(a) The requirements of this part apply to all agencies as defined in § 1320.3(a) and to all collections of information conducted or sponsored by those agencies, as defined in § 1320.3 (c) and (d), wherever conducted or sponsored, but, except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, shall not apply to collections of information:
(1) During the conduct of a Federal criminal investigation or prosecution, or during the disposition of a particular criminal matter;
(2) During the conduct of a civil action to which the United States or any official or agency thereof is a party, or during the conduct of an administrative action, investigation, or audit involving an agency against specific individuals or entities;
(3) By compulsory process pursuant to the Antitrust Civil Process Act and section 13 of the Federal Trade Commission Improvements Act of 1980; or
(4) During the conduct of intelligence activities as defined in section 3.4(e) of Executive Order No. 12333, issued December 4, 1981, or successor orders, or during the conduct of cryptologic activities that are communications security activities.
(b) The requirements of this Part apply to the collection of information during the conduct of general investigations or audits (other than information collected in an antitrust investigation to the extent provided in paragraph (a)(3) of this section) undertaken with reference to a category of individuals or entities such as a class of licensees or an entire industry.
(c) The exception in paragraph (a)(2) of this section applies during the entire course of the investigation, audit, or action, whether before or after formal charges or complaints are filed or formal administrative action is initiated, but only after a case file or equivalent is opened with respect to a particular party. In accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, collections of information prepared or undertaken with reference to a category of individuals or entities, such as a class of licensees or an industry, do not fall within this exception.