This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for the design and installation of pipeline components and facilities. In addition, it prescribes requirements relating to protection against accidental overpressuring.
(a) Each component of a pipeline must be able to withstand operating pressures and other anticipated loadings without impairment of its serviceability with unit stresses equivalent to those allowed for comparable material in pipe in the same location and kind of service. However, if design based upon unit stresses is impractical for a particular component, design may be based upon a pressure rating established by the manufacturer by pressure testing that component or a prototype of the component.
(b) The design and installation of pipeline components and facilities must meet applicable requirements for corrosion control found in subpart I of this part.
(c) Except for excess flow valves, each plastic pipeline component installed after January 22, 2019 must be able to withstand operating pressures and other anticipated loads in accordance with a listed specification.
Notwithstanding any requirement of this subpart which incorporates by reference an edition of a document listed in § 192.7 or Appendix B of this part, a metallic component manufactured in accordance with any other edition of that document is qualified for use under this part if -
(a) It can be shown through visual inspection of the cleaned component that no defect exists which might impair the strength or tightness of the component; and
(b) The edition of the document under which the component was manufactured has equal or more stringent requirements for the following as an edition of that document currently or previously listed in § 192.7 or appendix B of this part:
(1) Pressure testing;
(2) Materials; and
(3) Pressure and temperature ratings.
(a) Except for cast iron and plastic valves, each valve must meet the minimum requirements of ANSI/API Spec 6D (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7), or to a national or international standard that provides an equivalent performance level. A valve may not be used under operating conditions that exceed the applicable pressure-temperature ratings contained in those requirements.
(b) Each cast iron and plastic valve must comply with the following:
(1) The valve must have a maximum service pressure rating for temperatures that equal or exceed the maximum service temperature.
(2) The valve must be tested as part of the manufacturing, as follows:
(i) With the valve in the fully open position, the shell must be tested with no leakage to a pressure at least 1.5 times the maximum service rating.
(ii) After the shell test, the seat must be tested to a pressure not less than 1.5 times the maximum service pressure rating. Except for swing check valves, test pressure during the seat test must be applied successively on each side of the closed valve with the opposite side open. No visible leakage is permitted.
(iii) After the last pressure test is completed, the valve must be operated through its full travel to demonstrate freedom from interference.
(c) Each valve must be able to meet the anticipated operating conditions.
(d) No valve having shell (body, bonnet, cover, and/or end flange) components made of ductile iron may be used at pressures exceeding 80 percent of the pressure ratings for comparable steel valves at their listed temperature. However, a valve having shell components made of ductile iron may be used at pressures up to 80 percent of the pressure ratings for comparable steel valves at their listed temperature, if:
(1) The temperature-adjusted service pressure does not exceed 1,000 p.s.i. (7 Mpa) gage; and
(2) Welding is not used on any ductile iron component in the fabrication of the valve shells or their assembly.
(e) No valve having shell (body, bonnet, cover, and/or end flange) components made of cast iron, malleable iron, or ductile iron may be used in the gas pipe components of compressor stations.
(f) Except for excess flow valves, plastic valves installed after January 22, 2019, must meet the minimum requirements of a listed specification. A valve may not be used under operating conditions that exceed the applicable pressure and temperature ratings contained in the listed specification.
[35 FR 13257, Aug. 19, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 192-62, 54 FR 5628, Feb. 6, 1989; Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37502, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 192-94, 69 FR 32894, June 14, 2004; Amdt. 192-114, 75 FR 48603, Aug. 11, 2010; Amdt. 192-119, 80 FR 181, Jan. 5, 2015; Amdt. 192-124, 83 FR 58717, Nov. 20, 2018]
(a) Each flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet the minimum requirements of ASME/ANSI B 16.5 and MSS SP-44 (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7), or the equivalent.
(b) Each flange assembly must be able to withstand the maximum pressure at which the pipeline is to be operated and to maintain its physical and chemical properties at any temperature to which it is anticipated that it might be subjected in service.
(c) Each flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must conform in dimensions, drilling, face and gasket design to ASME/ANSI B16.1 (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7)and be cast integrally with the pipe, valve, or fitting.
(a) The minimum metal thickness of threaded fittings may not be less than specified for the pressures and temperatures in the applicable standards referenced in this part, or their equivalent.
(b) Each steel butt-welding fitting must have pressure and temperature ratings based on stresses for pipe of the same or equivalent material. The actual bursting strength of the fitting must at least equal the computed bursting strength of pipe of the designated material and wall thickness, as determined by a prototype that was tested to at least the pressure required for the pipeline to which it is being added.
(c) Plastic fittings installed after January 22, 2019, must meet a listed specification.
(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, each new transmission line and each replacement of line pipe, valve, fitting, or other line component in a transmission line, must be designed and constructed to accommodate the passage of instrumented internal inspection devices in accordance with NACE SP0102, section 7 (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7).
(b) This section does not apply to:
(2) Station piping such as at compressor stations, meter stations, or regulator stations;
(3) Piping associated with storage facilities, other than a continuous run of transmission line between a compressor station and storage facilities;
(5) Sizes of pipe for which an instrumented internal inspection device is not commercially available;
(6) Transmission lines, operated in conjunction with a distribution system which are installed in Class 4 locations;
(7) Offshore transmission lines, except transmission lines 103/4 inches (273 millimeters) or more in outside diameter on which construction begins after December 28, 2005, that run from platform to platform or platform to shore unless -
(i) Platform space or configuration is incompatible with launching or retrieving instrumented internal inspection devices; or
(ii) If the design includes taps for lateral connections, the operator can demonstrate, based on investigation or experience, that there is no reasonably practical alternative under the design circumstances to the use of a tap that will obstruct the passage of instrumented internal inspection devices; and
(8) Other piping that, under § 190.9 of this chapter, the Administrator finds in a particular case would be impracticable to design and construct to accommodate the passage of instrumented internal inspection devices.
(c) An operator encountering emergencies, construction time constraints or other unforeseen construction problems need not construct a new or replacement segment of a transmission line to meet paragraph (a) of this section, if the operator determines and documents why an impracticability prohibits compliance with paragraph (a) of this section. Within 30 days after discovering the emergency or construction problem the operator must petition, under § 190.9 of this chapter, for approval that design and construction to accommodate passage of instrumented internal inspection devices would be impracticable. If the petition is denied, within 1 year after the date of the notice of the denial, the operator must modify that segment to allow passage of instrumented internal inspection devices.
(a) Each mechanical fitting used to make a hot tap must be designed for at least the operating pressure of the pipeline.
(b) Where a ductile iron pipe is tapped, the extent of full-thread engagement and the need for the use of outside-sealing service connections, tapping saddles, or other fixtures must be determined by service conditions.
(c) Where a threaded tap is made in cast iron or ductile iron pipe, the diameter of the tapped hole may not be more than 25 percent of the nominal diameter of the pipe unless the pipe is reinforced, except that
(1) Existing taps may be used for replacement service, if they are free of cracks and have good threads; and
(2) A 11/4-inch (32 millimeters) tap may be made in a 4-inch (102 millimeters) cast iron or ductile iron pipe, without reinforcement.
However, in areas where climate, soil, and service conditions may create unusual external stresses on cast iron pipe, unreinforced taps may be used only on 6-inch (152 millimeters) or larger pipe.
(a) Except for branch connections and assemblies of standard pipe and fittings joined by circumferential welds, the design pressure of each component fabricated by welding, whose strength cannot be determined, must be established in accordance with paragraph UG-101 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (Section VIII, Division 1) (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7).
(b) Each prefabricated unit that uses plate and longitudinal seams must be designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with the ASME BPVC (Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels as defined in either Section VIII, Division 1 or Section VIII, Division 2; incorporated by reference, see § 192.7), except for the following:
(1) Regularly manufactured butt-welding fittings.
(2) Pipe that has been produced and tested under a specification listed in appendix B to this part.
(3) Partial assemblies such as split rings or collars.
(4) Prefabricated units that the manufacturer certifies have been tested to at least twice the maximum pressure to which they will be subjected under the anticipated operating conditions.
(c) Orange-peel bull plugs and orange-peel swages may not be used on pipelines that are to operate at a hoop stress of 20 percent or more of the SMYS of the pipe.
(d) Except for flat closures designed in accordance with the ASME BPVC (Section VIII, Division 1 or 2), flat closures and fish tails may not be used on pipe that either operates at 100 p.s.i. (689 kPa) gage or more, or is more than 3 inches in (76 millimeters) nominal diameter.
(e) The test requirements for a prefabricated unit or pressure vessel, defined for this paragraph as components with a design pressure established in accordance with paragraph (a) or paragraph (b) of this section are as follows.
(1) A prefabricated unit or pressure vessel installed after July 14, 2004 is not subject to the strength testing requirements at § 192.505(b) provided the component has been tested in accordance with paragraph (a) or paragraph (b) of this section and with a test factor of at least 1.3 times MAOP.
(2) A prefabricated unit or pressure vessel must be tested for a duration specified as follows:
(i) A prefabricated unit or pressure vessel installed after July 14, 2004, but before October 1, 2021 is exempt from §§ 192.505(c) and (d) and 192.507(c) provided it has been tested for a duration consistent with the ASME BPVC requirements referenced in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section.
(3) For any prefabricated unit or pressure vessel permanently or temporarily installed on a pipeline facility, an operator must either:
(i) Test the prefabricated unit or pressure vessel in accordance with this section and Subpart J of this part after it has been placed on its support structure at its final installation location. The test may be performed before or after it has been tied-in to the pipeline. Test records that meet § 192.517(a) must be kept for the operational life of the prefabricated unit or pressure vessel; or
(ii) For a prefabricated unit or pressure vessel that is pressure tested prior to installation or where a manufacturer's pressure test is used in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section, inspect the prefabricated unit or pressure vessel after it has been placed on its support structure at its final installation location and confirm that the prefabricated unit or pressure vessel was not damaged during any prior operation, transportation, or installation into the pipeline. The inspection procedure and documented inspection must include visual inspection for vessel damage, including, at a minimum, inlets, outlets, and lifting locations. Injurious defects that are an integrity threat may include dents, gouges, bending, corrosion, and cracking. This inspection must be performed prior to operation but may be performed either before or after it has been tied-in to the pipeline. If injurious defects that are an integrity threat are found, the prefabricated unit or pressure vessel must be either non-destructively tested, re-pressure tested, or remediated in accordance with applicable part 192 requirements for a fabricated unit or with the applicable ASME BPVC requirements referenced in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section. Test, inspection, and repair records for the fabricated unit or pressure vessel must be kept for the operational life of the component. Test records must meet the requirements in § 192.517(a).
(4) An initial pressure test from the prefabricated unit or pressure vessel manufacturer may be used to meet the requirements of this section with the following conditions:
(i) The prefabricated unit or pressure vessel is newly-manufactured and installed on or after October 1, 2021, except as provided in paragraph (e)(4)(ii) of this section.
(ii) An initial pressure test from the fabricated unit or pressure vessel manufacturer or other prior test of a new or existing prefabricated unit or pressure vessel may be used for a component that is temporarily installed in a pipeline facility in order to complete a testing, integrity assessment, repair, odorization, or emergency response-related task, including noise or pollution abatement. The temporary component must be promptly removed after that task is completed. If operational and environmental constraints require leaving a temporary prefabricated unit or pressure vessel under this paragraph in place for longer than 30 days, the operator must notify PHMSA and State or local pipeline safety authorities, as applicable, in accordance with § 192.18.
(iii) The manufacturer's pressure test must meet the minimum requirements of this part; and
(iv) The operator inspects and remediates the prefabricated unit or pressure vessel after installation in accordance with paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section.
(5) An existing prefabricated unit or pressure vessel that is temporarily removed from a pipeline facility to complete a testing, integrity assessment, repair, odorization, or emergency response-related task, including noise or pollution abatement, and then re-installed at the same location must be inspected in accordance with paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section; however, a new pressure test is not required provided no damage or threats to the operational integrity of the prefabricated unit or pressure vessel were identified during the inspection and the MAOP of the pipeline is not increased.
(6) Except as provided in paragraphs (e)(4)(ii) and (5) of this section, on or after October 1, 2021, an existing prefabricated unit or pressure vessel relocated and operated at a different location must meet the requirements of this part and the following:
(i) The prefabricated unit or pressure vessel must be designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements of this part at the time the vessel is returned to operational service at the new location; and
(ii) The prefabricated unit or pressure vessel must be pressure tested by the operator in accordance with the testing and inspection requirements of this part applicable to newly installed prefabricated units and pressure vessels.
[35 FR 13257, Aug. 19, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 192-1, 35 FR 17660, Nov. 17, 1970; 58 FR 14521, Mar. 18, 1993; Amdt. 192-68, 58 FR 45268, Aug. 27, 1993; Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37502, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 192-119, 80 FR 181, Jan. 5, 2015; Amdt. 192-120, 80 FR 12778, Mar. 11, 2015; Amdt. 192-119, 80 FR 46847, Aug. 6, 2015; 86 FR 2239, Jan. 11, 2021]
Each welded branch connection made to pipe in the form of a single connection, or in a header or manifold as a series of connections, must be designed to ensure that the strength of the pipeline system is not reduced, taking into account the stresses in the remaining pipe wall due to the opening in the pipe or header, the shear stresses produced by the pressure acting on the area of the branch opening, and any external loadings due to thermal movement, weight, and vibration.
Each extruded outlet must be suitable for anticipated service conditions and must be at least equal to the design strength of the pipe and other fittings in the pipeline to which it is attached.
Each pipeline must be designed with enough flexibility to prevent thermal expansion or contraction from causing excessive stresses in the pipe or components, excessive bending or unusual loads at joints, or undesirable forces or moments at points of connection to equipment, or at anchorage or guide points.
(a) Each pipeline and its associated equipment must have enough anchors or supports to:
(1) Prevent undue strain on connected equipment;
(2) Resist longitudinal forces caused by a bend or offset in the pipe; and
(3) Prevent or damp out excessive vibration.
(b) Each exposed pipeline must have enough supports or anchors to protect the exposed pipe joints from the maximum end force caused by internal pressure and any additional forces caused by temperature expansion or contraction or by the weight of the pipe and its contents.
(c) Each support or anchor on an exposed pipeline must be made of durable, noncombustible material and must be designed and installed as follows:
(1) Free expansion and contraction of the pipeline between supports or anchors may not be restricted.
(2) Provision must be made for the service conditions involved.
(3) Movement of the pipeline may not cause disengagement of the support equipment.
(d) Each support on an exposed pipeline operated at a stress level of 50 percent or more of SMYS must comply with the following:
(1) A structural support may not be welded directly to the pipe.
(2) The support must be provided by a member that completely encircles the pipe.
(3) If an encircling member is welded to a pipe, the weld must be continuous and cover the entire circumference.
(e) Each underground pipeline that is connected to a relatively unyielding line or other fixed object must have enough flexibility to provide for possible movement, or it must have an anchor that will limit the movement of the pipeline.
(f) Except for offshore pipelines, each underground pipeline that is being connected to new branches must have a firm foundation for both the header and the branch to prevent detrimental lateral and vertical movement.
(a) Location of compressor building. Except for a compressor building on a platform located offshore or in inland navigable waters, each main compressor building of a compressor station must be located on property under the control of the operator. It must be far enough away from adjacent property, not under control of the operator, to minimize the possibility of fire being communicated to the compressor building from structures on adjacent property. There must be enough open space around the main compressor building to allow the free movement of fire-fighting equipment.
(b) Building construction. Each building on a compressor station site must be made of noncombustible materials if it contains either -
(1) Pipe more than 2 inches (51 millimeters) in diameter that is carrying gas under pressure; or
(2) Gas handling equipment other than gas utilization equipment used for domestic purposes.
(c) Exits. Each operating floor of a main compressor building must have at least two separated and unobstructed exits located so as to provide a convenient possibility of escape and an unobstructed passage to a place of safety. Each door latch on an exit must be of a type which can be readily opened from the inside without a key. Each swinging door located in an exterior wall must be mounted to swing outward.
(d) Fenced areas. Each fence around a compressor station must have at least two gates located so as to provide a convenient opportunity for escape to a place of safety, or have other facilities affording a similarly convenient exit from the area. Each gate located within 200 feet (61 meters) of any compressor plant building must open outward and, when occupied, must be openable from the inside without a key.
(e) Electrical facilities. Electrical equipment and wiring installed in compressor stations must conform to the NFPA-70, so far as that code is applicable.
[35 FR 13257, Aug. 19, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 192-27, 41 FR 34605, Aug. 16, 1976; Amdt. 192-37, 46 FR 10159, Feb. 2, 1981; 58 FR 14521, Mar. 18, 1993; Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37502, 37503, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 192-119, 80 FR 181, Jan. 5, 2015]
(a) Where entrained vapors in gas may liquefy under the anticipated pressure and temperature conditions, the compressor must be protected against the introduction of those liquids in quantities that could cause damage.
(b) Each liquid separator used to remove entrained liquids at a compressor station must:
(1) Have a manually operable means of removing these liquids.
(2) Where slugs of liquid could be carried into the compressors, have either automatic liquid removal facilities, an automatic compressor shutdown device, or a high liquid level alarm; and
(3) Be manufactured in accordance with section VIII ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7) and the additional requirements of § 192.153(e) except that liquid separators constructed of pipe and fittings without internal welding must be fabricated with a design factor of 0.4, or less.
(a) Except for unattended field compressor stations of 1,000 horsepower (746 kilowatts) or less, each compressor station must have an emergency shutdown system that meets the following:
(1) It must be able to block gas out of the station and blow down the station piping.
(2) It must discharge gas from the blowdown piping at a location where the gas will not create a hazard.
(3) It must provide means for the shutdown of gas compressing equipment, gas fires, and electrical facilities in the vicinity of gas headers and in the compressor building, except that:
(i) Electrical circuits that supply emergency lighting required to assist station personnel in evacuating the compressor building and the area in the vicinity of the gas headers must remain energized; and
(ii) Electrical circuits needed to protect equipment from damage may remain energized.
(4) It must be operable from at least two locations, each of which is:
(i) Outside the gas area of the station;
(ii) Near the exit gates, if the station is fenced, or near emergency exits, if not fenced; and
(iii) Not more than 500 feet (153 meters) from the limits of the station.
(b) If a compressor station supplies gas directly to a distribution system with no other adequate source of gas available, the emergency shutdown system must be designed so that it will not function at the wrong time and cause an unintended outage on the distribution system.
(c) On a platform located offshore or in inland navigable waters, the emergency shutdown system must be designed and installed to actuate automatically by each of the following events:
(1) In the case of an unattended compressor station:
(i) When the gas pressure equals the maximum allowable operating pressure plus 15 percent; or
(ii) When an uncontrolled fire occurs on the platform; and
(2) In the case of a compressor station in a building:
(i) When an uncontrolled fire occurs in the building; or
(ii) When the concentration of gas in air reaches 50 percent or more of the lower explosive limit in a building which has a source of ignition.
For the purpose of paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, an electrical facility which conforms to Class 1, Group D, of the National Electrical Code is not a source of ignition.
(a) Each compressor station must have pressure relief or other suitable protective devices of sufficient capacity and sensitivity to ensure that the maximum allowable operating pressure of the station piping and equipment is not exceeded by more than 10 percent.
(b) Each vent line that exhausts gas from the pressure relief valves of a compressor station must extend to a location where the gas may be discharged without hazard.
(a) Each compressor station must have adequate fire protection facilities. If fire pumps are a part of these facilities, their operation may not be affected by the emergency shutdown system.
(b) Each compressor station prime mover, other than an electrical induction or synchronous motor, must have an automatic device to shut down the unit before the speed of either the prime mover or the driven unit exceeds a maximum safe speed.
(c) Each compressor unit in a compressor station must have a shutdown or alarm device that operates in the event of inadequate cooling or lubrication of the unit.
(d) Each compressor station gas engine that operates with pressure gas injection must be equipped so that stoppage of the engine automatically shuts off the fuel and vents the engine distribution manifold.
(e) Each muffler for a gas engine in a compressor station must have vent slots or holes in the baffles of each compartment to prevent gas from being trapped in the muffler.
Each compressor station building must be ventilated to ensure that employees are not endangered by the accumulation of gas in rooms, sumps, attics, pits, or other enclosed places.
(a) Each pipe-type and bottle-type holder must be designed so as to prevent the accumulation of liquids in the holder, in connecting pipe, or in auxiliary equipment, that might cause corrosion or interfere with the safe operation of the holder.
(b) Each pipe-type or bottle-type holder must have minimum clearance from other holders in accordance with the following formula:
C = (3D*P*F)/1000) in inches; (C = (3D*P*F*)/6,895) in millimeters
C = Minimum clearance between pipe containers or bottles in inches (millimeters).
D = Outside diameter of pipe containers or bottles in inches (millimeters).
P = Maximum allowable operating pressure, psi (kPa) gauge.
F = Design factor as set forth in § 192.111 of this part.
(a) Each bottle-type holder must be -
(1) Located on a site entirely surrounded by fencing that prevents access by unauthorized persons and with minimum clearance from the fence as follows:
|Maximum allowable operating pressure||Minimum clearance feet (meters)|
|Less than 1,000 p.s.i. (7 MPa) gage||25 (7.6)|
|1,000 p.s.i. (7 MPa) gage or more||100 (31)|
(2) Designed using the design factors set forth in § 192.111; and
(3) Buried with a minimum cover in accordance with § 192.327.
(b) Each bottle-type holder manufactured from steel that is not weldable under field conditions must comply with the following:
(1) A bottle-type holder made from alloy steel must meet the chemical and tensile requirements for the various grades of steel in ASTM A372/372M (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7).
(2) The actual yield-tensile ratio of the steel may not exceed 0.85.
(3) Welding may not be performed on the holder after it has been heat treated or stress relieved, except that copper wires may be attached to the small diameter portion of the bottle end closure for cathodic protection if a localized thermit welding process is used.
(4) The holder must be given a mill hydrostatic test at a pressure that produces a hoop stress at least equal to 85 percent of the SMYS.
(5) The holder, connection pipe, and components must be leak tested after installation as required by subpart J of this part.
[35 FR 13257, Aug. 19, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 192-58, 53 FR 1635, Jan. 21, 1988; Amdt. 192-62, 54 FR 5628, Feb. 6, 1989; 58 FR 14521, Mar. 18, 1993; Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37503, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 192-119, 80 FR 181, Jan. 5, 2015]
(a) Each transmission line, other than offshore segments, must have sectionalizing block valves spaced as follows, unless in a particular case the Administrator finds that alternative spacing would provide an equivalent level of safety:
(1) Each point on the pipeline in a Class 4 location must be within 21/2 miles (4 kilometers)of a valve.
(2) Each point on the pipeline in a Class 3 location must be within 4 miles (6.4 kilometers) of a valve.
(3) Each point on the pipeline in a Class 2 location must be within 71/2 miles (12 kilometers) of a valve.
(4) Each point on the pipeline in a Class 1 location must be within 10 miles (16 kilometers) of a valve.
(b) Each sectionalizing block valve on a transmission line, other than offshore segments, must comply with the following:
(1) The valve and the operating device to open or close the valve must be readily accessible and protected from tampering and damage.
(2) The valve must be supported to prevent settling of the valve or movement of the pipe to which it is attached.
(c) Each section of a transmission line, other than offshore segments, between main line valves must have a blowdown valve with enough capacity to allow the transmission line to be blown down as rapidly as practicable. Each blowdown discharge must be located so the gas can be blown to the atmosphere without hazard and, if the transmission line is adjacent to an overhead electric line, so that the gas is directed away from the electrical conductors.
(d) Offshore segments of transmission lines must be equipped with valves or other components to shut off the flow of gas to an offshore platform in an emergency.
(a) Each high-pressure distribution system must have valves spaced so as to reduce the time to shut down a section of main in an emergency. The valve spacing is determined by the operating pressure, the size of the mains, and the local physical conditions.
(b) Each regulator station controlling the flow or pressure of gas in a distribution system must have a valve installed on the inlet piping at a distance from the regulator station sufficient to permit the operation of the valve during an emergency that might preclude access to the station.
(c) Each valve on a main installed for operating or emergency purposes must comply with the following:
(1) The valve must be placed in a readily accessible location so as to facilitate its operation in an emergency.
(2) The operating stem or mechanism must be readily accessible.
(3) If the valve is installed in a buried box or enclosure, the box or enclosure must be installed so as to avoid transmitting external loads to the main.
(a) Each underground vault or pit for valves, pressure relieving, pressure limiting, or pressure regulating stations, must be able to meet the loads which may be imposed upon it, and to protect installed equipment.
(b) There must be enough working space so that all of the equipment required in the vault or pit can be properly installed, operated, and maintained.
(c) Each pipe entering, or within, a regulator vault or pit must be steel for sizes 10 inch (254 millimeters), and less, except that control and gage piping may be copper. Where pipe extends through the vault or pit structure, provision must be made to prevent the passage of gases or liquids through the opening and to avert strains in the pipe.
Each vault must be located in an accessible location and, so far as practical, away from:
(a) Street intersections or points where traffic is heavy or dense;
(b) Points of minimum elevation, catch basins, or places where the access cover will be in the course of surface waters; and
(c) Water, electric, steam, or other facilities.
Each underground vault or closed top pit containing either a pressure regulating or reducing station, or a pressure limiting or relieving station, must be sealed, vented or ventilated as follows:
(a) When the internal volume exceeds 200 cubic feet (5.7 cubic meters):
(1) The vault or pit must be ventilated with two ducts, each having at least the ventilating effect of a pipe 4 inches (102 millimeters) in diameter;
(2) The ventilation must be enough to minimize the formation of combustible atmosphere in the vault or pit; and
(3) The ducts must be high enough above grade to disperse any gas-air mixtures that might be discharged.
(b) When the internal volume is more than 75 cubic feet (2.1 cubic meters) but less than 200 cubic feet (5.7 cubic meters):
(1) If the vault or pit is sealed, each opening must have a tight fitting cover without open holes through which an explosive mixture might be ignited, and there must be a means for testing the internal atmosphere before removing the cover;
(2) If the vault or pit is vented, there must be a means of preventing external sources of ignition from reaching the vault atmosphere; or
(c) If a vault or pit covered by paragraph (b) of this section is ventilated by openings in the covers or gratings and the ratio of the internal volume, in cubic feet, to the effective ventilating area of the cover or grating, in square feet, is less than 20 to 1, no additional ventilation is required.
(a) Each vault must be designed so as to minimize the entrance of water.
(b) A vault containing gas piping may not be connected by means of a drain connection to any other underground structure.
(c) Electrical equipment in vaults must conform to the applicable requirements of Class 1, Group D, of the National Electrical Code, NFPA-70 (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7).
Each valve installed in plastic pipe must be designed so as to protect the plastic material against excessive torsional or shearing loads when the valve or shutoff is operated, and from any other secondary stresses that might be exerted through the valve or its enclosure.
(a) General requirements. Except as provided in § 192.197, each pipeline that is connected to a gas source so that the maximum allowable operating pressure could be exceeded as the result of pressure control failure or of some other type of failure, must have pressure relieving or pressure limiting devices that meet the requirements of §§ 192.199 and 192.201.
(b) Additional requirements for distribution systems. Each distribution system that is supplied from a source of gas that is at a higher pressure than the maximum allowable operating pressure for the system must -
(1) Have pressure regulation devices capable of meeting the pressure, load, and other service conditions that will be experienced in normal operation of the system, and that could be activated in the event of failure of some portion of the system; and
(2) Be designed so as to prevent accidental overpressuring.
(a) If the maximum actual operating pressure of the distribution system is 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage, or less and a service regulator having the following characteristics is used, no other pressure limiting device is required:
(1) A regulator capable of reducing distribution line pressure to pressures recommended for household appliances.
(2) A single port valve with proper orifice for the maximum gas pressure at the regulator inlet.
(3) A valve seat made of resilient material designed to withstand abrasion of the gas, impurities in gas, cutting by the valve, and to resist permanent deformation when it is pressed against the valve port.
(4) Pipe connections to the regulator not exceeding 2 inches (51 millimeters) in diameter.
(5) A regulator that, under normal operating conditions, is able to regulate the downstream pressure within the necessary limits of accuracy and to limit the build-up of pressure under no-flow conditions to prevent a pressure that would cause the unsafe operation of any connected and properly adjusted gas utilization equipment.
(6) A self-contained service regulator with no external static or control lines.
(b) If the maximum actual operating pressure of the distribution system is 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage, or less, and a service regulator that does not have all of the characteristics listed in paragraph (a) of this section is used, or if the gas contains materials that seriously interfere with the operation of service regulators, there must be suitable protective devices to prevent unsafe overpressuring of the customer's appliances if the service regulator fails.
(c) If the maximum actual operating pressure of the distribution system exceeds 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage, one of the following methods must be used to regulate and limit, to the maximum safe value, the pressure of gas delivered to the customer:
(1) A service regulator having the characteristics listed in paragraph (a) of this section, and another regulator located upstream from the service regulator. The upstream regulator may not be set to maintain a pressure higher than 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage. A device must be installed between the upstream regulator and the service regulator to limit the pressure on the inlet of the service regulator to 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage or less in case the upstream regulator fails to function properly. This device may be either a relief valve or an automatic shutoff that shuts, if the pressure on the inlet of the service regulator exceeds the set pressure (60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage or less), and remains closed until manually reset.
(2) A service regulator and a monitoring regulator set to limit, to a maximum safe value, the pressure of the gas delivered to the customer.
(3) A service regulator with a relief valve vented to the outside atmosphere, with the relief valve set to open so that the pressure of gas going to the customer does not exceed a maximum safe value. The relief valve may either be built into the service regulator or it may be a separate unit installed downstream from the service regulator. This combination may be used alone only in those cases where the inlet pressure on the service regulator does not exceed the manufacturer's safe working pressure rating of the service regulator, and may not be used where the inlet pressure on the service regulator exceeds 125 p.s.i. (862 kPa) gage. For higher inlet pressures, the methods in paragraph (c) (1) or (2) of this section must be used.
(4) A service regulator and an automatic shutoff device that closes upon a rise in pressure downstream from the regulator and remains closed until manually reset.
Except for rupture discs, each pressure relief or pressure limiting device must:
(a) Be constructed of materials such that the operation of the device will not be impaired by corrosion;
(b) Have valves and valve seats that are designed not to stick in a position that will make the device inoperative;
(c) Be designed and installed so that it can be readily operated to determine if the valve is free, can be tested to determine the pressure at which it will operate, and can be tested for leakage when in the closed position;
(d) Have support made of noncombustible material;
(e) Have discharge stacks, vents, or outlet ports designed to prevent accumulation of water, ice, or snow, located where gas can be discharged into the atmosphere without undue hazard;
(f) Be designed and installed so that the size of the openings, pipe, and fittings located between the system to be protected and the pressure relieving device, and the size of the vent line, are adequate to prevent hammering of the valve and to prevent impairment of relief capacity;
(g) Where installed at a district regulator station to protect a pipeline system from overpressuring, be designed and installed to prevent any single incident such as an explosion in a vault or damage by a vehicle from affecting the operation of both the overpressure protective device and the district regulator; and
(h) Except for a valve that will isolate the system under protection from its source of pressure, be designed to prevent unauthorized operation of any stop valve that will make the pressure relief valve or pressure limiting device inoperative.
(a) Each pressure relief station or pressure limiting station or group of those stations installed to protect a pipeline must have enough capacity, and must be set to operate, to insure the following:
(1) In a low pressure distribution system, the pressure may not cause the unsafe operation of any connected and properly adjusted gas utilization equipment.
(2) In pipelines other than a low pressure distribution system:
(i) If the maximum allowable operating pressure is 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage or more, the pressure may not exceed the maximum allowable operating pressure plus 10 percent, or the pressure that produces a hoop stress of 75 percent of SMYS, whichever is lower;
(ii) If the maximum allowable operating pressure is 12 p.s.i. (83 kPa) gage or more, but less than 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage, the pressure may not exceed the maximum allowable operating pressure plus 6 p.s.i. (41 kPa) gage; or
(iii) If the maximum allowable operating pressure is less than 12 p.s.i. (83 kPa) gage, the pressure may not exceed the maximum allowable operating pressure plus 50 percent.
(b) When more than one pressure regulating or compressor station feeds into a pipeline, relief valves or other protective devices must be installed at each station to ensure that the complete failure of the largest capacity regulator or compressor, or any single run of lesser capacity regulators or compressors in that station, will not impose pressures on any part of the pipeline or distribution system in excess of those for which it was designed, or against which it was protected, whichever is lower.
(c) Relief valves or other pressure limiting devices must be installed at or near each regulator station in a low-pressure distribution system, with a capacity to limit the maximum pressure in the main to a pressure that will not exceed the safe operating pressure for any connected and properly adjusted gas utilization equipment.
(a) Applicability. This section applies to the design of instrument, control, and sampling pipe and components. It does not apply to permanently closed systems, such as fluid-filled temperature-responsive devices.
(b) Materials and design. All materials employed for pipe and components must be designed to meet the particular conditions of service and the following:
(1) Each takeoff connection and attaching boss, fitting, or adapter must be made of suitable material, be able to withstand the maximum service pressure and temperature of the pipe or equipment to which it is attached, and be designed to satisfactorily withstand all stresses without failure by fatigue.
(2) Except for takeoff lines that can be isolated from sources of pressure by other valving, a shutoff valve must be installed in each takeoff line as near as practicable to the point of takeoff. Blowdown valves must be installed where necessary.
(3) Brass or copper material may not be used for metal temperatures greater than 400 °F (204 °C).
(4) Pipe or components that may contain liquids must be protected by heating or other means from damage due to freezing.
(5) Pipe or components in which liquids may accumulate must have drains or drips.
(6) Pipe or components subject to clogging from solids or deposits must have suitable connections for cleaning.
(7) The arrangement of pipe, components, and supports must provide safety under anticipated operating stresses.
(8) Each joint between sections of pipe, and between pipe and valves or fittings, must be made in a manner suitable for the anticipated pressure and temperature condition. Slip type expansion joints may not be used. Expansion must be allowed for by providing flexibility within the system itself.
(9) Each control line must be protected from anticipated causes of damage and must be designed and installed to prevent damage to any one control line from making both the regulator and the over-pressure protective device inoperative.
(a) Riser designs must be tested to ensure safe performance under anticipated external and internal loads acting on the assembly.
(b) Factory assembled anodeless risers must be designed and tested in accordance with ASTM F1973-13 (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7).
(c) All risers used to connect regulator stations to plastic mains must be rigid and designed to provide adequate support and resist lateral movement. Anodeless risers used in accordance with this paragraph must have a rigid riser casing.
[Amdt. 192-124, 83 FR 58718, Nov. 20, 2018]
(a) For steel transmission pipelines installed after July 1, 2020, an operator must collect or make, and retain for the life of the pipeline, records documenting the manufacturing standard and pressure rating to which each valve was manufactured and tested in accordance with this subpart. Flanges, fittings, branch connections, extruded outlets, anchor forgings, and other components with material yield strength grades of 42,000 psi (X42) or greater and with nominal diameters of greater than 2 inches must have records documenting the manufacturing specification in effect at the time of manufacture, including yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and chemical composition of materials.
(b) For steel transmission pipelines installed on or before July 1, 2020, if operators have records documenting the manufacturing standard and pressure rating for valves, flanges, fittings, branch connections, extruded outlets, anchor forgings, and other components with material yield strength grades of 42,000 psi (X42) or greater and with nominal diameters of greater than 2 inches, operators must retain such records for the life of the pipeline.
(c) For steel transmission pipeline segments installed on or before July 1, 2020, if an operator does not have records necessary to establish the MAOP of a pipeline segment, the operator may be subject to the requirements of § 192.624 according to the terms of that section.
[Amdt. No. 192-125, 84 FR 52245, Oct. 1, 2019]