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Title 50

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Title 50

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PART 10 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
Authority:

16 U.S.C. 668a-d, 703-712, 742a-j-l, 1361-1384, 1401-1407, 1531-1543, 3371-3378; 18 U.S.C. 42; 19 U.S.C. 1202.

Source:

38 FR 22015, Aug. 15, 1973, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A - Introduction
§ 10.1 Purpose of regulations.

The regulations of this Subchapter B are promulgated to implement the following statutes enforced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service which regulate the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of wildlife:

Lacey Act, 18 U.S.C. 42.

Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378.

Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 16 U.S.C. 703-712.

Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 668a-668d.

Endangered Species Act of 1973, 16 U.S.C. 1531-1543.

Tariff Classification Act of 1962, 19 U.S.C. 1202, [Schedule 1, Part 15D, Headnote 2(d), T.S.U.S.].

Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956, 16 U.S.C. 742a-742j-l.

Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, 16 U.S.C. 1361-1384, 1401-1407.

[38 FR 22015, Aug. 15, 1973, as amended at 53 FR 6649, Mar. 2, 1988]

§ 10.2 Scope of regulations.

The various parts of this subchapter B are interrelated, and particular note should be taken that the parts must be construed with reference to each other.

§ 10.3 Other applicable laws.

No statute or regulation of any State shall be construed to relieve a person from the restrictions, conditions, and requirements contained in this subchapter B. In addition, nothing in this subchapter B, nor any permit issued under this subchapter B, shall be construed to relieve a person from any other requirements imposed by a statute or regulation of any State or of the United States, including any applicable health, quarantine, agricultural, or customs laws or regulations, or other Service enforced statutes or regulations.

§ 10.4 When regulations apply.

The regulations of this subchapter B shall apply to all matters arising after the effective date of such regulations, with the following exceptions:

(a) Civil penalty proceedings. Except as otherwise provided in § 11.25, the civil penalty assessment procedures contained in this subchapter B shall apply only to any proceeding instituted by notice of violation dated subsequent to the effective date of these regulations, regardless of when the act or omission which is the basis of a civil penalty proceeding occurred.

(b) Permits. The regulations in this subchapter B shall apply to any permit application received after the effective date of the appropriate regulations in this subchapter B and, insofar as appropriate, to any permit which is renewed after such effective date.

[38 FR 22015, Aug. 15, 1973, as amended at 39 FR 1159, Jan. 4, 1974]

Subpart B - Definitions
§ 10.11 Scope of definitions.

In addition and subject to definitions contained in applicable statutes and subsequent parts or sections of this subchapter B, words or their variants shall have the meanings ascribed in this subpart. Throughout this subchapter B words in the singular form shall include the plural, words in the plural form shall include the singular, and words in the masculine form shall include the feminine.

§ 10.12 Definitions.

Aircraft means any contrivance used for flight in the air.

Amphibians means a member of the class, Amphibia, including, but not limited to, frogs, toads, and salamanders; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Animal means an organism of the animal kingdom, as distinguished from the plant kingdom; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Birds means a member of the class, Aves; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Country of exportation means the last country from which the animal was exported before importation into the United States.

Country of origin means the country where the animal was taken from the wild, or the country of natal origin of the animal.

Crustacean means a member of the class, Crustacea, including but not limited to, crayfish, lobsters, shrimps, crabs, barnacles, and some terrestrial forms; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Director means the Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, or his authorized representative.

Endangered wildlife means any wildlife listed in § 17.11 or § 17.12 of this subchapter.

Fish means a member of any of the following classes:

(1) Cyclostomata, including, but not limited to, hagfishes and lampreys;

(2) Elasmobranchii, including but not limited to, sharks, skates, and rays; and

(3) Pisces, including but not limited to trout, perch, bass, minnows, and catfish; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Fish or wildlife means any wild animal, whether alive or dead, including without limitation any wild mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish, mollusk, crustacean, arthropod, coelenterate, or other invertebrate, whether or not bred, hatched, or born in captivity, and including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof.

Foreign commerce includes, among other things, any transaction (1) between persons within one foreign country, or (2) between persons in two or more foreign countries, or (3) between a person within the United States and a person in one or more foreign countries, or (4) between persons within the United States, where the fish or wildlife in question are moving in any country or countries outside the United States.

Fossil means the remains of an animal of past geological ages which has been preserved in the earth's crust through mineralization of the object.

Import means to land on, bring into, or introduce into, or attempt to land on, bring into, or introduce into any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, whether or not such landing, bringing, or introduction constitutes an importation within the meaning of the tariff laws of the United States.

Injurious Wildlife means any wildlife for which a permit is required under subpart B of part 16 of this subchapter before being imported into or shipped between the continental United States, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any possession of the United States.

Mammal means a member of the class, Mammalia; including any part, product, egg, or offspring, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Migratory bird means any bird, whatever its origin and whether or not raised in captivity, which belongs to a species listed in § 10.13, or which is a mutation or a hybrid of any such species, including any part, nest, or egg of any such bird, or any product, whether or not manufactured, which consists, or is composed in whole or part, of any such bird or any part, nest, or egg thereof.

Migratory game birds: See § 20.11 of this subchapter.

Mollusk means a member of the phylum, Mollusca, including but not limited to, snails, mussels, clams, oysters, scallops, abalone, squid, and octopuses; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Permit means any document designated as a “permit,” “license,” “certificate,” or any other document issued by the Service to authorize, limit, or describe activity and signed by an authorized official of the Service.

Person means any individual, firm, corporation, association, partnership, club, or private body, any one or all, as the context requires.

Plant means any member of the plant kingdom, including seeds, roots and other parts thereof.

Possession means the detention and control, or the manual or ideal custody of anything which may be the subject of property, for one's use and enjoyment, either as owner or as the proprietor of a qualified right in it, and either held personally or by another who exercises it in one's place and name. Possession includes the act or state of possessing and that condition of facts under which one can exercise his power over a corporeal thing at his pleasure to the exclusion of all other persons. Possession includes constructive possession which means not actual but assumed to exist, where one claims to hold by virtue of some title, without having actual custody.

Public as used in referring to museums, zoological parks, and scientific or educational institutions, refers to such as are open to the general public and are either established, maintained, and operated as a governmental service or are privately endowed and organized but not operated for profit.

Reptile means a member of the class, Reptilia, including but not limited to, turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and alligators; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof, whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior or his authorized representative.

Service means the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior.

Shellfish means an aquatic invertebrate animal having a shell, including, but not limited to, (a) an oyster, clam, or other mollusk; and (b) a lobster or other crustacean; or any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

State means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and Guam.

Take means to pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or attempt to pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect. (With reference to marine mammals, see Part 18 of this subchapter.)

Transportation means to ship, convey, carry or transport by any means whatever, and deliver or receive for such shipment, conveyance, carriage, or transportation.

United States means the several States of the United States of America, District of Columbia, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Navassa Island, Palmyra Atoll, and Wake Atoll, and any other territory or possession under the jurisdiction of the United States.

Whoever means the same as person.

Wildlife means the same as fish or wildlife.

[38 FR 22015, Aug. 15, 1973, as amended at 42 FR 32377, June 24, 1977; 42 FR 59358, Nov. 16, 1977; 45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980; 50 FR 52889, Dec. 26, 1985; 72 FR 48445, Aug. 23, 2007]

§ 10.13 List of Migratory Birds.

(a) Legal authority for this list. The legal authorities for this list are the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA; 16 U.S.C. 703-712), the Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 742l), and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a-742j). The MBTA implements Conventions between the United States and four neighboring countries for the protection of migratory birds, as follows:

(1) Canada: Convention between the United States and Great Britain [on behalf of Canada] for the Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 1916, 39 Stat. 1702 (T.S. No. 628), as amended;

(2) Mexico: Convention between the United States and Mexico for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, 50 Stat. 1311 (T.S. No. 912), as amended;

(3) Japan: Convention between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 4, 1972, 25 U.S.T. 3329 (T.I.A.S. No. 7990); and

(4) Russia: Convention between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning the Conservation of Migratory Birds and Their Environment, November 19, 1976, 20 U.S.T. 4647 (T.I.A.S. No. 9073).

(b) Purpose of this list. The purpose is to inform the public of the species protected by regulations that enforce the terms of the MBTA. These regulations, found in parts 10, 20, and 21 of this chapter, cover most aspects of the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds.

(c) What species are protected as migratory birds? Species protected as migratory birds are listed in two formats to suit the varying needs of the user: Alphabetically in paragraph (c)(1) of this section and taxonomically in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Taxonomy and nomenclature generally follow the 7th edition of the American Ornithologists' Union's (AOU, now recognized as American Ornithological Society (AOS)) Check-list of North American birds (1998, as amended through 2019). For species not treated by the AOS Check-list, we generally follow Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (Clements et al. 2017).

(1) Alphabetical listing. Species are listed alphabetically by common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species following the common name.

ACCENTOR, Siberian, Prunella montanella

’AKEKE’E, Loxops caeruleirostris

’AKEPA, Hawaii, Loxops coccineus

Maui, Loxops ochraceus O’ahu, Loxops wolstenholmei

’AKIALOA, Kauai, Akialoa stejnegeri

Maui Nui, Akialoa lanaiensis O’ahu, Akialoa ellisiana

’AKIAPOLA’AU, Hemignathus wilsoni

’AKIKIKI, Oreomystis bairdi

’AKOHEKOHE, Palmeria dolei

’ALAUAHIO, Maui, Paroreomyza montana

O’ahu, Paroreomyza maculata

ALBATROSS, Black-browed, Thalassarche melanophris

Black-footed, Phoebastria nigripes Chatham, Thalassarche eremita Laysan, Phoebastria immutabilis Light-mantled, Phoebetria palpebrata Salvin's, Thalassarche salvini Short-tailed, Phoebastria albatrus Wandering, Diomedea exulans White-capped, Thalassarche cauta Yellow-nosed, Thalassarche chlororhynchos

’AMAKIHI, Hawaii, Chlorodrepanis virens

Kauai, Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri O’ahu, Chlorodrepanis flava

ANHINGA, Anhinga anhinga

ANI, Groove-billed, Crotophaga sulcirostris

Smooth-billed, Crotophaga ani

’ANIANIAU, Magumma parva

’APAPANE, Himatione sanguinea

AUKLET, Cassin's, Ptychoramphus aleuticus

Crested, Aethia cristatella Least, Aethia pusilla Parakeet, Aethia psittacula Rhinoceros, Cerorhinca monocerata Whiskered, Aethia pygmaea

AVOCET, American, Recurvirostra americana

BANANAQUIT, Coereba flaveola

BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis

Tundra, Anser serrirostris

BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET, Northern, Camptostoma imberbe

BECARD, Gray-collared, Pachyramphus major

Rose-throated, Pachyramphus aglaiae

BITTERN, American, Botaurus lentiginosus

Black, Ixobrychus flavicollis Least, Ixobrychus exilis Schrenck's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus Yellow, Ixobrychus sinensis

BLACKBIRD, Brewer's, Euphagus cyanocephalus

Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus Rusty, Euphagus carolinus Tawny-shouldered, Agelaius humeralis Tricolored, Agelaius tricolor Yellow-headed, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus Yellow-shouldered, Agelaius xanthomus

BLUEBIRD, Eastern, Sialia sialis

Mountain, Sialia currucoides Western, Sialia mexicana

BLUETAIL, Red-flanked, Tarsiger cyanurus

BLUETHROAT, Cyanecula svecica

BOBOLINK, Dolichonyx oryzivorus

BOOBOOK, Northern, Ninox japonica

BOOBY, Abbott's, Papasula abbotti

Blue-footed, Sula nebouxii Brown, Sula leucogaster Masked, Sula dactylatra Nazca, Sula granti Red-footed, Sula sula

BRAMBLING, Fringilla montifringilla

BRANT, Branta bernicla

BUFFLEHEAD, Bucephala albeola

BULLFINCH, Eurasian, Pyrrhula pyrrhula

Puerto Rican, Melopyrrha portoricensis

BUNTING, Blue, Cyanocompsa parellina

Gray, Emberiza variabilis Indigo, Passerina cyanea Lark, Calamospiza melanocorys Lazuli, Passerina amoena Little, Emberiza pusilla McKay's, Plectrophenax hyperboreus Painted, Passerina ciris Pallas's, Emberiza pallasi Pine, Emberiza leucocephalos Reed, Emberiza schoeniclus Rustic, Emberiza rustica Snow, Plectrophenax nivalis Varied, Passerina versicolor Yellow-breasted, Emberiza aureola Yellow-browed, Emberiza chrysophrys Yellow-throated, Emberiza elegans

BUSHTIT, Psaltriparus minimus

BUZZARD, Gray-faced, Butastur indicus

CANVASBACK, Aythya valisineria

CARACARA, Crested, Caracara cheriway

CARDINAL, Northern, Cardinalis cardinalis

CARIB, Green-throated, Eulampis holosericeus

Purple-throated, Eulampis jugularis

CATBIRD, Black, Melanoptila glabrirostris

Gray, Dumetella carolinensis

CHAFFINCH, Common, Fringilla coelebs

CHAT, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens

CHICKADEE, Black-capped, Poecile atricapillus

Boreal, Poecile hudsonicus Carolina, Poecile carolinensis Chestnut-backed, Poecile rufescens Gray-headed, Poecile cinctus Mexican, Poecile sclateri Mountain, Poecile gambeli

CHIFFCHAFF, Common, Phylloscopus collybita

CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW, Antrostomus carolinensis

CONDOR, California, Gymnogyps californianus

COOT, American, Fulica americana

Eurasian, Fulica atra Hawaiian, Fulica alai

CORMORANT, Brandt's, Phalacrocorax penicillatus

Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auritus Great, Phalacrocorax carbo Little Pied, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus Pelagic, Phalacrocorax pelagicus Red-faced, Phalacrocorax urile

COWBIRD, Bronzed, Molothrus aeneus

Brown-headed, Molothrus ater Shiny, Molothrus bonariensis

CRAKE, Corn, Crex crex

Paint-billed, Neocrex erythrops Spotless, Porzana tabuensis Yellow-breasted, Hapalocrex flaviventer

CRANE, Common, Grus grus

Sandhill, Antigone canadensis Whooping, Grus americana

CREEPER, Brown, Certhia americana

Hawaii, Loxops mana

CROSSBILL, Cassia, Loxia sinesciuris

Red, Loxia curvirostra White-winged, Loxia leucoptera

CROW, American, Corvus brachyrhynchos

Fish, Corvus ossifragus Hawaiian, Corvus hawaiiensis Mariana, Corvus kubaryi Northwestern, Corvus caurinus Tamaulipas, Corvus imparatus White-necked, Corvus leucognaphalus

CUCKOO, Black-billed, Coccyzus erythropthalmus

Common, Cuculus canorus Mangrove, Coccyzus minor Oriental, Cuculus optatus Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus

CURLEW, Bristle-thighed, Numenius tahitiensis

Eskimo, Numenius borealis Eurasian, Numenius arquata Far Eastern, Numenius madagascariensis Little, Numenius minutus Long-billed, Numenius americanus

DICKCISSEL, Spiza americana

DIPPER, American, Cinclus mexicanus

DOTTEREL, Eurasian, Charadrius morinellus

DOVE, Common Ground, Columbina passerina

Inca, Columbina inca Mourning, Zenaida macroura Ruddy Ground, Columbina talpacoti White-tipped, Leptotila verreauxi White-winged, Zenaida asiatica Zenaida, Zenaida aurita

DOVEKIE, Alle alle

DOWITCHER, Long-billed, Limnodromus scolopaceus

Short-billed, Limnodromus griseus

DUCK, American Black, Anas rubripes

Eastern Spot-billed, Anas zonorhyncha Falcated, Mareca falcata Harlequin, Histrionicus histrionicus Hawaiian, Anas wyvilliana Laysan, Anas laysanensis Long-tailed, Clangula hyemalis Masked, Nomonyx dominicus Mottled, Anas fulvigula Muscovy, Cairina moschata Pacific Black, Anas superciliosa Ring-necked, Aythya collaris Ruddy, Oxyura jamaicensis Tufted, Aythya fuligula Wood, Aix sponsa

DUNLIN, Calidris alpina

EAGLE, Bald, Haliaeetus leucocephalus

Golden, Aquila chrysaetos White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla

EGRET, Cattle, Bubulcus ibis

Chinese, Egretta eulophotes Great, Ardea alba Intermediate, Ardea intermedia Little, Egretta garzetta Reddish, Egretta rufescens Snowy, Egretta thula

EIDER, Common, Somateria mollissima

King, Somateria spectabilis Spectacled, Somateria fischeri Steller's, Polysticta stelleri

ELAENIA, Caribbean, Elaenia martinica

Greenish, Myiopagis viridicata White-crested, Elaenia albiceps

EMERALD, Puerto Rican, Chlorostilbon maugaeus

EUPHONIA, Antillean, Euphonia musica

FALCON, Amur, Falco amurensis

Aplomado, Falco femoralis Peregrine, Falco peregrinus Prairie, Falco mexicanus Red-footed, Falco vespertinus

FIELDFARE, Turdus pilaris

FINCH, Cassin's, Haemorhous cassinii

House, Haemorhous mexicanus Laysan, Telespiza cantans Nihoa, Telespiza ultima Purple, Haemorhous purpureus

FLAMINGO, American, Phoenicopterus ruber

FLICKER, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides

Northern, Colaptes auratus

FLYCATCHER, Acadian, Empidonax virescens

Alder, Empidonax alnorum Ash-throated, Myiarchus cinerascens Asian Brown, Muscicapa dauurica Brown-crested, Myiarchus tyrannulus Buff-breasted, Empidonax fulvifrons Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis Crowned Slaty, Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus Dark-sided, Muscicapa sibirica Dusky, Empidonax oberholseri Dusky-capped, Myiarchus tuberculifer Fork-tailed, Tyrannus savana Gray, Empidonax wrightii Gray-streaked, Muscicapa griseisticta Great Crested, Myiarchus crinitus Hammond's, Empidonax hammondii La Sagra's, Myiarchus sagrae Least, Empidonax minimus Mugimaki, Ficedula mugimaki Narcissus, Ficedula narcissina Nutting's, Myiarchus nuttingi Olive-sided, Contopus cooperi Pacific-slope, Empidonax difficilis Pine, Empidonax affinis Piratic, Legatus leucophaius Puerto Rican, Myiarchus antillarum Scissor-tailed, Tyrannus forficatus Social, Myiozetetes similis Spotted, Muscicapa striata Sulphur-bellied, Myiodynastes luteiventris Taiga, Ficedula albicilla Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus Variegated, Empidonomus varius Vermilion, Pyrocephalus rubinus Willow, Empidonax traillii Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris

FOREST-FALCON, Collared, Micrastur semitorquatus

FRIGATEBIRD, Great, Fregata minor

Lesser, Fregata ariel Magnificent, Fregata magnificens

FRUIT-DOVE, Crimson-crowned, Ptilinopus porphyraceus

Many-colored, Ptilinopus perousii Mariana, Ptilinopus roseicapilla

FULMAR, Northern, Fulmarus glacialis

GADWALL, Mareca strepera

GALLINULE, Azure, Porphyrio flavirostris

Common, Gallinula galeata Purple, Porphyrio martinicus

GANNET, Northern, Morus bassanus

GARGANEY, Spatula querquedula

GNATCATCHER, Black-capped, Polioptila nigriceps

Black-tailed, Polioptila melanura Blue-Gray, Polioptila caerulea California, Polioptila californica

GODWIT, Bar-tailed, Limosa lapponica

Black-tailed, Limosa limosa Hudsonian, Limosa haemastica Marbled, Limosa fedoa

GOLDENEYE, Barrow's, Bucephala islandica

Common, Bucephala clangula

GOLDEN-PLOVER, American, Pluvialis dominica

European, Pluvialis apricaria Pacific, Pluvialis fulva

GOLDFINCH, American, Spinus tristis

Lawrence's, Spinus lawrencei Lesser, Spinus psaltria

GOOSE, Barnacle, Branta leucopsis

Cackling, Branta hutchinsii Canada, Branta canadensis Emperor, Anser canagicus Greater White-fronted, Anser albifrons Hawaiian, Branta sandvicensis Lesser White-fronted, Anser erythropus Pink-footed, Anser brachyrhynchus Ross's, Anser rossii Snow, Anser caerulescens

GOSHAWK, Northern, Accipiter gentilis

GRACKLE, Boat-tailed, Quiscalus major

Common, Quiscalus quiscula Greater Antillean, Quiscalus niger Great-tailed, Quiscalus mexicanus

GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER, Middendorff's, Locustella ochotensis

GRASSQUIT, Black-faced, Melanospiza bicolor

Yellow-faced, Tiaris olivaceus

GREBE, Clark's, Aechmophorus clarkii

Eared, Podiceps nigricollis Horned, Podiceps auritus Least, Tachybaptus dominicus Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps Red-necked, Podiceps grisegena Western, Aechmophorus occidentalis

GREENFINCH, Oriental, Chloris sinica

GREENSHANK, Common, Tringa nebularia

Nordmann's, Tringa guttifer

GROSBEAK, Black-headed, Pheucticus melanocephalus

Blue, Passerina caerulea Crimson-collared, Rhodothraupis celaeno Evening, Coccothraustes vespertinus Pine, Pinicola enucleator Rose-breasted, Pheucticus ludovicianus Yellow, Pheucticus chrysopeplus

GROUND-DOVE, Shy, Alopecoenas stairi

White-throated, Alopecoenas xanthonurus

GUILLEMOT, Black, Cepphus grylle

Pigeon, Cepphus columba

GULL, Belcher's, Larus belcheri

Black-headed, Chroicocephalus ridibundus Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris Bonaparte's, Chroicocephalus philadelphia California, Larus californicus Franklin's, Leucophaeus pipixcan Glaucous, Larus hyperboreus Glaucous-winged, Larus glaucescens Gray-hooded, Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus Great Black-backed, Larus marinus Heermann's, Larus heermanni Herring, Larus argentatus Iceland, Larus glaucoides Ivory, Pagophila eburnea Kelp, Larus dominicanus Laughing, Leucophaeus atricilla Lesser Black-backed, Larus fuscus Little, Hydrocoloeus minutus Mew, Larus canus Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis Ross's, Rhodostethia rosea Sabine's, Xema sabini Slaty-backed, Larus schistisagus Swallow-tailed, Creagrus furcatus Western, Larus occidentalis Yellow-footed, Larus livens Yellow-legged, Larus michahellis

GYRFALCON, Falco rusticolus

HARRIER, Northern, Circus hudsonius

HAWFINCH, Coccothraustes coccothraustes

HAWK, Broad-winged, Buteo platypterus

Common Black, Buteogallus anthracinus Cooper's, Accipiter cooperii Crane, Geranospiza caerulescens Ferruginous, Buteo regalis Gray, Buteo plagiatus Great Black, Buteogallus urubitinga Harris's, Parabuteo unicinctus Hawaiian, Buteo solitarius Red-shouldered, Buteo lineatus Red-tailed, Buteo jamaicensis Roadside, Rupornis magnirostris Rough-legged, Buteo lagopus Sharp-shinned, Accipiter striatus Short-tailed, Buteo brachyurus Swainson's, Buteo swainsoni White-tailed, Geranoaetus albicaudatus Zone-tailed, Buteo albonotatus

HAWK-CUCKOO, Hodgson's, Hierococcyx nisicolor

HERON, Gray, Ardea cinerea

Great Blue, Ardea herodias Green, Butorides virescens Little Blue, Egretta caerulea Tricolored, Egretta tricolor

HOBBY, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo

HONEYCREEPER, Laysan, Himatione fraithii

Red-legged, Cyanerpes cyaneus

HOOPOE, Eurasian, Upupa epops

HOUSE-MARTIN, Common, Delichon urbicum

HUMMINGBIRD, Allen's, Selasphorus sasin

Anna's, Calypte anna Antillean Crested, Orthorhyncus cristatus Berylline, Amazilia beryllina Black-chinned, Archilochus alexandri Broad-billed, Cynanthus latirostris Broad-tailed, Selasphorus platycercus Buff-bellied, Amazilia yucatanensis Bumblebee, Atthis heloisa Calliope, Selasphorus calliope Cinnamon, Amazilia rutila Costa's, Calypte costae Lucifer, Calothorax lucifer Rivoli's, Eugenes fulgens Ruby-throated, Archilochus colubris Rufous, Selasphorus rufus Vervain, Mellisuga minima Violet-crowned, Amazilia violiceps White-eared, Hylocharis leucotis Xantus's, Hylocharis xantusii

IBIS, Glossy, Plegadis falcinellus

Scarlet, Eudocimus ruber White, Eudocimus albus White-faced, Plegadis chihi

’I’IWI, Drepanis coccinea

IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Pacific, Ducula pacifica

JABIRU, Jabiru mycteria

JACANA, Northern, Jacana spinosa

JACKDAW, Eurasian, Corvus monedula

JAEGER, Long-tailed, Stercorarius longicaudus

Parasitic, Stercorarius parasiticus Pomarine, Stercorarius pomarinus

JAY, Blue, Cyanocitta cristata

Brown, Psilorhinus morio Canada, Perisoreus canadensis Green, Cyanocorax yncas Mexican, Aphelocoma wollweberi Pinyon, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus Steller's, Cyanocitta stelleri

JUNCO, Dark-eyed, Junco hyemalis

Yellow-eyed, Junco phaeonotus

KĀKĀWAHIE, Paroreomyza flammea

KĀMA`O, Myadestes myadestinus

KESTREL, American, Falco sparverius

Eurasian, Falco tinnunculus

KILLDEER, Charadrius vociferus

KINGBIRD, Cassin's, Tyrannus vociferans

Couch's, Tyrannus couchii Eastern, Tyrannus tyrannus Gray, Tyrannus dominicensis Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus Thick-billed, Tyrannus crassirostris Tropical, Tyrannus melancholicus Western, Tyrannus verticalis

KINGFISHER, Amazon, Chloroceryle amazona

Belted, Megaceryle alcyon Common, Alcedo atthis Green, Chloroceryle americana Guam, Todiramphus cinnamominus Mariana, Todiramphus albicilla Pacific, Todiramphus sacer Ringed, Megaceryle torquata

KINGLET, Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa

Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula

KISKADEE, Great, Pitangus sulphuratus

KITE, Black, Milvus migrans

Double-toothed, Harpagus bidentatus Hook-billed, Chondrohierax uncinatus Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis Snail, Rostrhamus sociabilis Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus White-tailed, Elanus leucurus

KITTIWAKE, Black-legged, Rissa tridactyla

Red-legged, Rissa brevirostris

KNOT, Great, Calidris tenuirostris

Red, Calidris canutus

KOEL, Long-tailed, Urodynamis taitensis

LAPWING, Northern, Vanellus vanellus

LARK, Horned, Eremophila alpestris

LIMPKIN, Aramus guarauna

LIZARD-CUCKOO, Puerto Rican, Coccyzus vieilloti

LONGSPUR, Chestnut-collared, Calcarius ornatus

Lapland, Calcarius lapponicus McCown's, Rhynchophanes mccownii Smith's, Calcarius pictus

LOON, Arctic, Gavia arctica

Common, Gavia immer Pacific, Gavia pacifica Red-throated, Gavia stellata Yellow-billed, Gavia adamsii

MAGPIE, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia

Yellow-billed, Pica nuttalli

MALLARD, Anas platyrhynchos

MANGO, Antillean, Anthracothorax dominicus

Green, Anthracothorax viridis Green-breasted, Anthracothorax prevostii

MARSH-HARRIER, Eastern, Circus spilonotus

MARTIN, Brown-chested, Progne tapera

Caribbean, Progne dominicensis Cuban, Progne cryptoleuca Gray-breasted, Progne chalybea Purple, Progne subis Southern, Progne elegans

MEADOWLARK, Eastern, Sturnella magna

Western, Sturnella neglecta

MERGANSER, Common, Mergus merganser

Hooded, Lophodytes cucullatus Red-breasted, Mergus serrator

MERLIN, Falco columbarius

MILLERBIRD, Acrocephalus familiaris

MOCKINGBIRD, Bahama, Mimus gundlachii

Blue, Melanotis caerulescens Northern, Mimus polyglottos

MOORHEN, Common, Gallinula chloropus

MOUNTAIN-GEM, Amethyst-throated, Lampornis amethystinus

Blue-throated, Lampornis clemenciae

MURRE, Common, Uria aalge

Thick-billed, Uria lomvia

MURRELET, Ancient, Synthliboramphus antiquus

Craveri's, Synthliboramphus craveri Guadalupe, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus Kittlitz's, Brachyramphus brevirostris Long-billed, Brachyramphus perdix Marbled, Brachyramphus marmoratus Scripps's, Synthliboramphus scrippsi

NEEDLETAIL, White-throated, Hirundapus caudacutus

NIGHTHAWK, Antillean, Chordeiles gundlachii

Common, Chordeiles minor Lesser, Chordeiles acutipennis

NIGHT-HERON, Black-crowned, Nycticorax nycticorax

Japanese, Gorsachius goisagi Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus Rufous, Nycticorax caledonicus Yellow-crowned, Nyctanassa violacea

NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH, Black-headed, Catharus mexicanus

Orange-billed, Catharus aurantiirostris

NIGHTJAR, Buff-collared, Antrostomus ridgwayi

Gray, Caprimulgus jotaka Puerto Rican, Antrostomus noctitherus White-tailed, Hydropsalis cayennensis

NODDY, Black, Anous minutus

Blue-gray, Anous ceruleus Brown, Anous stolidus

NUKUPU’U, Kauai, Hemignathus hanapepe

Maui, Hemignathus affinis O’ahu, Hemignathus lucidus

NUTCRACKER, Clark's, Nucifraga columbiana

NUTHATCH, Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla

Pygmy, Sitta pygmaea Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis

OLOMA’O, Myadestes lanaiensis

’ŌMA’O, Myadestes obscurus

ORIOLE, Altamira, Icterus gularis

Audubon's, Icterus graduacauda Baltimore, Icterus galbula Black-backed, Icterus abeillei Black-vented, Icterus wagleri Bullock's, Icterus bullockii Hooded, Icterus cucullatus Orchard, Icterus spurius Puerto Rican, Icterus portoricensis Scott's, Icterus parisorum Streak-backed, Icterus pustulatus

OSPREY, Pandion haliaetus

’Ō ’Ū, Psittirostra psittacea

OVENBIRD, Seiurus aurocapilla

OWL, Barn, Tyto alba

Barred, Strix varia Boreal, Aegolius funereus Burrowing, Athene cunicularia Elf, Micrathene whitneyi Flammulated, Psiloscops flammeolus Great Gray, Strix nebulosa Great Horned, Bubo virginianus Long-eared, Asio otus Mottled, Ciccaba virgata Northern Hawk, Surnia ulula Northern Saw-whet, Aegolius acadicus Short-eared, Asio flammeus Snowy, Bubo scandiacus Spotted, Strix occidentalis Stygian, Asio stygius

OYSTERCATCHER, American, Haematopus palliatus

Black, Haematopus bachmani Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus

PALILA, Loxioides bailleui

PALM-SWIFT, Antillean, Tachornis phoenicobia

PARROTBILL, Maui, Pseudonestor xanthophrys

PARULA, Northern, Setophaga americana

Tropical, Setophaga pitiayumi

PAURAQUE, Common, Nyctidromus albicollis

PELICAN, American White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos

Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis

PETREL, Bermuda, Pterodroma cahow

Black-capped, Pterodroma hasitata Black-winged, Pterodroma nigripennis Bonin, Pterodroma hypoleuca Bulwer's, Bulweria bulwerii Cook's, Pterodroma cookii Fea's, Pterodroma feae Gould's, Pterodroma leucoptera Gray-faced, Pterodroma gouldi Hawaiian, Pterodroma sandwichensis Herald, Pterodroma heraldica Jouanin's, Bulweria fallax Juan Fernandez, Pterodroma externa Kermadec, Pterodroma neglecta Mottled, Pterodroma inexpectata Murphy's, Pterodroma ultima Parkinson's, Procellaria parkinsoni Phoenix, Pterodroma alba Providence, Pterodroma solandri Stejneger's, Pterodroma longirostris Tahiti, Pseudobulweria rostrata Trindade, Pterodroma arminjoniana White-chinned, Procellaria aequinoctialis White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis Zino's, Pterodroma madeira

PEWEE, Cuban, Contopus caribaeus

Greater, Contopus pertinax Hispaniolan, Contopus hispaniolensis Lesser Antillean, Contopus latirostris

PHAINOPEPLA, Phainopepla nitens

PHALAROPE, Red, Phalaropus fulicarius

Red-necked, Phalaropus lobatus Wilson's, Phalaropus tricolor

PHOEBE, Black, Sayornis nigricans

Eastern, Sayornis phoebe Say's, Sayornis saya

PIGEON, Band-tailed, Patagioenas fasciata

Plain, Patagioenas inornata Red-billed, Patagioenas flavirostris Scaly-naped, Patagioenas squamosa White-crowned, Patagioenas leucocephala

PINTAIL, Northern, Anas acuta

White-cheeked, Anas bahamensis

PIPIT, American, Anthus rubescens

Olive-backed, Anthus hodgsoni Pechora, Anthus gustavi Red-throated, Anthus cervinus Sprague's, Anthus spragueii Tree, Anthus trivialis

PLOVER, Black-bellied, Pluvialis squatarola

Collared, Charadrius collaris Common Ringed, Charadrius hiaticula Kentish, Charadrius alexandrinus Little Ringed, Charadrius dubius Mountain, Charadrius montanus Piping, Charadrius melodus Semipalmated, Charadrius semipalmatus Snowy, Charadrius nivosus Wilson's, Charadrius wilsonia

POCHARD, Baer's, Aythya baeri

Common, Aythya ferina

POND-HERON, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus

POORWILL, Common, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii

PO’OULI, Melamprosops phaeosoma

PUAIOHI, Myadestes palmeri

PUFFIN, Atlantic, Fratercula arctica

Horned, Fratercula corniculata Tufted, Fratercula cirrhata

PYGMY-OWL, Ferruginous, Glaucidium brasilianum

Northern, Glaucidium gnoma

PYRRHULOXIA, Cardinalis sinuatus

QUAIL-DOVE, Bridled, Geotrygon mystacea

Key West, Geotrygon chrysia Ruddy, Geotrygon montana

QUETZAL, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus

RAIL, Black, Laterallus jamaicensis

Buff-banded, Gallirallus philippensis Clapper, Rallus crepitans Guam, Gallirallus owstoni King, Rallus elegans Ridgway's, Rallus obsoletus Spotted, Pardirallus maculatus Virginia, Rallus limicola Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis

RAVEN, Chihuahuan, Corvus cryptoleucus

Common, Corvus corax

RAZORBILL, Alca torda

REDHEAD, Aythya americana

REDPOLL, Common, Acanthis flammea

Hoary, Acanthis hornemanni

REDSHANK, Common, Tringa totanus

Spotted, Tringa erythropus

REDSTART, American, Setophaga ruticilla

Common, Phoenicurus phoenicurus Painted, Myioborus pictus Slate-throated, Myioborus miniatus

REDWING, Turdus iliacus

REEF-HERON, Pacific, Egretta sacra

Western, Egretta gularis

ROADRUNNER, Greater, Geococcyx californianus

ROBIN, American, Turdus migratorius

European, Erithacus rubecula Rufous-backed, Turdus rufopalliatus Rufous-tailed, Larvivora sibilans Siberian Blue, Larvivora cyane

ROCK-THRUSH, Blue, Monticola solitarius

ROSEFINCH, Common, Carpodacus erythrinus

Pallas's, Carpodacus roseus

ROSY-FINCH, Asian, Leucosticte arctoa

Black, Leucosticte atrata Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis

RUBYTHROAT, Siberian, Calliope calliope

RUFF, Calidris pugnax

SANDERLING, Calidris alba

SANDPIPER, Baird's, Calidris bairdii

Broad-billed, Calidris falcinellus Buff-breasted, Calidris subruficollis Common, Actitis hypoleucos Curlew, Calidris ferruginea Green, Tringa ochropus Least, Calidris minutilla Marsh, Tringa stagnatilis Pectoral, Calidris melanotos Purple, Calidris maritima Rock, Calidris ptilocnemis Semipalmated, Calidris pusilla Sharp-tailed, Calidris acuminata Solitary, Tringa solitaria Spoon-billed, Calidris pygmea Spotted, Actitis macularius Stilt, Calidris himantopus Terek, Xenus cinereus Upland, Bartramia longicauda Western, Calidris mauri White-rumped, Calidris fuscicollis Wood, Tringa glareola

SAND-PLOVER, Greater, Charadrius leschenaultii

Lesser, Charadrius mongolus

SAPSUCKER, Red-breasted, Sphyrapicus ruber

Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis Williamson's, Sphyrapicus thyroideus Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius

SCAUP, Greater, Aythya marila

Lesser, Aythya affinis

SCOPS-OWL, Oriental, Otus sunia

SCOTER, Black, Melanitta americana

Common, Melanitta nigra Stejneger's, Melanitta stejnegeri Surf, Melanitta perspicillata White-winged, Melanitta deglandi

SCREECH-OWL, Eastern, Megascops asio

Puerto Rican, Megascops nudipes Western, Megascops kennicottii Whiskered, Megascops trichopsis

SCRUB-JAY, California, Aphelocoma californica

Florida, Aphelocoma coerulescens Island, Aphelocoma insularis Woodhouse's, Aphelocoma woodhouseii

SEA-EAGLE, Steller's, Haliaeetus pelagicus

SEEDEATER, Morelet's, Sporophila morelleti

SHEARWATER, Audubon's, Puffinus lherminieri

Barolo, Puffinus baroli Black-vented, Puffinus opisthomelas Bryan's, Puffinus bryani Buller's, Ardenna bulleri Cape Verde, Calonectris edwardsii Christmas, Puffinus nativitatis Cory's, Calonectris diomedea Flesh-footed, Ardenna carneipes Great, Ardenna gravis Manx, Puffinus puffinus Newell's, Puffinus newelli Pink-footed, Ardenna creatopus Short-tailed, Ardenna tenuirostris Sooty, Ardenna grisea Streaked, Calonectris leucomelas Wedge-tailed, Ardenna pacifica

SHOVELER, Northern, Spatula clypeata

SHRIKE, Brown, Lanius cristatus

Loggerhead, Lanius ludovicianus Northern, Lanius borealis

SILKY-FLYCATCHER, Gray, Ptiliogonys cinereus

SISKIN, Eurasian, Spinus spinus

Pine, Spinus pinus

SKIMMER, Black, Rynchops niger

SKUA, Great, Stercorarius skua

South Polar, Stercorarius maccormicki

SKYLARK, Eurasian, Alauda arvensis

SMEW, Mergellus albellus

SNIPE, Common, Gallinago gallinago

Jack, Lymnocryptes minimus Pin-tailed, Gallinago stenura Solitary, Gallinago solitaria Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala Wilson's, Gallinago delicata

SOLITAIRE, Brown-backed, Myadestes occidentalis

Townsend's, Myadestes townsendi

SORA, Porzana carolina

SPARROW, American Tree, Spizelloides arborea

Bachman's, Peucaea aestivalis Baird's, Centronyx bairdii Bell's, Artemisiospiza belli Black-chinned, Spizella atrogularis Black-throated, Amphispiza bilineata Botteri's, Peucaea botterii Brewer's, Spizella breweri Cassin's, Peucaea cassinii Chipping, Spizella passerina Clay-colored, Spizella pallida Field, Spizella pusilla Five-striped, Amphispiza quinquestriata Fox, Passerella iliaca Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia atricapilla Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum Harris's, Zonotrichia querula Henslow's, Centronyx henslowii Lark, Chondestes grammacus LeConte's, Ammospiza leconteii Lincoln's, Melospiza lincolnii Nelson's, Ammospiza nelsoni Olive, Arremonops rufivirgatus Rufous-crowned, Aimophila ruficeps Rufous-winged, Peucaea carpalis Sagebrush, Artemisiospiza nevadensis Saltmarsh, Ammospiza caudacuta Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis Seaside, Ammospiza maritima Song, Melospiza melodia Swamp, Melospiza georgiana Vesper, Pooecetes gramineus White-crowned, Zonotrichia leucophrys White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis Worthen's, Spizella wortheni

SPARROWHAWK, Chinese, Accipiter soloensis

Japanese, Accipiter gularis

SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis

Western, Spindalis zena

SPOONBILL, Roseate, Platalea ajaja

STARLING, Chestnut-cheeked, Agropsar philippensis

White-cheeked, Spodiopsar cineraceus

STARTHROAT, Plain-capped, Heliomaster constantii

STILT, Black-necked, Himantopus mexicanus

Black-winged, Himantopus himantopus

STINT, Little, Calidris minuta

Long-toed, Calidris subminuta Red-necked, Calidris ruficollis Temminck's, Calidris temminckii

STONECHAT, Saxicola torquatus

STORK, Wood, Mycteria americana

STORM-PETREL, Ashy, Hydrobates homochroa

Band-rumped, Hydrobates castro Black, Hydrobates melania Black-bellied, Fregetta tropica European, Hydrobates pelagicus Fork-tailed, Hydrobates furcatus Leach's, Hydrobates leucorhous Least, Hydrobates microsoma Matsudaira's, Oceanodroma matsudairae Polynesian, Nesofregetta fuliginosa Ringed, Hydrobates hornbyi Swinhoe's, Hydrobates monorhis Townsend's, Hydrobates socorroensis Tristram's, Hydrobates tristrami Wedge-rumped, Hydrobates tethys White-bellied, Fregetta grallaria White-faced, Pelagodroma marina Wilson's, Oceanites oceanicus

SURFBIRD, Calidris virgata

SWALLOW, Bahama, Tachycineta cyaneoviridis

Bank, Riparia riparia Barn, Hirundo rustica Cave, Petrochelidon fulva Cliff, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Mangrove, Tachycineta albilinea Northern Rough-winged, Stelgidopteryx serripennis Tree, Tachycineta bicolor Violet-green, Tachycineta thalassina

SWAMPHEN, Purple, Porphyrio porphyrio

SWAN, Trumpeter, Cygnus buccinator

Tundra, Cygnus columbianus Whooper, Cygnus cygnus

SWIFT, Alpine, Apus melba

Black, Cypseloides niger Chimney, Chaetura pelagica Common, Apus apus Fork-tailed, Apus pacificus Short-tailed, Chaetura brachyura Vaux's, Chaetura vauxi White-collared, Streptoprocne zonaris White-throated, Aeronautes saxatalis

SWIFTLET, Mariana, Aerodramus bartschi

White-rumped, Aerodramus spodiopygius

TANAGER, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata

Hepatic, Piranga flava Puerto Rican, Nesospingus speculiferus Scarlet, Piranga olivacea Summer, Piranga rubra Western, Piranga ludoviciana

TATTLER, Gray-tailed, Tringa brevipes

Wandering, Tringa incana

TEAL, Baikal, Sibirionetta formosa

Blue-winged, Spatula discors Cinnamon, Spatula cyanoptera Green-winged, Anas crecca

TERN, Aleutian, Onychoprion aleuticus

Arctic, Sterna paradisaea Black, Chlidonias niger Black-naped, Sterna sumatrana Bridled, Onychoprion anaethetus Caspian, Hydroprogne caspia Common, Sterna hirundo Elegant, Thalasseus elegans Forster's, Sterna forsteri Gray-backed, Onychoprion lunatus Great Crested, Thalasseus bergii Gull-billed, Gelochelidon nilotica Large-billed, Phaetusa simplex Least, Sternula antillarum Little, Sternula albifrons Roseate, Sterna dougallii Royal, Thalasseus maximus Sandwich, Thalasseus sandvicensis Sooty, Onychoprion fuscatus Whiskered, Chlidonias hybrida White, Gygis alba White-winged, Chlidonias leucopterus

THRASHER, Bendire's, Toxostoma bendirei

Brown, Toxostoma rufum California, Toxostoma redivivum Crissal, Toxostoma crissale Curve-billed, Toxostoma curvirostre LeConte's, Toxostoma lecontei Long-billed, Toxostoma longirostre Pearly-eyed, Margarops fuscatus Sage, Oreoscoptes montanus

THRUSH, Aztec, Ridgwayia pinicola

Bicknell's, Catharus bicknelli Clay-colored, Turdus grayi Dusky, Turdus naumanni Eyebrowed, Turdus obscurus Gray-cheeked, Catharus minimus Hermit, Catharus guttatus Red-legged, Turdus plumbeus Swainson's, Catharus ustulatus Varied, Ixoreus naevius White-throated, Turdus assimilis Wood, Hylocichla mustelina

TIGER-HERON, Bare-throated, Tigrisoma mexicanum

TITMOUSE, Black-crested, Baeolophus atricristatus

Bridled, Baeolophus wollweberi Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi Oak, Baeolophus inornatus Tufted, Baeolophus bicolor

TITYRA, Masked, Tityra semifasciata

TOWHEE, Abert's, Melozone aberti

California, Melozone crissalis Canyon, Melozone fusca Eastern, Pipilo erythrophthalmus Green-tailed, Pipilo chlorurus Spotted, Pipilo maculatus

TROGON, Elegant, Trogon elegans

TROPICBIRD, Red-billed, Phaethon aethereus

Red-tailed, Phaethon rubricauda White-tailed, Phaethon lepturus

TURNSTONE, Black, Arenaria melanocephala

Ruddy, Arenaria interpres

TURTLE-DOVE, Oriental, Streptopelia orientalis

VEERY, Catharus fuscescens

VERDIN, Auriparus flaviceps

VIOLETEAR, Mexican, Colibri thalassinus

VIREO, Bell's, Vireo bellii

Black-capped, Vireo atricapilla Black-whiskered, Vireo altiloquus Blue-headed, Vireo solitarius Cassin's, Vireo cassinii Cuban, Vireo gundlachii Gray, Vireo vicinior Hutton's, Vireo huttoni Philadelphia, Vireo philadelphicus Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus Puerto Rican, Vireo latimeri Red-eyed, Vireo olivaceus Thick-billed, Vireo crassirostris Warbling, Vireo gilvus White-eyed, Vireo griseus Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis Yellow-throated, Vireo flavifrons Yucatan, Vireo magister

VULTURE, Black, Coragyps atratus

Turkey, Cathartes aura

WAGTAIL, Citrine, Motacilla citreola

Eastern Yellow, Motacilla tschutschensis Gray, Motacilla cinerea White, Motacilla alba

WARBLER, Adelaide's, Setophaga adelaidae

Aguiguan Reed, Acrocephalus nijoi Arctic, Phylloscopus borealis Bachman's, Vermivora bachmanii Bay-breasted, Setophaga castanea Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia Blackburnian, Setophaga fusca Blackpoll, Setophaga striata Black-throated Blue, Setophaga caerulescens Black-throated Gray, Setophaga nigrescens Black-throated Green, Setophaga virens Blue-winged, Vermivora cyanoptera Blyth's Reed, Acrocephalus dumetorum Canada, Cardellina canadensis Cape May, Setophaga tigrina Cerulean, Setophaga cerulea Chestnut-sided, Setophaga pensylvanica Colima, Leiothlypis crissalis Connecticut, Oporornis agilis Crescent-chested, Oreothlypis superciliosa Dusky, Phylloscopus fuscatus Elfin-woods, Setophaga angelae Fan-tailed, Basileuterus lachrymosus Golden-cheeked, Setophaga chrysoparia Golden-crowned, Basileuterus culicivorus Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera Grace's, Setophaga graciae Hermit, Setophaga occidentalis Hooded, Setophaga citrina Kamchatka Leaf, Phylloscopus examinandus Kentucky, Geothlypis formosa Kirtland's, Setophaga kirtlandii Lanceolated, Locustella lanceolata Lucy's, Leiothlypis luciae MacGillivray's, Geothlypis tolmiei Magnolia, Setophaga magnolia Mourning, Geothlypis philadelphia Nashville, Leiothlypis ruficapilla Nightingale Reed, Acrocephalus luscinius Olive, Peucedramus taeniatus Orange-crowned, Leiothlypis celata Pagan Reed, Acrocephalus yamashinae Pallas's Leaf, Phylloscopus proregulus Palm, Setophaga palmarum Pine, Setophaga pinus Prairie, Setophaga discolor Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea Red-faced, Cardellina rubrifrons River, Locustella fluviatilis Rufous-capped, Basileuterus rufifrons Saipan Reed, Acrocephalus hiwae Sedge, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus Swainson's, Limnothlypis swainsonii Tennessee, Leiothlypis peregrina Thick-billed, Arundinax aedon Townsend's, Setophaga townsendi Virginia's, Leiothlypis virginiae Willow, Phylloscopus trochilus Wilson's, Cardellina pusilla Wood, Phylloscopus sibilatrix Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorum Yellow, Setophaga petechia Yellow-browed, Phylloscopus inornatus Yellow-rumped, Setophaga coronata Yellow-throated, Setophaga dominica

WATERTHRUSH, Louisiana, Parkesia motacilla

Northern, Parkesia noveboracensis

WAXWING, Bohemian, Bombycilla garrulus

Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum

WHEATEAR, Northern, Oenanthe oenanthe

Pied, Oenanthe pleschanka

WHIMBREL, Numenius phaeopus

WHIP-POOR-WILL, Eastern, Antrostomus vociferus

Mexican, Antrostomus arizonae

WHISTLING-DUCK, Black-bellied, Dendrocygna autumnalis

Fulvous, Dendrocygna bicolor West Indian, Dendrocygna arborea

WHITETHROAT, Lesser, Sylvia curruca

WIGEON, American, Mareca americana

Eurasian, Mareca penelope

WILLET, Tringa semipalmata

WOODCOCK, American, Scolopax minor

Eurasian, Scolopax rusticola

WOODPECKER, Acorn, Melanerpes formicivorus

American Three-toed, Picoides dorsalis Arizona, Dryobates arizonae Black-backed, Picoides arcticus Downy, Dryobates pubescens Gila, Melanerpes uropygialis Golden-fronted, Melanerpes aurifrons Great Spotted, Dendrocopos major Hairy, Dryobates villosus Ivory-billed, Campephilus principalis Ladder-backed, Dryobates scalaris Lewis's, Melanerpes lewis Nuttall's, Dryobates nuttallii Pileated, Dryocopus pileatus Puerto Rican, Melanerpes portoricensis Red-bellied, Melanerpes carolinus Red-cockaded, Dryobates borealis Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus White-headed, Dryobates albolarvatus

WOOD-PEWEE, Eastern, Contopus virens

Western, Contopus sordidulus

WOOD-RAIL, Rufous-necked, Aramides axillaris

WOODSTAR, Bahama, Nesophlox evelynae

WREN, Bewick's, Thryomanes bewickii

Cactus, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus Canyon, Catherpes mexicanus Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus House, Troglodytes aedon Marsh, Cistothorus palustris Pacific, Troglodytes pacificus Rock, Salpinctes obsoletus Sedge, Cistothorus platensis Sinaloa, Thryophilus sinaloa Winter, Troglodytes hiemalis

WRENTIT, Chamaea fasciata

WRYNECK, Eurasian, Jynx torquilla

YELLOWLEGS, Greater, Tringa melanoleuca

Lesser, Tringa flavipes

YELLOWTHROAT, Common, Geothlypis trichas

Gray-crowned, Geothlypis poliocephala

(2) Taxonomic listing. Species are listed in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the common (English) name following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily.

Order ANSERIFORMES

Family ANATIDAE

Subfamily DENDROCYGNINAE

Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-Duck

Subfamily ANSERINAE

Anser canagicus, Emperor Goose Anser caerulescens, Snow Goose Anser rossii, Ross's Goose Anser albifrons, Greater White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus, Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose Anser serrirostris, Tundra Bean-Goose Anser brachyrhynchus, Pink-footed Goose Branta bernicla, Brant Branta leucopsis, Barnacle Goose Branta hutchinsii, Cackling Goose Branta canadensis, Canada Goose Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian Goose Cygnus buccinator, Trumpeter Swan Cygnus columbianus, Tundra Swan Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan

Subfamily ANATINAE

Cairina moschata, Muscovy Duck Aix sponsa, Wood Duck Sibirionetta formosa, Baikal Teal Spatula querquedula, Garganey Spatula discors, Blue-winged Teal Spatula cyanoptera, Cinnamon Teal Spatula clypeata, Northern Shoveler Mareca strepera, Gadwall Mareca falcata, Falcated Duck Mareca penelope, Eurasian Wigeon Mareca americana, American Wigeon Anas laysanensis, Laysan Duck Anas wyvilliana, Hawaiian Duck Anas zonorhyncha, Eastern Spot-billed Duck Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard Anas rubripes, American Black Duck Anas fulvigula, Mottled Duck Anas superciliosa, Pacific Black Duck Anas bahamensis, White-cheeked Pintail Anas acuta, Northern Pintail Anas crecca, Green-winged Teal Aythya valisineria, Canvasback Aythya americana, Redhead Aythya ferina, Common Pochard Aythya baeri, Baer's Pochard Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck Aythya marila, Greater Scaup Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup Polysticta stelleri, Steller's Eider Somateria fischeri, Spectacled Eider Somateria spectabilis, King Eider Somateria mollissima, Common Eider Histrionicus histrionicus, Harlequin Duck Melanitta perspicillata, Surf Scoter Melanitta deglandi, White-winged Scoter Melanitta stejnegeri, Stejneger's Scoter Melanitta nigra, Common Scoter

Melanitta americana, Black Scoter

Clangula hyemalis, Long-tailed Duck

Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead

Bucephala clangula, Common Goldeneye Bucephala islandica, Barrow's Goldeneye Mergellus albellus, Smew Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser Mergus merganser, Common Merganser Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser Nomonyx dominicus, Masked Duck Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck

Order PHOENICOPTERIFORMES

Family PHOENICOPTERIDAE

Phoenicopterus ruber, American Flamingo

Order PODICIPEDIFORMES

Family PODICIPEDIDAE

Tachybaptus dominicus, Least Grebe Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe Podiceps auritus, Horned Grebe Podiceps grisegena, Red-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis, Eared Grebe Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe Aechmophorus clarkii, Clark's Grebe

Order COLUMBIFORMES

Family COLUMBIDAE

Patagioenas squamosa, Scaly-naped Pigeon Patagioenas leucocephala, White-crowned Pigeon Patagioenas flavirostris, Red-billed Pigeon Patagioenas inornata, Plain Pigeon Patagioenas fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon Streptopelia orientalis, Oriental Turtle-Dove Alopecoenas xanthonurus, White-throated Ground-Dove Alopecoenas stairi, Shy Ground-Dove Columbina inca, Inca Dove Columbina passerina, Common Ground Dove Columbina talpacoti, Ruddy Ground Dove Geotrygon montana, Ruddy Quail-Dove Geotrygon chrysia, Key West Quail-Dove Geotrygon mystacea, Bridled Quail-Dove Leptotila verreauxi, White-tipped Dove Zenaida asiatica, White-winged Dove Zenaida aurita, Zenaida Dove Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove Ptilinopus perousii, Many-colored Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus porphyraceus, Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, Mariana Fruit-Dove Ducula pacifica, Pacific Imperial-Pigeon

Order CUCULIFORMES

Family CUCULIDAE

Subfamily CROTOPHAGINAE

Crotophaga ani, Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga sulcirostris, Groove-billed Ani

Subfamily NEOMORPHINAE

Geococcyx californianus, Greater Roadrunner

Subfamily CUCULINAE

Urodynamis taitensis, Long-tailed Koel Hierococcyx nisicolor, Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo Cuculus canorus, Common Cuckoo Cuculus optatus, Oriental Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus minor, Mangrove Cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Black-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus vieilloti, Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo

Order CAPRIMULGIFORMES

Family CAPRIMULGIDAE

Subfamily CHORDEILINAE

Chordeiles acutipennis, Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles minor, Common Nighthawk Chordeiles gundlachii, Antillean Nighthawk

Subfamily CAPRIMULGINAE

Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Pauraque Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Common Poorwill Antrostomus carolinensis, Chuck-will's-widow Antrostomus ridgwayi, Buff-collared Nightjar Antrostomus vociferus, Eastern Whip-poor-will Antrostomus arizonae, Mexican Whip-poor-will Antrostomus noctitherus, Puerto Rican Nightjar Hydropsalis cayennensis, White-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus jotaka, Gray Nightjar

Order APODIFORMES

Family APODIDAE

Subfamily CYPSELOIDINAE

Cypseloides niger, Black Swift Streptoprocne zonaris, White-collared Swift

Subfamily CHAETURINAE

Chaetura pelagica, Chimney Swift Chaetura vauxi, Vaux's Swift Chaetura brachyura, Short-tailed Swift Hirundapus caudacutus, White-throated Needletail Aerodramus spodiopygius, White-rumped Swiftlet Aerodramus bartschi, Mariana Swiftlet

Subfamily APODINAE

Apus apus, Common Swift Apus pacificus, Fork-tailed Swift Apus melba, Alpine Swift Aeronautes saxatalis, White-throated Swift Tachornis phoenicobia, Antillean Palm-Swift

Family TROCHILIDAE

Subfamily TROCHILINAE

Colibri thalassinus, Mexican Violetear Anthracothorax prevostii, Green-breasted Mango Anthracothorax dominicus, Antillean Mango Anthracothorax viridis, Green Mango Eulampis jugularis, Purple-throated Carib Eulampis holosericeus, Green-throated Carib Eugenes fulgens, Rivoli's Hummingbird Heliomaster constantii, Plain-capped Starthroat Lampornis amethystinus, Amethyst-throated Mountain-gem Lampornis clemenciae, Blue-throated Mountain-gem Calothorax lucifer, Lucifer Hummingbird Archilochus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus alexandri, Black-chinned Hummingbird Mellisuga minima, Vervain Hummingbird Nesophlox evelynae, Bahama Woodstar Calypte anna, Anna's Hummingbird Calypte costae, Costa's Hummingbird Atthis heloisa, Bumblebee Hummingbird Selasphorus platycercus, Broad-tailed Hummingbird Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird Selasphorus sasin, Allen's Hummingbird Selasphorus calliope, Calliope Hummingbird Chlorostilbon maugaeus, Puerto Rican Emerald Cynanthus latirostris, Broad-billed Hummingbird Orthorhyncus cristatus, Antillean Crested Hummingbird Amazilia beryllina, Berylline Hummingbird Amazilia yucatanensis, Buff-bellied Hummingbird Amazilia rutila, Cinnamon Hummingbird Amazilia violiceps, Violet-crowned Hummingbird Hylocharis leucotis, White-eared Hummingbird Hylocharis xantusii, Xantus's Hummingbird

Order GRUIFORMES

Family RALLIDAE

Coturnicops noveboracensis, Yellow Rail Laterallus jamaicensis, Black Rail Gallirallus philippensis, Buff-banded Rail Gallirallus owstoni, Guam Rail Crex crex, Corn Crake Rallus obsoletus, Ridgway's Rail Rallus crepitans, Clapper Rail Rallus elegans, King Rail Rallus limicola, Virginia Rail Aramides axillaris, Rufous-necked Wood-Rail Porzana carolina, Sora Porzana tabuensis, Spotless Crake Hapalocrex flaviventer, Yellow-breasted Crake Neocrex erythrops, Paint-billed Crake Pardirallus maculatus, Spotted Rail Porphyrio martinicus, Purple Gallinule Porphyrio flavirostris, Azure Gallinule Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Swamphen Gallinula galeata, Common Gallinule Gallinula chloropus, Common Moorhen Fulica atra, Eurasian Coot Fulica alai, Hawaiian Coot Fulica americana, American Coot

Family ARAMIDAE

Aramus guarauna, Limpkin

Family GRUIDAE

Subfamily GRUINAE

Antigone canadensis, Sandhill Crane Grus grus, Common Crane Grus americana, Whooping Crane

Order CHARADRIIFORMES

Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE

Himantopus himantopus, Black-winged Stilt Himantopus mexicanus, Black-necked Stilt Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet

Family HAEMATOPODIDAE

Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Black Oystercatcher

Family CHARADRIIDAE

Subfamily VANELLINAE

Vanellus vanellus, Northern Lapwing

Subfamily CHARADRIINAE

Pluvialis squatarola, Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis apricaria, European Golden-Plover Pluvialis dominica, American Golden-Plover Pluvialis fulva, Pacific Golden-Plover Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Dotterel Charadrius vociferus, Killdeer Charadrius hiaticula, Common Ringed Plover Charadrius semipalmatus, Semipalmated Plover Charadrius melodus, Piping Plover Charadrius dubius, Little Ringed Plover Charadrius mongolus, Lesser Sand-Plover Charadrius leschenaultii, Greater Sand-Plover Charadrius wilsonia, Wilson's Plover Charadrius collaris, Collared Plover Charadrius montanus, Mountain Plover Charadrius alexandrinus, Kentish Plover Charadrius nivosus, Snowy Plover

Family JACANIDAE

Jacana spinosa, Northern Jacana

Family SCOLOPACIDAE

Subfamily NUMENIINAE

Bartramia longicauda, Upland Sandpiper Numenius tahitiensis, Bristle-thighed Curlew Numenius phaeopus, Whimbrel Numenius minutus, Little Curlew Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew Numenius arquata, Eurasian Curlew

Subfamily LIMOSINAE

Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit Limosa haemastica, Hudsonian Godwit Limosa fedoa, Marbled Godwit

Subfamily ARENARIINAE

Arenaria interpres, Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria melanocephala, Black Turnstone Calidris tenuirostris, Great Knot Calidris canutus, Red Knot Calidris virgata, Surfbird Calidris pugnax, Ruff Calidris falcinellus, Broad-billed Sandpiper Calidris acuminata, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Calidris himantopus, Stilt Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Curlew Sandpiper Calidris temminckii, Temminck's Stint Calidris subminuta, Long-toed Stint Calidris pygmea, Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris ruficollis, Red-necked Stint Calidris alba, Sanderling Calidris alpina, Dunlin Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper Calidris maritima, Purple Sandpiper Calidris bairdii, Baird's Sandpiper Calidris minuta, Little Stint Calidris minutilla, Least Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis, White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper Calidris melanotos, Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris pusilla, Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper

Subfamily SCOLOPACINAE

Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus, Long-billed Dowitcher Lymnocryptes minimus, Jack Snipe Scolopax rusticola, Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax minor, American Woodcock Gallinago solitaria, Solitary Snipe Gallinago stenura, Pin-tailed Snipe Gallinago megala, Swinhoe's Snipe Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe Gallinago delicata, Wilson's Snipe

Subfamily TRINGINAE

Xenus cinereus, Terek Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper Actitis macularius, Spotted Sandpiper Tringa ochropus, Green Sandpiper Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper Tringa brevipes, Gray-tailed Tattler Tringa incana, Wandering Tattler Tringa flavipes, Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa semipalmata, Willet Tringa erythropus, Spotted Redshank Tringa nebularia, Common Greenshank Tringa guttifer, Nordmann's Greenshank Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs Tringa totanus, Common Redshank Tringa glareola, Wood Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper Phalaropus tricolor, Wilson's Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus, Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius, Red Phalarope

Family STERCORARIIDAE

Stercorarius skua, Great Skua Stercorarius maccormicki, South Polar Skua Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus, Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger

Family ALCIDAE

Alle alle, Dovekie Uria aalge, Common Murre Uria lomvia, Thick-billed Murre Alca torda, Razorbill Cepphus grylle, Black Guillemot Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot Brachyramphus perdix, Long-billed Murrelet Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris, Kittlitz's Murrelet Synthliboramphus scrippsi, Scripps's Murrelet Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Guadalupe Murrelet Synthliboramphus craveri, Craveri's Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus, Ancient Murrelet Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin's Auklet Aethia psittacula, Parakeet Auklet Aethia pusilla, Least Auklet Aethia pygmaea, Whiskered Auklet Aethia cristatella, Crested Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata, Rhinoceros Auklet Fratercula arctica, Atlantic Puffin Fratercula corniculata, Horned Puffin Fratercula cirrhata, Tufted Puffin

Family LARIDAE

Subfamily LARINAE

Creagrus furcatus, Swallow-tailed Gull Rissa tridactyla, Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa brevirostris, Red-legged Kittiwake Pagophila eburnea, Ivory Gull Xema sabini, Sabine's Gull Chroicocephalus philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus, Gray-hooded Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Black-headed Gull Hydrocoloeus minutus, Little Gull Rhodostethia rosea, Ross's Gull Leucophaeus atricilla, Laughing Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan, Franklin's Gull Larus belcheri, Belcher's Gull Larus crassirostris, Black-tailed Gull Larus heermanni, Heermann's Gull Larus canus, Mew Gull Larus delawarensis, Ring-billed Gull Larus occidentalis, Western Gull Larus livens, Yellow-footed Gull Larus californicus, California Gull Larus argentatus, Herring Gull Larus michahellis, Yellow-legged Gull Larus glaucoides, Iceland Gull Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus schistisagus, Slaty-backed Gull Larus glaucescens, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus hyperboreus, Glaucous Gull Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull Larus dominicanus, Kelp Gull

Subfamily STERNINAE

Anous stolidus, Brown Noddy Anous minutus, Black Noddy Anous ceruleus, Blue-gray Noddy Gygis alba, White Tern Onychoprion fuscatus, Sooty Tern Onychoprion lunatus, Gray-backed Tern Onychoprion anaethetus, Bridled Tern Onychoprion aleuticus, Aleutian Tern Sternula albifrons, Little Tern Sternula antillarum, Least Tern Phaetusa simplex, Large-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica, Gull-billed Tern Hydroprogne caspia, Caspian Tern Chlidonias niger, Black Tern Chlidonias leucopterus, White-winged Tern Chlidonias hybrida, Whiskered Tern Sterna dougallii, Roseate Tern Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern Sterna hirundo, Common Tern Sterna paradisaea, Arctic Tern Sterna forsteri, Forster's Tern Thalasseus maximus, Royal Tern Thalasseus bergii, Great Crested Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern Thalasseus elegans, Elegant Tern

Subfamily RYNCHOPINAE

Rynchops niger, Black Skimmer

Order PHAETHONTIFORMES

Family PHAETHONTIDAE

Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda, Red-tailed Tropicbird

Order GAVIIFORMES

Family GAVIIDAE

Gavia stellata, Red-throated Loon Gavia arctica, Arctic Loon Gavia pacifica, Pacific Loon Gavia immer, Common Loon Gavia adamsii, Yellow-billed Loon

Order PROCELLARIIFORMES

Family DIOMEDEIDAE

Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche cauta, White-capped Albatross Thalassarche eremita, Chatham Albatross Thalassarche salvini, Salvin's Albatross Thalassarche melanophris, Black-browed Albatross Phoebetria palpebrata, Light-mantled Albatross Diomedea exulans, Wandering Albatross Phoebastria immutabilis, Laysan Albatross Phoebastria nigripes, Black-footed Albatross Phoebastria albatrus, Short-tailed Albatross

Family OCEANITIDAE

Oceanites oceanicus, Wilson's Storm-Petrel Pelagodroma marina, White-faced Storm-Petrel Fregetta tropica, Black-bellied Storm-Petrel

Family HYDROBATIDAE

Hydrobates pelagicus, European Storm-Petrel Fregetta grallaria, White-bellied Storm-Petrel Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Polynesian Storm-Petrel Hydrobates furcatus, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel Hydrobates hornbyi, Ringed Storm-Petrel Hydrobates monorhis, Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel Hydrobates leucorhous, Leach's Storm-Petrel Hydrobates socorroensis, Townsend's Storm-Petrel Hydrobates homochroa, Ashy Storm-Petrel Hydrobates castro, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel Hydrobates tethys, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma matsudairae, Matsudaira's Storm-Petrel Hydrobates melania, Black Storm-Petrel Hydrobates tristrami, Tristram's Storm-Petrel Hydrobates microsoma, Least Storm-Petrel

Family PROCELLARIIDAE

Fulmarus glacialis, Northern Fulmar Pterodroma gouldi, Gray-faced Petrel Pterodroma solandri, Providence Petrel Pterodroma neglecta, Kermadec Petrel Pterodroma arminjoniana, Trindade Petrel Pterodroma heraldica, Herald Petrel Pterodroma ultima, Murphy's Petrel Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel Pterodroma cahow, Bermuda Petrel Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel Pterodroma externa, Juan Fernandez Petrel Pterodroma sandwichensis, Hawaiian Petrel Pterodroma cervicalis, White-necked Petrel Pterodroma hypoleuca, Bonin Petrel Pterodroma nigripennis, Black-winged Petrel Pterodroma feae, Fea's Petrel Pterodroma madeira, Zino's Petrel Pterodroma cookii, Cook's Petrel Pterodroma longirostris, Stejneger's Petrel Pterodroma alba, Phoenix Petrel Pterodroma leucoptera, Gould's Petrel Pseudobulweria rostrata, Tahiti Petrel Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer's Petrel Bulweria fallax, Jouanin's Petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis, White-chinned Petrel Procellaria parkinsoni, Parkinson's Petrel Calonectris leucomelas, Streaked Shearwater Calonectris diomedea, Cory's Shearwater Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Shearwater Ardenna pacifica, Wedge-tailed Shearwater Ardenna bulleri, Buller's Shearwater Ardenna tenuirostris, Short-tailed Shearwater Ardenna grisea, Sooty Shearwater Ardenna gravis, Great Shearwater Ardenna creatopus, Pink-footed Shearwater Ardenna carneipes, Flesh-footed Shearwater Puffinus nativitatis, Christmas Shearwater Puffinus puffinus, Manx Shearwater Puffinus newelli, Newell's Shearwater Puffinus bryani, Bryan's Shearwater Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon's Shearwater Puffinus baroli, Barolo Shearwater

Order CICONIIFORMES

Family CICONIIDAE

Jabiru mycteria, Jabiru Mycteria americana, Wood Stork

Order SULIFORMES

Family FREGATIDAE

Fregata ariel, Lesser Frigatebird Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata minor, Great Frigatebird

Family SULIDAE

Sula dactylatra, Masked Booby Sula granti, Nazca Booby Sula nebouxii, Blue-footed Booby Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby Sula sula, Red-footed Booby Papasula abbotti, Abbott's Booby Morus bassanus, Northern Gannet

Family PHALACROCORACIDAE

Phalacrocorax melanoleucos, Little Pied Cormorant Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt's Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus, Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax urile, Red-faced Cormorant Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pelagic Cormorant

Family ANHINGIDAE

Anhinga anhinga, Anhinga

Order PELECANIFORMES

Family PELECANIDAE

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, American White Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis, Brown Pelican

Family ARDEIDAE

Botaurus lentiginosus, American Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis, Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus exilis, Least Bittern Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Schrenck's Bittern Ixobrychus flavicollis, Black Bittern Tigrisoma mexicanum, Bare-throated Tiger-Heron Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron Ardea cinerea, Gray Heron Ardea alba, Great Egret Ardea intermedia, Intermediate Egret Egretta eulophotes, Chinese Egret Egretta garzetta, Little Egret Egretta sacra, Pacific Reef-Heron Egretta gularis, Western Reef-Heron Egretta thula, Snowy Egret Egretta caerulea, Little Blue Heron Egretta tricolor, Tricolored Heron Egretta rufescens, Reddish Egret Bubulcus ibis, Cattle Egret Ardeola bacchus, Chinese Pond-Heron Butorides virescens, Green Heron Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax caledonicus, Rufous Night-Heron Nyctanassa violacea, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron Gorsachius goisagi, Japanese Night-Heron Gorsachius melanolophus, Malayan Night-Heron

Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE

Subfamily THRESKIORNITHINAE

Eudocimus albus, White Ibis Eudocimus ruber, Scarlet Ibis Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis

Subfamily PLATALEINAE

Platalea ajaja, Roseate Spoonbill

Order CARTHARTIFORMES

Family CATHARTIDAE

Coragyps atratus, Black Vulture Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture Gymnogyps californianus, California Condor

Order ACCIPITRIFORMES

Family PANDIONIDAE

Pandion haliaetus, Osprey

Family ACCIPITRIDAE

Subfamily ELANINAE

Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite

Subfamily GYPAETINAE

Chondrohierax uncinatus, Hook-billed Kite Elanoides forficatus, Swallow-tailed Kite

Subfamily ACCIPITRINAE

Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle Harpagus bidentatus, Double-toothed Kite Circus spilonotus, Eastern Marsh-Harrier Circus hudsonius, Northern Harrier Accipiter soloensis, Chinese Sparrowhawk Accipiter gularis, Japanese Sparrowhawk Accipiter striatus, Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter cooperii, Cooper's Hawk Accipiter gentilis, Northern Goshawk Milvus migrans, Black Kite Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla, White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus pelagicus, Steller's Sea-Eagle Ictinia mississippiensis, Mississippi Kite Butastur indicus, Gray-faced Buzzard Geranospiza caerulescens, Crane Hawk Rostrhamus sociabilis, Snail Kite Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black Hawk Buteogallus urubitinga, Great Black Hawk Rupornis magnirostris, Roadside Hawk Parabuteo unicinctus, Harris's Hawk Geranoaetus albicaudatus, White-tailed Hawk Buteo plagiatus, Gray Hawk Buteo lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo platypterus, Broad-winged Hawk Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian Hawk Buteo brachyurus, Short-tailed Hawk Buteo swainsoni, Swainson's Hawk Buteo albonotatus, Zone-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Hawk Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk

Order STRIGIFORMES

Family TYTONIDAE

Tyto alba, Barn Owl

Family STRIGIDAE

Otus sunia, Oriental Scops-Owl Psiloscops flammeolus, Flammulated Owl Megascops kennicottii, Western Screech-Owl Megascops asio, Eastern Screech-Owl Megascops trichopsis, Whiskered Screech-Owl Megascops nudipes, Puerto Rican Screech-Owl Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl Bubo scandiacus, Snowy Owl Surnia ulula, Northern Hawk Owl Glaucidium gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium brasilianum, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Micrathene whitneyi, Elf Owl Athene cunicularia, Burrowing Owl Ciccaba virgata, Mottled Owl Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl Strix varia, Barred Owl Strix nebulosa, Great Gray Owl Asio otus, Long-eared Owl Asio stygius, Stygian Owl Asio flammeus, Short-eared Owl Aegolius funereus, Boreal Owl Aegolius acadicus, Northern Saw-whet Owl Ninox japonica, Northern Boobook

Order TROGONIFORMES

Family TROGONIDAE

Subfamily TROGONINAE

Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon Euptilotis neoxenus, Eared Quetzal

Order UPUPIFORMES

Family UPUPIDAE

Upupa epops, Eurasian Hoopoe

Order CORACIIFORMES

Family ALCEDINIDAE

Subfamily ALCEDININAE

Alcedo atthis, Common Kingfisher

Subfamily HALCYONINAE

Todiramphus sacer, Pacific Kingfisher Todiramphus cinnamominus, Guam Kingfisher Todiramphus albicilla, Mariana Kingfisher

Subfamily CERYLINAE

Megaceryle torquata, Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona, Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher

Order PICIFORMES

Family PICIDAE

Subfamily JYNGINAE

Jynx torquilla, Eurasian Wryneck

Subfamily PICINAE

Melanerpes lewis, Lewis's Woodpecker Melanerpes portoricensis, Puerto Rican Woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Red-headed Woodpecker Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker Melanerpes uropygialis, Gila Woodpecker Melanerpes aurifrons, Golden-fronted Woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Williamson's Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus nuchalis, Red-naped Sapsucker Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker Picoides dorsalis, American Three-toed Woodpecker Picoides arcticus, Black-backed Woodpecker Dendrocopos major, Great Spotted Woodpecker Dryobates pubescens, Downy Woodpecker Dryobates nuttallii, Nuttall's Woodpecker Dryobates scalaris, Ladder-backed Woodpecker Dryobates borealis, Red-cockaded Woodpecker Dryobates villosus, Hairy Woodpecker Dryobates albolarvatus, White-headed Woodpecker Dryobates arizonae, Arizona Woodpecker Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker Colaptes chrysoides, Gilded Flicker Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker Campephilus principalis, Ivory-billed Woodpecker

Order FALCONIFORMES

Family FALCONIDAE

Subfamily HERPETOTHERINAE

Micrastur semitorquatus, Collared Forest-Falcon

Subfamily FALCONINAE

Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara Falco tinnunculus, Eurasian Kestrel Falco sparverius, American Kestrel Falco vespertinus, Red-footed Falcon Falco amurensis, Amur Falcon Falco columbarius, Merlin Falco subbuteo, Eurasian Hobby Falco femoralis, Aplomado Falcon Falco rusticolus, Gyrfalcon Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon

Order PASSERIFORMES

Family TITYRIDAE

Tityra semifasciata, Masked Tityra Pachyramphus major, Gray-collared Becard Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard

Family TYRANNIDAE

Subfamily ELAENIINAE

Camptostoma imberbe, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet Myiopagis viridicata, Greenish Elaenia Elaenia martinica, Caribbean Elaenia Elaenia albiceps, White-crested Elaenia

Subfamily FLUVICOLINAE

Mitrephanes phaeocercus, Tufted Flycatcher Contopus cooperi, Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus pertinax, Greater Pewee Contopus sordidulus, Western Wood-Pewee Contopus virens, Eastern Wood-Pewee Contopus caribaeus, Cuban Pewee Contopus hispaniolensis, Hispaniolan Pewee Contopus latirostris, Lesser Antillean Pewee Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Empidonax virescens, Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum, Alder Flycatcher Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher Empidonax hammondii, Hammond's Flycatcher Empidonax wrightii, Gray Flycatcher Empidonax oberholseri, Dusky Flycatcher Empidonax affinis, Pine Flycatcher Empidonax difficilis, Pacific-slope Flycatcher Empidonax occidentalis, Cordilleran Flycatcher Empidonax fulvifrons, Buff-breasted Flycatcher Sayornis nigricans, Black Phoebe Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe Sayornis saya, Say's Phoebe Pyrocephalus rubinus, Vermilion Flycatcher

Subfamily TYRANNINAE

Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus cinerascens, Ash-throated Flycatcher Myiarchus nuttingi, Nutting's Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus, Great Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus tyrannulus, Brown-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus sagrae, La Sagra's Flycatcher Myiarchus antillarum, Puerto Rican Flycatcher Pitangus sulphuratus, Great Kiskadee Myiozetetes similis, Social Flycatcher Myiodynastes luteiventris, Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius, Piratic Flycatcher Empidonomus varius, Variegated Flycatcher Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus, Crowned Slaty Flycatcher Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus couchii, Couch's Kingbird Tyrannus vociferans, Cassin's Kingbird Tyrannus crassirostris, Thick-billed Kingbird Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus, Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis, Gray Kingbird Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Loggerhead Kingbird Tyrannus forficatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher

Family LANIIDAE

Lanius cristatus, Brown Shrike Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike Lanius borealis, Northern Shrike

Family VIREONIDAE

Vireo atricapilla, Black-capped Vireo Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo Vireo crassirostris, Thick-billed Vireo Vireo latimeri, Puerto Rican Vireo Vireo gundlachii, Cuban Vireo Vireo bellii, Bell's Vireo Vireo vicinior, Gray Vireo Vireo huttoni, Hutton's Vireo Vireo flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo cassinii, Cassin's Vireo Vireo solitarius, Blue-headed Vireo Vireo plumbeus, Plumbeous Vireo Vireo philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo Vireo flavoviridis, Yellow-green Vireo Vireo altiloquus, Black-whiskered Vireo Vireo magister, Yucatan Vireo

Family CORVIDAE

Perisoreus canadensis, Canada Jay Psilorhinus morio, Brown Jay Cyanocorax yncas, Green Jay Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Pinyon Jay Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller's Jay Cyanocitta cristata, Blue Jay Aphelocoma coerulescens, Florida Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma insularis, Island Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma californica, California Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma woodhouseii, Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma wollweberi, Mexican Jay Nucifraga columbiana, Clark's Nutcracker Pica hudsonia, Black-billed Magpie Pica nuttalli, Yellow-billed Magpie Corvus monedula, Eurasian Jackdaw Corvus kubaryi, Mariana Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos, American Crow Corvus caurinus, Northwestern Crow Corvus leucognaphalus, White-necked Crow Corvus imparatus, Tamaulipas Crow Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian Crow Corvus cryptoleucus, Chihuahuan Raven Corvus corax, Common Raven

Family ALAUDIDAE

Alauda arvensis, Eurasian Skylark Eremophila alpestris, Horned Lark

Family HIRUNDINIDAE

Subfamily HIRUNDININAE

Riparia riparia, Bank Swallow Tachycineta bicolor, Tree Swallow Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Bahama Swallow Tachycineta thalassina, Violet-green Swallow Tachycineta albilinea, Mangrove Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Northern Rough-winged Swallow Progne tapera, Brown-chested Martin Progne dominicensis, Caribbean Martin Progne subis, Purple Martin Progne cryptoleuca, Cuban Martin Progne chalybea, Gray-breasted Martin Progne elegans, Southern Martin Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow Delichon urbicum, Common House-Martin Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon fulva, Cave Swallow

Family PARIDAE

Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee Poecile atricapillus, Black-capped Chickadee Poecile gambeli, Mountain Chickadee Poecile sclateri, Mexican Chickadee Poecile rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee Poecile hudsonicus, Boreal Chickadee Poecile cinctus, Gray-headed Chickadee Baeolophus wollweberi, Bridled Titmouse Baeolophus inornatus, Oak Titmouse Baeolophus ridgwayi, Juniper Titmouse Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse Baeolophus atricristatus, Black-crested Titmouse

Family REMIZIDAE

Auriparus flaviceps, Verdin

Family AEGITHALIDAE

Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit

Family SITTIDAE

Subfamily SITTINAE

Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch Sitta pygmaea, Pygmy Nuthatch Sitta pusilla, Brown-headed Nuthatch

Family CERTHIIDAE

Subfamily CERTHIINAE

Certhia americana, Brown Creeper

Family TROGLODYTIDAE

Salpinctes obsoletus, Rock Wren Catherpes mexicanus, Canyon Wren Troglodytes aedon, House Wren Troglodytes pacificus, Pacific Wren Troglodytes hiemalis, Winter Wren Cistothorus platensis, Sedge Wren Cistothorus palustris, Marsh Wren Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren Thryomanes bewickii, Bewick's Wren Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren Thryophilus sinaloa, Sinaloa Wren

Family POLIOPTILIDAE

Polioptila caerulea, Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher Polioptila californica, California Gnatcatcher Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher

Family CINCLIDAE

Cinclus mexicanus, American Dipper

Family REGULIDAE

Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned Kinglet

Family PHYLLOSCOPIDAE

Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler Phylloscopus collybita, Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Wood Warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus, Dusky Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus, Pallas's Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus, Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus examinandus, Kamchatka Leaf Warbler

Family SYLVIIDAE

Sylvia curruca, Lesser Whitethroat Chamaea fasciata, Wrentit

Family ACROCEPHALIDAE

Arundinax aedon, Thick-billed Warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Nightingale Reed Warbler Acrocephalus hiwae, Saipan Reed Warbler Acrocephalus nijoi, Aguiguan Reed Warbler Acrocephalus yamashinae, Pagan Reed Warbler Acrocephalus familiaris, Millerbird Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum, Blyth's Reed Warbler

Family LOCUSTELLIDAE

Locustella ochotensis, Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler Locustella fluviatilis, River Warbler Locustella lanceolata, Lanceolated Warbler

Family MUSCICAPIDAE

Muscicapa griseisticta, Gray-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica, Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa striata, Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica, Dark-sided Flycatcher Erithacus rubecula, European Robin Larvivora cyane, Siberian Blue Robin Larvivora sibilans, Rufous-tailed Robin Cyanecula svecica, Bluethroat Calliope calliope, Siberian Rubythroat Tarsiger cyanurus, Red-flanked Bluetail Ficedula narcissina, Narcissus Flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki, Mugimaki Flycatcher Ficedula albicilla, Taiga Flycatcher Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Common Redstart Saxicola torquatus, Stonechat Oenanthe oenanthe, Northern Wheatear Oenanthe pleschanka, Pied Wheatear Family TURDIDAE Monticola solitarius, Blue Rock-Thrush Sialia sialis, Eastern Bluebird Sialia mexicana, Western Bluebird Sialia currucoides, Mountain Bluebird Myadestes townsendi, Townsend's Solitaire Myadestes occidentalis, Brown-backed Solitaire Myadestes myadestinus, Kāma’o Myadestes lanaiensis, Olomao Myadestes obscurus, Ōma’o Myadestes palmeri, Puaiohi Catharus aurantiirostris, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus mexicanus, Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus fuscescens, Veery Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus bicknelli, Bicknell's Thrush Catharus ustulatus, Swainson's Thrush Catharus guttatus, Hermit Thrush Hylocichla mustelina, Wood Thrush Turdus obscurus, Eyebrowed Thrush Turdus naumanni, Dusky Thrush Turdus pilaris, Fieldfare Turdus iliacus, Redwing Turdus grayi, Clay-colored Thrush Turdus assimilis, White-throated Thrush Turdus rufopalliatus, Rufous-backed Robin Turdus migratorius, American Robin Turdus plumbeus, Red-legged Thrush Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush Ridgwayia pinicola, Aztec Thrush

Family MIMIDAE

Melanotis caerulescens, Blue Mockingbird Melanoptila glabrirostris, Black Catbird Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird Margarops fuscatus, Pearly-eyed Thrasher Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher Toxostoma rufum, Brown Thrasher Toxostoma longirostre, Long-billed Thrasher Toxostoma bendirei, Bendire's Thrasher Toxostoma redivivum, California Thrasher Toxostoma lecontei, LeConte's Thrasher Toxostoma crissale, Crissal Thrasher Oreoscoptes montanus, Sage Thrasher Mimus gundlachii, Bahama Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird

Family STURNIDAE

Agropsar philippensis, Chestnut-cheeked Starling Spodiopsar cineraceus, White-cheeked Starling

Family BOMBYCILLIDAE

Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing

Family PTILIOGONATIDAE

Ptiliogonys cinereus, Gray Silky-flycatcher Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla

Family PEUCEDRAMIDAE

Peucedramus taeniatus, Olive Warbler

Family PRUNELLIDAE

Prunella montanella, Siberian Accentor

Family MOTACILLIDAE

Motacilla tschutschensis, Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla citreola, Citrine Wagtail Motacilla cinerea, Gray Wagtail Motacilla alba, White Wagtail Anthus trivialis, Tree Pipit Anthus hodgsoni, Olive-backed Pipit Anthus gustavi, Pechora Pipit Anthus cervinus, Red-throated Pipit Anthus rubescens, American Pipit Anthus spragueii, Sprague's Pipit

Family FRINGILLIDAE

Subfamily FRINGILLINAE

Fringilla coelebs, Common Chaffinch Fringilla montifringilla, Brambling Subfamily EUPHONIINAE Euphonia musica, Antillean Euphonia Subfamily CARDUELINAE Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Hawfinch Carpodacus erythrinus, Common Rosefinch Carpodacus roseus, Pallas's Rosefinch Melamprosops phaeosoma, Po’ouli Oreomystis bairdi, ’Akikiki Paroreomyza maculata, O’ahu ’Alauahio Paroreomyza flammea,Kākāwahie Paroreomyza montana, Maui ’Alauahio Loxioides bailleui, Palila Telespiza cantans, Laysan Finch Telespiza ultima, Nihoa Finch Palmeria dolei, ’Akohekohe Himatione fraithii, Laysan Honeycreeper Himatione sanguinea, ’Apapane Drepanis coccinea, ’I’iwi Psittirostra psittacea, ’Ō ’ū Pseudonestor xanthophrys, Maui Parrotbill Hemignathus hanapepe, Kauai Nukupu’u Hemignathus lucidus, O ’ahu Nukupu’u Hemignathus affinis, Maui Nukupu’u Hemignathus wilsoni, ’Akiapola’au Akialoa stejnegeri, Kauai ’Akialoa Akialoa ellisiana, O’ahu ’Akialoa Akialoa lanaiensis, Maui Nui ’Akialoa Magumma parva, ’Anianiau Chlorodrepanis virens, Hawaii’Amakihi Chlorodrepanis flava, O’ahu ’Amakihi Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri, Kauai ’Amakihi Loxops mana, Hawaii Creeper Loxops caeruleirostris, ’Akeke’e Loxops wolstenholmei, O’ahu ’Akepa Loxops ochraceus, Maui ’Akepa Loxops coccineus, Hawaii ’Akepa Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Eurasian Bullfinch Leucosticte arctoa, Asian Rosy-Finch Leucosticte tephrocotis, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch Leucosticte atrata, Black Rosy-Finch Leucosticte australis, Brown-capped Rosy-Finch Haemorhous mexicanus, House Finch Haemorhous purpureus, Purple Finch Haemorhous cassinii, Cassin's Finch Chloris sinica, Oriental Greenfinch Acanthis flammea, Common Redpoll Acanthis hornemanni, Hoary Redpoll Loxia curvirostra, Red Crossbill Loxia sinesciuris, Cassia Crossbill Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill Spinus spinus, Eurasian Siskin Spinus pinus, Pine Siskin Spinus psaltria, Lesser Goldfinch Spinus lawrencei, Lawrence's Goldfinch Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch

Family CALCARIIDAE

Calcarius lapponicus, Lapland Longspur Calcarius ornatus, Chestnut-collared Longspur Calcarius pictus, Smith's Longspur Rhynchophanes mccownii, McCown's Longspur Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting Plectrophenax hyperboreus, McKay's Bunting

Family EMBERIZIDAE

Emberiza leucocephalos, Pine Bunting Emberiza chrysophrys, Yellow-browed Bunting Emberiza pusilla, Little Bunting Emberiza rustica, Rustic Bunting Emberiza elegans, Yellow-throated Bunting Emberiza aureola, Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza variabilis, Gray Bunting Emberiza pallasi, Pallas's Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus, Reed Bunting

Family PASSERELLIDAE

Peucaea carpalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow Peucaea botterii, Botteri's Sparrow Peucaea cassinii, Cassin's Sparrow Peucaea aestivalis, Bachman's Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow Arremonops rufivirgatus, Olive Sparrow Amphispiza quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow Spizella pallida, Clay-colored Sparrow Spizella atrogularis, Black-chinned Sparrow Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow Spizella breweri, Brewer's Sparrow Spizella wortheni, Worthen's Sparrow Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow Spizelloides arborea, American Tree Sparrow Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco Junco phaeonotus, Yellow-eyed Junco Zonotrichia leucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia atricapilla, Golden-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia querula, Harris's Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis, White-throated Sparrow Artemisiospiza nevadensis, Sagebrush Sparrow Artemisiospiza belli, Bell's Sparrow Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow Ammospiza leconteii, LeConte's Sparrow Ammospiza maritima, Seaside Sparrow Ammospiza nelsoni, Nelson's Sparrow Ammospiza caudacuta, Saltmarsh Sparrow Centronyx bairdii, Baird's Sparrow Centronyx henslowii, Henslow's Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln's Sparrow Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow Melozone fusca, Canyon Towhee Melozone aberti, Abert's Towhee Melozone crissalis, California Towhee Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee

Family NESOSPINGIDAE

Nesospingus speculiferus, Puerto Rican Tanager

Family SPINDALIDAE

Spindalis zena, Western Spindalis Spindalis portoricensis, Puerto Rican Spindalis

Family ICTERIIDAE

Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat

Family ICTERIDAE

Subfamily XANTHOCEPHALINAE

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Yellow-headed Blackbird

Subfamily DOLICHONYCHINAE

Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink

Subfamily STURNELLINAE

Sturnella magna, Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark

Subfamily ICTERINAE

Icterus portoricensis, Puerto Rican Oriole Icterus wagleri, Black-vented Oriole Icterus spurius, Orchard Oriole Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole Icterus pustulatus, Streak-backed Oriole Icterus bullockii, Bullock's Oriole Icterus gularis, Altamira Oriole Icterus graduacauda, Audubon's Oriole Icterus galbula, Baltimore Oriole Icterus abeillei, Black-backed Oriole Icterus parisorum, Scott's Oriole

Subfamily AGELAIINAE

Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius tricolor, Tricolored Blackbird Agelaius humeralis, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird Agelaius xanthomus, Yellow-shouldered Blackbird Molothrus bonariensis, Shiny Cowbird Molothrus aeneus, Bronzed Cowbird Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird Euphagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer's Blackbird Quiscalus quiscula, Common Grackle Quiscalus major, Boat-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus, Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus niger, Greater Antillean Grackle

Family PARULIDAE

Seiurus aurocapilla, Ovenbird Helmitheros vermivorum, Worm-eating Warbler Parkesia motacilla, Louisiana Waterthrush Parkesia noveboracensis, Northern Waterthrush Vermivora bachmanii, Bachman's Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera, Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora cyanoptera, Blue-winged Warbler Mniotilta varia, Black-and-white Warbler Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson's Warbler Oreothlypis superciliosa, Crescent-chested Warbler Leiothlypis peregrina, Tennessee Warbler Leiothlypis celata, Orange-crowned Warbler Leiothlypis crissalis, Colima Warbler Leiothlypis luciae, Lucy's Warbler Leiothlypis ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler Leiothlypis virginiae, Virginia's Warbler Oporornis agilis, Connecticut Warbler Geothlypis poliocephala, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat Geothlypis tolmiei, MacGillivray's Warbler Geothlypis philadelphia, Mourning Warbler Geothlypis formosa, Kentucky Warbler Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat Setophaga angelae, Elfin-woods Warbler Setophaga citrina, Hooded Warbler Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart Setophaga kirtlandii, Kirtland's Warbler Setophaga tigrina, Cape May Warbler Setophaga cerulea, Cerulean Warbler Setophaga americana, Northern Parula Setophaga pitiayumi, Tropical Parula Setophaga magnolia, Magnolia Warbler Setophaga castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler Setophaga fusca, Blackburnian Warbler Setophaga petechia, Yellow Warbler Setophaga pensylvanica, Chestnut-sided Warbler Setophaga striata, Blackpoll Warbler Setophaga caerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler Setophaga palmarum, Palm Warbler Setophaga pinus, Pine Warbler Setophaga coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler Setophaga dominica, Yellow-throated Warbler Setophaga discolor, Prairie Warbler Setophaga adelaidae, Adelaide's Warbler Setophaga graciae, Grace's Warbler Setophaga nigrescens, Black-throated Gray Warbler Setophaga townsendi, Townsend's Warbler Setophaga occidentalis, Hermit Warbler Setophaga chrysoparia, Golden-cheeked Warbler Setophaga virens, Black-throated Green Warbler Basileuterus lachrymosus, Fan-tailed Warbler Basileuterus rufifrons, Rufous-capped Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus, Golden-crowned Warbler Cardellina canadensis, Canada Warbler Cardellina pusilla, Wilson's Warbler Cardellina rubrifrons, Red-faced Warbler Myioborus pictus, Painted Redstart Myioborus miniatus, Slate-throated Redstart

Family CARDINALIDAE

Piranga flava, Hepatic Tanager Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager Piranga ludoviciana, Western Tanager Piranga bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager Rhodothraupis celaeno, Crimson-collared Grosbeak Cardinalis cardinalis, Northern Cardinal Cardinalis sinuatus, Pyrrhuloxia Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Yellow Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus, Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus melanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak Cyanocompsa parellina, Blue Bunting Passerina caerulea, Blue Grosbeak Passerina amoena, Lazuli Bunting Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting Passerina versicolor, Varied Bunting Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting Spiza americana, Dickcissel

Family THRAUPIDAE

Subfamily DACNINAE

Cyanerpes cyaneus, Red-legged Honeycreeper

Subfamily COEREBINAE

Coereba flaveola, Bananaquit Tiaris olivaceus, Yellow-faced Grassquit Melanospiza bicolor, Black-faced Grassquit Melopyrrha portoricensis, Puerto Rican Bullfinch

Subfamily SPOROPHILINAE

Sporophila morelleti, Morelet's Seedeater

[78 FR 65850, Nov. 1, 2013, as amended at 85 FR 21290, Apr. 16, 2020]

§ 10.14 Scope of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.

The prohibitions of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703) that make it unlawful at any time, by any means or in any manner, to pursue, hunt, take, capture, or kill migratory birds, or attempt to engage in any of those actions, apply only to actions directed at migratory birds, their nests, or their eggs. Injury to or mortality of migratory birds that results from, but is not the purpose of, an action (i.e., incidental taking or killing) is not prohibited by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.

[86 FR 1165, Jan. 7, 2021]

Subpart C - Addresses
§ 10.21 Director.

(a) Mail forwarded to the Director for law enforcement purposes should be addressed to Chief, Office of Law Enforcement, at the address provided at 50 CFR 2.1(b).

(b) Mail sent to the Director regarding permits for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Fauna (CITES), injurious wildlife, Wild Bird Conservation Act species, international movement of all ESA-listed endangered or threatened species, and scientific research on, exhibition of, or interstate commerce in nonnative ESA-listed endangered and threatened species should be addressed to: Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, (Attention: Division of Management Authority), at the address provided for the Division of Management Authority at 50 CFR 2.1(b). Address mail for the following permits to the Regional Director. In the address include one of the following: for import/export licenses and exception to designated port permits (Attention: Import/export license); for native endangered and threatened species (Attention: Endangered/threatened species permit); and for migratory birds and eagles (Attention: Migratory bird permit office). You can find addresses for regional offices at 50 CFR 2.2.

[55 FR 48851, Nov. 23, 1990, as amended at 63 FR 52633, Oct. 1, 1998; 80 FR 26467, May 8, 2015]

§ 10.22 Law enforcement offices.

(a) Service law enforcement offices are located in Service regional offices. Regional office addresses are provided at 50 CFR 2.2. Mail should be addressed to “Special Agent in Charge, Office of Law Enforcement, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service” at the appropriate regional office address. Telephone numbers for Service law enforcement offices follow:

Region Law enforcement
office telephone
number
1 503-231-6125
2 505-248-7889
3 612-713-5320
4 404-679-7057
5 413-253-8274
6 303-236-7540
7 907-786-3311
8 916-414-6660

(b) Any resident or official of a foreign country may contact the Service's Headquarters Office of Law Enforcement at the address provided at 50 CFR 2.1(b) or by telephone at 703-358-1949.

[78 FR 35151, June 12, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 43964, July 29, 2014]