaining to the fishing activities of the vessel, including but not limited to, production records, fishing logs, navigation logs, transfer records, product receipts, cargo stowage plans or records, draft or displacement calculations, customs documents or records, and an accurate hold plan reflecting the current structure of the vessel's storage and factory spaces.

(f) Product storage. The operator of each permitted FFV storing fish or fish products in a storage space must ensure that all non-fish product items are neither stowed beneath nor covered by fish products, unless required to maintain the stability and safety of the vessel. These items include, but are not limited to, portable conveyors, exhaust fans, ladders, nets, fuel bladders, extra bin boards, or other movable non-product items. These items may be in the space when necessary for safety of the vessel or crew or for storage of the product. Lumber, bin boards, or other dunnage may be used for shoring or bracing of product to ensure safety of crew and to prevent shifting of cargo within the space.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998]

§ 600.505 Prohibitions.

(a) It is unlawful for any person to do any of the following:

(1) Ship, transport, offer for sale, sell, purchase, import, export, or have custody, control, or possession of any fish taken or retained in violation of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the applicable GIFA, this subpart, or any permit issued under this subpart;

(2) Refuse to allow an authorized officer to board an FFV for purposes of conducting any search or inspection in connection with the enforcement of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the applicable GIFA, this subpart, or any other permit issued under this subpart;

(3) Assault, resist, oppose, impede, intimidate, or interfere with any authorized officer in the conduct of any inspection or search described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section;

(4) Resist a lawful arrest for any act prohibited by the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the applicable GIFA, this subpart, or any permit issued under this subpart;

(5) Interfere with, delay, or prevent by any means the apprehension or arrest of another person with the knowledge that such other person has committed any act prohibited by the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the applicable GIFA, this subpart, or any permit issued under this subpart;

(6) Interfere with, obstruct, delay, oppose, impede, intimidate, or prevent by any means any boarding, investigation or search, wherever conducted, in the process of enforcing the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the applicable GIFA, this subpart, or any permit issued under this subpart;

(7) Engage in any fishing activity for which the FFV does not have a permit as required under § 600.501;

(8) Engage in any fishing activity within the EEZ without a U.S. observer aboard the FFV, unless the requirement has been waived by the Assistant Administrator or appropriate Regional Administrator;

(9) Retain or attempt to retain, directly or indirectly, any U.S. harvested fish, unless the FFV has a permit for Activity Codes 4, 6, or 10;

(10) Use any fishing vessel to engage in fishing after the revocation, or during the period of suspension, of an applicable permit issued under this subpart;

(11) Violate any provision of the applicable GIFA;

(12) Falsely or incorrectly complete (including by omission) a permit application or permit form as specified in § 600.501 (d) and (k);

(13) Fail to report to the Assistant Administrator within 15 days any change in the information contained in the permit application for a FFV, as specified in § 600.501(k);

(14) Assault, resist, oppose, impede, intimidate, or interfere with an observer placed aboard an FFV under this subpart;

(15) Interfere with or bias the sampling procedure employed by an observer, including sorting or discarding any catch prior to sampling, unless the observer has stated that sampling will not occur; or tamper with, destroy, or discard an observer's collected samples, equipment, records, photographic film, papers, or effects without the express consent of the observer;

(16) Prohibit or bar by command, impediment, threat, coercion, or refusal of reasonable assistance, an observer from collecting samples, conducting product recovery rate determinations, making observations, or otherwise performing the observer's duties;

(17) Harass or sexually harass an authorized officer or observer;

(18) Fail to provide the required assistance to an observer as described at § 600.506 (c) and (e);

(19) Fail to identify, falsely identify, fail to properly maintain, or obscure the identification of the FFV or its gear as required by this subpart;

(20) Falsify or fail to make, keep, maintain, or submit any record or report required by this subpart;

(21) Fail to return to the sea or fail to otherwise treat prohibited species as required by this subpart;

(22) Fail to report or falsely report any gear conflict;

(23) Fail to report or falsely report any loss, jettisoning, or abandonment of fishing gear or other article into the EEZ that might interfere with fishing, obstruct fishing gear or vessels, or cause damage to any fishery resource or marine mammals;

(24) Continue Activity Codes 1 through 4 after those activity codes have been canceled under § 600.511;

(25) Fail to maintain health and safety standards set forth in § 600.506(d);

(26) Violate any provisions of regulations for specific fisheries of this subpart;

(27) On a scientific research vessel, engage in fishing other than recreational fishing authorized by applicable state, territorial, or Federal regulations;

(28) Violate any provision of this subpart, the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the applicable GIFA, any notice issued under this subpart or any permit issued under this subpart; or

(29) Attempt to do any of the foregoing.

(b) It is unlawful for any FFV, and for the owner or operator of any FFV except an FFV engaged only in recreational fishing, to fish -

(1) Within the boundaries of any state, unless:

(i) The fishing is authorized by the Governor of that state as permitted by section 306(c) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act to engage in a joint venture for processing and support with U.S. fishing vessels in the internal waters of that state; or

(ii) The fishing is authorized by, and conducted in accordance with, a valid permit issued under § 600.501, and the Governor of that state has indicated concurrence to allow fishing consisting solely of transporting fish or fish products from a point within the boundaries of that state to a point outside the United States; or

(2) Within the EEZ, or for any anadromous species or continental shelf fishery resources beyond the EEZ, unless the fishing is authorized by, and conducted in accordance with, a valid permit issued under § 600.501.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 64 FR 39020, July 21, 1999]

§ 600.506 Observers.

(a) General. To carry out such scientific, compliance monitoring, and other functions as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director (see table 2 to § 600.502) may assign U.S. observers to FFV's. Except as provided for in section 201(h)(2) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, no FFV may conduct fishing operations within the EEZ unless a U.S. observer is aboard.

(b) Effort plan. To ensure the availability of an observer as required by this section, the owners and operators of FFV's wanting to fish within the EEZ will submit to the appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director and also to the Chief, Financial Services Division, NMFS, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 a schedule of fishing effort 30 days prior to the beginning of each quarter. A quarter is a time period of 3 consecutive months beginning January 1, April 1, July 1, and October 1 of each year. The schedule will contain the name and IRCS of each FFV intending to fish within the EEZ during the upcoming quarter, and each FFV's expected date of arrival and expected date of departure.

(1) The appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director must be notified immediately of any substitution of vessels or any cancellation of plans to fish in the EEZ for FFV's listed in the effort plan required by this section.

(2) If an arrival date of an FFV will vary more than 5 days from the date listed in the quarterly schedule, the appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director must be notified at least 10 days in advance of the rescheduled date of arrival. If the notice required by this paragraph (b)(2) is not given, the FFV may not engage in fishing until an observer is available and has been placed aboard the vessel or the requirement has been waived by the appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director.

(c) Assistance to observers. To assist the observer in the accomplishment of his or her assigned duties, the owner and operator of an FFV to which an observer is assigned must -

(1) Provide, at no cost to the observer or the United States, accommodations for the observer aboard the FFV that are equivalent to those provided to the officers of that vessel.

(2) Cause the FFV to proceed to such places and at such times as may be designated by the appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director for the purpose of embarking and debarking the observer.

(3) Allow the observer to use the FFV's communications equipment and personnel upon demand for the transmission and receipt of messages.

(4) Allow the observer access to and use of the FFV's navigation equipment and personnel upon demand to determine the vessel's position.

(5) Allow the observer free and unobstructed access to the FFV's bridge, trawl, or working decks, holding bins, processing areas, freezer spaces, weight scales, cargo holds and any other space that may be used to hold, process, weigh, or store fish or fish products at any time.

(6) Allow the observer to inspect and copy the FFV's daily log, communications log, transfer log, and any other log, document, notice, or record required by these regulations.

(7) Provide the observer copies of any records required by these regulations upon demand.

(8) Notify the observer at least 15 minutes before fish are brought on board or fish or fish products are transferred from the FFV to allow sampling the catch or observing the transfer, unless the observer specifically requests not to be notified.

(9) Provide all other reasonable assistance to enable the observer to carry out his or her duties.

(d) Health and safety standards. All foreign fishing vessels to which an observer is deployed must maintain, at all times that the vessel is in the EEZ, the following:

(1) At least one working radar.

(2) Functioning navigation lights as required by international law.

(3) A watch on the bridge by appropriately trained and experienced personnel while the vessel is underway.

(4) Lifeboats and/or inflatable life rafts with a total carrying capacity equal to or greater than the number of people aboard the vessel. Lifeboats and inflatable life rafts must be maintained in good working order and be readily available.

(5) Life jackets equal or greater in number to the total number of persons aboard the vessel. Life jackets must be stowed in readily accessible and plainly marked positions throughout the vessel, and maintained in a state of good repair.

(6) At least one ring life buoy for each 25 ft (7.6 m) of vessel length, equipped with automatic water lights. Ring life buoys must have an outside diameter of not more than 32 inches (81.3 cm) nor less than 30 inches (76.2 cm), and must be maintained in a state of good repair. Ring life buoys must be readily available, but not positioned so they pose a threat of entanglement in work areas. They must be secured in such a way that they can be easily cast loose in the event of an emergency.

(7) At least one VHF-FM radio with a functioning channel 16 (156.8 mHz), International Distress, Safety and Calling Frequency, and one functioning AM radio (SSB-Single Side Band) capable of operating at 2182 kHz (SSB). Radios will be maintained in a radio room, chartroom, or other suitable location.

(8) At least one Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB), approved by the USCG for offshore commercial use, stowed in a location so as to make it readily available in the event of an emergency.

(9) At least six hand-held, rocket-propelled, parachute, red-flare distress signals, and three orange-smoke distress signals stowed in the pilothouse or navigation bridge in portable watertight containers.

(10) All lights, shapes, whistles, foghorns, fog bells and gongs required by and maintained in accordance with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea.

(11) Clean and sanitary conditions in all living spaces, food service and preparation areas and work spaces aboard the vessel.

(e) Observer transfers.

(1) The operator of the FFV must ensure that transfers of observers at sea via small boat or raft are carried out during daylight hours as weather and sea conditions allow, and with the agreement of the observer involved. The FFV operator must provide the observer 3 hours advance notice of at-sea transfers, so that the observer may collect personal belongings, equipment, and scientific samples.

(2) The FFV's involved must provide a safe pilot ladder and conduct the transfer according to the procedures of § 600.504(d) to ensure the safety of the during the transfer.

(3) An experienced crew member must assist the observer in the small boat or raft in which the transfer is made.

(f) Supplementary observers. In the event funds are not available from Congressional appropriations of fees collected to assign an observer to a foreign fishing vessel, the appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director will assign a supplementary observer to that vessel. The costs of supplementary observers will be paid for by the owners and operators of foreign fishing vessels as provided for in paragraph (h) of this section.

(g) Supplementary observer authority and duties.

(1) A supplementary observer aboard a foreign fishing vessel has the same authority and must be treated in all respects as an observer who is employed by NMFS, either directly or under contract.

(2) The duties of supplementary observers and their deployment and work schedules will be specified by the appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director.

(3) All data collected by supplementary observers will be under the exclusive control of the Assistant Administrator.

(h) Supplementary observer payment -

(1) Method of payment. The owners and operators of foreign fishing vessels must pay directly to the contractor the costs of supplementary observer coverage. Payment must be made to the contractor supplying supplementary observer coverage either by letter of credit or certified check drawn on a federally chartered bank in U.S. dollars, or other financial institution acceptable to the contractor. The letter of credit used to pay supplementary observer fees to contractors must be separate and distinct from the letter of credit required by § 600.518(b)(2). Billing schedules will be specified by the terms of the contract between NOAA and the contractors. Billings for supplementary observer coverage will be approved by the appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director and then transmitted to the owners and operators of foreign fishing vessels by the appropriate designated representative. Each country will have only one designated representative to receive observer bills for all vessels of that country, except as provided for by the Assistant Administrator. All bills must be paid within 10 working days of the billing date. Failure to pay an observer bill will constitute grounds to revoke fishing permits. All fees collected under this section will be considered interim in nature and subject to reconciliation at the end of the fiscal year in accordance with paragraph (h)(4) of this section and § 600.518(d).

(2) Contractor costs. The costs charged for supplementary observer coverage to the owners and operators of foreign fishing vessels may not exceed the costs charged to NMFS for the same or similar services, except that contractors may charge to the owners and operators of foreign fishing vessels an additional fee to cover the administrative costs of the program not ordinarily part of contract costs charged to NMFS. The costs charged foreign fishermen for supplementary observers may include, but are not limited to the following:

(i) Salary and benefits, including overtime, for supplementary observers.

(ii) The costs of post-certification training required by paragraph (j)(2) of this section.

(iii) The costs of travel, transportation, and per diem associated with deploying supplementary observers to foreign fishing vessels including the cost of travel, transportation, and per diem from the supplementary observer's post of duty to the point of embarkation to the foreign fishing vessel, and then from the point of disembarkation to the post of duty from where the trip began. For the purposes of these regulations, the appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director will designate posts of duty for supplementary observers.

(iv) The costs of travel, transportation, and per diem associated with the debriefing following deployment of a supplementary observer by NMFS officials.

(v) The administrative and overhead costs incurred by the contractor and, if appropriate, a reasonable profit.

(3) NMFS costs. The owners and operators of foreign fishing vessels must also pay to NMFS as part of the surcharge required by section 201(i)(4) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the following costs:

(i) The costs of certifying applicants for the position of supplementary observer.

(ii) The costs of any equipment, including safety equipment, sampling equipment, operations manuals, or other texts necessary to perform the duties of a supplementary observer. The equipment will be specified by the appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director according to the requirements of the fishery to which the supplementary observer will be deployed.

(iii) The costs associated with communications with supplementary observers for transmission of data and routine messages.

(iv) For the purposes of monitoring the supplementary observer program, the costs for the management and analysis of data.

(v) The costs for data editing and entry.

(vi) Any costs incurred by NMFS to train, deploy or debrief a supplementary observer.

(vii) The cost for U.S. Customs inspection for supplementary observers disembarking after deployment.

(4) Reconciliation. Fees collected by the contractor in excess of the actual costs of supplementary observer coverage will be refunded to the owners and operators of foreign fishing vessels, or kept on deposit to defray the costs of future supplementary observer coverage. Refunds will be made within 60 days after final costs are determined and approved by NMFS.

(i) Supplementary observer contractors -

(1) Contractor eligibility. Supplementary observers will be obtained by NMFS from persons or firms having established contracts to provide NMFS with observers. In the event no such contract is in place, NMFS will use established, competitive contracting procedures to select persons or firms to provide supplementary observers. The services supplied by the supplementary observer contractors will be as described within the contract and as specified below.

(2) Supplementary observer contractors must submit for the approval of the Assistant Administrator the following:

(i) A copy of any contract, including all attachments, amendments, and enclosures thereto, between the contractor and the owners and operators of foreign fishing vessels for whom the contractor will provide supplementary observer services.

(ii) All application information for persons whom the contractor desires to employ as certified supplementary observers.

(iii) Billing schedules and billings to the owners and operators of foreign fishing vessels for further transmission to the designated representative of the appropriate foreign nation.

(iv) All data on costs.

(j) Supplementary observers - certification, training -

(1) Certification. The appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director will certify persons as qualified for the position of supplementary observer once the following conditions are met:

(i) The candidate is a citizen or national of the United States.

(ii) The candidate has education or experience equivalent to the education or experience required of persons used as observers by NMFS as either Federal personnel or contract employees. The education and experience required for certification may vary according to the requirements of managing the foreign fishery in which the supplementary observer is to be deployed. Documentation of U.S. citizenship or nationality, and education or experience will be provided from personal qualification statements on file with NMFS contractors who provide supplementary observer services, and will not require the submission of additional information to NMFS.

(2) Training. Prior to deployment to foreign fishing vessels, certified supplementary observers must also meet the following conditions:

(i) Each certified supplementary observer must satisfactorily complete a course of training approved by the appropriate Regional Administrator or Science and Research Director as equivalent to that received by persons used as observers by NMFS as either Federal personnel or contract employees. The course of training may vary according to the foreign fishery in which the supplementary observer is to be deployed.

(ii) Each certified supplementary observer must agree in writing to abide by standards of conduct as set forth in Department of Commerce Administrative Order 202-735 (as provided by the contractor).

(k) Supplementary observer certification suspension or revocation.

(1) Certification of a supplementary observer may be suspended or revoked by the Assistant Administrator under the following conditions:

(i) A supplementary observer fails to perform the duties specified in paragraph (g)(2) of this section.

(ii) A supplementary observer fails to abide by the standards of conduct described by Department of Commerce Administrative Order 202-735.

(2) The suspension or revocation of the certification of a supplementary observer by the Assistant Administrator may be based on the following:

(i) Boarding inspection reports by authorized officers of the USCG or NMFS, or other credible information, that indicate a supplementary observer has failed to abide by the established standards of conduct; or

(ii) An analysis by NMFS of the data collected by a supplementary observer indicating improper or incorrect data collection or recording. The failure to properly collect or record data is sufficient to justify decertification of supplementary observers; no intent to defraud need be demonstrated.

(3) The Assistant Administrator will notify the supplementary observer, in writing, of the Assistant Administrator's intent to suspend or revoke certification, and the reasons therefor, and provide the supplementary observer a reasonable opportunity to respond. If the Assistant Administrator determines that there are disputed questions of material fact, then the Assistant Administrator may in this respect appoint an examiner to make an informal fact-finding inquiry and prepare a report and recommendations.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7074, 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 64 FR 39020, July 21, 1999]

§ 600.507 Recordkeeping.

(a) General. The owner and operator of each FFV must maintain timely and accurate records required by this section as modified by the regulations for the fishery in which the FFV is engaged.

(1) The owner and operator of each FFV must maintain all required records in English, based on Greenwich mean time (GMT) unless otherwise specified in the regulation, and make them immediately available for inspection upon the request of an authorized officer or observer.

(2) The owner and operator of each FFV must retain all required records on board the FFV whenever it is in the EEZ, for 3 years after the end of the permit period.

(3) The owner and operator of each FFV must retain the required records and make them available for inspection upon the request of an authorized officer at any time during the 3 years after the end of the permit period, whether or not such records are on board the vessel.

(4) The owner and operator of each FFV must provide to the Assistant Administrator, in the form and at the times prescribed, any other information requested that the Assistant Administrator determines is necessary to fulfill the fishery conservation, management and enforcement purposes of the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

(b) Communications log. The owner and operator of each FFV must record in a separate communications log, at the time of transmittal, the time and content of each notification made under § 600.504.

(c) Transfer log. Except for the transfer of unsorted, unprocessed fish via codend from a catching vessel to a processing vessel (Activity Code 2 or 4), the owner and operator of each FFV must record, in a separate transfer log, each transfer or receipt of any fish or fishery product, including quantities transferred or offloaded outside the EEZ. The operator must record in the log within 12 hours of the completion of the transfer:

(1) The time and date (GMT) and location (in geographic coordinates) the transfer began and was completed.

(2) The product weight, by species and product (use species and product codes), of all fish transferred, to the nearest 0.01 mt.

(3) The name, IRCS, and permit number of both the FFV offloading the fish and the FFV receiving the fish.

(d) Daily fishing log.

(1) The owner or operator of each FFV authorized to catch fish (Activity Code 1) must maintain a daily fishing log of the effort, catch and production of the FFV, as modified by paragraph (d)(2) of this section and the regulations for the fishery in which the FFV is engaged. The operator must maintain on a daily and cumulative basis for the permit period a separate log for each fishery (see table 2 to § 600.502) in which the FFV is engaged according to this section and in the format specified in the instructions provided with the permit or other format authorized under paragraph (i) of this section. Daily effort entries are required for each day the vessel conducts fishing operations within the EEZ. Daily entries are not required whenever the FFV is in port or engaged in a joint venture in the internal waters of a state. Each page of log may contain entries pertaining to only one day's fishing operations or one gear set, whichever is longer.

(2) The owner or operator of each FFV authorized to catch fish (Activity Code 1) and that delivers all catches to a processing vessel, must maintain only “SECTION ONE-EFFORT”, of the daily fishing log, provided the processing vessel maintains a daily consolidated fishing log as described in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section.

(e) Daily fishing log - contents. The daily fishing log must contain the following information, as modified by paragraph (d)(2) of this section and the regulations for the fishery in which the FFV is engaged, and be completed according to the format and instructions provided with the permit or other format authorized under paragraph (i) of this section.

(1) “SECTION ONE-EFFORT” must contain on a daily basis -

(i) A consecutive page number, beginning with the first day the vessel started fishing operations within the EEZ and continuing throughout the log.

(ii) The date (based on GMT).

(iii) The FFV's name.

(iv) The FFV's IRCS.

(v) The FFV's U.S. permit number.

(vi) The FFV's noon (1200 GMT) position in geographic coordinates.

(vii) The master or operator's signature or title.

(2) “SECTION ONE-EFFORT” must contain, for each trawl or set, as appropriate to the gear type employed -

(i) The consecutive trawl or set number, beginning with the first set of the calendar year.

(ii) The fishing area in which the trawl or set was completed.

(iii) The gear type.

(iv) The time the gear was set.

(v) The position of the set.

(vi) The course of the set.

(vii) The sea depth.

(viii) The depth of the set.

(ix) The duration of the set.

(x) The hauling time.

(xi) The position of the haul.

(xii) The number of pots or longline units (where applicable).

(xiii) The average number of hooks per longline unit (where applicable).

(xiv) The trawl speed (where applicable).

(xv) The mesh size of the trawl's codend (where applicable).

(xvi) The estimated total weight of the catch for the trawl of set, to at least the nearest metric ton round weight.

(3) “SECTION TWO-CATCH” must contain, for each trawl or set -

(i) The consecutive set or trawl number from “SECTION ONE”.

(ii) The catch of each allocated species or species group to at least the nearest 0.1 mt round weight.

(iii) The prohibited species catch to at least the nearest 0.1 mt round weight or by number, as required by the regulations for the fishery in which the FFV is engaged.

(iv) The species code of each marine mammal caught and its condition when released.

(4) “SECTION TWO-CATCH” must contain, on a daily basis -

(i) The species codes for all allocated or prohibited species or species groups caught.

(ii) For each allocated species - the amount, to at least the nearest 0.1 mt, and the daily disposition, either processed for human consumption, used for fishmeal, or discarded; the daily catch by fishing area; the daily catch for all fishing areas; and the cumulative total catch.

(iii) For the total catch of allocated species - the amount to at least the nearest 0.1 mt and the daily disposition, daily total catch by fishing area, daily total catch for all fishing areas, and cumulative total catch.

(iv) The catch by fishing area, daily total, and cumulative total of each prohibited species.

(5) “SECTION THREE - PRODUCTION” must contain, on a daily basis, for each allocated species caught and product produced -

(i) The product by species code and product type.

(ii) The daily product recovery rate of each species and product.

(iii) The daily total product produced by species to at least the nearest 0.01 mt.

(iv) The cumulative total of each product to at least the nearest 0.01 mt.

(v) The cumulative amount of product transferred.

(vi) The balance of product remaining aboard the FFV.

(vii) The total daily amount, cumulative amount, transferred product and balance of frozen product aboard the FFV to the nearest 0.01 mt.

(viii) Transferred amount and balance of fishmeal and fish oil aboard to at least the nearest 0.01 mt.

(f) Daily consolidated fishing or joint venture log. The operator of each FFV that receives unsorted, unprocessed fish from foreign catching vessels (Activity Code 2) for processing or receives U.S.-harvested fish from U.S. fishing vessels in a joint venture (Activity Code 4) must maintain a daily joint venture log of the effort, catch and production of its associated U.S. or foreign fishing vessels and the processing vessel as modified by the regulations for the fishery in which the FFV is engaged. This log is separate and in addition to the log required by paragraph (d) of this section. The operator must maintain a separate log for each fishery in which the FFV is engaged, on a daily and cumulative basis, according to this section and in the format specified in the instructions provided with the permit or other format authorized under paragraph (i) of this section. Receipts of fish caught outside the EEZ must be included. Each page of the log may contain entries pertaining to only one day's fishing operations.

(g) Daily joint venture log - contents. Daily joint venture logs must contain the following information, as modified by the fishery in which the vessel is engaged, and be completed according to the format and instructions provided with the permit or other format authorized under paragraph (i) of this section.

(1) “SECTION ONE-EFFORT” must contain, on a daily basis, that information required in paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

(2) “SECTION ONE-EFFORT” must contain for each receipt of a codend -

(i) The consecutive codend number, beginning with the first codend received for the calendar year.

(ii) The name of the U.S. fishing vessel or the name and IRCS of the foreign fishing vessel the codend was received from.

(iii) The fishing area where the codend was received.

(iv) The time the codend was received.

(v) The position the codend was received.

(vi) The estimated weight of the codend to at least the nearest metric ton round weight.

(3) “SECTION TWO-CATCH” must contain, for each codend received -

(i) The consecutive codend number from “SECTION ONE”.

(ii) The receipts of each authorized species or species group and its disposition, either processed for human consumption, used for fishmeal, discarded, or returned to the U.S. fishing vessel, to at least the nearest 0.1 mt round weight.

(iii) The estimated receipts of each prohibited species or species group and its disposition, either discarded or returned to the U.S. fishing vessel if authorized in the fishery in which the U.S. vessel is engaged, to at least the nearest 0.1 mt round weight.

(iv) The species code of each marine mammal received and its condition when released.

(4) “SECTION TWO-CATCH” must contain on a daily basis -

(i) The species codes of all authorized or prohibited species or species groups received.

(ii) The daily disposition, as described in paragraph (g)(3)(ii) of this section, daily total, and cumulative total receipts of each authorized species or species groups.

(iii) The daily disposition, daily total and cumulative total receipts of all authorized species or species groups.

(iv) The daily and cumulative total receipts of prohibited species groups and their disposition as described in paragraph (g)(3)(iii) of this section.

(5) “SECTION THREE - PRODUCTION” must contain, on a daily basis, for each authorized species or species group received and product produced, that information required in paragraph (e)(5) of this section.

(h) Daily log maintenance. The logs required by paragraphs (e) through (g) of this section must be maintained separately for each fishery (see table 2 to § 600.502).

(1) The effort section (all of “SECTION ONE”) of the daily logs must be updated within 2 hours of the hauling or receipt time. The catch or receipt by trawl or set (“SECTION TWO”) must be entered within 12 hours of the hauling or receipt time. The daily and cumulative total catch or receipts (“SECTION TWO”) and the production portion (“SECTION THREE”) of the log must be updated within 12 hours of the end of the day on which the catch was taken. The date of catch is the day and time (GMT) the gear is hauled.

(2) Entries for total daily and cumulative catch or receipt weights (disposition “C” or “M”) must be based on the most accurate method available to the vessel, either scale round weights or factory weights converted to round weights. Entries for daily and cumulative weights of discarded or returned fish (disposition “D” or “R”) must be based on the most accurate method available to the vessel, either actual count, scale round weight, or estimated deck weights. Entries for product weights must be based on the number of production units (pans, boxes, blocks, trays, cans, or bags) and the average weight of the production unit, with reasonable allowances for water added. Allowances for water added cannot exceed 5 percent of the unit weight. Product weights cannot be based on the commercial or arbitrary wholesale weight of the product, but must be based on the total actual weight of the product as determined by representative samples.

(3) The owner or operator must make all entries in indelible ink, with corrections to be accomplished by lining out and rewriting, rather than erasure.

(i) Alternative log formats. As an alternative to the use of the specific formats provided, a Nation may submit a proposed log format for FFV's of that Nation for a general type of fishery operation in a fishery (i.e., joint venture operations) to the appropriate Regional Administrator and the USCG commander (see tables 1 and 2 to § 600.502). With the agreement of the USCG commander, the Regional Administrator may authorize the use of that log format for vessels of the requesting Nation.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998]

§ 600.508 Fishing operations.

(a) Catching. Each FFV authorized for activity code 1 may catch fish. An FFV may retain its catch of any species or species group for which there is an unfilled national allocation. All fish caught will be counted against the national allocation, even if the fish are discarded, unless exempted by the regulations of the fishery in which the FFV is engaged. Catching operations may be conducted as specified by the regulations of the fishery in which the FFV is engaged and as modified by the FFV's permit.

(b) Scouting. Each FFV authorized for Activity Codes 1 through 6 may scout for fish. Scouting may be conducted only in the fisheries area authorized by the scouting vessel's permit and under such other circumstances as may be designated in this subpart or the permit.

(c) Processing. Each FFV with Activity Code 1 or 2 may process fish. Processing may only be conducted whenever and wherever catching operations for FFV's of that Nation are permitted, whenever and wherever joint venture operations are authorized by an FFV's permit under Activity Code 4, and under such other circumstances as may be designated in this subpart or the permit.

(d) Support. Each FFV with Activity Codes 1, 2, 3, 5, or 8 may support other permitted FFV's. Each FFV with Activity Codes 4 or 6 may support U.S. vessels. Support operations may be conducted only in the fisheries areas authorized by the supporting vessel's permit, and under such other circumstances as may be designated in this subpart or the permit.

(e) Joint ventures. Each FFV with Activity Code 4 in addition to Activity Codes 1 or 2 may also conduct operations with U.S. fishing vessels. These joint venture operations with U.S. fishing vessels may be conducted throughout the EEZ, and under such other circumstances as may be designated in these regulations or the permit. FFV's with activity code 4 may continue operations assisting U.S. fishing vessels, despite closures under § 600.511(a).

(f) Internal waters. For FFV's authorized under section 306(c) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act:

(1) Each FFV may engage in fish processing and support of U.S. fishing vessels within the internal waters of that state in compliance with terms and conditions set by the authorizing Governor.

(2) The owner or operator of each FFV must submit weekly reports on the amount of fish received from vessels of the United States and the location(s) where such fish were harvested.

(i) Reports must include:

(A) Vessel identification information for the FFV.

(B) Date of each receipt of fish.

(C) Amount of fish received, by species.

(D) Location(s) from which the fish received were harvested and the name and official number of the vessel of the United States that harvested the fish.

(ii) Owners or operators of FFV's processing fish in internal waters under the provisions of this paragraph (f) must request, from the Regional Administrator, the requirements regarding timing and submission of the reports, at least 15 days prior to the first receipt of fish from a vessel of the United States. The Regional Administrator shall stipulate the timing and submission requirements in writing.

(g) Transshipping. Each FFV with Activity Code 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 10 may transship in accordance with this subpart and the vessel's permit.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 27183, May 19, 1997; 62 FR 34397, June 26, 1997; 64 FR 39020, July 21, 1999]

§ 600.509 Prohibited species.

(a) The owner or operator of each FFV must minimize its catch or receipt of prohibited species.

(b) After allowing for sampling by an observer (if any), the owner or operator of each FFV must sort its catch of fish received as soon as possible and return all prohibited species and species parts to the sea immediately with a minimum of injury, regardless of condition, unless a different procedure is specified by the regulations for the fishery in which the FFV is engaged. All prohibited species must be recorded in the daily fishing log and other fishing logs as specified by the regulations for the fishery in which the FFV is engaged.

(c) All species of fish that an FFV has not been specifically allocated or authorized under this subpart to retain, including fish caught or received in excess of any allocation or authorization, are prohibited species.

(d) It is a rebuttable presumption that any prohibited species or species part found on board an FFV was caught and retained in violation of this section.

§ 600.510 Gear avoidance and disposal.

(a) Vessel and gear avoidance.

(1) FFV's arriving on fishing grounds where fishing vessels are already fishing or have set their gear for that purpose must ascertain the position and extent of gear already placed in the sea and must not place themselves or their fishing gear so as to interfere with or obstruct fishing operations already in progress. Vessels using mobile gear must avoid fixed fishing gear.

(2) The operator of each FFV must maintain on its bridge a current plot of broadcast fixed-gear locations for the area in which it is fishing, as required by the regulations for the fishery in which the FFV is engaged.

(b) Gear conflicts. The operator of each FFV that is involved in a conflict or that retrieves the gear of another vessel must immediately notify the appropriate USCG commander identified in tables 1 and 2 to § 600.502 and request disposal instructions. Each report must include:

(1) The name of the reporting vessel.

(2) A description of the incident and articles retrieved, including the amount, type of gear, condition, and identification markings.

(3) The location of the incident.

(4) The date and time of the incident.

(c) Disposal of fishing gear and other articles.

(1) The operator of an FFV in the EEZ may not dump overboard, jettison or otherwise discard any article or substance that may interfere with other fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including marine mammals and birds, except in cases of emergency involving the safety of the ship or crew, or as specifically authorized by communication from the appropriate USCG commander or other authorized officer. These articles and substances include, but are not limited to, fishing gear, net scraps, bale straps, plastic bags, oil drums, petroleum containers, oil, toxic chemicals or any manmade items retrieved in an FFV's gear.

(2) The operator of an FFV may not abandon fishing gear in the EEZ.

(3) If these articles or substances are encountered, or in the event of accidental or emergency placement into the EEZ, the vessel operator must immediately report the incident to the appropriate USCG Commander indicated in tables 1 and 2 to § 600.502, and give the information required in paragraph (b) of this section.

§ 600.511 Fishery closure procedures.

(a) Activity Codes 1 and 2 for a fishery are automatically canceled in the following cases, unless otherwise specified by regulations specific to a fishery, when -

(1) The OY for any allocated species or species group has been reached in that fishery;

(2) The TALFF or catch allowance for any allocated species or species group has been reached in that fishery;

(3) The foreign nation's allocation for any allocated species or species group has been reached; or

(4) The letter of credit required in § 600.518(b)(2) is not established and maintained.

(b) Activity Code 4 is automatically canceled when -

(1) The OY for a species with a JVP amount is reached;

(2) The JVP amount for a species or species group is reached; or

(3) The letter of credit required in § 600.518(b)(2) is not established and maintained.

(c) Notification.

(1) The Regional Administrator is authorized to close a fishery on behalf of NMFS. The Regional Administrator will notify each FFV's designated representative of closures.

(2) If possible, notice will be given 48 hours before the closure. However, each Nation and the owners and operators of all FFV's of that Nation are responsible for ending fishing operations when an allocation is reached.

(d) Catch reconciliation. Vessel activity reports, U.S. surveillance observations, observer reports, and foreign catch and effort reports will be used to make the determination listed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. If NMFS estimates of catch or other values made during the season differ from those reported by the foreign fleets, efforts may be initiated by the designated representative of each Nation to resolve such differences with NMFS. If, however, differences still persist after such efforts have been made, NMFS estimates will be the basis for decisions and will prevail.

(e) Duration. Any closure under this section will remain in effect until an applicable new or increased allocation or JVP becomes available or the letter of credit required by § 600.518(b)(2) is reestablished.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998]

§ 600.512 Scientific research.

(a) Scientific research activity. Persons planning to conduct scientific research activities on board a scientific research vessel in the EEZ that may be confused with fishing are encouraged to submit to the appropriate Regional Administrator or Director, 60 days or as soon as practicable prior to its start, a scientific research plan for each scientific activity. The Regional Administrator or Director will acknowledge notification of scientific research activity by issuing to the operator or master of that vessel, or to the sponsoring institution, a Letter of Acknowledgment. This Letter of Acknowledgment is separate and distinct from any permit or consultation required under the MMPA, the ESA, or any other applicable law. The Regional Administrator or Director will include text in the Letter of Acknowledgment informing the applicant that such permits may be required and should be obtained from the agency prior to embarking on the activity. If the Regional Administrator or Director, after review of a research plan, determines that it does not constitute scientific research activity but rather fishing, the Regional Administrator or Director will inform the applicant as soon as practicable and in writing. In making this determination, the Regional Administrator, Director, or designee shall consider: the merits of the individual proposal and the institution(s) involved; whether the proposed activity meets the definition of scientific research activity; and whether the vessel meets all the requirements for a scientific research vessel. Foreign vessels that qualify as scientific research vessels and which are engaged in a scientific research activity may only engage in compensation fishing during the scientific research cruise and in accordance with the applicable scientific research plan. The Regional Administrator or Director may also make recommendations to revise the research plan to ensure the activity will be considered to be a scientific research activity. The Regional Administrator or Director may designate a Science and Research Director, or the Assistant Regional Administrator for Sustainable Fisheries, to receive scientific research plans and issue Letters of Acknowledgment. In order to facilitate identification of the activity as scientific research, persons conducting scientific research activities are advised to carry a copy of the scientific research plan and the Letter of Acknowledgment on board the scientific research vessel and to make it available for inspection upon the request of any authorized officer. It is recommended that for any scientific research activity, any fish, or parts thereof, retained pursuant to such activity be accompanied, during any ex-vessel activities, by a copy of the Letter of Acknowledgment. Activities conducted in accordance with a scientific research plan acknowledged by such a Letter of Acknowledgment are presumed to be scientific research activities. An authorized officer may overcome this presumption by showing that an activity does not fit the definition of scientific research activity or is outside the scope of the scientific research plan.

(b) Reports. Persons conducting scientific research are requested to submit a copy of any cruise report or other publication created as a result of the cruise, including the amount, composition, and disposition of their catch, to the appropriate Science and Research Director.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 74 FR 42793, Aug. 25, 2009]

§ 600.513 Recreational fishing.

(a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section, and §§ 600.10, 600.504(a)(1), and 600.505 (as applicable). Such vessels may conduct recreational fishing within the EEZ and within the boundaries of a state. Any fish caught may not be sold, bartered, or traded.

(b) The owners or operator and any other person aboard any foreign vessel conducting recreational fishing must comply with any Federal laws or regulations applicable to the domestic fishery while in the EEZ, and any state laws or regulations applicable while in state waters.

§ 600.514 Relation to other laws.

(a) Persons affected by these regulations should be aware that other Federal and state statutes may apply to their activities.

(b) Fishing vessel operators must exercise due care in the conduct of fishing activities near submarine cables. Damage to submarine cables resulting from intentional acts or from the failure to exercise due care in the conduct of fishing operations subjects the fishing vessel operator to enforcement action under the International Convention for the Protection of Submarine Cables, and to the criminal penalties prescribed by the Submarine Cable Act (47 U.S.C. 21) and other laws that implement that Convention. Fishing vessel operators also should be aware that the Submarine Cable Act prohibits fishing operations at a distance of less than 1 nautical mile (1.85 km) from a vessel engaged in laying or repairing a submarine cable; or at a distance of less than 0.25 nautical mile (0.46 km) from a buoy or buoys intended to mark the position of a cable when being laid, or when out of order, or broken.

§ 600.515 Interpretation of 16 U.S.C. 1857(4).

Section 307(4) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act prohibits any fishing vessel other than a vessel of the United States (foreign fishing vessel) from operating in the EEZ if all of the fishing gear on board the vessel is not stowed in compliance with that section “unless such vessel is authorized to engage in fishing in the area in which the vessel is operating.” If such a vessel has a permit authorization that is limited to fishing activities other than catching, taking or harvesting (such as support, scouting or processing activities), it must have all of its fishing gear stowed at all times while it is in the EEZ. If such a vessel has a permit authorization to engage in catching, taking or harvesting activities, but such authorization is limited to a specific area within the EEZ, and/or to a specific period of time, the vessel must have all of its fishing gear stowed while it is in the EEZ, except when it is in the specific area authorized, and/or during the specific period of time authorized.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998]

§ 600.516 Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

(a) The TALFF, if any, with respect to any fishery subject to the exclusive fishery management authority of the United States, is that portion of the OY of such fishery, which cannot or will not be harvested by vessels of the United States. Allocations of TALFF are discretionary, except that the total allowable level shall be zero for fisheries determined by the Secretary to have adequate or excess domestic harvest capacity.

(b) Each specification of OY and each assessment of the anticipated U.S. harvest will be reviewed during each fishing season. Adjustments to TALFF's will be made based on updated information relating to status of stocks, estimated and actual performance of domestic and foreign fleets, and other relevant factors.

(c) Specifications of OY and the initial estimates of U.S. harvests and TALFF's at the beginning of the relevant fishing year will be published in the Federal Register. Adjustments to those numbers will be published in the Federal Register upon occasion or as directed by regulations implementing FMPs. For current apportionments, contact the appropriate Regional Administrator or the Director.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 73 FR 67811, Nov. 17, 2008]

§ 600.517 Allocations.

The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, determines the allocation among foreign nations of fish species and species groups. The Secretary of State officially notifies each foreign nation of its allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of harvest of an applicable allocation to fishing vessels is upon the foreign nation and the owner or operator of the FFV.

§ 600.518 Fee schedule for foreign fishing.

(a) Permit application fees. Each vessel permit application submitted under § 600.501 must be accompanied by a fee. The amount of the fee will be determined in accordance with the procedures for determining administrative costs of each special product or service contained in the NOAA Finance Handbook, which is available upon request from the Office of International Affairs (see address at § 600.501(d)(1)). The fee is specified with the application form. At the time the application is submitted, a check for the fees, drawn on a U.S. bank, payable to the order of “Department of Commerce, NOAA,” must be sent to the Assistant Administrator. The permit fee payment must be accompanied by a list of the vessels for which the payment is made. In the case of applications for permits authorizing activity code 10, the permit application fee will be waived if the applicant provides satisfactory documentary proof to the Assistant Administrator that the foreign nation under which the vessel is registered does not collect a fee from a vessel of the United States engaged in similar activities in the waters of such foreign nation. The documentation presented (e.g., copy of foreign fishing regulations applicable to vessels of the United States) must clearly exempt vessels of the United States from such a fee.

(b) Poundage fees -

(1) Rates. If a Nation chooses to accept an allocation, poundage fees must be paid at the rate specified in the following table.

Table - Species and Poundage Fees

[Dollars per metric ton]

Species Poundage fees
Northwest Atlantic Ocean fisheries:
1. Butterfish 277.96
2. Herring, Atlantic 25.75
3. Herring, River 49.59
4. Mackerel, Atlantic 64.76
5. Other finfish 45.48
6. Squid, Illex 97.56
7. Squid, Loligo 321.68

(2) Method of payment of poundage fees and observer fees.

(i) If a Nation chooses to accept an allocation, a revolving letter of credit (L/C) must be established and maintained to cover the poundage fees for at least 25 percent of the previous year's total allocation at the rate in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, or as determined by the Assistant Administrator, plus the observer fees required by paragraph (c) of this section. The L/C must -

(A) Be irrevocable.

(B) Be with a bank subscribing to ICC Pub. 290.

(C) Designate “Department of Commerce, NOAA” as beneficiary;

(D) Allow partial withdrawals.

(E) Be confirmed by a U.S. bank.

(ii) The customer must pay all commissions, transmission, and service charges. No fishing will be allowed until the L/C is established, and authorized written notice of its issuance is provided to the Assistant Administrator.

(3) Assessment of poundage fees. Poundage fees will be assessed quarterly for the actual catch during January through March, April through June, July through September, and October through December. The appropriate Regional Administrator will reconcile catch figures with each country following the procedures of § 600.511(d). When the catch figures are agreed upon, NOAA will present a bill for collection as the documentary demand for payment to the confirming bank. If, after 45 days from the end of the quarter, catches have not been reconciled, the estimate of the Regional Administrator will stand and a bill will be issued for that amount. If necessary, the catch figures may be refined by the Regional Administrator during the next 60 days, and any modifications will be reflected in the next quarter's bill.

(c) Observer fees. The Assistant Administrator will notify the owners or operators of FFV's of the estimated annual costs of placing observers aboard their vessels. The owners or operators of any such vessel must provide for repayment of those costs by including one-fourth of the estimated annual observer fee as determined by the Assistant Administrator in a L/C as prescribed in § 600.518(b)(2). During the fiscal year, payment will be withdrawn from the L/C as required to cover anticipated observer coverage for the upcoming fishery. The Assistant Administrator will reconcile any differences between the estimated cost and actual costs of observer coverage within 90 days after the end of the fiscal year.

(d) Financial assurances.

(1) A foreign nation, or the owners and operators of certain vessels of that foreign nation, may be required by the Assistant Administrator to provide financial assurances. Such assurances may be required if -

(i) Civil and criminal penalties assessed against fishing vessels of the Nation have not effectively deterred violations;

(ii) Vessels of that Nation have engaged in fishing in the EEZ without proper authorization to conduct such activities;

(iii) The Nation's vessel owners have refused to answer administrative charges or summons to appear in court; or

(iv) Enforcement of Magnuson-Stevens Act civil or criminal judgments in the courts of a foreign nation is unattainable.

(2) The level of financial assurances will be guided by the level of penalties assessed and costs to the U.S. Government.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 64 FR 39020, July 21, 1999; 66 FR 28132, May 22, 2001; 76 FR 59305, Sept. 26, 2011]

§ 600.520 Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

(a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat.

(b) Authorized fishery -

(1) Allocations. Foreign vessels may engage in fishing only in accordance with applicable national allocations.

(2) Time and area restrictions.

(i) Fishing, including processing, scouting, and support of foreign or U.S. vessels, is prohibited south of 35°00′ N. lat., and north and east of a line beginning at the shore at 44°22′ N. lat., 67°52′ W. long. and intersecting the boundary of the EEZ at 44°11′12″ N. lat., 67°16′46″ W. long.

(ii) The Regional Administrator will consult with the Council prior to giving notice of any area or time restriction. NMFS will also consult with the USCG if the restriction is proposed to reduce gear conflicts. If NMFS determines after such consultation that the restriction appears to be appropriate, NMFS will publish the proposed restriction in the Federal Register, together with a summary of the information on which the restriction is based. Following a 30-day comment period, NMFS will publish a final action.

(iii) The Regional Administrator may rescind any restriction if he/she determines that the basis for the restriction no longer exists.

(iv) Any notice of restriction shall operate as a condition imposed on the permit issued to the foreign vessels involved in the fishery.

(3) TALFF. The TALFFs for the fisheries of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean are published in the Federal Register. Current TALFFs are also available from the Regional Administrator.

(4) Species definitions. The category “other finfish” used in TALFFs and in allocations includes all species except:

(i) The other allocated species, namely: Short-finned squid, long-finned squid, Atlantic herring, Atlantic mackerel, river herring (includes alewife, blueback herring, and hickory shad), and butterfish.

(ii) The prohibited species, namely: American plaice, American shad, Atlantic cod, Atlantic menhaden, Atlantic redfish, Atlantic salmon, all marlin, all spearfish, sailfish, swordfish, black sea bass, bluefish, croaker, haddock, ocean pout, pollock, red hake, scup, sea turtles, sharks (except dogfish), silver hake, spot, striped bass, summer flounder, tilefish, yellowtail flounder, weakfish, white hake, windowpane flounder, winter flounder, witch flounder, Continental Shelf fishery resources, and other invertebrates (except nonallocated squids).

(5) Closures. The taking of any species for which a Nation has an allocation is permitted, provided that:

(i) The vessels of the foreign nation have not caught the allocation of that Nation for any species or species group (e.g., “other finfish”). When vessels of a foreign nation have caught an applicable allocation of any species, all further fishing other than scouting, processing, or support by vessels of that Nation must cease, even if other allocations have not been reached. Therefore, it is essential that foreign nations plan their fishing strategy to ensure that the reaching of an allocation for one species does not result in the premature closing of a Nation's fishery for other allocated species.

(ii) The fishery has not been closed for other reasons under § 600.511.

(6) Allocation utilization. Foreign fishing vessels may elect to retain or discard allocated species; however, the computation of allocation utilization and fee refunds will be based on the total quantity of that species that was caught. Prohibited species must always be returned to the sea as required under § 600.509.

(c) Fishing areas. For the purposes of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery, fishing areas are that portion of the EEZ shown inside the boundaries of the “three digit statistical areas” described in Figure 1 to this section.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998]

§ 600.525 Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

Fishing by vessels of Canada under the 1981 Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada on Pacific Coast Albacore Tuna Vessels and Port Privileges is regulated only under this section and § 600.530 of this subpart F, and is exempt from any other requirements of this subpart F. Regulations governing fishing by U.S. vessels in waters under the fisheries jurisdiction of the Canada more than 12 nautical miles from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured are found at §§ 300.170-300.176 of chapter II of this title.

[69 FR 31535, June 4, 2004]

§ 600.530 Pacific albacore fishery.

(a) Purpose and scope. This section regulates fishing by Canadian vessels under the 1981 Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada on Pacific Coast Albacore Tuna Vessels and Port Privileges as amended in 2002. Notwithstanding any other provision of this subpart F, fishing vessels of Canada may be authorized to fish in waters under the fisheries jurisdiction of the United States more than 12 nautical miles from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured in accordance with the Treaty and this section, pursuant to Public Law 108-219 (118 Stat. 616; 16 U.S.C. 1821 note).

(b) Definitions. In addition to the definitions in the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act and § 600.10, the terms used in this subpart have the following meanings:

Fishing under the Treaty as amended in 2002 means to engage in fishing for albacore tuna in waters under the fisheries jurisdiction of the United States seaward of 12 nautical miles from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured.

Regional Administrator means the Regional Administrator, Southwest Region, NMFS, 501 W. Ocean Boulevard, Suite 4200, Long Beach, CA 90802-4213, or a designee.

Reporting Office means the office designated by the Regional Administrator to take hail-in and hail-out reports from U.S. and Canadian vessel operators.

Treaty means the 1981 Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada on Pacific Coast Albacore Tuna Vessels and Port Privileges as amended in 2002.

(c) Vessel list. A Canadian vessel is not eligible to fish for albacore in U.S. waters under the Treaty as amended in 2002 unless the vessel is on the list provided to NMFS by the Government of Canada of vessels authorized by Canada to fish under the Treaty as amended in 2002.

(d) Vessel identification. A Canadian vessel fishing under the Treaty as amended in 2002 must clearly display its Canadian vessel registration number followed by the letter C in the same height and size as the numerals, consistent with Canadian vessel marking requirements.

(e) Hail-in reports. The operator of a Canadian Vessel eligible to fish for albacore in U.S. waters under the Treaty as amended in 2002 must file a hail-in report with the Reporting Office at least 24 hours prior to beginning any such fishing.

(f) Hail-out Reports. The operator of a Canadian vessel that has been fishing in U.S. waters under the Treaty as amended in 2002 must file a hail-out report with the Reporting Office at least 24 hours prior to exiting from U.S. waters.

(g) Prohibitions. It is prohibited for the operator of a Canadian vessel to engage in fishing in U.S. waters if the vessel:

(1) Is not on the vessel list in paragraph (c) of this section;

(2) Has not filed a hail-in report to advise of an intent to fish under the Treaty as amended in 2002 prior to engaging in such fishing; or

(3) Is not clearly marked in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.

[69 FR 31535, June 4, 2004]

Subpart G - Preemption of State Authority Under Section 306(b)
§ 600.605 General policy.

It is the policy of the Secretary that preemption proceedings will be conducted expeditiously. The administrative law judge and counsel or other representative for each party are encouraged to make every effort at each stage of the proceedings to avoid delay.

§ 600.610 Factual findings for Federal preemption.

(a) The two factual findings for Federal preemption of state management authority over a fishery are:

(1) The fishing in a fishery that is covered by an FMP implemented under the Magnuson-Stevens Act is engaged in predominately within the EEZ and beyond such zone.

(2) A state has taken any action, or omitted to take any action, the results of which will substantially and adversely affect the carrying out of such FMP.

(b) Whether fishing is engaged in “predominately” within or beyond the EEZ will be determined after consideration of relevant factors, including but not limited to, the catch (based on numbers, value, or weight of fish caught, or other relevant factors) or fishing effort during the appropriate period, and in light of historical patterns of the distribution of catch or fishing effort for such stock or stocks of fish.

(c) Whether relevant effects are substantial will be determined after consideration of the magnitude of such actual or potential effects. Relevant to this determination are various factors, including but not limited to, the proportion of the fishery (stock or stocks of fish and fishing for such stocks) that is subject to the effects of a particular state's action or omission, the characteristics and status (including migratory patterns and biological condition) of the stock or stocks of fish in the fishery, and the similarity or dissimilarity between the goals, objectives, or policies of the state's action or omission and the management goals or objectives specified in the FMP for the fishery or between the state and Federal conservation and management measures of the fishery.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998]

§ 600.615 Commencement of proceedings.

(a) Notice of proposed preemption.

(1) If a proceeding under this part is deemed necessary, the Administrator must issue a notice of proposed preemption to the Attorney General of the State or States concerned. The notice will contain:

(i) A recital of the legal authority and jurisdiction for instituting the proceeding.

(ii) A concise statement of the § 600.610 factual findings for Federal preemption upon which the notice is based.

(iii) The time, place, and date of the hearing.

(2) The notice of proposed preemption will also be published in the Federal Register. This notification may be combined with any notice of proposed rulemaking published under paragraph (d)(1) of this section.

(b) Response. The state will have the opportunity to respond in writing to the notice of proposed preemption.

(c) Amendment. The Administrator may, at any time prior to the Secretary's decision, withdraw the notice of proposed preemption. Upon motion of either party before the record is closed, the administrative law judge may amend the notice of proposed preemption.

(d) Proposed regulations -

(1) In general. If additional regulations are required to govern fishing within the boundaries of a state, the Administrator may publish proposed regulations in the Federal Register concurrently with issuing the notification indicated in paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) Emergency actions. Nothing in this section will prevent the Secretary from taking emergency action under section 305(c) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998]

§ 600.620 Rules pertaining to the hearing.

(a) The civil procedure rules of the NOAA currently set forth in 15 CFR part 904, subpart C (or as subsequently amended), apply to the proceeding after its commencement by service of notice (pursuant to § 600.615) and prior to the Secretary's decision (§ 600.625), except that the following sections will not apply:

(1) 15 CFR 904.201 (Definitions);

(2) 15 CFR 904.206(a)(1) (Duties and powers of Judge); and

(3) 15 CFR 904.272 (Administrative review of decision).

(b) Additional duties and powers of judge -

(1) Time periods. The administrative law judge is authorized to modify all time periods pertaining to the course of the hearing (under §§ 600.615 and 600.620) to expedite the proceedings, upon application and appropriate showing of need or emergency circumstances by a party.

(2) Intervention. Intervention by persons not parties is not allowed.

§ 600.625 Secretary's decision.

(a) The Secretary will, on the basis of the hearing, record the administrative law judge's recommended decision:

(1) Accept or reject any of the findings or conclusions of the administrative law judge and decide whether the factual findings exist for Federal preemption of a state's authority within its boundaries (other than in its internal waters) with respect to the fishery in question;

(2) Reserve decision on the merits or withdraw the notice of proposed preemption; or

(3) Remand the case to the administrative law judge for further proceedings as may be appropriate, along with a statement of reasons for the remand.

(b) Notification.

(1) If the factual findings for Federal preemption are determined to exist, the Secretary will notify in writing the Attorney General of that state and the appropriate Council(s) of the preemption of that state's authority. The Secretary will also direct the Administrator to promulgate appropriate regulations proposed under § 600.615(d) and otherwise to begin regulating the fishery within the state's boundaries (other than in its internal waters).

(2) If the factual findings for Federal preemption are determined not to exist, the Secretary will notify, in writing, the Attorney General of the state and the appropriate Council(s) of that determination. The Secretary will also direct the Administrator to issue a notice withdrawing any regulations proposed under § 600.615(d).

§ 600.630 Application for reinstatement of state authority.

(a) Application or notice.

(1) At any time after the promulgation of regulations under § 600.625(b)(1) to regulate a fishery within a state's boundaries, the affected state may apply to the Secretary for reinstatement of state authority. The Secretary may also serve upon such state a notice of intent to terminate such Federal regulation. A state's application must include a clear and concise statement of:

(i) The action taken by the State to correct the action or omission found to have substantially and adversely affected the carrying out of the FMP; or

(ii) Any changed circumstances that affect the relationship of the state's action or omission to take action to the carrying out of the FMP (including any amendment to such plan); and

(iii) Any laws, regulations, or other materials that the state believes support the application.

(2) Any such application received by the Secretary or notice issued to the State will be published in the Federal Register.

(b) Informal response. The Secretary has sole discretion to accept or reject the application or response. If the Secretary accepts the application or rejects any responses and finds that the reasons for regulation of the fishery within the boundaries of the state no longer prevail, the Secretary will promptly terminate such regulation and publish in the Federal Register any regulatory amendments necessary to accomplish that end.

(c) Hearing. The Secretary has sole discretion to direct the Administrator to schedule hearings for the receipt of evidence by an administrative law judge. Hearings before the administrative law judge to receive such evidence will be conducted in accordance with § 600.620. Upon conclusion of such hearings, the administrative law judge will certify the record and a recommended decision to the Secretary. If the Secretary, upon consideration of the state's application or any response to the notice published under § 600.630(a)(2), the hearing record, the recommended decision, and any other relevant materials finds that the reasons for regulation of the fishery within the boundaries of the state no longer prevail, the Secretary will promptly terminate such regulation and publish in the Federal Register any regulatory amendments necessary to accomplish that end.

Subpart H - General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries
§ 600.705 Relation to other laws.

(a) General. Persons affected by these regulations should be aware that other Federal and state statutes and regulations may apply to their activities. Vessel operators may wish to refer to USCG regulations found in the Code of Federal Regulations title 33 - Navigation and Navigable Waters and 46 - Shipping; 15 CFR part 904, subpart D - Permit Sanctions and Denials; and title 43 - Public Lands (in regard to marine sanctuaries).

(b) State responsibilities. Certain responsibilities relating to data collection and enforcement may be performed by authorized state personnel under a state/Federal agreement for data collection and a tripartite agreement among the state, the USCG, and the Secretary for enforcement.

(c) Submarine cables. Fishing vessel operators must exercise due care in the conduct of fishing activities near submarine cables. Damage to the submarine cables resulting from intentional acts or from the failure to exercise due care in the conduct of fishing operations subjects the fishing vessel operator to the criminal penalties prescribed by the Submarine Cable Act (47 U.S.C. 21) which implements the International Convention for the Protection of Submarine Cables. Fishing vessel operators also should be aware that the Submarine Cable Act prohibits fishing operations at a distance of less than 1 nautical mile (1.85 km) from a vessel engaged in laying or repairing a submarine cable; or at a distance of less than 0.25 nautical mile (0.46 km) from a buoy or buoys intended to mark the position of a cable when being laid or when out of order or broken.

(d) Marine mammals. Regulations governing exemption permits and the recordkeeping and reporting of the incidental take of marine mammals are set forth in part 229 of this title.

(e) Halibut fishing. Fishing for halibut is governed by regulations of the International Pacific Halibut Commission set forth at part 300 of this title.

(f) Marine sanctuaries. Regulations governing fishing activities inside the boundaries of national marine sanctuaries are set forth in 15 CFR part 922.

(g) High seas fishing activities. Regulations governing permits and requirements for fishing activities on the high seas are set forth in 50 CFR part 300, subparts A and R. Any vessel operating on the high seas must obtain a permit issued pursuant to the High Seas Fishing Compliance Act.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 80 FR 62500, Oct. 16, 2015; 81 FR 51138, Aug. 3, 2016; 85 FR 15392, Mar. 18, 2020]

§ 600.710 Permits.

Regulations pertaining to permits required for certain fisheries are set forth in the parts of this chapter governing those fisheries.

§ 600.715 Recordkeeping and reporting.

Regulations pertaining to records and reports required for certain fisheries are set forth in the parts of this chapter governing those fisheries.

§ 600.720 Vessel and gear identification.

Regulations pertaining to special vessel and gear markings required for certain fisheries are set forth in the parts of this chapter governing those fisheries.

§ 600.725 General prohibitions.

It is unlawful for any person to do any of the following:

(a) Possess, have custody or control of, ship, transport, offer for sale, sell, purchase, land, import, export or re-export, any fish or parts thereof taken or retained in violation of the Magnuson-Stevens Act or any other statute administered by NOAA or any regulation or permit issued thereunder, or import, export, transport, sell, receive, acquire, or purchase in interstate or foreign commerce any fish taken, possessed, transported, or sold in violation of any foreign law or regulation, or any treaty or in contravention of a binding conservation measure adopted by an international agreement or organization to which the United States is a party.

(b) Transfer or attempt to transfer, directly or indirectly, any U.S.-harvested fish to any foreign fishing vessel, while such vessel is in the EEZ, unless the foreign fishing vessel has been issued a permit under section 204 of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, which authorizes the receipt by such vessel of U.S.- harvested fish.

(c) Fail to comply immediately with enforcement and boarding procedures specified in § 600.730.

(d) Refuse to allow an authorized officer to board a fishing vessel or to enter areas of custody for purposes of conducting any search, inspection, or seizure in connection with the enforcement of the Magnuson-Stevens Act or any other statute administered by NOAA.

(e) Dispose of fish or parts thereof or other matter in any manner, after any communication or signal from an authorized officer, or after the approach by an authorized officer or an enforcement vessel or aircraft.

(f) Assault, resist, oppose, impede, intimidate, threaten, or interfere with any authorized officer in the conduct of any search, inspection, or seizure in connection with enforcement of the Magnuson-Stevens Act or any other statute administered by NOAA.

(g) Interfere with, delay, or prevent by any means, the apprehension of another person, knowing that such person has committed any act prohibited by the Magnuson-Stevens Act or any other statute administered by NOAA.

(h) Resist a lawful arrest for any act prohibited under the Magnuson-Stevens Act or any other statute administered by NOAA.

(i) Make any false statement, oral or written, to an authorized officer concerning the taking, catching, harvesting, landing, purchase, sale, offer of sale, possession, transport, import, export, or transfer of any fish, or attempts to do any of the above.

(j) Interfere with, obstruct, delay, or prevent by any means an investigation, search, seizure, or disposition of seized property in connection with enforcement of the Magnuson-Stevens Act or any other statute administered by NOAA.

(k) Fish in violation of the terms or conditions of any permit or authorization issued under the Magnuson-Stevens Act or any other statute administered by NOAA.

(l) Fail to report catches as required while fishing pursuant to an exempted fishing permit.

(m) On a scientific research vessel, engage in fishing other than recreational fishing authorized by applicable state or Federal regulations.

(n) Trade, barter, or sell; or attempt to trade, barter, or sell fish possessed or retained while fishing pursuant to an authorization for an exempted educational activity.

(o) Harass or sexually harass an authorized officer or an observer.

(p) Fail to show proof of passing the USCG Commercial Fishing Vessel Safety Examination or the alternate NMFS safety equipment examination, or fail to maintain the vessel safety conditions necessary to pass the examination, when required by NMFS pursuant to § 600.746.

(q) Fail to display a Commercial Fishing Vessel Safety Examination decal or a valid certificate of compliance or inspection pursuant to § 600.746.

(r) Fail to provide to an observer, a NMFS employee, or a designated observer provider information that has been requested pursuant to § 600.746, or fail to allow an observer, a NMFS employee, or a designated observer provider to inspect any item described at § 600.746.

(s) Fish without an observer when the vessel is required to carry an observer.

(t) Assault, oppose, impede, intimidate, or interfere with a NMFS-approved observer.

(u)

(1) Prohibit or bar by command, impediment, threat, coercion, interference, or refusal of reasonable assistance, an observer from conducting his or her duties as an observer; or

(2) Tamper with or destroy samples or equipment.

(v) The use of any gear or participation in a fishery not on the following list of authorized fisheries and gear is prohibited after December 1, 1999. A fish, regardless whether targeted, may be retained only if it is taken within a listed fishery, is taken with a gear authorized for that fishery, and is taken in conformance with all other applicable regulations. Listed gear can only be used in a manner that is consistent with existing laws and regulations. The list of fisheries and authorized gear does not, in any way, alter or supersede any definitions or regulations contained elsewhere in this chapter. A person or vessel is prohibited from engaging in fishing or employing fishing gear when such fishing gear is prohibited or restricted by regulation under an FMP or other applicable law. However, after December 1, 1999, an individual fisherman may notify the appropriate Council, or the Director, in the case of Atlantic highly migratory species, of the intent to use a gear or participate in a fishery not already on the list. Ninety days after such notification, the individual may use the gear or participate in that fishery unless regulatory action is taken to prohibit the use of the gear or participate in the fishery (e.g., through emergency or interim regulations). The list of authorized fisheries and gear is as follows:

Fishery Authorized gear types
I. New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC)
1. Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery (FMP):
A. Dredge fishery A. Dredge.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Hand harvest fishery C. Hand harvest.
D. Recreational fishery D. Hand harvest.
2. Iceland Scallop Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Dredge fishery A. Dredge.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
3. Atlantic Salmon Fishery (FMP) No harvest or possession in the EEZ.
4. Striped Bass Fishery (Non-FMP) No harvest or possession in the EEZ.
5. Northeast (NE) Multispecies Fishery (FMP):
A. NE multispecies sink gillnet fishery A. Gillnet.
B. North Atlantic bottom trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Groundfish hook and line fishery C. Longline, handline, rod and reel.
D. Mixed species trap and pot fishery D. Trap, pot.
E. Dredge fishery E. Dredge.
F. Seine fishery F. Seine.
G. Recreational fishery G. Rod and reel, handline, spear.
6. American Lobster Fishery (FMP):
A. Lobster pot and trap fishery A. Pot, trap.
B. North Atlantic bottom trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Dredge fishery C. Dredge.
D. Hand harvest fishery D. Hand harvest.
E. Gillnet fishery E. Gillnet.
F. Recreational fishery F. Pot, trap, hand harvest.
7. Atlantic Herring Fishery (FMP):
A. Trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Purse seine fishery B. Purse seine.
C. Gillnet fishery C. Gillnet.
D. Herring pair trawl fishery D. Pair trawl.
E. Dredge fishery E. Dredge.
F. Recreational fishery F. Hook and line, gillnet.
8. Spiny Dogfish Fishery (FMP jointly managed by MAFMC and NEFMC):
A. Gillnet fishery A. Gillnet.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Hook and line fishery C. Hook and line, rod and reel, spear.
D. Dredge fishery D. Dredge.
E. Longline fishery E. Longline.
F. Recreational fishery F. Hook and line, rod and reel, spear.
9. Atlantic Bluefish Fishery (FMP managed by MAFMC):
A. Pelagic longline and hook and line fishery A. Longline, handline.
B. Seine fishery B. Purse seine, seine.
C. Mixed species pot and trap fishery C. Pot, trap.
D. Bluefish, croaker, flounder trawl fishery D. Trawl.
E. Gillnet fishery E. Gillnet.
F. Dredge fishery F. Dredge.
G. Recreational fishery G. Rod and reel, handline, trap, pot, spear.
10. Atlantic Mackerel, Squid and Butterfish Fishery (FMP managed by the MAFMC):
A. Mackerel, squid, and butterfish trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Gillnet fishery B. Gillnet.
C. Longline and hook-and-line fishery C. Longline, handline, rod and reel.
D. Purse seine fishery D. Purse seine.
E. Mixed species pot and trap fishery E. Pot, trap.
F. Dredge fishery F. Dredge.
G. Dip net fishery G. Dip net.
H. Bandit gear fishery H. Bandit gear.
I. Recreational fishery I. Rod and reel, handline, pot, spear.
11. Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fishery (FMP managed by the MAFMC):
A. Commercial fishery A. Dredge, hand harvest.
B. Recreational fishery B. Hand harvest.
12. Atlantic Menhaden Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Purse seine fishery A. Purse seine.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Gillnet fishery C. Gillnet.
D. Commercial hook-and-line fishery D. Hook and line.
E. Recreational fishery E. Hook and line, snagging, cast nets.
13. Weakfish Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Commercial fishery A. Trawl, gillnet, hook and line.
B. Recreational fishery B. Hook and line, spear.
14. Atlantic Mussel and Sea Urchin Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Dredge fishery A. Dredge.
B. Hand harvest fishery B. Hand harvest.
C. Recreational fishery C. Hand harvest.
15. Atlantic Skate Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Gillnet fishery B. Gillnet.
C. Hook-and-line fishery C. Longline and handline.
D. Dredge fishery D. Dredge.
E. Recreational fishery E. Rod and reel.
16. Crab Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Dredge fishery A. Dredge.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Trap and pot fishery C. Trap, pot.
17. Northern Shrimp Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Shrimp trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Shrimp pot fishery B. Pot.
18. Monkfish Fishery (FMP jointly managed by NEFMC and MAFMC):
A. Trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Gillnet fishery B. Gillnet.
C. Longline fishery C. Longline.
D. Dredge fishery D. Dredge.
E. Trap and pot fishery E. Trap, pot.
F. Recreational fishery F. Rod and reel, spear.
19. Summer Flounder, Scup, Black Sea Bass Fishery (FMP managed by MAFMC):
A. Trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Longline and hook and line fishery B. Longline, handline.
C. Mixed species pot and trap fishery C. Pot, trap.
D. Gillnet fishery D. Gillnet.
E. Dredge fishery E. Dredge.
F. Recreational fishery F. Rod and reel, handline, pot, trap, spear.
20. Hagfish Fishery (Non-FMP) Trap, pot.
21. Tautog Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Gillnet fishery A. Gillnet.
B. Pot and trap fishery B. Pot, trap.
C. Rod and reel, hook and line fishery C. Rod and reel, handline, hook and line.
D. Trawl fishery D. Trawl.
E. Spear fishery E. Spear.
F. Fyke net fishery F. Fyke net.
G. Recreational fishery G. Rod and reel, hook and line, handline, spear.
22. Recreational Fishery (Non-FMP) Rod and reel, handline, spear, hook and line, hand harvest, bandit gear, powerhead, gillnet, cast net, pot, trap, dip net, bully net, snare.
23. Commercial Fishery (Non-FMP) Trawl, pot, trap, gillnet, pound net, dredge, seine, handline, longline, hook and line, rod and reel, hand harvest, purse seine, spear, bandit gear, powerhead, dip net, bully net, snare, cast net, barrier net, slurp gun, allowable chemicals.
24. Dolphin/wahoo fishery (FMP managed by SAFMC) Automatic reel, bandit gear, handline, pelagic longline, rod and reel, spear (including powerheads).
II. Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC)
1. Summer Flounder, Scup, Black Sea Bass Fishery (FMP):
A. Trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Pelagic longline and hook and line fishery B. Longline, handline, rod and reel.
C. Mixed species pot and trap fishery C. Pot, trap.
D. Gillnet fishery D. Gillnet.
E. Dredge fishery E. Dredge.
F. Recreational fishery F. Rod and reel, handline, pot, trap, spear.
2. Atlantic Bluefish Fishery (FMP):
A. Bluefish, croaker, and flounder trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Pelagic longline and hook and line fishery B. Longline, handline, bandit gear, rod and reel.
C. Mixed species pot and trap fishery C. Pot, trap.
D. Gillnet fishery D. Gillnet.
E. Seine fishery E. Purse seine, seine.
F. Dredge fishery F. Dredge.
G. Recreational fishery G. Rod and reel, handline, trap, pot, spear.
3. Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery (FMP):
A. Mackerel, squid, and butterfish trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Gillnet fishery B. Gillnet.
C. Longline and hook-and-line fishery C. Longline, handline, rod and reel.
D. Purse seine fishery D. Purse seine.
E. Mixed species pot and trap fishery E. Pot, trap.
F. Dredge fishery F. Dredge.
G. Dip net fishery G. Dip net.
H. Bandit gear fishery H. Bandit gear.
I. Recreational fishery I. Rod and reel, handline, pot, spear.
4. Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fishery (FMP):
A. Commercial fishery A. Dredge, hand harvest.
B. Recreational fishery B. Hand harvest.
5. Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery (FMP managed by NEFMC):
A. Dredge fishery A. Dredge.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Hand harvest fishery C. Hand harvest.
D. Recreational fishery D. Hand harvest.
6. Atlantic Menhaden Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Purse seine fishery A. Purse seine.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Gillnet fishery C. Gillnet.
D. Commercial hook-and-line fishery D. Hook and line.
E. Recreational fishery E. Hook and line, snagging, cast nets.
7. Striped Bass Fishery (Non-FMP) No harvest or possession in the EEZ.
8. Northern Shrimp Trawl Fishery (Non-FMP) Trawl.
9. American Lobster Fishery (FMP managed by NEFMC):
A. Pot and trap fishery A. Pot, trap.
B. Hand harvest fishery B. Hand harvest.
C. Trawl fishery C. Trawl.
D. Dredge fishery D. Dredge.
E. Gillnet fishery E. Gillnet.
F. Recreational fishery F. Pot, trap, hand harvest.
10. Weakfish Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Commercial fishery A. Trawl, gillnet, hook and line, rod and reel.
B. Recreational fishery B. Hook and line, spear.
11. Whelk Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Pot and trap fishery B. Pot, trap.
C. Dredge C. Dredge.
D. Pound net, gillnet, seine D. Pound net, gillnet, seine.
E. Recreational fishery E. Hand harvest.
12. Monkfish Fishery (FMP jointly managed by NEFMC and MAFMC):
A. Trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Longline fishery B. Longline, rod and reel.
C. Gillnet fishery C. Gillnet.
D. Dredge fishery D. Dredge.
E. Trap and pot fishery E. Trap and pot.
F. Recreational fishery F. Rod and reel, spear.
13. Tilefish Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Groundfish hook-and-line fishery A. Longline, handline, rod and fishery reel.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Recreational fishery C. Rod and reel, spear.
14. Spiny Dogfish Fishery (FMP jointly managed by MAFMC and NEFMC):
A. Gillnet fishery A. Gillnet.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Hook and line fishery C. Hook and line, rod and reel, spear.
D. Dredge fishery D. Dredge.
E. Longline fishery E. Longline.
F. Recreational fishery F. Hook and line, rod and reel, spear.
15. Tautog Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Gillnet fishery A. Gillnet.
B. Pot and trap fishery B. Pot, trap.
C. Rod and reel, hook and line handline fishery C. Rod and reel, hook and line, handline.
D. Trawl fishery D. Trawl.
E. Spear fishery E. Spear.
F. Fyke net fishery F. Fyke net.
G. Recreational fishery G. Rod and reel, handline, hook and line, spear.
16. Coastal Gillnet Fishery (Non-FMP) Gillnet
17. Recreational Fishery (Non-FMP) Rod and reel, handline, spear, hook and line, hand harvest, bandit gear, powerhead, gillnet, cast net.
18. NE Multispecies Fishery (FMP managed by NEFMC):
A. NE multispecies sink gillnet fishery A. Gillnet.
B. North Atlantic bottom trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Groundfish hook and line C. Longline, handline, rod and fishery reel.
D. Mixed species trap and pot fishery D. Trap, pot.
E. Dredge fishery E. Dredge.
F. Seine fishery F. Seine.
G. Recreational fishery G. Rod and reel, handline, spear.
19. Atlantic Skate Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Gillnet fishery B. Gillnet.
C. Hook-and-line fishery C. Longline and handline.
D. Dredge fishery D. Dredge.
E. Recreational fishery E. Rod and reel.
20. Crab Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Dredge fishery A. Dredge.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Trap and pot fishery C. Trap, pot.
21. Atlantic Herring Fishery (FMP managed by the NEFMC):
A. Trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Purse seine fishery B. Purse seine.
C. Gillnet fishery C. Gillnet.
D. Herring pair trawl fishery D. Pair trawl.
E. Dredge fishery E. Dredge.
F. Recreational fishery F. Hook and line, gillnet.
22. South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Fishery (FMP managed by the SAFMC):
A. Commercial fishery A. Longline, rod and reel, bandit gear, handline, spear, powerhead.
B. Black sea bass trap and pot fishery B. Pot, trap.
C. Wreckfish fishery C. Rod and reel, bandit gear, handline.
D. Recreational fishery D. Handline, rod and reel, bandit gear, spear, powerhead.
23. South Atlantic Coastal Migratory Pelagics Fishery (FMP managed by the SAFMC):
A. Commercial Spanish mackerel fishery A. Handline, rod and reel, bandit gear, gillnet, cast net.
B. Commercial king mackerel fishery B. Handline, rod and reel, bandit gear.
C. Other commercial coastal migratory pelagics fishery C. Longline, handline, rod and reel, bandit gear.
D. Recreational fishery D. Bandit gear, rod and reel, handline, spear.
24. Calico Scallops Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Dredge fishery B. Dredge.
C. Recreational fishery C. Hand harvest.
25. Sargassum Fishery (Non-FMP) Trawl.
26. South Atlantic Shrimp Fishery (FMP) Trawl.
27. Commercial Fishery (Non-FMP) Trawl, pot, trap, gillnet, pound net, dredge, seine, handline, longline, hook and line, rod and reel, spear.
28. Dolphin/wahoo fishery (FMP managed by SAFMC) Automatic reel, bandit gear, handline, pelagic longline, rod and reel, spear (including powerheads).
III. South Atlantic Fishery Management Council
1. Golden Crab Fishery (FMP) Trap.
2. Crab Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Dredge fishery A. Dredge.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Trap and pot fishery C. Trap, pot.
3. Atlantic Red Drum Fishery (FMP) No harvest or possession in the EEZ.
4. Coral and Coral Reef Fishery (FMP):
A. Octocoral commercial fishery Hand harvest.
B. Live rock aquaculture fishery Hand harvest.
5. South Atlantic Shrimp Fishery (FMP) Trawl.
6. South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Fishery (FMP):
A. Commercial fishery A. Longline, rod and reel, bandit gear, handline, spear, powerhead.
B. Black sea bass pot fishery B. Pot.
C. Wreckfish fishery C. Rod and reel, bandit gear, handline.
D. Recreational fishery D. Handline, rod and reel, bandit gear, spear, powerhead.
7. South Atlantic Spiny Lobster Fishery (FMP):
A. Commercial fishery A. Trap, pot, dip net, bully net, snare, hand harvest.
B. Recreational fishery B. Dip net, bully net, snare, hand harvest.
8. South Atlantic Coastal Migratory Pelagics Fishery (FMP):
A. Commercial Spanish mackerel fishery A. Handline, rod and reel, bandit gear, gillnet, cast net.
B. Commercial king mackerel fishery B. Handline, rod and reel, bandit gear.
C. [Reserved]
D. Recreational fishery D. Bandit gear, rod and reel, handline, spear.
9. Spiny Dogfish Fishery (FMP jointly managed by NEFMC and SAFMC):
A. Gillnet fishery A. Gillnet.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Hook and line fishery C. Hook and line, rod and reel, spear, bandit gear.
D. Dredge fishery D. Dredge.
E. Longline fishery E. Longline.
F. Recreational fishery F. Hook and line, rod and reel, spear.
10. Smooth Dogfish Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Gillnet fishery A. Gillnet.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Hook and line fishery C. Hook and line, rod and reel, spear, bandit gear.
D. Dredge fishery D. Dredge.
E. Longline fishery E. Longline.
F. Recreational fishery F. Hook and line, rod and reel, spear.
11. Atlantic Menhaden Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Purse seine fishery A. Purse seine.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Gillnet fishery C. Gillnet.
D. Commercial hook-and-line D. Hook and line fishery.
E. Recreational fishery E. Hook and line, snagging, cast nets.
12. Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Trawl Fishery (Non-FMP) Trawl.
13. Bait Fisheries (Non-FMP) Purse seine.
14. Weakfish Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Commercial fishery A. Trawl, gillnet, hook and line.
B. Recreational fishery B. Hook and line, spear.
15. Whelk Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Pot and trap fishery B. Pot, trap.
C. Dredge fishery C. Dredge.
D. Recreational fishery D. Hand harvest.
16. Marine Life Aquarium Fishery (Non-FMP) Dip net, slurp gun, barrier net, drop net, allowable chemical, trap, pot, trawl.
17. Calico Scallop Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Dredge fishery A. Dredge.
B. Trawl fishery B. Trawl.
C. Recreational fishery C. Hand harvest.
18. Summer Flounder Fishery (FMP managed by MAFMC):
A. Commercial fishery A. Trawl, longline, handline, rod and reel, pot, trap, gillnet, dredge.
B. Recreational fishery B. Rod and reel, handline, pot, trap, spear.
19. Bluefish, Croaker, and Flounder Trawl and Gillnet Fishery (Bluefish FMP managed by MAFMC) Trawl, gillnet.
20. Commercial Fishery (Non-FMP) Trawl, gillnet, longline, handline, hook and line, rod and reel, bandit gear, cast net, pot, trap, lampara net, spear.
21. Recreational Fishery (Non-FMP) Rod and reel, handline, spear, hook and line, hand harvest, bandit gear, powerhead, gillnet, cast net.
22. Sargassum Fishery (Non-FMP) Trawl.
23. Octopus Fishery (Non-FMP) Trap, pot.
24. Dolphin/wahoo fishery (FMP) Automatic reel, bandit gear, handline, pelagic longline, rod and reel, spear (including powerheads).
25. Atlantic Migratory Group Cobia (Non-FMP):
A. Commercial Fishery A. Longline, handline, rod and reel, bandit gear, spear.
B. Recreational Fishery B. Bandit gear, rod and reel, handline, spear.
IV. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council
1. Gulf of Mexico Red Drum Fishery (FMP) No harvest or possession in the EEZ.
2. Coral Reef Fishery (FMP):
A. Commercial fishery A. Hand harvest.
B. Recreational fishery B. Hand harvest.
3. Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery (FMP):
A. Snapper-Grouper reef fish longline and hook and line fishery A. Longline, handline, bandit gear, rod and reel, buoy gear.
B. Other commercial fishery B. Spear, powerhead, cast net, trawl.
C. Recreational fishery C. Spear, powerhead, bandit gear, handline, rod reel, cast net.
4. Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Fishery (FMP):
A. Gulf of Mexico commercial fishery A. Trawl butterfly net, skimmer, cast net.
B. Recreational fishery B. Trawl.
5. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Migratory Pelagics Fishery (FMP):
A. Large pelagics longline fishery A. Longline.
B. King/Spanish mackerel gillnet fishery B. Gillnet.
C. Pelagic hook and line fishery C. Bandit gear, handline, rod and reel.
D. Pelagic species purse seine fishery D. Purse seine.
E. Recreational fishery E. Bandit gear, handline, rod and reel, spear.
Gulf of Mexico Spiny Lobster Fishery (FMP):
A. Commercial fishery A. Trap, pot, dip net, bully net, hoop net, trawl, snare, hand harvest.
C. Recreational fishery C. Dip net, bully net, pot, trap, snare, hand harvest.
6. Stone Crab Fishery (FMP):
A. Trap and pot fishery A. Trap, pot
B. Recreational fishery B. Trap, pot, hand harvest.
7. Blue Crab Fishery (Non-FMP) Trap, pot.
8. Golden Crab Fishery (Non-FMP) Trap.
9. Mullet Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Gillnet fishery B. Gillnet.
C. Pair trawl fishery C. Pair trawl.
D. Cast net fishery D. Cast net.
E. Recreational fishery E. Bandit gear, handline, rod and reel, spear, cast net.
10. Inshore Coastal Gillnet Fishery (Non-FMP) Gillnet.
11. Octopus Fishery (Non-FMP) Trap, pot.
12. Marine Life Aquarium Fishery (Non-FMP) Dip net, slurp gun, barrier net, drop net, allowable chemical, trap, pot, trawl.
13. Coastal Herring Trawl Fishery (Non-FMP) Trawl.
14. Butterfish Trawl Fishery (Non-FMP) Trawl.
15. Gulf of Mexico Groundfish (Non-FMP):
A. Commercial fishery A. Trawl, purse seine, gillnet.
B. Recreational fishery B. Hook and line, rod and reel, spear.
16. Gulf of Mexico Menhaden Purse Seine Fishery (Non-FMP) Purse seine.
17. Sardine Purse Seine Fishery (Non-FMP) Purse seine.
18. Oyster Fishery (Non-FMP) Dredge, tongs.
19. Commercial Fishery (Non-FMP) Trawl, gillnet, hook and line, longline, handline, rod and reel, bandit gear, cast net, lampara net, spear.
20. Recreational Fishery (Non-FMP) Bandit gear, handline, rod and reel, spear, bully net, gillnet, dip net, longline, powerhead, seine, slurp gun, trap, trawl, harpoon, cast net, hoop net, hook and line, hand harvest.
21. Offshore aquaculture (FMP) Cages, net pens
V. Caribbean Fishery Management Council
1. Caribbean Spiny Lobster Fishery (FMP):
A. Trap/pot fishery A. Trap/pot.
B. Dip net fishery B. Dip net.
C. Hand harvest fishery C. Hand harvest, snare.
D. Recreational fishery D. Dip net, trap, pot.
2. Caribbean Reef Fish Fishery (FMP):
A. Longline/hook and line fishery A. Longline, hook and line.
B. Trap/pot fishery B. Trap, pot.
C. Recreational fishery C. Dip net, handline, rod and reel, slurp gun, spear.
D. Other commercial fishery D. Spear.
3. Coral and Reef Resources Fishery (FMP):
A. Commercial fishery A. Dip net, slurp gun.
B. Recreational fishery B. Dip net, slurp gun, hand harvest.
4. Queen Conch Fishery (FMP):
A. Commercial fishery A. Hand harvest.
B. Recreational fishery B. Hand harvest.
5. Caribbean Pelagics Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Pelagics drift gillnet fishery A. Gillnet.
B. Pelagics longline/hook and line fishery B. Longline/hook and line.
C. Recreational fishery C. Spear, handline, longline, rod and reel.
6. Commercial Fishery (Non-FMP) Trawl, gillnet, hook and line, longline, handline, rod and reel, bandit gear, cast net, spear.
7. Recreational Fishery (Non-FMP) Rod and reel, hook and line, spear, powerhead, handline, hand harvest, cast net.
VI. Pacific Fishery Management Council
1. Pacific Coast Salmon Fisheries (FMP):
A. Commercial A. Hook and line.
B. Recreational B. Hook and line.
2. Pacific Coast Groundfish Fisheries (FMP):
A. Commercial A. Trawl, hook and line, pot/trap, demersal seine, set net, spear, and hand collection.
B. Recreational B. Hook and line, spear.
3. Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries (FMP):
A. Commercial A. Purse seine, lampara net, brail net, dip net, cast net, hook and line.
B. Recreational B. Hook and line, spear, pot/trap, dip net, cast net, hand harvest, rake, harpoon, bow and arrow.
4. Highly Migratory Species Fisheries (FMP):
A. Commercial A. Hook and line, gillnet, harpoon, purse seine.
B. Recreational B. Hook and line, spear, harpoon, bow and arrow.
5. Pacific Halibut Fisheries (Non-FMP):
A. Commercial A. Hook and line.
B. Recreational B. Hook and line, spear.
6. Dungeness Crab Fisheries (Non-FMP):
A. Commercial A. Pot/trap.
B. Recreational North of 46°15′ N. lat B. Pot/trap, dip net, hand harvest.
C. Recreational South of 46°15′ N. lat. and North of 42° N. lat C. Pot/trap, hook and line, dip net, hand harvest, rake, crab loop.
D. Recreational South of 42° N. lat D. Pot/trap, hand harvest, hoop net, crab loop.
7. Crab Fisheries for Species other than Dungeness crab (Non-FMP):
A. Commercial Pot/Trap Fisheries South of 46°15′ N. lat A. Pot/trap.
B. Recreational North of 46°15′ N. lat B. Pot/trap, dip net, hand harvest.
C. Recreational South of 46°15′ N. lat. and North of 42° N. lat C. Pot/trap, hook and line, dip net, hand harvest, rake, crab loop.
D. Recreational South of 42° N. lat D. Pot/trap, hand harvest, hoop net, crab loop.
8. Shrimp and Prawn Fisheries (Non-FMP):
A. Commercial spot prawn A. Pot/trap.
B. Commercial pink shrimp North of 46°15′ N. lat B. Trawl.
C. Commercial pink shrimp South of 46°15′ N. lat C. Pot/trap, trawl.
D. Commercial coonstripe shrimp South of 46°15′ N. lat D. Pot/trap.
E. Commercial ridgeback prawn South of 42° N. lat E. Trawl.
F. Recreational North of 46°15′ N. lat F. Pot/trap, dip net, hand harvest.
G. Recreational South of 46°15′ N. lat. and North of 42° N. lat G. Pot/trap, hook and line, dip net, hand harvest, rake.
H. Recreational South of 42° N. lat H. Pot/trap, hand harvest, dip net.
9. Hagfish Commercial Fisheries (Non-FMP) Pot/trap.
10. Squid, all spp. except market squid or not otherwise prohibited, and Octopus Fisheries (Non-FMP):
A. Commercial A. Hook and line, pot/trap, dip net, seine, trawl, set net, spear, hand harvest.
B. Recreational Squid North of 42° N. lat B. Hook and line, cast net, dip net, hand harvest.
C. Recreational Octopus North of 42° N. lat C. Hook and line, pot/trap, dip net, hand harvest.
D. Recreational South of 42° N. lat D. Hook and line, dip net, hand harvest.
11. White Sturgeon Fisheries (Non-FMP):
A. Commercial South of 46°15′ N. lat. and North of 42° N. lat A. Trawl, pot/trap, hook and line, seine, dip net, spear.
B. Recreational North of 42° N. lat B. Hook and line.
C. Recreational South of 42° N. lat C. Hook and line, spear.
12. Sea Cucumber Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Commercial hand harvest fishery South of 46°15′ N. lat A. Hand harvest.
B. Commercial trawl South of 42° N. lat B. Trawl.
13. Minor Finfish Commercial Fisheries South of 46°15′ N. lat. and North of 42° N. lat. for: Salmon shark, Pacific pomfret, slender sole, wolf-eel, eelpout species, Pacific sandfish, skilfish, and walleye pollock Fisheries (Non-FMP) Trawl, pot/trap, hook and line, seine, dipnet, spear.
14. Weathervane Scallop Commercial Fishery South of 46°15′ N. lat. and North of 42° N. lat. (Non-FMP) Trawl.
15. California Halibut, White Seabass Commercial Fisheries South of 42° N. lat. (Non-FMP):
A. California halibut trawl A. Trawl.
B. California halibut and white seabass set net B. Gillnet, trammel net.
C. California halibut hook and line C. Hook and line.
D. White seabass hook and line D. Hook and line.
16. California Barracuda, White Seabass, and Yellowtail Drift-Net Commercial Fishery South of 42° N. lat. (Non-FMP) Gillnet.
17. Pacific Bonito Commercial Net Fishery South of 42° N. lat. (Non-FMP) Purse seine.
18. Lobster Commercial Pot and Trap Fishery South of 42° N. lat. (Non-FMP) Pot/trap.
19. Finfish and Invertebrate Fisheries Not Listed Above and Not Otherwise Prohibited (Non-FMP):
A. Commercial South of 46°15′ N. lat A. Hook and line, pot/trap, spear.
B. Recreational B. Hook and line, spear, pot/trap, dip net, cast net, hand harvest, rake, harpoon, bow and arrow.
VII. North Pacific Fishery Management Council
1. Alaska Scallop Fishery (FMP) Dredge.
2. Bering Sea (BS) and Aleutian Islands (AI) King and Tanner Crab Fishery (FMP):
Pot fishery Pot.
3. Bering Sea (BS) and Aleutian Islands (AI) King and Tanner Crab Fishery (FMP):
Recreational fishery Pot.
4. BS and AI Groundfish Fishery (FMP):
A. Groundfish trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Bottomfish hook-and-line, and handline fishery B. Hook and line, handline.
C. Longline fishery C. Longline.
D. BS and AI pot and trap fishery D. Pot, trap.
5. BS and AI Groundfish Recreational Fishery (Non-FMP) Handline, rod and reel, hook and line, pot, trap.
6. Gulf of Alaska (GOA) Groundfish Fishery (FMP):
A. Groundfish trawl fishery A. Trawl.
B. Bottomfish hook-and-line and handline fishery B. Hook and line, handline.
C. Longline fishery C. Longline.
D. GOA pot and trap fishery D. Pot, trap.
E. Recreational fishery E. Handline, rod and reel, hook and line, pot, trap.
7. Pacific Halibut Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Commercial (IFQ and CDQ) A. Hook and line, pot.
B. Recreational B. Single line with no more than 2 hooks attached or spear.
C. Subsistence C. Setline gear and hand held gear of not more than 30 hooks, including longline, handline, rod and reel, spear, jig, and hand-troll gear.
8. Alaska High Seas Salmon Hook and Line Fishery:
(FMP) Hook and line.
9. Alaska Salmon Fishery (Non-FMP):
A. Hook-and-line fishery A. Hook and line.
B. Gillnet fishery B. Gillnet.
C. Purse seine fishery. C. Purse seine.
D. Recreational fishery D. Handline, rod and reel, hook and line.
10. Finfish Purse Seine Fishery (Non-FMP) Purse seine.
11. Octopus/Squid Longline Fishery (Non-FMP) Longline.
12. Finfish Handline and Hook-and-line Fishery (Non-FMP) Handline, hook and line.
13. Recreational Fishery (Non-FMP) Handline, rod and reel, hook line.
14. Commercial Fishery (Non-FMP) Trawl, gillnet, hook and line, longline, handline, rod and reel, bandit gear, cast net, spear.
VIII. Western Pacific Fishery Management Council
1. Western Pacific Crustacean Fishery (FMP) (Fishery Ecosystem Plan, FEP) Trap, hand harvest, hoop net.
2. Western Pacific Crustacean Fishery (Non-FEP):
A. Commercial fishery A. Gillnet, hand harvest, hoop net, spear, snare, trap, trawl.
B. Recreational fishery B. Gillnet, hand harvest, hoop net, spear, snare, trap.
C. Charter fishery C. Hand harvest, spear.
3. Western Pacific Precious Corals Fishery (FEP):
A. Tangle net dredge fishery A. Tangle net dredge.
B. Submersible fishery B. Submersible.
C. Dive fishery C. Hand harvest.
D. Recreational fishery D. Hand harvest.
4. Western Pacific Precious Corals Fishery (Non-FEP) Hand harvest, submersible, tangle net dredge.
5. Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fishery (FEP)
A. Bottomfish hook-and-line fishery A. Bandit gear, buoy gear, handline, hook and line, rod and reel, hand harvest.
B. Seamount groundfish fishery B. Longline, trawl.
C. Bottom longline fishery C. Longline, hook and line.
D. Trap fishery D. Trap.
E. Spear fishery E. Spear, powerhead.
6. Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fishery (Non-FEP):
A. Commercial fishery A. Bandit gear, buoy gear, gillnet, handline, hook-and-line, longline, rod and reel, spear, trap.
B. Recreational fishery B. Bandit gear, buoy gear, Gillnet, handline, hook and line, longline, rod and reel, spear, trap, slurp gun, hand harvest.
C. Charter fishery C. Bandit gear, buoy gear, handline, hook-and-line, rod and reel, spear.
7. Western Pacific Pelagics Fishery (FEP):
A. Longline Fishery A. Longline.
B. Hook and line fishery B. Bandit gear, buoy gear, handline, hook and line, rod and reel.
C. Purse seine fishery C. Lampara net, purse seine.
D. Spear fishery D. Spear, powerhead.
E. Squid jig fishery E. Squid jig.
8. Western Pacific Pelagics Fishery (Non-FEP):
A. Recreational fishery A. Bandit gear, buoy gear, dip net, handline, hook and line, hoop net, powerhead, rod and real, spear.
B. Commercial fishery B. Bandit gear, buoy gear, dip net, handline, hook and line, hoop net, powerhead, rod and reel, spear.
C. Charter fishery C. Bandit gear, buoy gear, dip net, handline, hook and line, hoop net, powerhead, rod and reel, spear.
9. Western Pacific Coastal Pelagics Fishery (Non-FEP) Bandit gear, buoy gear, dip net, gillnet, handline, hook and line, hoop net, lampara net, purse seine, rod and reel, spear.
10. Western Pacific Squid and Octopus Fishery (Non-FEP) Bandit gear, hand harvest, hook and line, rod and reel, spear, trap.
11. Western Pacific Coral Reef Fishery (Non-FEP) Allowable chemical, barrier net, dip net, gillnet, hand harvest, seine, slurp gun, trap, spear, rod and reel, hook and line.
12. Recreational Fishery (Non-FEP) Rod and reel, hook and line, handline, hand harvest, spear.
13. Commercial Fishery (Non-FEP) Trawl, gillnet, hook and line, longline, handline, rod and reel, bandit gear, cast net, spear.
IX. Secretary of Commerce
1. Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Fisheries (FMP):
A. Swordfish handgear fishery A. Rod and reel, harpoon, handline, bandit gear, buoy gear, green-stick gear.
B. Swordfish recreational fishery B. Rod and reel, handline.
C. Pelagic longline fishery C. Longline.
D. Shark gillnet fishery D. Gillnet
E. Shark bottom longline fishery E. Longline.
F. Shark handgear fishery F. Rod and reel, handline, bandit gear.
G. Shark recreational fishery G. Rod and reel, handline.
H. Tuna purse seine fishery H. Purse seine.
I. Tuna recreational fishery I. Speargun gear (for bigeye, albacore, yellowfin, and skipjack tunas only); Rod and reel, handline (all tunas); green-stick gear (HMS Charter/Headboat Category only).
J. Tuna handgear fishery J. Rod and reel, harpoon, handline, bandit gear.
K. Tuna harpoon fishery K. Harpoon.
L. Atlantic billfish recreational fishery L. Rod and reel.
M. Tuna green-stick fishery M. Green-stick gear.
N. Commercial Caribbean Small Boat Fishery N. Rod and reel, handline, harpoon, bandit gear, green-stick gear, buoy gear.
2. Commercial Fisheries (Non-FMP) Rod and reel, handline, longline, gillnet, harpoon, bandit gear, purse seine, green-stick gear.

(w) Fail to maintain safe conditions for the protection of observers including compliance with all U.S. Coast Guard and other applicable rules, regulations, or statutes applicable to the vessel and which pertain to safe operation of the vessel.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996]

§ 600.730 Facilitation of enforcement.

(a) General. The operator of, or any other person aboard, any fishing vessel subject to parts 622 through 699 of this chapter must immediately comply with instructions and signals issued by an authorized officer to stop the vessel and with instructions to facilitate safe boarding and inspection of the vessel, its gear, equipment, fishing record (where applicable), and catch for purposes of enforcing the Magnuson-Stevens Act or any other statute administered by NOAA and this chapter.

(1) For the purposes of this section “freeboard” means the working distance between the top rail of the gunwale of a vessel and the water's surface. Where cut-outs are provided in the bulwarks for the purpose of boarding personnel, freeboard means the distance between the threshold of the bulwark cut-out and the water's surface.

(2) For the purposes of this section, “pilot ladder” means a flexible ladder constructed and approved to meet the U.S. Coast Guard standards for pilot ladders at 46 CFR subpart 163.003 entitled Pilot Ladder.

(b) Communications.

(1) Upon being approached by a USCG vessel or aircraft, or other vessel or aircraft with an authorized officer aboard, the operator of a fishing vessel must be alert for communications conveying enforcement instructions.

(2) VHF-FM radiotelephone is the preferred method for communicating between vessels. If the size of the vessel and the wind, sea, and visibility conditions allow, a loudhailer may be used instead of the radio. Hand signals, placards, high frequency radiotelephone, or voice may be employed by an authorized officer, and message blocks may be dropped from an aircraft.

(3) If other communications are not practicable, visual signals may be transmitted by flashing light directed at the vessel signaled. USCG units will normally use the flashing light signal “L” as the signal to stop. In the International Code of Signals, “L” (.-..) means “you should stop your vessel instantly.” (Period (.) means a short flash of light; dash (-) means a long flash of light.)

(4) Failure of a vessel's operator promptly to stop the vessel when directed to do so by an authorized officer using loudhailer, radiotelephone, flashing light signal, or other means constitutes prima facie evidence of the offense of refusal to permit an authorized officer to board.

(5) The operator of a vessel who does not understand a signal from an enforcement unit and who is unable to obtain clarification by loudhailer or radiotelephone must consider the signal to be a command to stop the vessel instantly.

(c) Boarding. The operator of a vessel directed to stop must:

(1) Guard Channel 16, VHF-FM, if so equipped.

(2) Stop immediately and lay to or maneuver in such a way as to allow the authorized officer and his/her party to come aboard.

(3) Except for fishing vessels with a freeboard of 4 feet (1.25 m) or less, provide, when requested by an authorized officer or observer personnel, a pilot ladder capable of being used for the purpose of enabling personnel to embark and disembark the vessel safely. The pilot ladder must be maintained in good condition and kept clean.

(4) When necessary to facilitate the boarding or when requested by an authorized officer or observer, provide a manrope or safety line, and illumination for the pilot ladder.

(5) Take such other actions as necessary to facilitate boarding and to ensure the safety of the authorized officer and the boarding party.

(d) Signals. The following signals, extracted from the International Code of Signals, may be sent by flashing light by an enforcement unit when conditions do not allow communications by loudhailer or radiotelephone. Knowledge of these signals by vessel operators is not required. However, knowledge of these signals and appropriate action by a vessel operator may preclude the necessity of sending the signal “L” and the necessity for the vessel to stop instantly. (Period (.) means a short flash of light; dash (-) means a long flash of light.)

(1) “AA” repeated (.-.-) is the call to an unknown station. The operator of the signaled vessel should respond by identifying the vessel by radiotelephone or by illuminating the vessel's identification.

(2) “RY-CY” (.-. -. - -.-. -. - ) means “you should proceed at slow speed, a boat is coming to you.” This signal is normally employed when conditions allow an enforcement boarding without the necessity of the vessel being boarded coming to a complete stop, or, in some cases, without retrieval of fishing gear which may be in the water.

(3) “SQ3” (... - .- ... - ) means “you should stop or heave to; I am going to board you.”

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 61 FR 37225, July 17, 1996; 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 73 FR 67809, Nov. 17, 2008; 81 FR 88998, Dec. 9, 2016]

§ 600.735 Penalties.

Any person committing, or fishing vessel used in the commission of a violation of the Magnuson-Stevens Act or any other statute administered by NOAA and/or any regulation issued under the Magnuson-Stevens Act, is subject to the civil and criminal penalty provisions and civil forfeiture provisions of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, to this section, to 15 CFR part 904 (Civil Procedures), and to other applicable law.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998]

§ 600.740 Enforcement policy.

(a) The Magnuson-Stevens Act provides four basic enforcement remedies for violations, in ascending order of severity, as follows:

(1) Issuance of a citation (a type of warning), usually at the scene of the offense (see 15 CFR part 904, subpart E).

(2) Assessment by the Administrator of a civil money penalty.

(3) For certain violations, judicial forfeiture action against the vessel and its catch.

(4) Criminal prosecution of the owner or operator for some offenses. It shall be the policy of NMFS to enforce vigorously and equitably the provisions of the Magnuson-Stevens Act by utilizing that form or combination of authorized remedies best suited in a particular case to this end.

(b) Processing a case under one remedial form usually means that other remedies are inappropriate in that case. However, further investigation or later review may indicate the case to be either more or less serious than initially considered, or may otherwise reveal that the penalty first pursued is inadequate to serve the purposes of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. Under such circumstances, the Agency may pursue other remedies either in lieu of or in addition to the action originally taken. Forfeiture of the illegal catch does not fall within this general rule and is considered in most cases as only the initial step in remedying a violation by removing the ill-gotten gains of the offense.

(c) If a fishing vessel for which a permit has been issued under the Magnuson-Stevens Act is used in the commission of an offense prohibited by section 307 of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, NOAA may impose permit sanctions, whether or not civil or criminal action has been undertaken against the vessel or its owner or operator. In some cases, the Magnuson-Stevens Act requires permit sanctions following the assessment of a civil penalty or the imposition of a criminal fine. In sum, the Magnuson-Stevens Act treats sanctions against the fishing vessel permit to be the carrying out of a purpose separate from that accomplished by civil and criminal penalties against the vessel or its owner or operator.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998]

§ 600.745 Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

(a) Scientific research activity. Nothing in this part is intended to inhibit or prevent any scientific research activity conducted by a scientific research vessel. Persons planning to conduct scientific research activities on board a scientific research vessel in the EEZ or on the high seas are encouraged to submit to the appropriate Regional Administrator or Director, 60 days or as soon as practicable prior to its start, a scientific research plan for each scientific activity. The Regional Administrator or Director will acknowledge notification of scientific research activity by issuing to the operator or master of that vessel, or to the sponsoring institution, a Letter of Acknowledgment. This Letter of Acknowledgment is separate and distinct from any permit or consultation required by the MMPA, the ESA, or any other applicable law. The Regional Administrator or Director will include text in the Letter of Acknowledgment informing the applicant that such a permit may be required and should be obtained from the agency prior to embarking on the activity. If the Regional Administrator or Director, after review of a research plan, determines that it does not constitute scientific research but rather fishing, the Regional Administrator or Director will inform the applicant as soon as practicable and in writing. In making this determination, the Regional Administrator, Director, or designee shall consider: the merits of the individual proposal and the institution(s) involved; whether the proposed activity meets the definition of scientific research activity; and whether the vessel meets all the requirements for a scientific research vessel. The Regional Administrator or Director may also make recommendations to revise the research plan to ensure the activity will be considered to be scientific research activity or recommend the applicant request an EFP. The Regional Administrator or Director may designate a Science and Research Director, or the Assistant Regional Administrator for Sustainable Fisheries, to receive scientific research plans and issue Letters of Acknowledgment. In order to facilitate identification of the activity as scientific research, persons conducting scientific research activities are advised to carry a copy of the scientific research plan and the Letter of Acknowledgment on board the scientific research vessel and to make it available for inspection upon the request of any authorized officer. It is recommended that for any scientific research activity, any fish, or parts thereof, retained pursuant to such activity be accompanied, during any ex-vessel activities, by a copy of the Letter of Acknowledgment. Activity conducted in accordance with a scientific research plan acknowledged by such a Letter of Acknowledgment is presumed to be scientific research activity. An authorized officer may overcome this presumption by showing that an activity does not fit the definition of scientific research activity or is outside the scope of the scientific research plan.

(b) Exempted fishing -

(1) General. A NMFS Regional Administrator or Director may authorize, for limited testing, public display, data collection, exploratory fishing, compensation fishing, conservation engineering, health and safety surveys, environmental cleanup, and/or hazard removal purposes, the target or incidental harvest of species managed under an FMP or fishery regulations that would otherwise be prohibited. Exempted fishing may not be conducted unless authorized by an EFP issued by a Regional Administrator or Director in accordance with the criteria and procedures specified in this section. Compensation fishing must be conducted under an EFP if the activity would otherwise be prohibited by applicable regulations unless the activity is specifically authorized under an FMP or a scientific research permit. Conservation engineering that does not meet the definition of scientific research activity, but does meet the definition of fishing must be conducted under an EFP if the activity would otherwise be prohibited by applicable regulations. Data collection designed to capture and land quantities of fish for product development, market research, and/or public display must be permitted under exempted fishing procedures. An EFP exempts a vessel only from those regulations specified in the EFP. All other applicable regulations remain in effect. The Regional Administrator or Director may charge a fee to recover the administrative expenses of issuing an EFP. The amount of the fee will be calculated, at least annually, in accordance with procedures of the NOAA Handbook for determining administrative costs of each special product or service; the fee may not exceed such costs. Persons may contact the appropriate Regional Administrator or Director to determine the applicable fee.

(2) Application. An applicant for an EFP shall submit a completed application package to the appropriate Regional Administrator or Director, as soon as practicable and at least 60 days before the desired effective date of the EFP. Submission of an EFP application less than 60 days before the desired effective date of the EFP may result in a delayed effective date because of review requirements. The application package must include payment of any required fee as specified by paragraph (b)(1) of this section, and a written application that includes, but is not limited to, the following information:

(i) The date of the application.

(ii) The applicant's name, mailing address, and telephone number.

(iii) A statement of the purposes and goals of the exempted fishery for which an EFP is needed, including justification for issuance of the EFP.

(iv) For each vessel to be covered by the EFP, as soon as the information is available and before operations begin under the EFP:

(A) A copy of the USCG documentation, state license, or registration of each vessel, or the information contained on the appropriate document.

(B) The current name, address, and telephone number of the owner and master, if not included on the document provided for the vessel.

(v) The species (target and incidental) expected to be harvested under the EFP, the amount(s) of such harvest necessary to conduct the exempted fishing, the arrangements for disposition of all regulated species harvested under the EFP, and any anticipated impacts on the environment, including impacts on fisheries, marine mammals, threatened or endangered species, and EFH.

(vi) For each vessel covered by the EFP, the approximate time(s) and place(s) fishing will take place, and the type, size, and amount of gear to be used.

(vii) The signature of the applicant.

(viii) The Regional Administrator or Director, as appropriate, may request from an applicant additional information necessary to make the determinations required under this section. An incomplete application or an application for which the appropriate fee has not been paid will not be considered until corrected in writing and the fee paid. An applicant for an EFP need not be the owner or operator of the vessel(s) for which the EFP is requested.

(3) Issuance.

(i) The Regional Administrator or Director, as appropriate, will review each application and will make a preliminary determination whether the application contains all of the required information and constitutes an activity appropriate for further consideration. If the Regional Administrator or Director finds that any application does not warrant further consideration, both the applicant and the affected Council(s) will be notified in writing of the reasons for the decision. If the Regional Administrator or Director determines that any application warrants further consideration, notification of receipt of the application will be published in the Federal Register with a brief description of the proposal. Interested persons will be given a 15- to 45-day opportunity to comment on the notice of receipt of the EFP application. In addition, comments may be requested during public testimony at a Council meeting. If the Council intends to take comments on EFP applications at a Council meeting, it must include a statement to this effect in the Council meeting notice and meeting agenda. Multiple applications for EFPs may be published in the same Federal Register document and may be discussed under a single Council agenda item. The notification may establish a cut-off date for receipt of additional applications to participate in the same, or a similar, exempted fishing activity. The Regional Administrator or Director will also forward copies of the application to the Council(s), the U.S. Coast Guard, and the appropriate fishery management agencies of affected states, accompanied by the following information:

(A) The effect of the proposed EFP on the target and incidental species, including the effect on any TAC.

(B) A citation of the regulation or regulations that, without the EFP, would prohibit the proposed activity.

(C) Biological information relevant to the proposal, including appropriate statements of environmental impacts, including impacts on fisheries, marine mammals, threatened or endangered species, and EFH.

(ii) If the application is complete and warrants additional consultation, the Regional Administrator or Director may consult with the appropriate Council(s) concerning the permit application during the period in which comments have been requested. The Council(s) or the Regional Administrator or Director shall notify the applicant in advance of any public meeting at which the application will be considered, and offer the applicant the opportunity to appear in support of the application.

(iii) As soon as practicable after receiving a complete application, including all required analyses and consultations (e.g., NEPA, EFH, ESA and MMPA), and having received responses from the public, the agencies identified in paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section, and/or after the consultation, if any, described in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section, the Regional Administrator or Director shall issue the EFP or notify the applicant in writing of the decision to deny the EFP and the reasons for the denial. Grounds for denial of an EFP include, but are not limited to, the following:

(A) The applicant has failed to disclose material information required, or has made false statements as to any material fact, in connection with his or her application; or

(B) According to the best scientific information available, the harvest to be conducted under the permit would detrimentally affect the well-being of the stock of any regulated species of fish, marine mammal, threatened or endangered species, or EFH; or

(C) Issuance of the EFP would have economic allocation as its sole purpose (other than compensation fishing); or

(D) Activities to be conducted under the EFP would be inconsistent with the intent of this section, the management objectives of the FMP, or other applicable law; or

(E) The applicant has failed to demonstrate a valid justification for the permit; or

(F) The activity proposed under the EFP could create a significant enforcement problem.

(iv) The decision of a Regional Administrator or Director to grant or deny an EFP is the final action of NMFS. If the permit, as granted, is significantly different from the original application, or is denied, NMFS may publish notification in the Federal Register describing the exempted fishing to be conducted under the EFP or the reasons for denial.

(v) The Regional Administrator or Director should attach, as applicable, terms and conditions to the EFP, consistent with the purpose of the exempted fishing and as otherwise necessary for the conservation and management of the fishery resources and the marine environment, including, but not limited to:

(A) The maximum amount of each regulated species that can be harvested and landed during the term of the EFP, including trip limitations, where appropriate.

(B) The number, size(s), name(s), and identification number(s) of the vessel(s) authorized to conduct fishing activities under the EFP.

(C) A citation of the regulations from which the vessel is exempted.

(D) The time(s) and place(s) where exempted fishing may be conducted.

(E) The type, size, and amount of gear that may be used by each vessel operated under the EFP.

(F) Whether observers, a vessel monitoring system, or other electronic equipment must be carried on board vessels operating under the EFP, and any necessary conditions, such as predeployment notification requirements.

(G) Data reporting requirements necessary to document the activities, including catches and incidental catches, and to determine compliance with the terms and conditions of the EFP and established time frames and formats for submission of the data to NMFS.

(H) Other conditions as may be necessary to assure compliance with the purposes of the EFP, consistent with the objectives of the FMP and other applicable law.

(I) Provisions for public release of data obtained under the EFP that are consistent with NOAA confidentiality of statistics procedures at set out in subpart E. An applicant may be required to waive the right to confidentiality of information gathered while conducting exempted fishing as a condition of an EFP.

(4) Acknowledging permit conditions. Upon receipt of an EFP, the permit holder must date and sign the permit, and retain the permit on board the vessel(s). The permit is not valid until signed by the permit holder. In signing the permit, the permit holder:

(i) Agrees to abide by all terms and conditions set forth in the permit, and all restrictions and relevant regulations; and

(ii) Acknowledges that the authority to conduct certain activities specified in the permit is conditional and subject to authorization and revocation by the Regional Administrator or Director.

(5) Duration. Unless otherwise specified in the EFP or a superseding notice or regulation, an EFP is valid for no longer than 1 year. EFPs may be renewed following the application procedures in this section.

(6) Alteration. Any permit that has been altered, erased, or mutilated is invalid.

(7) Inspection. Any EFP issued under this section must be carried on board the vessel(s) for which it was issued. The EFP must be presented for inspection upon request of any authorized officer. Any fish, or parts thereof, retained pursuant to an EFP issued under this paragraph must be accompanied, during any ex-vessel activities, by a copy of the EFP.

(8) Inspection. Any EFP issued under this section must be carried on board the vessel(s) for which it was issued. The EFP must be presented for inspection upon request of any authorized officer.

(9) Sanctions. Failure of a permittee to comply with the terms and conditions of an EFP may be grounds for revocation, suspension, or modification of the EFP with respect to all persons and vessels conducting activities under the EFP. Any action taken to revoke, suspend, or modify an EFP for enforcement purposes will be governed by 15 CFR part 904, subpart D.

(c) Reports.

(1) NMFS requests that persons conducting scientific research activities from scientific research vessels submit a copy of any report or other publication created as a result of the activity, including the amount, composition, and disposition of their catch, to the appropriate Science and Research Director and Regional Administrator or Director.

(2) Upon completion of the activities of the EFP, or periodically as required by the terms and conditions of the EFP, persons fishing under an EFP must submit a report of their catches and any other information required, to the appropriate Regional Administrator or Director, in the manner and within the time frame specified in the EFP, but no later than 6 months after concluding the exempted fishing activity. Persons conducting EFP activities are also requested to submit a copy of any publication prepared as a result of the EFP activity.

(d) Exempted educational activities -

(1) General. A NMFS Regional Administrator or Director may authorize, for educational purposes, the target or incidental harvest of species managed under an FMP or fishery regulations that would otherwise be prohibited. The trade, barter or sale of fish taken under this authorization is prohibited. The decision of a Regional Administrator or Director to grant or deny an exempted educational activity authorization is the final action of NMFS. Exempted educational activities may not be conducted unless authorized in writing by a Regional Administrator or Director in accordance with the criteria and procedures specified in this section. Such authorization will be issued without charge.

(2) Application. An applicant for an exempted educational activity authorization shall submit to the appropriate Regional Administrator or Director, at least 15 days before the desired effective date of the authorization, a written application that includes, but is not limited to, the following information:

(i) The date of the application.

(ii) The applicant's name, mailing address, and telephone number.

(iii) A brief statement of the purposes and goals of the exempted educational activity for which authorization is requested, including a general description of the arrangements for disposition of all species collected.

(iv) Evidence that the sponsoring institution is a valid educational institution, such as accreditation by a recognized national or international accreditation body.

(v) The scope and duration of the activity.

(vi) For each vessel to be covered by the authorization:

(A) A copy of the U.S. Coast Guard documentation, state license, or registration of the vessel, or the information contained on the appropriate document.

(B) The current name, address, and telephone number of the owner and master, if not included on the document provided for the vessel.

(vii) The species and amounts expected to be caught during the exempted educational activity, and any anticipated impacts on the environment, including impacts on fisheries, marine mammals, threatened or endangered species, and EFH.

(viii) For each vessel covered by the authorization, the approximate time(s) and place(s) fishing will take place, and the type, size, and amount of gear to be used.

(ix) The signature of the applicant.

(x) The Regional Administrator or Director may request from an applicant additional information necessary to make the determinations required under this section. An incomplete application will not be considered until corrected in writing.

(3) Issuance.

(i) The Regional Administrator or Director, as appropriate, will review each application and will make a determination whether the application contains all of the required information, is consistent with the goals, objectives, and requirements of the FMP or regulations and other applicable law, and constitutes a valid exempted educational activity. The applicant will be notified in writing of the decision within 5 working days of receipt of the application.

(ii) The Regional Administrator or Director should attach, as applicable, terms and conditions to the authorization, consistent with the purpose of the exempted educational activity and as otherwise necessary for the conservation and management of the fishery resources and the marine environment, including, but not limited to:

(A) The maximum amount of each regulated species that may be harvested.

(B) A citation of the regulations from which the vessel is being exempted.

(C) The time(s) and place(s) where the exempted educational activity may be conducted.

(D) The type, size, and amount of gear that may be used by each vessel operated under the authorization.

(E) Data reporting requirements necessary to document the activities and to determine compliance with the terms and conditions of the exempted educational activity.

(F) Such other conditions as may be necessary to assure compliance with the purposes of the authorization, consistent with the objectives of the FMP or regulations.

(G) Provisions for public release of data obtained under the authorization, consistent with NOAA confidentiality of statistics procedures in subpart E. An applicant may be required to waive the right to confidentiality of information gathered while conducting exempted educational activities as a condition of the authorization.

(iii) The authorization will specify the scope of the authorized activity and will include, at a minimum, the duration, vessel(s), persons, species, and gear involved in the activity, as well as any additional terms and conditions specified under paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section.

(4) Duration. Unless otherwise specified, authorization for an exempted educational activity is effective for no longer than 1 year, unless revoked, suspended, or modified. Authorizations may be renewed following the application procedures in this section.

(5) Alteration. Any authorization that has been altered, erased, or mutilated is invalid.

(6) Transfer. Authorizations issued under this paragraph (d) are not transferable or assignable.

(7) Inspection. Any authorization issued under this paragraph (d) must be carried on board the vessel(s) for which it was issued, or be in the possession of at least one of the persons identified in the authorization, who must be present while the exempted educational activity is being conducted. The authorization must be presented for inspection upon request of any authorized officer. Activities that meet the definition of “fishing,” despite an educational purpose, are fishing. An authorization may allow covered fishing activities; however, fishing activities conducted outside the scope of an authorization for exempted educational activities are illegal. Any fish, or parts thereof, retained pursuant to an authorization issued under this paragraph must be accompanied, during any ex-vessel activities, by a copy of the authorization.

(e) Observers. NMFS-sanctioned observers or biological technicians conducting activities within NMFS-approved sea sampling and/or observer protocols are exempt from the requirement to obtain an EFP. For purposes of this section, NMFS-sanctioned observers or biological technicians include NMFS employees, NMFS observers, observers who are employees of NMFS-contracted observer providers, and observers who are employees of NMFS-permitted observer providers.

[61 FR 32540, June 24, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 7075, Feb. 12, 1998; 74 FR 42794, Aug. 25, 2009; 80 FR 62500, Oct. 16, 2015]

§ 600.746 Observers.

(a) Applicability. This section applies to any fishing vessel required to carry an observer as part of a mandatory observer program or carrying an observer as part of a voluntary observer program under the Magnuson-Stevens Act, MMPA (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the ATCA (16 U.S.C. 971 et seq.), the South Pacific Tuna Act of 1988 (16 U.S.C. 973 et seq.), or any other U.S. law.

(b) Observer safety. An observer will not be deployed on, or stay aboard, a vessel that is inadequate for observer deployment as described in paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) Vessel inadequate for observer deployment. A vessel is inadequate for observer deployment if it:

(1) Does not comply with the applicable regulations regarding observer accommodations (see 50 CFR parts 229, 285, 300, 600, 622, 635, 648, 660, and 679), or

(2) Has not passed a USCG Commercial Fishing Vessel Safety Examination, or for vessels less than 26 ft (8 m) in length, has not passed an alternate safety equipment examination, as described in paragraph (g) of this section.

(d) Display or show proof. A vessel that has passed a USCG Commercial Fishing Vessel Safety Examination must display or show proof of a valid USCG Commercial Fishing Vessel Safety Examination decal that certifies compliance with regulations found in 33 CFR Chapter 1 and 46 CFR Chapter 1, and which was issued within the last 2 years or at a time interval consistent with current USCG regulations or policy.

(1) In situations of mitigating circumstances, which may prevent a vessel from displaying a valid safety decal (broken window, etc.), NMFS, the observer, or NMFS' designated observer provider may accept the following associated documentation as proof of the missing safety decal described in paragraph (d) of this section:

(i) A certificate of compliance issued pursuant to 46 CFR 28.710;

(ii) A certificate of inspection pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 3311; or

(iii) For vessels not required to obtain the documents identified in (d)(1)(i) and (d)(1)(ii) of this section, a dockside examination report form indicating the decal number and date and place of issue.

(e) Visual inspection. Upon request by an observer, a NMFS employee, or a designated observer provider, a vessel owner or operator must provide correct information concerning any item relating to any safety or accommodation requirement prescribed by law or regulation, in a manner and according to a timeframe as directed by NMFS. A vessel owner or operator must also allow an observer, a NMFS employee, or a designated observer provider to visually examine any such item.

(f) Vessel safety check. Prior to the initial deployment, the vessel owner or operator or the owner or operator's designee must accompany the observer in a walk through the vessel's major spaces to ensure that no obviously hazardous conditions exist. This action may be a part of the vessel safety orientation to be provided by the vessel to the observer as required by 46 CFR 28.270. The vessel owner or operator or the owner or operator's designee must also accompany the observer in checking the following major items as required by applicable USCG regulations:

(1) Personal flotation devices/ immersion suits;

(2) Ring buoys;

(3) Distress signals;

(4) Fire extinguishing equipment;

(5) Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB), when required, shall be registered to the vessel at its documented homeport;

(6) Survival craft, when required, with sufficient capacity to accommodate the total number of persons, including the observer(s), that will embark on the voyage; and

(7) Other fishery-area and vessel specific items required by the USCG.

(g) Alternate safety equipment examination. If a vessel is under 26 ft (8 m) in length, and in a remote location, and NMFS has determined that the USCG cannot provide a USCG Commercial Fishing Vessel Safety Examination due to unavailability of inspectors or to unavailability of transportation to or from an inspection station, the vessel will be adequate for observer deployment if it passes an alternate safety equipment examination conducted by a NMFS certified observer, observer provider, or a NMFS observer program employee, using a checklist of USCG safety requirements for commercial fishing vessels under 26 ft (8 m) in length. Passage of the alternative examination will only be effective for the single trip selected for observer coverage.

(h) Duration. The vessel owner or operator is required to comply with the requirements of this section when the vessel owner or operator is notified orally or in writing by an observer, a NMFS employee, or a designated observer provider, that his or her vessel has been selected to carry an observer. The requirements of this section continue to apply through the time of the observer's boarding, at all times the observer is aboard, and at the time the observer disembarks from the vessel at the end of the observed trip.

(i) Effect of inadequate status. A vessel that would otherwise be required to carry an observer, but is inadequate for the purposes of carrying an observer, as described in paragraph (c) of this section, and for allowing operation of normal observer functions, is prohibited from fishing without observer coverage.

[63 FR 27217, May 18, 1998, as amended at 67 FR 64312, Oct. 18, 2002; 72 FR 61818, Nov. 1, 2007]

§ 600.747 Guidelines and procedures for determining new fisheries and gear.

(a) General. Section 305(a) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act requires the Secretary to prepare a list of all fisheries under the authority of each Council, or the Director in the case of Atlantic highly migratory species, and all gear used in such fisheries. This section contains guidelines in paragraph (b) for determining when fishing gear or a fishery is sufficiently different from those listed in § 600.725(v) as to require notification of a Council or the Director in order to use the gear or participate in the unlisted fishery. This section also contains procedures in paragraph (c) for notification of a Council or the Director of potentially new fisheries or gear, and for amending the list of fisheries and gear.

(b) Guidelines. The following guidance establishes the basis for determining when fishing gear or a fishery is sufficiently different from those listed to require notification of the appropriate Council or the Director.

(1) The initial step in the determination of whether a fishing gear or fishery is sufficiently different to require notification is to compare the gear or fishery in question to the list of authorized fisheries and gear in § 600.725(v) and to the existing gear definitions in § 600.10.

(2) If the gear in question falls within the bounds of a definition in § 600.10 for an allowable gear type within that fishery, as listed under § 600.725(v), then the gear is not considered different, is considered allowable gear, and does not require notification of the Council or Secretary 90 days before it can be used in that fishery.

(3) If, for any reason, the gear is not consistent with a gear definition for a listed fishery as described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the gear is considered different and requires Council or Secretarial notification as described in paragraph (c) of this section 90 days before it can be used in that fishery.

(4) If a fishery falls within the bounds of the list of authorized fisheries and gear in § 600.725(v) under the Council's or Secretary's authority, then the fishery is not considered different, is considered an allowable fishery and does not require notification of the Council or Director before that fishery can occur.

(5) If a fishery is not already listed in the list of authorized fisheries and gear in § 600.725(v), then the fishery is considered different and requires notification as described in paragraph (c) of this section 90 days before it can occur.

(c) Procedures. If a gear or fishery does not appear on the list in § 600.725(v), or if the gear is different from that defined in § 600.10, the process for notification, and consideration by a Council or the Director, is as follows:

(1) Notification. After July 26, 1999, no person or vessel may employ fishing gear or engage in a fishery not included on the list of approved gear types in § 600.725(v) without notifying the appropriate Council or the Director at least 90 days before the intended use of that gear.

(2) Notification procedures.

(i) A signed return receipt for the notice serves as adequate evidence of the date that the notification was received by the appropriate Council or the Director, in the case of Atlantic highly migratory species, and establishes the beginning of the 90-day notification period, unless required information in the notification is incomplete.

(ii) The notification must include:

(A) Name, address, and telephone number of the person submitting the notification.

(B) Description of the gear.

(C) The fishery or fisheries in which the gear is or will be used.

(D) A diagram and/or photograph of the gear, as well as any specifications and dimensions necessary to define the gear.

(E) The season(s) in which the gear will be fished.

(F) The area(s) in which the gear will be fished.

(G) The anticipated bycatch species associated with the gear, including protected species, such as marine mammals, sea turtles, sea birds, or species listed as endangered or threatened under the ESA.

(H) How the gear will be deployed and fished, including the portions of the marine environment where the gear will be deployed (surface, midwater, and bottom).

(iii) Failure to submit complete and accurate information will result in a delay in beginning the 90-day notification period. The 90-day notification period will not begin until the information received is determined to be accurate and complete.

(3) Action upon receipt of notification -

(i) Species other than Atlantic Highly Migratory Species.

(A) Upon signing a return receipt of the notification by certified mail regarding an unlisted fishery or gear, a Council must immediately begin consideration of the notification and send a copy of the notification to the appropriate Regional Administrator.

(B) If the Council finds that the use of an unlisted gear or participation in a new fishery would not compromise the effectiveness of conservation and management efforts, it shall:

(1) Recommend to the RA that the list be amended;

(2) Provide rationale and supporting analysis, as necessary, for proper consideration of the proposed amendment; and

(3) Provide a draft proposed rule for notifying the public of the proposed addition, with a request for comment.

(C) If the Council finds that the proposed gear or fishery will be detrimental to conservation and management efforts, it will recommend to the RA that the authorized list of fisheries and gear not be amended, that a proposed rule not be published, give reasons for its recommendation of a disapproval, and may request NMFS to publish emergency or interim regulations, and begin preparation of an FMP or amendment to an FMP, if appropriate.

(D) After considering information in the notification and Council's recommendation, NMFS will decide whether to publish a proposed rule. If information on the new gear or fishery being considered indicates it is likely that it will compromise conservation and management efforts under the Magnuson-Stevens Act, and no additional new information is likely to be gained from a public comment period, then a proposed rule will not be published and NMFS will notify the appropriate Council. In such an instance, NMFS will publish emergency or interim regulations to prohibit or restrict use of the gear or participation in the fishery. If NMFS determines that the proposed amendment is not likely to compromise conservation and management efforts under the Magnuson-Stevens Act, NMFS will publish a proposed rule in the Federal Register with a request for public comment.

(ii) Atlantic Highly Migratory Species.

(A) Upon signing a return receipt of the notification by certified mail regarding an unlisted fishery or gear for Atlantic highly migratory species (HMS), NMFS will immediately begin consideration of the notification.

(B) Based on information in the notification and submitted by the Council, NMFS will make a determination whether the use of an unlisted gear or participation in an unlisted HMS fishery will compromise the effectiveness of conservation and management efforts under the Magnuson-Stevens Act. If it is determined that the proposed amendment will not compromise conservation and management efforts, NMFS will publish a proposed rule.

(C) If NMFS finds that the proposed gear or fishery will be detrimental to conservation and management efforts in this initial stage of review, it will not publish a proposed rule and notify the applicant of the negative determination with the reasons therefor.

(4) Final determination and publication of a final rule. Following public comment, NMFS will approve or disapprove the amendment to the list of gear and fisheries.

(i) If approved, NMFS will publish a final rule in the Federal Register and notify the applicant and the Council, if appropriate, of the final approval.

(ii) If disapproved, NMFS will withdraw the proposed rule, notify the applicant and the Council, if appropriate, of the disapproval; publish emergency or interim regulations, if necessary, to prohibit or restrict the use of gear or the participation in a fishery; and either notify the Council of the need to amend an FMP or prepare an amendment to an FMP in the case of Atlantic highly migratory species.

[64 FR 4043, Jan. 27, 1999]

Subpart I - Fishery Negotiation Panels
Source:

62 FR 23669, May 1, 1997, unless otherwise noted.

§ 600.750 Definitions.

Consensus means unanimous concurrence among the members on a Fishery Negotiation Panel established under this rule, unless such Panel: