Site Feedback

Title 47

Displaying title 47, up to date as of 9/24/2021. Title 47 was last amended 9/24/2021.
There are Federal Register documents that will modify this content. See the 'Cross Reference' blocks in the text of this content for more information.
There have been changes in the last two weeks to Part 73.

Title 47

eCFR Content

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the official legal print publication containing the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR) is a continuously updated online version of the CFR. It is not an official legal edition of the CFR.

Learn more about the eCFR, its status, and the editorial process.

PART 73 - RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES
Authority:

47 U.S.C. 154, 155, 301, 303, 307, 309, 310, 334, 336, 339.

Subpart A - AM Broadcast Stations
§ 73.1 Scope.

This subpart contains those rules which apply exclusively to the AM broadcast service and are in addition to those rules in Subpart H which are common to all AM, FM and TV broadcast services, commercial and noncommercial.

[47 FR 8587, Mar. 1, 1982]

§ 73.14 AM broadcast definitions.

AM broadcast band. The band of frequencies extending from 535 to 1705 kHz.

AM broadcast channel. The band of frequencies occupied by the carrier and the upper and lower sidebands of an AM broadcast signal with the carrier frequency at the center. Channels are designated by their assigned carrier frequencies. The 117 carrier frequencies assigned to AM broadcast stations begin at 540 kHz and progress in 10 kHz steps to 1700 kHz. (See § 73.21 for the classification of AM broadcast channels).

AM broadcast station. A broadcast station licensed for the dissemination of radio communications intended to be received by the public and operated on a channel in the AM broadcast band.

Amplitude modulated stage. The radio-frequency stage to which the modulator is coupled and in which the carrier wave is modulated in accordance with the system of amplitude modulation and the characteristics of the modulating wave.

Amplitude modulator stage. The last amplifier stage of the modulating wave amplitude modulates a radio-frequency stage.

Antenna current. The radio-frequency current in the antenna with no modulation.

Antenna input power. The product of the square of the antenna current and the antenna resistance at the point where the current is measured.

Antenna resistance. The total resistance of the transmitting antenna system at the operating frequency and at the point at which the antenna current is measured.

Auxiliary facility. An auxiliary facility is an AM antenna tower(s) separate from the main facility's antenna tower(s), permanently installed at the same site or at a different location, from which an AM station may broadcast for short periods without prior Commission authorization or notice to the Commission while the main facility is not in operation (e.g., where tower work necessitates turning off the main antenna or where lightning has caused damage to the main antenna or transmission system) (See § 73.1675).

Blanketing. The interference which is caused by the presence of an AM broadcast signal of one volt per meter (V/m) or greater strengths in the area adjacent to the antenna of the transmitting station. The 1 V/m contour is referred to as the blanket contour and the area within this contour is referred to as the blanket area.

Carrier-amplitude regulation (Carrier shift). The change in amplitude of the carrier wave in an amplitude-modulated transmitter when modulation is applied under conditions of symmetrical modulation.

Combined audio harmonics. The arithmetical sum of the amplitudes of all the separate harmonic components. Root sum square harmonic readings may be accepted under conditions prescribed by the FCC.

Critical hours. The two hour period immediately following local sunrise and the two hour period immediately preceding local sunset.

Daytime. The period of time between local sunrise and local sunset.

Effective field; Effective field strength. The root-mean-square (RMS) value of the inverse distance fields at a distance of 1 kilometer from the antenna in all directions in the horizontal plane. The term “field strength” is synonymous with the term “field intensity” as contained elsewhere in this Part.

Equipment performance measurements. The measurements performed to determine the overall performance characteristics of a broadcast transmission system from point of program origination to sampling of signal as radiated. (See § 73.1590)

Experimental period. the time between 12 midnight local time and local sunrise, used by AM stations for tests, maintenance and experimentation.

Frequency departure. The amount of variation of a carrier frequency or center frequency from its assigned value.

Incidental phase modulation. The peak phase deviation (in radians) resulting from the process of amplitude modulation.

Input power. Means the product of the direct voltage applied to the last radio stage and the total direct current flowing to the last radio stage, measured without modulation.

Intermittent service area. Means the area receiving service from the groundwave of a broadcast station but beyond the primary service area and subject to some interference and fading.

Last radio stage. The radio-frequency power amplifier stage which supplies power to the antenna.

Left (or right) signal. The electrical output of a microphone or combination of microphones placed so as to convey the intensity, time, and location of sounds originated predominately to the listener's left (or right) of the center of the performing area.

Left (or right) stereophonic channel. The left (or right) signal as electrically reproduced in reception of AM stereophonic broadcasts.

Main channel. The band of audio frequencies from 50 to 10,000 Hz which amplitude modulates the carrier.

Maximum percentage of modulation. The greatest percentage of modulation that may be obtained by a transmitter without producing in its output, harmonics of the modulating frequency in excess of those permitted by these regulations. (See § 73.1570)

Maximum rated carrier power. The maximum power at which the transmitter can be operated satisfactorily and is determined by the design of the transmitter and the type and number of vacuum tubes or other amplifier devices used in the last radio stage.

Model I facility. A station operating in the 1605-1705 kHz band featuring fulltime operation with stereo, competitive technical quality, 10 kW daytime power, 1 kW nighttime power, non-directional antenna (or a simple directional antenna system), and separated by 400-800 km from other co-channel stations.

Model II facility. A station operating in the 535-1605 kHz band featuring fulltime operation, competitive technical quality, wide area daytime coverage with nighttime coverage at least 15% of the daytime coverage.

Modulation dependent carrier level (MDCL) control technologies. Transmitter control techniques that vary either the carrier power level or both the carrier and sideband power levels as a function of the modulation level.

Nighttime. The period of time between local sunset and local sunrise.

Nominal power. The antenna input power less any power loss through a dissipative network and, for directional antennas, without consideration of adjustments specified in paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of § 73.51 of the rules. However, for AM broadcast applications granted or filed before June 3, 1985, nominal power is specified in a system of classifications which include the following values: 50 kW, 25 kW, 10 kW, 5 kW, 2.5 kW, 1 kW, 0.5 kW, and 0.25 kW. The specified nominal power for any station in this group of stations will be retained until action is taken on or after June 3, 1985, which involves a change in the technical facilities of the station.

Percentage modulation (amplitude)

In a positive direction:

M = MAX−C × 100

- - - - -- - -- -

c

In a negative direction:

M = C−MIN × 100

- - - - - - -- -

c

Where:

M = Modulation level in percent.

MAX = Instantaneous maximum level of the modulated radio frequency envelope.

MIN = Instantaneous minimum level of the modulated radio frequency envelope.

C = (Carrier) level of radio frequency envelope without modulation.

Plate modulation. The modulation produced by introduction of the modulating wave into the plate circuit of any tube in which the carrier frequency wave is present.

Primary service area. Means the service area of a broadcast station in which the groundwave is not subject to objectionable interference or objectionable fading.

Proof of performance measurements or antenna proof of performance measurements. The measurements of field strengths made to determine the radiation pattern or characteristics of an AM directional antenna system.

Secondary service area. Means the service area of a broadcast station served by the skywave and not subject to objectionable interference and in which the signal is subject to intermittent variations in strength.

Stereophonic channel. The band of audio frequencies from 50 to 10,000 Hz containing the stereophonic information which modulates the radio frequency carrier.

Stereophonic crosstalk. An undesired signal occurring in the main channel from modulation of the stereophonic channel or that occurring in the stereophonic channel from modulation of the main channel.

Stereophonic pilot tone. An audio tone of fixed or variable frequency modulating the carrier during the transmission of stereophonic programs.

Stereophonic separation. The ratio of the electrical signal caused in the right (or left) stereophonic channel to the electrical signal caused in the left (or right) stereophonic channel by the transmission of only a right (or left) signal.

Sunrise and sunset. For each particular location and during any particular month, the time of sunrise and sunset as specified in the instrument of authorization (See § 73.1209).

White area. The area or population which does not receive interference-free primary service from an authorized AM station or does not receive a signal strength of at least 1 mV/m from an authorized FM station.

[47 FR 8587, Mar. 1, 1982, as amended at 47 FR 13164, Mar. 29, 1982; 47 FR 13812, Apr. 1, 1982; 50 FR 18821, May 2, 1985; 50 FR 47054, Nov. 14, 1985; 56 FR 64856, Dec. 12, 1991; 62 FR 51058, Sept. 30, 1997; 66 FR 20755, Apr. 25, 2001; 81 FR 2759, Jan. 19, 2016; 82 FR 57882, Dec. 8, 2017]

§ 73.21 Classes of AM broadcast channels and stations.

(a) Clear channel. A clear channel is one on which stations are assigned to serve wide areas. These stations are protected from objectionable interference within their primary service areas and, depending on the class of station, their secondary service areas. Stations operating on these channels are classified as follows:

(1) Class A station. A Class A station is an unlimited time station that operates on a clear channel and is designed to render primary and secondary service over an extended area and at relatively long distances from its transmitter. Its primary service area is protected from objectionable interference from other stations on the same and adjacent channels, and its secondary service area is protected from interference from other stations on the same channel. (See § 73.182). The operating power shall not be less than 10 kW nor more than 50 kW. (Also see § 73.25(a)).

(2) Class B station. Class B stations are authorized to operate with a minimum power of 0.25 kW (or, if less than 0.25 kW, an equivalent RMS antenna field of at least 107.5 mV/m at 1 kilometer) and a maximum power of 50 kW, or 10 kW for stations that are authorized to operate in the 1605-1705 kHz band.

(3) Class D station. A Class D station operates either daytime, limited time or unlimited time with nighttime power less than 0.25 kW and an equivalent RMS antenna field of less than 107.5 mV/m at 1 kilometer. Class D stations shall operate with daytime powers not less than 0.25 kW nor more than 50 kW. Nighttime operations of Class D stations are not afforded protection and must protect all Class A and Class B operations during nighttime hours. New Class D stations that had not been previously licensed as Class B will not be authorized.

(b) Regional Channel. A regional channel is one on which Class B and Class D stations may operate and serve primarily a principal center of population and the rural area contiguous thereto.

Note:

Until the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement (NARBA) is terminated with respect to the Bahama Islands and the Dominican Republic, radiation toward those countries from a Class B station may not exceed the level that would be produced by an omnidirectional antenna with a transmitted power of 5 kW, or such lower level as will comply with NARBA requirements for protection of stations in the Bahama Islands and the Dominican Republic against objectionable interference.

(c) Local channel. A local channel is one on which stations operate unlimited time and serve primarily a community and the suburban and rural areas immediately contiguous thereto.

(1) Class C station. A Class C station is a station operating on a local channel and is designed to render service only over a primary service area that may be reduced as a consequence of interference in accordance with § 73.182. The power shall not be less than 0.25 kW, nor more than 1 kW. Class C stations that are licensed to operate with 0.1 kW may continue to do so.

[56 FR 64856, Dec. 12, 1991, as amended at 81 FR 2759, Jan. 19, 2016]

§ 73.23 AM broadcast station applications affected by international agreements.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no application for an AM station will be accepted for filing if authorization of the facilities requested would be inconsistent with international commitments of the United States under treaties and other international agreements, arrangements and understandings. (See list of such international instruments in § 73.1650(b)). Any such application that is inadvertently accepted for filing will be dismissed.

(b) AM applications that involve conflicts only with the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement (NARBA), but that are in conformity with the remaining treaties and other international agreements listed in § 73.1650(b) and with the other requirements of this part 73, will be granted subject to such modifications as the FCC may subsequently find appropriate, taking international considerations into account.

(c) In the case of any application designated for hearing on issues other than those related to consistency with international relationships and as to which no final decision has been rendered, whenever action under this section becomes appropriate because of inconsistency with international relationships, the applicant involved shall, notwithstanding the provisions §§ 73.3522 and 73.3571, be permitted to amend its application to achieve consistency with such relationships. In such cases the provisions of § 73.3605(c) will apply.

(d) In some circumstances, special international considerations may require that the FCC, in acting on applications, follow procedures different from those established for general use. In such cases, affected applicants will be informed of the procedures to be followed.

[56 FR 64856, Dec. 12, 1991]

§ 73.24 Broadcast facilities; showing required.

An authorization for a new AM broadcast station or increase in facilities of an existing station will be issued only after a satisfactory showing has been made in regard to the following, among others:

(a) That the proposed assignment will tend to effect a fair, efficient, and equitable distribution of radio service among the several states and communities.

(b) That a proposed new station (or a proposed change in the facilities of an authorized station) complies with the pertinent requirements of § 73.37 of this chapter.

(c) That the applicant is financially qualified to construct and operate the proposed station.

(d) That the applicant is legally qualified. That the applicant (or the person or persons in control of an applicant corporation or other organization) is of good character and possesses other qualifications sufficient to provide a satisfactory public service.

(e) That the technical equipment proposed, the location of the transmitter, and other technical phases of operation comply with the regulations governing the same, and the requirements of good engineering practice.

(f) That the facilities sought are subject to assignment as requested under existing international agreements and the rules and regulations of the Commission.

(g) That the population within the 1 V/m contour does not exceed 1.0 percent of the population within the 25 mV/m contour: Provided, however, That where the number of persons within the 1 V/m contour is 300 or less the provisions of this paragraph are not applicable.

(h) That, in the case of an application for a Class B or Class D station on a clear channel, the proposed station would radiate, during two hours following local sunrise and two hours preceding local sunset, in any direction toward the 0.1 mV/m groundwave contour of a co-channel United States Class A station, no more than the maximum value permitted under the provisions of § 73.187.

(i) That, for all proposals for new stations, applications to modify a construction permit for an unlicensed station, and all applications to change a station's community of license, the daytime 5 mV/m contour encompasses the entire principal community to be served. That, for all other applications for modification of licensed stations, the daytime 5 mV/m contour encompasses either 50 percent of the area, or 50 percent of the population, of the principal community to be served. That, for all proposals for new stations in the 535-1605 kHz band, applications to modify a construction permit for an unlicensed station, or applications to change a station's community of license, either 50 percent of the area, or 50 percent of the population of the principal community is encompassed by the nighttime 5 mV/m contour or the nighttime interference-free contour, whichever value is higher. That, for stations in the 1605-1705 kHz band, 50 percent of the principal community is encompassed by the nighttime 5 mV/m contour or the nighttime interference-free contour, whichever value is higher. That Class D stations with nighttime authorizations need not demonstrate such coverage during nighttime operation.

(j) That the public interest, convenience, and necessity will be served through the operation under the proposed assignment.

[28 FR 13574, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 38 FR 5874, Mar. 5, 1973; 49 FR 43960, Nov. 1, 1984; 50 FR 40014, Oct. 1, 1985; 52 FR 11654, Apr. 10, 1987; 53 FR 1031, Jan. 15, 1988; 56 FR 64857, Dec. 12, 1991; 81 FR 2759, Jan. 19, 2016]

§ 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

The frequencies in the following tabulations are designated as clear channels and assigned for use by the Classes of stations given:

(a) On each of the following channels, one Class A station may be assigned, operating with power of 50 kW: 640, 650, 660, 670, 700, 720, 750, 760, 770, 780, 820, 830, 840, 870, 880, 890, 1020, 1030, 1040, 1100, 1120, 1160, 1180, 1200, and 1210 kHz. In Alaska, these frequencies can be used by Class A stations subject to the conditions set forth in § 73.182(a)(1)(ii). On the channels listed in this paragraph, Class B and Class D stations may be assigned.

(b) To each of the following channels there may be assigned Class A, Class B and Class D stations: 680, 710, 810, 850, 940, 1000, 1060, 1070, 1080, 1090, 1110, 1130, 1140, 1170, 1190, 1500, 1510, 1520, 1530, 1540, 1550, and 1560 kHz.

Note:

Until superseded by a new agreement, protection of the Bahama Islands shall be in accordance with NARBA. Accordingly, a Class A, Class B or Class D station on 1540 kHz shall restrict its signal to a value no greater than 5 µV/m groundwave or 25 µV/m-10% skywave at any point of land in the Bahama Islands, and such stations operating nighttime (i.e., sunset to sunrise at the location of the U.S. station) shall be located not less than 650 miles from the nearest point of land in the Bahama Islands.

(c) Class A, Class B and Class D stations may be assigned on 540, 690, 730, 740, 800, 860, 900, 990, 1010, 1050, 1220, 1540, 1570, and 1580 kHz.

[28 FR 13574, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 33 FR 4410, Mar. 12, 1968; 35 FR 18052, Nov. 25, 1970; 47 FR 27862, June 28, 1982; 49 FR 43960, Nov. 1, 1984; 50 FR 24520, June 11, 1985; 52 FR 47568, Dec. 15, 1987; 53 FR 1031, Jan. 15, 1988; 54 FR 39736, Sept. 28, 1989; 56 FR 64857, Dec. 12, 1991]

§ 73.26 Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations.

(a) The following frequencies are designated as regional channels and are assigned for use by Class B and Class D stations: 550, 560, 570, 580, 590, 600, 610, 620, 630, 790, 910, 920, 930, 950, 960, 970, 980, 1150, 1250, 1260, 1270, 1280, 1290, 1300, 1310, 1320, 1330, 1350, 1360, 1370, 1380, 1390, 1410, 1420, 1430, 1440, 1460, 1470, 1480, 1590, 1600, 1610, 1620, 1630, 1640, 1650, 1660, 1670, 1680, 1690, and 1700 kHz.

(b) Additionally, in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands the frequencies 1230, 1240, 1340, 1400, 1450, and 1490 kHz are designated as Regional channels, and are assigned for use by Class B stations. Stations formerly licensed to these channels in those locations as Class C stations are redesignated as Class B stations.

[56 FR 64857, Dec. 12, 1991]

§ 73.27 Local channels; Class C stations.

Within the conterminous 48 states, the following frequencies are designated as local channels, and are assigned for use by Class C stations: 1230, 1240, 1340, 1400, 1450, and 1490 kHz.

[56 FR 64857, Dec. 12, 1991]

§ 73.28 Assignment of stations to channels.

(a) The Commission will not make an AM station assignment that does not conform with international requirements and restrictions on spectrum use that the United States has accepted as a signatory to treaties, conventions, and other international agreements. See § 73.1650 for a list of pertinent treaties, conventions and agreements, and § 73.23 for procedural provisions relating to compliance with them.

(b) Engineering standards now in force domestically differ in some respects from those specified for international purposes. The engineering standards specified for international purposes (see § 73.1650, International Agreements) will be used to determine:

(1) The extent to which interference might be caused by a proposed station in the United States to a station in another country; and

(2) whether the United States should register an objection to any new or changed assignment notified by another country. The domestic standards in effect in the United States will be used to determine the extent to which interference exists or would exist from a foreign station where the value of such interference enters into a calculation of:

(i) The service to be rendered by a proposed operation in the United States; or

(ii) the permissible interfering signal from one station in the United States to another United States station.

[28 FR 13574, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 29 FR 9499, July 11, 1964; 49 FR 32358, Aug. 14, 1984; 50 FR 18821, May 2, 1985; 54 FR 39736, Sept. 28, 1989; 56 FR 64857, Dec. 12, 1991]

§ 73.29 Class C stations on regional channels.

No license will be granted for the operation of a Class C station on a regional channel.

[ 56 FR 64857, Dec. 12, 1991]

§ 73.30 Petition for authorization of an allotment in the 1605-1705 kHz band.

(a) Any party interested in operating an AM broadcast station on one of the ten channels in the 1605-1705 kHz band must file a petition for the establishment of an allotment to its community of license. Each petition must include the following information:

(1) Name of community for which allotment is sought;

(2) Frequency and call letters of the petitioner's existing AM operation; and

(3) Statement as to whether or not AM stereo operation is proposed for the operation in the 1605-1705 kHz band.

(b) Petitions are to be filed during a filing period to be determined by the Commission. For each filing period, eligible stations will be allotted channels based on the following steps:

(1) Stations are ranked in descending order according to the calculated improvement factor.

(2) The station with the highest improvement factor is initially allotted the lowest available channel.

(3) Successively, each station with the next lowest improvement factor, is allotted an available channel taking into account the possible frequency and location combinations and relationship to previously selected allotments. If a channel is not available for the subject station, previous allotments are examined with respect to an alternate channel, the use of which would make a channel available for the subject station.

(4) When it has been determined that, in accordance with the above steps, no channel is available for the subject station, that station is no longer considered and the process continues to the station with the next lowest improvement factor.

(c) If awarded an allotment, a petitioner will have sixty (60) days from the date of public notice of selection to file an application for construction permit on FCC Form 301. (See §§ 73.24 and 73.37(e) for filing requirements). Unless instructed by the Commission to do otherwise, the application shall specify Model I facilities. (See § 73.14). Upon grant of the application and subsequent construction of the authorized facility, the applicant must file a license application on FCC Form 302.

Note 1:

Until further notice by the Commission, the filing of these petitions is limited to licensees of existing AM stations (excluding Class C stations) operating in the 535-1605 kHz band. First priority will be assigned to Class D stations located within the primary service contours of U.S. Class A stations that are licensed to serve communities of 100,000 or more for which there exists no local fulltime aural service.

Note 2:

Selection among competing petitions will be based on interference reduction. Notwithstanding the exception contained in Note 5 of this section, within each operational category, the station demonstrating the highest value of improvement factor will be afforded the highest priority for an allotment, with the next priority assigned to the station with next lowest value, and so on, until available allotments are filled.

Note 3:

The Commission will periodically evaluate the progress of the movement of stations from the 535-1605 kHz band to the 1605-1705 kHz band to determine whether the 1605-1705 kHz band should continue to be administered on an allotment basis or modified to an assignment method. If appropriate, the Commission will later develop further procedures for use of the 1605-1705 kHz band by existing station licensees and others.

Note 4:

Other than the exception specified in note 1 of this section, existing fulltime stations are considered first for selection as described in note 2 of this section. In the event that an allotment availability exists for which no fulltime station has filed a relevant petition, such allotment may be awarded to a licensed Class D station. If more than one Class D station applies for this migration opportunity, the following priorities will be used in the selection process: First priority - a Class D station located within the 0.5 mV/m-50% contour of a U.S. Class A station and licensed to serve a community of 100,000 or more, for which there exists no local fulltime aural service; Second priority - Class D stations ranked in order of improvement factor, from highest to lowest, considering only those stations with improvement factors greater than zero.

Note 5:

The preference for AM stereo in the expanded band will be administered as follows: when an allotment under consideration (candidate allotment) conflicts with one or more previously selected allotments (established allotments) and cannot be accommodated in the expanded band, the candidate allotment will be substituted for the previously established allotment provided that: the petitioner for the candidate allotment has made a written commitment to the use of AM stereo and the petitioner for the established allotment has not; the difference between the ranking factors associated with the candidate and established allotments does not exceed 10% of the ranking factor of the candidate allotment; the substitution will not require the displacement of more than one established allotment; and both the candidate allotment and the established allotment are within the same priority group.

[58 FR 27949, May 12, 1993]

§ 73.31 Rounding of nominal power specified on applications.

(a) An application filed with the FCC for a new station or for an increase in power of an existing station shall specify nominal power rounded to two significant figures as follows:

Nominal power (kW) Rounded down to nearest figure (kW)
Below 0.25 0.001
0.25 to 0.99 0.01
1 to 9.9 0.1
10 to 50 1

(b) In rounding the nominal power in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section the RMS shall be adjusted accordingly. If rounding upward to the nearest figure would result in objectionable interference, the nominal power specified on the application is to be rounded downward to the next nearest figure and the RMS adjusted accordingly.

[50 FR 18821, May 2, 1985, as amended at 53 FR 1031, Jan. 15, 1988]

§ 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required.

(a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include full details of the antenna design and expected performance.

(b) All data necessary to show compliance with the terms and conditions of the construction permit must be filed with the license application. If the station is using a directional antenna, a proof of performance must also be filed.

[28 FR 13574, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 37 FR 25840, Dec. 5, 1972]

§ 73.35 Calculation of improvement factors.

A petition for an allotment (See § 73.30) in the 1605-1705 kHz band filed by an existing fulltime AM station licensed in the 535-1605 kHz band will be ranked according to the station's calculated improvement factor. (See § 73.30). Improvement factors relate to both nighttime and daytime interference conditions and are based on two distinct considerations: (a) Service area lost by other stations due to interference caused by the subject station, and (b) service area of the subject station. These considerations are represented by a ratio. The ratio consists, where applicable, of two separate additive components, one for nighttime and one for daytime. For the nighttime component, to determine the numerator of the ratio (first consideration), calculate the RSS and associated service area of the stations (co- and adjacent channel) to which the subject station causes nighttime interference. Next, repeat the RSS and service area calculations excluding the subject station. The cumulative gain in the above service area is the numerator of the ratio. The denominator (second consideration) is the subject station's interference-free service area. For the daytime component, the composite amount of service lost by co-channel and adjacent channel stations, each taken individually, that are affected by the subject station, excluding the effects of other assignments during each study, will be used as the numerator of the daytime improvement factor. The denominator will consist of the actual daytime service area (0.5 mV/m contour) less any area lost to interference from other assignments. The value of this combined ratio will constitute the petitioner's improvement factor. Notwithstanding the requirements of § 73.153, for uniform comparisons and simplicity, measurement data will not be used for determining improvement factors and FCC figure M-3 ground conductivity values are to be used exclusively in accordance with the pertinent provisions of § 73.183(c)(1).

[56 FR 64858, Dec. 12, 1991]

§ 73.37 Applications for broadcast facilities, showing required.

(a) No application will be accepted for a new station if the proposed operation would involve overlap of signal strength contours with any other station as set forth below in this paragraph; and no application will be accepted for a change of the facilities of an existing station if the proposed change would involve such overlap where there is not already such overlap between the stations involved:

Frequency separation (kHz) Contour of proposed station (classes B, C and D) (mV/m) Contour of any other station (mV/m)
0 0.005
0.025
0.500
0.100 (Class A).
0.500(Other classes).
0.025 (All classes).
10 0.250
0.500
0.500(All classes).
0.250 (All classes).
20 5
5
5 (All classes).
5 (All classes).
30 25 25 (All classes).

(b) In determining overlap received, an application for a new Class C station with daytime power of 250 watts, or greater, shall be considered on the assumption that both the proposed operation and all existing Class C stations operate with 250 watts and utilize non-directional antennas.

(c) If otherwise consistent with the public interest, an application requesting an increase in the daytime power of an existing Class C station on a local channel from 250 watts to a maximum of 1kW, or from 100 watts to a maximum of 500 watts, may be granted notwithstanding overlap prohibited by paragraph (a) of this section. In the case of a 100 watt Class C station increasing daytime power, the provisions of this paragraph shall not be construed to permit an increase in power to more than 500 watts, if prohibited overlap would be involved, even if successive applications should be tendered.

(d) In addition to demonstrating compliance with paragraphs (a), and, as appropriate, (b), and (c) of this section, an application for a new AM broadcast station, or for a major change (see § 73.3571(a)(1)) in an authorized AM broadcast station, as a condition for its acceptance, shall make a satisfactory showing, if new or modified nighttime operation by a Class B station is proposed, that objectionable interference will not result to an authorized station, as determined pursuant to § 73.182(1).

(e) An application for an authorization in the 1605-1705 kHz band which has been selected through the petition process (See § 73.30) is not required to demonstrate compliance with paragraph (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this section. Instead, the applicant need only comply with the terms of the allotment authorization issued by the Commission in response to the earlier petition for establishment of a station in the 1605-1705 kHz band. Within the allotment authorization, the Commission will specify the assigned frequency and the applicable technical requirements.

(f) Stations on 1580, 1590 and 1600 kHz. In addition to the rules governing the authorization of facilities in the 535-1605 kHz band, stations on these frequencies seeking facilities modifications must protect assignments in the 1610-1700 kHz band. Such protection shall be afforded in a manner which considers the spacings that occur or exist between the subject station and a station within the range 1605-1700 kHz. The spacings are the same as those specified for stations in the frequency band 1610-1700 kHz or the current separation distance, whichever is greater. Modifications that would result in a spacing or spacings that fails to meet any of the separations must include a showing that appropriate adjustment has been made to the radiated signal which effectively results in a site-to-site radiation that is equivalent to the radiation of a station with standard Model I facilities (10 kW-D, 1 kW-N, non-DA, 90 degree antenna ht. & ground system) operating in compliance with all of the above separation distances. In those cases where that radiation equivalence value is already exceeded, a station may continue to maintain, but not increase beyond that level.

Note 1:

In the case of applications for changes in the facilities of AM broadcast stations covered by this section, an application will be accepted even though overlap of field strength contours as mentioned in this section would occur with another station in an area where such overlap does not already exist, if:

(1) The total area of overlap with that station would not be increased;

(2) There would be no net increase in the area of overlap with any other station; and

(3) There would be created no area of overlap with any station with which overlap does not now exist.

Note 2:

The provisions of this section concerning prohibited overlap of field strength contours will not apply where:

(1) The area of overlap lies entirely over sea water: or

(2) The only overlap involved would be that caused to a foreign station, in which case the provisions of the applicable international agreement, as identified in § 73.1650, will apply. When overlap would be received from a foreign station, the provisions of this section will apply, except where there would be overlap with a foreign station with a frequency separation of 20 kHz, in which case the provisions of the international agreement will apply in lieu of this section.

Note 3:

In determining the number of “authorized” aural transmission facilities in a given community, applications for that community in hearing or otherwise having protected status under specified “cut-off” procedures shall be considered as existing stations. In the event that there are two or more mutually exclusive protected applications seeking authorization for the proposed community it will be assumed that only one is “authorized.”

Note 4:

A “transmission facility” for a community is a station licensed to the community. Such a station provides a “transmission service” for that community.

[56 FR 64858, Dec. 12, 1991; 57 FR 43290, Sept. 18, 1992]

§ 73.44 AM transmission system emission limitations.

(a) The emissions of stations in the AM service shall be attenuated in accordance with the requirements specified in paragraph (b) of this section. Emissions shall be measured using a properly operated and suitable swept-frequency RF spectrum analyzer using a peak hold duration of 10 minutes, no video filtering, and a 300 Hz resolution bandwidth, except that a wider resolution bandwidth may be employed above 11.5 kHz to detect transient emissions. Alternatively, other specialized receivers or monitors with appropriate characteristics may be used to determine compliance with the provisions of this section, provided that any disputes over measurement accuracy are resolved in favor of measurements obtained by using a calibrated spectrum analyzer adjusted as set forth above.

(b) Emissions 10.2 kHz to 20 kHz removed from the carrier must be attenuated at least 25 dB below the unmodulated carrier level, emissions 20 kHz to 30 kHz removed from the carrier must be attenuated at least 35 dB below the unmodulated carrier level, emissions 30 kHz to 60 kHz removed from the carrier must be attenuated at least [5 + 1 dB/kHz] below the unmodulated carrier level, and emissions between 60 kHz and 75 kHz of the carrier frequency must be attenuated at least 65 dB below the unmodulated carrier level. Emissions removed by more than 75 kHz must be attenuated at least 43 + 10 Log (Power in watts) or 80 dB below the unmodulated carrier level, whichever is the lesser attenuation, except for transmitters having power less than 158 watts, where the attenuation must be at least 65 dB below carrier level.

(c) Should harmful interference be caused to the reception of other broadcast or non-broadcast stations by out of band emissions, the licensee may be directed to achieve a greater degree of attentuation than specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(d) Measurements to determine compliance with this section for transmitter type acceptance are to be made using signals sampled at the output terminals of the transmitter when operating into an artificial antenna of substantially zero reactance. Measurements made of the emissions of an operating station are to be made at ground level approximately 1 kilometer from the center of the antenna system. When a directional antenna is used, the carrier frequency reference field strength to be used in order of preference shall be:

(1) The measure non-directional field strength.

(2) The RMS field strength determined from the measured directional radiation pattern.

(3) The calculated expected field strength that would be radiated by a non-directional antenna at the station authorized power.

(e) Licensees of stations complying with the ANSI/EIA-549-1988, NRSC-1 AM Preemphasis/Deemphasis and Broadcast Transmission Bandwidth Specifications (NRSC-1), prior to June 30, 1990 or from the original commencement of operation will, until June 30, 1994, be considered to comply with paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, absent any reason for the Commission to believe otherwise. Such stations are waived from having to make the periodic measurements required in § 73.1590(a)(6) until June 30, 1994. However, licensees must make measurements to determine compliance with paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section upon receipt of an Official Notice of Violation or a Notice of Apparent Liability alleging noncompliance with those provisions, or upon specific request by the Commission.

[47 FR 8588, Mar. 1, 1982, as amended at 49 FR 3999, Feb. 1, 1984]

§ 73.45 AM antenna systems.

(a) All applicants for new, additional, or different AM station facilities and all licensees requesting authority to change the transmitting system site of an existing station must specify an antenna system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements for the class and power of station. (See §§ 73.186 and 73.189.)

(1) An application for authority to install an AM broadcast antenna must specify a definite site and include full details of the antenna system design and expected performance.

(2) All data necessary to show compliance with the terms and conditions of the construction permit must be filed with the application for the station license to cover the construction. If the station has constructed a directional antenna, a directional proof of performance must be filed. See §§ 73.150 through 73.157.

(b) The simultaneous use of a common antenna or antenna structure by more than one AM station or by a station of any other type or service may be authorized provided:

(1) Engineering data are submitted showing that satisfactory operation of each station will be obtained without adversely affecting the operation of the other station(s).

(2) The minimum field strength for each AM station complies with § 73.189(b).

(c) Should any changes be made or otherwise occur which would possibly alter the resistance of the antenna system, the licensee must commence the determination of the operating power by a method described in § 73.51(a)(1) or

(d) . (If the changes are due to the addition of antennas to the AM tower, see § 1.30003.) Upon completion of any necessary repairs or adjustments, or upon completion of authorized construction or modifications, the licensee must make a new determination of the antenna resistance using the procedures described in § 73.54. Operating power should then be determined by a direct method as described in § 73.51. Notification of the value of resistance of the antenna system must be filed with the FCC in Washington, DC as follows:

(1) Whenever the measurements show that the antenna or common point resistance differs from that shown on the station authorization by more than 2%, FCC Form 302 must be filed with the information and measurement data specified in § 73.54(d).

(2) Whenever AM stations use direct reading power meters pursuant to § 73.51, a letter notification to the FCC in Washington, DC, Attention: Audio Division, Media Bureau, must be filed in accordance with § 73.54(e).

[43 FR 53735, Nov. 17, 1978, as amended at 45 FR 28141, Apr. 28, 1980; 47 FR 8589, Mar. 1, 1982; 50 FR 32416, Aug. 12, 1985; 51 FR 2707; Jan. 21, 1986; 51 FR 26250, July 22, 1986; 63 FR 33875, June 22, 1998; 67 FR 13231, Mar. 21, 2002; 78 FR 66298, Nov. 5, 2013]

§ 73.49 AM transmission system fencing requirements.

Antenna towers having radio frequency potential at the base (series fed, folded unipole, and insulated base antennas) must be enclosed within effective locked fences or other enclosures. Ready access must be provided to each antenna tower base for meter reading and maintenance purposes at all times. However, individual tower fences need not be installed if the towers are contained within a protective property fence.

[51 FR 2707, Jan. 21, 1986]

§ 73.51 Determining operating power.

(a) Except in those circumstances described in paragraph (d) of this section, the operating power shall be determined by the direct method. The direct method consists of either:

(1) using a suitable instrument for determining the antenna's input power directly from the RF voltage, RF current, and phase angle; or

(2) calculating the product of the licensed antenna or common point resistance at the operating frequency (see § 73.54), and the square of the indicated unmodulated antenna current at that frequency, measured at the point where the resistance has been determined.

(b) The authorized antenna input power for each station shall be equal to the nominal power for such station, with the following exceptions:

(1) For stations with nominal powers of 5 kW, or less, the authorized antenna input power to directional antennas shall exceed the nominal power by 8 percent.

(2) For stations with nominal powers in excess of 5 kW, the authorized antenna input power to directional antennas shall exceed the nominal power by 5.3 percent.

(3) In specific cases, it may be necessary to limit the radiated field to a level below that which would result if normal power were delivered to the antenna. In such cases, excess power may be dissipated in the antenna feed circuit, the transmitter may be operated with power output at a level which is less than the rated carrier power, or a combination of the two methods may be used, subject to the conditions given in paragraph (c) of this section.

(i) Where a dissipative network is employed, the authorized antenna current and resistance, and the authorized antenna input power shall be determined at the input terminals of the dissipative network.

(ii) Where the authorized antenna input power is less than the nominal power, subject to the conditions set forth in paragraph (c) of this section, the transmitter may be operated at the reduced power level necessary to supply the authorized antenna input power.

(c) Applications for authority to operate with antenna input power which is less than nominal power and/or to employ a dissipative network in the antenna system shall be made on FCC Form 302. The technical information supplied on section II-A of this form shall be that applying to the proposed conditions of operation. In addition, the following information shall be furnished, as pertinent:

(1) Full details of any network employed for the purpose of dissipating radio frequency energy otherwise delivered to the antenna (see § 73.54).

(2) A showing that the transmitter has been type accepted or notified for operation at the proposed power output level, or, in lieu thereof:

(i) A full description of the means by which transmitter output power will be reduced.

(ii) Where the proposed transmitter power output level(s) is less than 90% of the rated power of the transmitter, equipment performance measurements must be made to confirm that the station transmissions conform to the emission limitation specified in § 73.44, under all conditions of program operation.

(iii) A showing that, at the proposed power output level, means are provided for varying the transmitter output within a tolerance of ±10 percent, to compensate for variations in line voltage or other factors which may affect the power output level.

(d) When it is not possible or appropriate to use the direct method of power determination due to technical reasons, the indirect method of determining operating power (see paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section) may be used on a temporary basis. A notation must be made in the station log indicating the dates of commencement and termination of measurement using the indirect method of power determination.

(e) The antenna input power is determined indirectly by applying an appropriate factor to the input power to the last radio-frequency power amplifier stage of the transmitter, using the following formula:

Where:

Antenna input power = Ep × Ip × F

Ep = DC input voltage of final radio stage.

Ip = Total DC input current of final radio stage.

F= Efficiency factor.

(1) If the above formula is not appropriate for the design of the transmitter final amplifier, use a formula specified by the transmitter manufacturer with other appropriate operating parameters.

(2) The value of F applicable to each mode of operation must be determined and a record kept thereof with a notation as to its derivation. This factor is to be established by one of the methods described in paragraph (f) of this section and retained in the station records.

(f) The value of F is to be determined by one of the following procedures listed in order of preference:

(1) If the station had previously been authorized and operating by determining the antenna input power by the direct method, the factor F is the ratio of the antenna input power (determined by the direct method) to the corresponding final radio frequency power amplifier input power.

(2) If a station has not been previously in regular operation with the power authorized for the period of indirect power determination, if a new transmitter has been installed, or if, for any other reason, the determination of the factor F by the method described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section is impracticable:

(i) The factor F as shown in the transmitter manufacturer's test report, if such a test report specifies a unique value of F for the power level and frequently used; or

(ii) The value determined by reference to the following table:

Factor(F) Method of modulation Maximum rated carrier power Class of amplifier
0.70 Plate 1 kW or less
.80 Plate 2.5 kW and over
.35 Low level 0.25 kW and over B
.65 Low level 0.25 kW and over BC1
.35 Grid 0.25 kW and over

[37 FR 7516, Apr. 15, 1972, as amended at 42 FR 36827, July 18, 1977; 42 FR 61863, Dec. 7, 1977; 44 FR 36036, June 20, 1979; 47 FR 28387, June 30, 1982; 48 FR 38477, Aug. 24, 1983; 48 FR 44805, Sept. 30, 1983; 49 FR 3999, Feb. 1, 1984; 49 FR 4210, Feb. 3, 1984; 49 FR 49850, Dec. 24, 1984; 50 FR 24521, June 11, 1985; 52 FR 10570, Apr. 2, 1987; 83 FR 48963, Sept. 28, 2018]

§ 73.53 Requirements for authorization of antenna monitors.

(a) Antenna monitors shall be approved with Supplier's Declaration of Conformity that demonstrates compliance with the technical requirements in this section. The procedure for Supplier's Declaration of Conformity is specified in subpart J of part 2 of this chapter.

Note 1 to paragraph (a):

The verification procedure has been replaced by Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. Antenna monitors previously authorized under subpart J of part 2 of this chapter may remain in use. See § 2.950 of this chapter.

(b) An antenna monitor shall meet the following specifications:

(1) The monitor shall be designed to operate in the 535-1705 kHz band.

(2) The monitor shall be capable of indicating any phase difference between two RF voltages of the same frequency over a range of from 0 to 360°.

(3) The monitor shall be capable of indicating the relative amplitude of two RF voltages.

(4) The device used to indicate phase differences shall indicate in degrees, and shall be graduated in increments of 2°, or less. If a digital indicator is provided, the smallest increment shall be 0.5°, or less.

(5) The device used to indicate relative amplitudes shall be graduated in increments which are 1 percent, or less, of the full scale value. If a digital indicator is provided, the smallest increment shall be 0.1 percent, or less, of the full scale value.

(6) The monitor shall be equipped with means, if necessary, to resolve ambiguities in indication.

(7) If the monitor is provided with more than one RF input terminal in addition to a reference input terminal, appropriate switching shall be provided in the monitor so that the signal at each of these RF inputs may be selected separately for comparison with the reference input signal.

(8) Each RF input of the monitor shall provide a termination of such characteristics that, when connected to a sampling line of an impedance specified by the manufacturer the voltage reflection coefficient shall be 3 percent or less.

(9) The monitor, if intended for use by stations operating directional antenna systems by remote control, shall be designed so that the switching functions required by paragraph (b)(7) of this section may be performed from a point external to the monitor, and phase and amplitude indications be provided by external meters. The indications of external meters furnished by the manufacturer shall meet the specifications for accuracy and repeatability of the monitor itself, and the connection of these meters to the monitor, or of other indicating instruments with electrical characteristics meeting the specifications of the monitor manufacturer shall not affect adversely the performance of the monitor in any respect.

(10) Complete and correct schematic diagrams and operating instructions shall be retained by the party responsible for Supplier's Declaration of Conformity of the equipment and submitted to the FCC upon request. For the purpose of equipment authorization, these diagrams and instructions shall be considered as part of the monitor.

(11) When an RF signal of an amplitude within a range specified by the manufacturer is applied to the reference RF input terminal of the monitor, and another RF signal of the same frequency and of equal or lower amplitude is applied to any other selected RF input terminal, indications shall be provided meeting the following specifications.

(i) The accuracy with which any difference in the phases of the applied signals is indicated shall be ±1°, or better, for signal amplitude ratios of from 2:1 to 1:1, and ±2°, or better, for signal amplitude ratios in excess of 2:1 and up to 5:1.

(ii) The repeatability of indication of any difference in the phases of the applied signals shall be ±1°, or better.

(iii) The accuracy with which the relative amplitudes of the applied signals is indicated, over a range in which the ratio of these amplitudes is between 2:1 and 1:1, shall be ±2 percent of the amplitude ratio, or better, and for amplitude ratios in excess of 2:1 and up to 5:1, ±5 percent of the ratio, or better.

(iv) The repeatability of indication of the relative amplitudes of the applied signals, over a range where the ratio of these amplitudes is between 5:1 and 1:1, shall be ±2 percent of the amplitude ratio, or better.

(v) The modulation of the RF signals by a sinusoidal wave of any frequency between 100 and 10,000 Hz, at any amplitude up to 90 percent shall cause no deviation in an indicated phase difference from its value, as determined without modulation, greater than ±0.5°.

(12) The performance specifications set forth in paragraph (b)(11) of this section, shall be met when the monitor is operated and tested under the following conditions.

(i) After continuous operation for 1 hour, the monitor shall be calibrated and adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

(ii) The monitor shall be subjected to variations in ambient temperature between the limits of 10 and 40 °C; external meters furnished by the manufacturer will be subjected to variations between 15 and 30 °C.

(iii) Powerline supply voltage shall be varied over a range of from 10 percent below to 10 percent above the rated supply voltage.

(iv) The amplitude of the reference signal shall be varied over the operating range specified by the manufacturer, and in any case over a range of maximum to minimum values of 3 to 1.

(v) The amplitude of the comparison signal shall be varied from a value which is 0.2 of the amplitude of the reference signal to a value which is equal in amplitude to the reference signal.

(vi) Accuracy shall be determined for the most adverse combination of conditions set forth above.

(vii) Repeatability shall be determined as that which may be achieved under the specified test conditions over a period of 7 days, during which no calibration or adjustment of the instrument, subsequent to the initial calibration, shall be made.

(viii) The effects of modulation of the RF signal shall be separately determined, and shall not be included in establishing values for accuracy and repeatability.

Note 1 to paragraph (b):

In paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the requirement that monitors be capable of operation in the 535-1705 kHz band shall apply only to equipment manufactured after July 1, 1992. Use of a monitor in the 1605-1705 kHz band which is not approved for such operation will be permitted pending the general availability of 535-1705 kHz band monitors if a manufacturer can demonstrate, in the interim, that its monitor performs in accordance with the standards in this section on these 10 channels.

[38 FR 1917, Jan. 19, 1973, as amended at 49 FR 3999, Feb. 1, 1984; 49 FR 29069, July 18, 1984; 50 FR 32416, Aug. 12, 1985; 50 FR 47054, Nov. 14, 1985; 51 FR 2707, Jan. 21, 1986; 56 FR 64859, Dec. 12, 1991; 57 FR 43290, Sept. 18, 1992; 60 FR 55480, Nov. 1, 1995; 63 FR 36604, July 7, 1998; 66 FR 20755, Apr. 25, 2001; 82 FR 50835, Nov. 2, 2017]

§ 73.54 Antenna resistance and reactance measurements.

(a) The resistance of an omnidirectional series fed antenna is measured at either the base of the antenna without intervening coupling or tuning networks, or at the point the transmission line connects to the output terminals of the transmitter. The resistance of a shunt excited antenna may be measured at the point the radio frequency energy is transferred to the feed wire circuit or at the output terminals of the transmitter.

(b) The resistance and reactance of a directional antenna shall be measured at the point of common radiofrequency input to the directional antenna system after the antenna has been finally adjusted for the required radiation pattern.

(c) A letter of notification must be filed with the FCC in Washington, DC, Attention: Audio Division, Media Bureau, when determining power by the direct method pursuant to § 73.51. The letter must specify the antenna or common point resistance at the operating frequency. The following information must also be kept on file at the station:

(1) A full description of the method used to make measurements.

(2) A schematic diagram showing clearly all components of coupling circuits, the point of resistance measurement, the location of the antenna ammeter, connections to and characteristics of all tower lighting isolation circuits, static drains, and any other fixtures connected to and supported by the antenna, including other antennas and associated networks. Any network or circuit component used to dissipate radio frequency power shall be specifically identified, and the impedances of all components which control the level of power dissipation, and the effective input resistance of the network must be indicated.

(d) AM stations using direct reading power meters in accordance with § 73.51, can either submit the information required by paragraph (c) of this section or submit a statement indicating that such a meter is being used. Subsequent station licenses will indicate the use of a direct reading power meter in lieu of the antenna resistance value in such a situation.

[66 FR 20755, Apr. 25, 2001,as amended at 67 FR 13231, Mar. 21, 2002]

§ 73.57 Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters.

Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters may be used without further authority according to the following conditions:

(a) Remote reading antenna or common point ammeters may be provided by:

(1) Inserting second radio frequency current sensing device directly in the antenna circuit with remote leads to the indicating instruments.

(2) Inductive coupling to radio frequency current sensing device for providing direct current to indicating instrument.

(3) Capacity coupling to radio frequency current sensing device for providing direct current to indicating instrument.

(4) Current transformer connected to radio frequency current sensing device for providing direct current to indicating instrument.

(5) Using transmission line current meter at transmitter as remote reading ammeter. See paragraph (c) of this section.

(6) Using the indications of the antenna (phase) monitor, provided that when the monitor is used to obtain remote reading indication of non-directional antenna base current, the monitor calibration can be independently made and maintained for each mode of operation.

(b) Devices used for obtaining remote reading antenna or common point current indications, except antenna monitor coupling elements, shall be located at the same point as, but below (transmitter side) the associated main ammeter.

(c) In the case of shunt-excited antennas, the transmission line current meter at the transmitter may be considered as the remote antenna ammeter provided the transmission line is terminated directly into the excitation circuit feed line, which shall employ series tuning only (no shunt circuits of any type shall be employed) and insofar as practicable, the type and scale of the transmission line meter should be the same as those of the excitation circuit feed line meter (meter in slant wire feed line or equivalent).

(d) Each remote reading ammeter shall be accurate to within 2 percent of the value read on its corresponding regular ammeter.

(e) All remote reading ammeters shall conform with the specifications for regular antenna ammeters.

(f) Meters with arbitrary scale divisions may be used provided that calibration charts or curves are provided at the transmitter control point showing the relationship between the arbitrary scales and the reading of the main meters.

(g) If a malfunction affects the remote reading indicators of the antenna or common point ammeter, the operating power may be determined by a method using alternative procedures as described in § 73.51.

[41 FR 36817, Sept. 1, 1976, as amended at 48 FR 38477, Aug. 24, 1983; 49 FR 49850, Dec. 24, 1984; 50 FR 32416, Aug. 12, 1985; 60 FR 55480, Nov. 1, 1995]

§ 73.58 Indicating instruments.

(a) Each AM broadcast station must be equipped with indicating instruments which conform with the specifications described in § 73.1215 for determining power by the direct and indirect methods, and with such other instruments as are necessary for the proper adjustment, operation, and maintenance of the transmitting system. However, auxiliary transmitters with a nominal power rating of 100 watts or less are not required to be equipped with instruments to determine power by the indirect method provided that the licensee can determine the antenna input power at all times.

(b) Since it is usually impractical to measure the actual antenna current of a shunt excited antenna system, the current measured at the input of the excitation circuit feed line is accepted as the antenna current.

(c) The function of each instrument shall be clearly and permanently shown on the instrument itself or on the panel immediately adjacent thereto.

(d) In the event that any one of these indicating instruments becomes defective when no substitute which conforms with the required specifications is available, the station may be operated without the defective instrument pending its repair or replacement for a period not in excess of 60 days without further authority of the Commission. If the defective instrument is the antenna current meter of a nondirectional station which does not employ a remote antenna ammeter, or if the defective instrument is the common point meter of a station which employs a directional antenna and does not employ a remote common point meter, the operating power shall be determined by a method described in § 73.51(a)(1) or § 73.51(d) during the entire time the station is operated without the antenna current meter or common point meter. However, if a remote meter is employed and the antenna current ammeter or common point meter becomes defective, the remote meter can be used to determine operating power pending the return to service of the regular meter.

(e) If conditions beyond the control of the licensee prevent the restoration of the meter to service within the above allowed period, information requested in accordance with § 73.3549 may be filed by letter with the FCC in Washington, DC, Attention: Audio Division, Media Bureau, to request additional time as may be required to complete repairs of the defective instrument.

[41 FR 36817, Sept. 1, 1976, as amended at 48 FR 38477, Aug. 24, 1983; 49 FR 49850, Dec. 24, 1984; 50 FR 32416, Aug. 12, 1985; 51 FR 2707, Jan. 21, 1986; 53 FR 2498, Jan. 28, 1988; 63 FR 33876, June 22, 1998; 66 FR 20755, Apr. 25, 2001; 67 FR 13231, Mar. 21, 2002]

§ 73.61 AM directional antenna field strength measurements.

(a) Each AM station using a directional antenna with monitoring point locations specified in the instrument of authorization must make field strength measurements as often as necessary to ensure that the field at each of those points does not exceed the value specified in the station authorization. Additionally, stations not having an approved sampling system must make the measurements once each calendar quarter at intervals not exceeding 120 days. The provision of this paragraph supersedes any schedule specified on a station license issued prior to January 1, 1986. The results of the measurements are to be entered into the station log pursuant to the provisions of § 73.1820.

(b) If the AM license was granted on the basis of field strength measurements performed pursuant to § 73.151(a), partial proof of performance measurements using the procedures described in § 73.154 must be made whenever the licensee has reason to believe that the radiated field may be exceeding the limits for which the station was most recently authorized to operate.

(c) A station may be directed to make a partial proof of performance by the FCC whenever there is an indication that the antenna is not operating as authorized.

[50 FR 47054, Nov. 14, 1985, as amended at 73 FR 64560, Oct. 30, 2008]

§ 73.62 Directional antenna system operation and tolerances.

(a) Each AM station operating a directional antenna must maintain the relative amplitudes of the antenna currents, as indicated by the antenna monitor, within 5% of the values specified on the instrument of authorization. Directional antenna relative phases must be maintained within 3 degrees of the values specified on the instrument of authorization.

(b) In the event of a failure of system components, improper pattern switching or any other event that results in operation substantially at variance from the radiation pattern specified in the instrument of authorization for the pertinent time of day, operation must be terminated within three minutes unless power can be reduced sufficiently to eliminate any excessive radiation. See § 73.1350(e).

(1) Any variation of operating parameters by more than ±15 percent sample current ratio or ±10 degrees in phase, any monitor point that exceeds 125 percent of the licensed limit, or any operation at variance that results in complaints of interference shall be considered operation substantially at variance from the license and will require immediate corrective action.

(2) [Reserved]

(c) In the event of minor variations of directional antenna operating parameters from the tolerances specified in paragraph (a) of this section, the following procedures will apply:

(1) The licensee shall measure and log every monitoring point at least once for each mode of directional operation. Subsequent variations in operating parameters will require the remeasuring and logging of every monitoring point to assure that the authorized monitoring point limits are not being exceeded. The licensee will be permitted 24 hours to accomplish these actions; provided that, the date and time of the failure to maintain proper operating parameters have been recorded in the station log.

(2) Provided each monitoring point is within its specified limit, operation may continue for a period up to 30 days before a request for Special Temporary Authority (STA) must be filed, pursuant to paragraph (c)(4) of this section, to operate with parameters at variance from the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section.

(3) If any monitoring point exceeds its specified limit, the licensee must either terminate operation within three hours or reduce power in accordance with the applicable provisions of § 73.1350(d), in order to eliminate any possibility of interference or excessive radiation in any direction.

(4) If operation pursuant to paragraph (c)(3) of this section is necessary, or before the 30-day period specified in paragraph (c)(2) of this § expires, the licensee must request a Special Temporary Authority (STA) in accordance with section 73.1635 to continue operation with parameters at variance and/or with reduced power along with a statement certifying that all monitoring points will be continuously maintained within their specified limits.

(d) In any other situation in which it might reasonably be anticipated that the operating parameters might vary out of tolerance (such as planned array repairs or adjustment and proofing procedures), the licensee shall, before such activity is undertaken, obtain a Special Temporary Authority (STA) in accordance with § 73.1635 in order to operate with parameters at variance and/or with reduced power as required to maintain all monitoring points within their specified limits.

[72 FR 44422, Aug. 8, 2007]

§ 73.68 Sampling systems for antenna monitors.

(a) Each AM station permittee authorized to construct a new directional antenna system which will be subject to a proof of performance based on field strength measurements, as described in § 73.151(a) or (b), must install the sampling system in accordance with the following specifications:

(1) Devices used to extract or sample the current and the transmission line connecting the sampling elements to the antenna monitor must provide accurate and stable signals to the monitor (e.g., rigidly mounted and non-rotatable loops and all system components protected from physical and environmental disturbances).

(2) Sampling lines for directional antennas may be of different lengths provided the phase difference of signals at the monitor are less than 0.5 degrees between the shortest and longest cable lengths due to temperature variations to which the system is exposed.

(3) Other configurations of sampling systems may be used upon demonstration of stable operation to the FCC.

(b) An AM station permittee authorized to construct a directional antenna system which will be subject to a proof of performance based on moment method modeling, as described in § 73.151(c), shall install a sampling system conforming to the requirements set forth in that section.

(c) A station having an antenna sampling system constructed according to the specifications given in paragraph (a) of this section may obtain approval of that system by submitting an informal letter request to the FCC in Washington, DC, Attention: Audio Division, Media Bureau. The request for approval, signed by the licensee or authorized representative, must contain sufficient information to show that the sampling system is in compliance with all requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.

Note to paragraph (c):

A public notice dated December 9, 1985 giving additional information on approval of antenna sampling systems is available through the Internet at http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/decdoc/letter/1985-12-09-sample.html.

(d) In the event that the antenna monitor sampling system is temporarily out of service for repair or replacement, the station may be operated, pending completion of repairs or replacement, for a period not exceeding 120 days without further authority from the FCC if all other operating parameters and the field monitoring point values are within the limits specified on the station authorization.

(e) If the antenna sampling system is modified or components of the sampling system are replaced, the following procedure shall be followed:

(1) Special Temporary Authority (see § 73.1635) shall be requested and obtained from the Commission's Audio Division, Media Bureau in Washington to operate with parameters at variance with licensed values pending issuance of a modified license specifying parameters subsequent to modification or replacement of components.

(2) Immediately prior to modification or replacement of components of the sampling system, and after a verification that all monitoring point values and operating parameters are within the limits or tolerances specified in the rules, the following indications must be recorded for each radiation pattern: Final plate current and plate voltage, common point current, antenna monitor phase and current indications, and the field strength at each monitoring point. Subsequent to these modifications or changes the procedure must be repeated.

(3) If monitoring point field strengths or antenna monitor parameters exceed allowable limits following the replacement or modification of that portion of the sampling system above the base of the towers, a partial proof of performance shall be executed in accordance with § 73.154 . The partial proof of performance shall be accompanied by common point impedance measurements made in accordance with § 73.54.

(4) Request for modification of license shall be submitted to the FCC in Washington, DC, within 30 days of the date of sampling system modification or replacement. Such request shall specify the transmitter plate voltage and plate current, common point current, base currents and their ratios, antenna monitor phase and current indications, and all other data obtained pursuant to this paragraph.

(f) If an existing sampling system is found to be patently of marginal construction, or where the performance of a directional antenna is found to be unsatisfactory, and this deficiency reasonably may be attributed, in whole or in part, to inadequacies in the antenna monitoring system, the FCC may require the reconstruction of the sampling system in accordance with requirements specified above.

[41 FR 7405, Feb. 18, 1976]

§ 73.69 Antenna monitors.

(a) Each station using a directional antenna must have in operation at the transmitter site an FCC authorized antenna monitor.

(b) In the event that the antenna monitor sampling system is temporarily out of service for repair or replacement, the station may be operated, pending completion of repairs or replacement, for a period not exceeding 120 days without further authority from the FCC if all other operating parameters, and the field monitoring point values are within the limits specified on the station authorization.

(c) If conditions beyond the control of the licensee prevent the restoration of the monitor to service within the allowed period, an informal letter request in accordance with § 73.3549 of the Commission's rules must be filed with the FCC, Attention: Audio Division, Media Bureau in Washington, DC for such additional time as may be required to complete repairs of the defective instrument.

(d) If an authorized antenna monitor is replaced by another antenna monitor, the following procedure shall be followed:

(1) Temporary authority shall be requested and obtained from the Commission in Washington to operate with parameters at variance with licensed values, pending issuance of a modified license specifying new parameters.

(2) Immediately before the replacement of the antenna monitor, after a verification that all monitoring point values and the common point current reading are within the limits or tolerances specified in the rules, the following indications must be recorded for each radiation pattern: Final plate current and plate voltage, common point current, antenna monitor phase and current indications, and the field strength at each monitoring point.

(3) With the new monitor substituted for the old, all indications specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, again must be read. If no change has occurred in the indication for any parameter other than the indications of the antenna monitor, the new antenna monitor indications must be deemed to be those reflecting correct array adjustments.

(4) If it cannot be established by the observations required in paragraph (d)(2) of this section that the common point current reading and the monitoring point values are within the tolerances or limits prescribed by the rules and the instrument of authorization, or if the substitution of the new antenna monitor for the old results in changes in these parameters, a partial proof of performance shall be executed and analyzed in accordance with § 73.154.

(5) An informal letter request for modification of license shall be submitted to the FCC, Attention: Audio Division, Media Bureau in Washington, DC within 30 days of the date of monitor replacement. Such request shall specify the make, type, and serial number of the replacement monitor, phase and sample current indications, and other data obtained pursuant to this paragraph (d).

(e) The antenna monitor must be calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions as often as necessary to ensure its proper operation.

[38 FR 1918, Jan. 19, 1973]

§ 73.72 Operating during the experimental period.

(a) An AM station may operate during the experimental period (the time between midnight and sunrise, local time) on its assigned frequency and with its authorized power for the routine testing and maintenance of its transmitting system, and for conducting experimentation under an experimental authorization, provided no interference is caused to other stations maintaining a regular operating schedule within such period.

(b) No station licensed for “daytime” or “specified hours” of operation may broadcast any regular or scheduled program during this period.

(c) The licensee of an AM station shall operate or refrain from operating its station during the experimental period as directed by the FCC to facilitate frequency measurements or for the determination of interference.

[43 FR 32780, July 28, 1978, as amended at 56 FR 64859, Dec. 12, 1991]

§ 73.88 Blanketing interference.

The licensee of each broadcast station is required to satisfy all reasonable complaints of blanketing interference within the 1 V/m contour.

Note:

For more detailed instructions concerning operational responsibilities of licensees and permittees under this section, see § 73.318 (b), (c) and (d).

[28 FR 13574, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 56 FR 64859, Dec. 12, 1991]

§ 73.99 Presunrise service authorization (PSRA) and postsunset service authorization (PSSA).

(a) To provide maximum uniformity in early morning operation compatible with interference considerations, and to provide for additional service during early evening hours for Class D stations, provisions are made for presunrise service and postsunset service. The permissible power for presunrise or postsunset service authorizations shall not exceed 500 watts, or the authorized daytime or critical hours power (whichever is less). Calculation of the permissible power shall consider only co-channel stations for interference protection purposes.

(b) Presunrise service authorizations (PSRA) permit:

(1) Class D stations operating on Mexican, Bahamian, and Canadian priority Class A clear channels to commence PSRA operation at 6 a.m. local time and to continue such operation until the sunrise times specified in their basic instruments of authorization.

(2) Class D stations situated outside 0.5 mV/m-50% skywave contours of co-channel U.S. Class A stations to commence PSRA operation at 6 a.m. local time and to continue such operation until sunrise times specified in their basic instruments of authorization.

(3) Class D stations located within co-channel 0.5 mV/m-50% skywave contours of U.S. Class A stations, to commence PSRA operation either at 6 a.m. local time, or at sunrise at the nearest Class A station located east of the Class D station (whichever is later), and to continue such operation until the sunrise times specified in their basic instruments of authorization.

(4) Class B and Class D stations on regional channels to commence PSRA operation at 6 a.m. local time and to continue such operation until local sunrise times specified in their basic instruments of authorization.

(c) Extended Daylight Saving Time Pre-Sunrise Authorizations:

(1) Between the first Sunday in April and the end of the month of April, Class D stations will be permitted to conduct pre-sunrise operation beginning at 6 a.m. local time with a maximum power of 500 watts (not to exceed the station's regular daytime or critical hours power), reduced as necessary to comply with the following requirements:

(i) Full protection is to be provided as specified in applicable international agreements.

(ii) Protection is to be provided to the 0.5 mV/m groundwave signals of co-channel U.S. Class A stations; protection to the 0.5 mV/m-50% skywave contours of these stations is not required.

(iii) In determining the protection to be provided, the effect of each interfering signal will be evaluated separately. The presence of interference from other stations will not reduce or eliminate the required protection.

(iv) Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (c)(1) (ii) and (iii) of this section, the stations will be permitted to operate with a minimum power of 10 watts unless a lower power is required by international agreement.

(2) The Commission will issue appropriate authorizations to Class D stations not previously eligible to operate during this period. Class D stations authorized to operate during this presunrise period may continue to operate under their current authorization.

(d) Postsunset service authorizations (PSSA) permit:

(1) Class D stations located on Mexican, Bahamian, and Canadian priority Class A clear channels to commence PSSA operation at sunset times specified in their basic instruments of authorization and to continue for two hours after such specified times.

(2) Class D stations situated outside 0.5 mV/m-50% skywave contours of co-channel U.S. Class A stations to commence PSSA operations at sunset times specified in their basic instruments of authorization and to continue for two hours after such specified times.

(3) Class D stations located within co-channel 0.5 mV/m-50% skywave contours of U.S. Class A stations to commence PSSA operation at sunset times specified in their basic instruments of authorization and to continue such operation until two hours past such specified times, or until sunset at the nearest Class A station located west of the Class D station, whichever is earlier. Class D stations located west of the Class A station do not qualify for PSSA operation.

(4) Class D stations on regional channels to commence PSSA operation at sunset times specified on their basic instruments of authorization and to continue such operation until two hours past such specified times.

(e) Procedural Matters.

(1) Applications for PSRA and PSSA operation are not required. Instead, the FCC will calculate the periods of such operation and the power to be used pursuant to the provisions of this section and the protection requirements contained in applicable international agreements. Licensees will be notified of permissible power and times of operation. Presunrise and Postsunset service authority permits operation on a secondary basis and does not confer license rights. No request for such authority need be filed. However, stations intending to operate PSRA or PSSA shall submit by letter, signed as specified in § 73.3513, the following information:

(i) Licensee name, station call letters and station location,

(ii) Indication as to whether PSRA operation, PSSA operation, or both, is intended by the station,

(iii) A description of the method whereby any necessary power reduction will be achieved.

(2) Upon submission of the required information, such operation may begin without further authority.

(f) Technical criteria. Calculations to determine whether there is objectionable interference will be determined in accordance with the AM Broadcast Technical Standards, §§ 73.182 through 73.190, and applicable international agreements. Calculations will be performed using daytime antenna systems, or critical hours antenna systems when specified on the license. In performing calculations to determine assigned power and times for commencement of PSRA and PSSA operation, the following standards and criteria will be used:

(1) Class D stations operating in accordance with paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(2), (d)(1), and (d)(2) of this section are required to protect the nighttime 0.5 mV/m-50% skywave contours of co-channel Class A stations. Where a 0.5 mV/m-50% skywave signal from the Class A station is not produced, the 0.5 mV/m groundwave contour shall be protected.

(2) Class D stations are required to fully protect foreign Class B and Class C stations when operating PSRA and PSSA; Class D stations operating PSSA are required to fully protect U.S. Class B stations. For purposes of determining protection, the nighttime RSS limit will be used in the determination of maximum permissible power.

(3) Class D stations operating in accordance with paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section are required to restrict maximum 10% skywave radiation at any point on the daytime 0.1 mV/m groundwave contour of a co-channel Class A station to 25 µV/m. The location of the 0.1 mV/m contour of the Class A station will be determined by use of Figure M3, Estimated Ground Conductivity in the United States. When the 0.1 mV/m contour extends beyond the national boundary, the international boundary shall be considered the 0.1 mV/m contour.

(4) Class B and Class D stations on regional channels operating PSRA and PSSA (Class D only) are required to provide full protection to co-channel foreign Class B and Class C stations.

(5) Class D stations on regional channels operating PSSA beyond 6 p.m. local time are required to fully protect U.S. Class B stations.

(6) The protection that Class D stations on regional channels are required to provide when operating PSSA until 6 p.m. local time is as follows.

(i) For the first half-hour of PSSA operation, protection will be calculated at sunset plus 30 minutes at the site of the Class D station;

(ii) For the second half-hour of PSSA operation, protection will be calculated at sunset plus one hour at the site of the Class D station;

(iii) For the second hour of PSSA operation, protection will be calculated at sunset plus two hours at the site of the Class D station;

(iv) Minimum powers during the period until 6 p.m. local time shall be permitted as follows:

Calculated power Adjusted minimum power
From 1 to 45 watts 50 watts.
Above 45 to 70 watts 75 watts.
Above 70 to 100 watts 100 watts.

(7) For protection purposes, the nighttime 25% RSS limit will be used in the determination of maximum permissible power.

(g) Calculations made under paragraph (d) of this section may not take outstanding PSRA or PSSA operations into account, nor will the grant of a PSRA or PSSA confer any degree of interference protection on the holder thereof.

(h) Operation under a PSRA or PSSA is not mandatory, and will not be included in determining compliance with the requirements of § 73.1740. To the extent actually undertaken, however, presunrise operation will be considered by the FCC in determining overall compliance with past programming representations and station policy concerning commercial matter.

(i) The PSRA or PSSA is secondary to the basic instrument of authorization with which it is to be associated. The PSRA or PSSA may be suspended, modified, or withdrawn by the FCC without prior notice or right to hearing, if necessary to resolve interference conflicts, to implement agreements with foreign governments, or in other circumstances warranting such action. Moreover, the PSRA or PSSA does not extend beyond the term of the basic authorization.

(j) The Commission will periodically recalculate maximum permissible power and times for commencing PSRA and PSSA for each Class D station operating in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section. The Commission will calculate the maximum power at which each individual station may conduct presunrise operations during extended daylight saving time and shall issue conforming authorizations. These original notifications and subsequent notifications should be associated with the station's authorization. Upon notification of new power and time of commencing operation, affected stations shall make necessary adjustments within 30 days.

(k) A PSRA and PSSA does not require compliance with §§ 73.45, 73.182 and 73.1560 where the operation might otherwise be considered as technically substandard. Further, the requirements of paragraphs (a)(5), (b)(2), (c)(2), and (d)(2) of § 73.1215 concerning the scale ranges of transmission system indicating instruments are waived for PSRA and PSSA operation except for the radio frequency ammeters used in determining antenna input power.

(1) A station having an antenna monitor incapable of functioning at the authorized PSRA and PSSA power when using a directional antenna shall take the monitor reading using an unmodulated carrier at the authorized daytime power immediately prior to commencing PSRA or PSSA operations. Special conditions as the FCC may deem appropriate may be included for PSRA or PSSA to insure operation of the transmitter and associated equipment in accordance with all phases of good engineering practice.

[56 FR 64860, Dec. 12, 1991; 57 FR 43290, Sept. 18, 1992, as amended at 58 FR 27950, May 12, 1993]

§ 73.127 Use of multiplex transmission.

The licensee of an AM broadcast station may use its AM carrier to transmit signals not audible on ordinary consumer receivers, for both broadcast and non-broadcast purposes subject to the following requirements:

(a) Such use does not disrupt or degrade the station's own programs or the programs of other broadcast stations.

(b) AM carrier services that are common carrier in nature are subject to common carrier regulation. Licensees operating such services are required to apply to the FCC for the appropriate authorization and to comply with all policies and rules applicable to the service. Responsibility for making the initial determinations of whether a particular activity is common carriage rests with the AM station licensee. Initial determinations by licensees are subject to FCC examination and may be reviewed at the FCC's discretion. AM carrier services that are private carrier in nature must notify the Licensing Division of the Private Radio Bureau at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325, by letter, prior to initiating service certifying compliance with 47 CFR parts 90 and 94.

(c) AM carrier services are of a secondary nature under the authority of the AM station authorization, and the authority to provide such communications services may not be retained or transferred in any manner separate from the station's authorization. The grant or renewal of an AM station permit or license is not furthered or promoted by proposed or past service. The permittee or licensee must establish that the broadcast operation is in the public interest wholly apart from the subsidiary communications services provided.

(d) The station identification, delayed recording, and sponsor identification announcements required by §§ 73.1201, 73.1208, and 73.1212 are not applicable to leased communications services transmitted via services that are not of a general broadcast program nature.

(e) The licensee or permittee must retain control over all material transmitted in a broadcast mode via the station's facilities, with the right to reject any material that it deems inappropriate or undesirable.

(f) Installation of the multiplex transmitting equipment must conform with the requirements of § 73.1690(e).

[47 FR 25345, June 11, 1982, as amended at 49 FR 34015, Aug. 28, 1984; 51 FR 41629, Nov. 18, 1986; 51 FR 44478, Dec. 10, 1986]

§ 73.128 AM stereophonic broadcasting.

(a) An Am broadcast station may, without specific authority from the FCC, transmit stereophonic programs upon installation of type accepted stereophonic transmitting equipment and the necessary measuring equipment to determine that the stereophonic transmissions conform to the modulation characteristics specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. Stations transmitting stereophonic programs prior to March 21, 1994 may continue to do so until March 21, 1995 as long as they continue to comply with the rules in effect prior to March 21, 1994.

(b) The following limitations on the transmitted wave must be met to insure compliance with the occupied bandwidth limitations, compatibility with AM receivers using envelope detectors, and any applicable international agreements to which the FCC is a party:

(1) The transmitted wave must meet the occupied bandwidth specifications of § 73.44 under all possible conditions of program modulation. Compliance with requirement shall be demonstrated either by the following specific modulation tests or other documented test procedures that are to be fully described in the application for type acceptance and the transmitting equipment instruction manual. (See § 2.983(d)(8) and (j)).

(i) Main channel (L + R) under all conditions of amplitude modulations for the stereophonic system but not exceeding amplitude modulation on negative peaks of 100%.

(ii) Stereophonic (L−R) modulated with audio tones of the same amplitude at the transmitter input terminals as in paragraph (b)(i) of this section but with the phase of either the L or R channel reversed.

(iii) Left and Right Channel only, under all conditions of modulation for the stereophonic system in use but not exceeding amplitude modulation on negative peaks of 100%.

(c) Effective on December 20, 1994, stereophonic transmissions shall conform to the following additional modulation characteristics:

(1) The audio response of the main (L + R) channel shall conform to the requirements of the ANSI/EIA-549-1988, NRSC-1 AM Preemphasis/Deemphasis and Broadcast Transmission Bandwidth Specifications (NRSC-1).

(2) The left and right channel audio signals shall conform to frequency response limitations dictated by ANSI/EIA-549-1988.

(3) The stereophonic difference (L−R) information shall be transmitted by varying the phase of the carrier in accordance with the following relationship:

where:

L(t) = audio signal left channel,

R(t) = audio signal right channel,

m = modulation factor, and

mpeak(L(t) + R(t)) = 1 for 100% amplitude modulation,

mpeak(L(t)−R(t)) = 1 for 100% phase modulation.

(4) The carrier phase shall advance in a positive direction when a left channel signal causes the transmitter envelope to be modulated in a positive direction. The carrier phase shall likewise retard (negative phase change) when a right channel signal causes the transmitter envelope to be modulated in a positive direction. The phase modulation shall be symmetrical for the condition of difference (L−R) channel information sent without the presence of envelope modulation.

(5) Maximum angular modulation, which occurs on negative peaks of the left or right channel with no signal present on the opposite channel (L(t)=−0.75, R(t) = 0, or R(t)=−0.75, L(t) = 0) shall not exceed 1.25 radians.

(6) A peak phase modulation of ±0.785 radians under the condition of difference (L−R) channel modulation and the absence of envelope (L + R) modulation and pilot signal shall represent 100% modulation of the difference channel.

(7) The composite signal shall contain a pilot tone for indication of the presence of stereophonic information. The pilot tone shall consist of a 25 Hz tone, with 3% or less total harmonic distortion and a frequency tolerance of ±0.1 H2, which modulates the carrier phase ±0.05 radians peak, corresponding to 5% L−R modulation when no other modulation is present. The injection level shall be 5%, with a tolerance of + 1, −1%.

(8) The composite signal shall be described by the following expression:

where:

A = the unmodulated carrier voltage

m = the modulation index

Csn = the magnitude of the nth term of the sum signal

Cdn = the magnitude of the nth term of the difference signal

ωsn = the nth order angular velocity of the sum signal

ωdn = the nth order angular velocity of the difference signal

ωc = the angular velocity of the carrier

Asn and Bsn are the nth sine and cosine coefficients of Csn

Adn and Bdn are the nth sine and cosine coefficients of Cdn

[58 FR 66301, Dec. 20, 1993]

§ 73.132 Territorial exclusivity.

No licensee of an AM broadcast station shall have any arrangement with a network organization which prevents or hinders another station serving substantially the same area from broadcasting the network's programs not taken by the former station, or which prevents or hinders another station serving a substantially different area from broadcasting any program of the network organization: Provided, however, That this section does not prohibit arrangements under which the station is granted first call within its primary service area upon the network's programs. The term “network organization” means any organization originating program material, with or without commercial messages, and furnishing the same to stations interconnected so as to permit simultaneous broadcast by all or some of them. However, arrangements involving only stations under common ownership, or only the rebroadcast by one station or programming from another with no compensation other than a lump-sum payment by the station rebroadcasting, are not considered arrangements with a network organization. The term “arrangement” means any contract, arrangement or understanding, expressed or implied.

[42 FR 16422, Mar. 28, 1977]

§ 73.150 Directional antenna systems.

(a) For each station employing a directional antenna, all determinations of service provided and interference caused shall be based on the inverse distance fields of the standard radiation pattern for that station. (As applied to nighttime operation the term “standard radiation pattern” shall include the radiation pattern in the horizontal plane, and radiation patterns at angles above this plane.)

(1) Parties submitting directional antenna patterns pursuant to this section and § 73.152 (Modified standard pattern) must submit patterns which are tabulated and plotted in units of millivolts per meter at 1 kilometer.

Note:

Applications for new stations and for changes (both minor and major) in existing stations must use a standard pattern.

(b) The following data shall be submitted with an application for authority to install a directional antenna:

(1) The standard radiation pattern for the proposed antenna in the horizontal plane, and where pertinent, tabulated values for the azimuthal radiation patterns for angles of elevation up to and including 60 degrees, with a separate section for each increment of 5 degrees.

(i) The standard radiation pattern shall be based on the theoretical radiation pattern. The theoretical radiation pattern shall be calculated in accordance with the following mathematical expression:

where:

E(φ,θ)th Represents the theoretical inverse distance fields at one kilometer for the given azimuth and elevation.

k Represents the multiplying constant which determines the basic pattern size. It shall be chosen so that the effective field (RMS) of the theoretical pattern in the horizontal plane shall be no greater than the value computed on the assumption that nominal station power (see § 73.14) is delivered to the directional array, and that a lumped loss resistance of one ohm exists at the current loop of each element of the array, or at the base of each element of electrical height lower than 0.25 wavelength, and no less than the value required by § 73.189(b)(2) of this part for a station of the class and nominal power for which the pattern is designed.

n Represents the number of elements (towers) in the directional array.

i Represents the ith element in the array.

Fi Represents the field ratio of the ith element in the array.

θ Represents the vertical elevation angle measured from the horizontal plane.

fi (θ) represents the vertical plane radiation characteristic of the ith antenna. This value depends on the tower height, as well as whether the tower is top-loaded or sectionalized. The various formulas for computing fi (θ) are given in § 73.160.

Si Represents the electrical spacing of the ith tower from the reference point.

φi Represents the orientation (with respect to true north) of the ith tower.

φ Represents the azimuth (with respect to true north).

ψi Represents the electrical phase angle of the current in the ith tower.

The standard radiation pattern shall be constructed in accordance with the following mathematical expression:

where:

E(φ,θ)std represents the inverse distance fields at one kilometer which are produced by the directional antenna in the horizontal and vertical planes. E(φ,θ)th represents the theoretical inverse distance fields at one kilometer as computed in accordance with Eq. 1, above.

Q is the greater of the following two quantities: 0.025g(θ) Erss or 10.0g(θ) √ PkW

where:

g(θ) is the vertical plane distribution factor, f(θ), for the shortest element in the array (see Eq. 2, above; also see § 73.190, Figure 5). If the shortest element has an electrical height in excess of 0.5 wavelength, g(θ) shall be computed as follows:

Erss is the root sum square of the amplitudes of the inverse fields of the elements of the array in the horizontal plane, as used in the expression for E(φ,θ)th (see Eq. 1, above), and is computed as follows:

PkW is the nominal station power expressed in kilowatts, see § 73.14. If the nominal power is less than one kilowatt, PkW = 1.

(ii) Where the orthogonal addition of the factor Q to E(φ,θ)th results in a standard pattern whose minimum fields are lower than those found necessary or desirable, these fields may be increased by appropriate adjustment of the parameters of E(φ,θ)th.

(2) All patterns shall be computed for integral multiples of five degrees, beginning with zero degrees representing true north, and, shall be plotted to the largest scale possible on unglazed letter-size paper (main engraving approximately 7′ × 10′) using only scale divisions and subdivisions of 1,2,2.5, or 5 times 10nth. The horizontal plane pattern shall be plotted on polar coordinate paper, with the zero degree point corresponding to true north. Patterns for elevation angles above the horizontal plane may be plotted in polar or rectangular coordinates, with the pattern for each angle of elevation on a separate page. Rectangular plots shall begin and end at true north, with all azimuths labelled in increments of not less than 20 degrees. If a rectangular plot is used, the ordinate showing the scale for radiation may be logarithmic. Such patterns for elevation angles above the horizontal plane need be submitted only upon specific request by Commission staff. Minor lobe and null detail occurring between successive patterns for specific angles of elevation need not be submitted. Values of field strength on any pattern less than ten percent of the maximum field strength plotted on that pattern shall be shown on an enlarged scale. Rectangular plots with a logarithmic ordinate need not utilize an expanded scale unless necessary to show clearly the minor lobe and null detail.

(3) The effective (RMS) field strength in the horizontal plane of E(φ,θ)std, E(φ,θ)th and the root-sum-square (RSS) value of the inverse distance fields of the array elements at 1 kilometer, derived from the equation for E(φ,θ)th. These values shall be tabulated on the page on which the horizontal plane pattern is plotted, which shall be specifically labelled as the Standard Horizontal Plane Pattern.

(4) Physical description of the array, showing:

(i) Number of elements.

(ii) Type of each element (i.e., guyed or self-supporting, uniform cross section or tapered (specifying base dimensions), grounded or insulated, etc.)

(iii) Details of top loading, or sectionalizing, if any.

(iv) Height of radiating portion of each element in feet (height above base insulator, or base, if grounded).

(v) Overall height of each element above ground.

(vi) Sketch of antenna site, indicating its dimensions, the location of the antenna elements, thereon, their spacing from each other, and their orientation with respect to each other and to true north, the number and length of the radials in the ground system about each element, the dimensions of ground screens, if any, and bonding between towers and between radial systems.

(5) Electrical description of the array, showing:

(i) Relative amplitudes of the fields of the array elements.

(ii) Relative time phasing of the fields of the array elements in degrees leading [ + ] or lagging [−].

(iii) Space phasing between elements in degrees.

(iv) Where waiver of the content of this section is requested or upon request of the Commission staff, all assumptions made and the basis therefor, particularly with respect to the electrical height of the elements, current distribution along elements, efficiency of each element, and ground conductivity.

(v) Where waiver of the content of this section is requested, or upon request of the Commission staff, those formulas used for computing E(φ,θ)th and E(φ,θ)std. Complete tabulation of final computed data used in plotting patterns, including data for the determination of the RMS value of the pattern, and the RSS field of the array.

(6) The values used in specifying the parameters which describe the array must be specified to no greater precision than can be achieved with available monitoring equipment. Use of greater precision raises a rebuttable presumption of instability of the array. Following are acceptable values of precision; greater precision may be used only upon showing that the monitoring equipment to be installed gives accurate readings with the specified precision.

(i) Field Ratio: 3 significant figures.

(ii) Phasing: to the nearest 0.1 degree.

(iii) Orientation (with respect to a common point in the array, or with respect to another tower): to the nearest 0.1 degree.

(iv) Spacing (with respect to a common point in the array, or with respect to another tower): to the nearest 0.1 degree.

(v) Electrical Height (for all parameters listed in Section 73.160): to the nearest 0.1 degree.

(vi) Theoretical RMS (to determine pattern size): 4 significant figures.

(vii) Additional requirements relating to modified standard patterns appear in § 73.152(c)(3) and (c)(4).

(7) Any additional information required by the application form.

(c) Sample calculations for the theoretical and standard radiation follow. Assume a five kilowatt (nominal power) station with a theoretical RMS of 685 mV/m at one kilometer. Assume that it is an in-line array consisting of three towers. Assume the following parameters for the towers:

Tower Field ratio Relative phasing Relative spacing Relative orientation
1 1.0 −128.5 0.0 0.0
2 1.89 0.0 110.0 285.0
3 1.0 128.5 220.0 285.0

Assume that tower 1 is a typical tower with an electrical height of 120 degrees. Assume that tower 2 is top-loaded in accordance with the method described in § 73.160(b)(2) where A is 120 electrical degrees and B is 20 electrical degrees. Assume that tower 3 is sectionalized in accordance with the method described in § 73.160(b)(3) where A is 120 electrical degrees, B is 20 electrical degrees, C is 220 electrical degrees, and D is 15 electrical degrees.

The multiplying constant will be 323.6.

Following is a tabulation of part of the theoretical pattern:

Azimuth 0 30 60 Vertical angle
0 15.98 62.49 68.20
105 1225.30 819.79 234.54
235 0.43 18.46 34.56
247 82.62 51.52 26.38

If we further assume that the station has a standard pattern, we find that Q, for θ = 0, is 22.36.

Following is a tabulation of part of the standard pattern:

Azimuth 0 30 60 Vertical angle
0 28.86 68.05 72.06
105 1286.78 860.97 246.41
235 23.48 26.50 37.18
247 89.87 57.03 28.87

The RMS of the standard pattern in the horizontal plane is 719.63 mV/m at one kilometer.

[36 FR 919, Jan. 20, 1971, as amended at 37 FR 529, Jan. 13, 1972; 41 FR 24134, June 15, 1976; 46 FR 11991, Feb. 12, 1981; 48 FR 24384, June 1, 1983; 51 FR 2707, Jan. 21, 1986; 52 FR 36877, Oct. 1, 1987; 56 FR 64861, Dec. 12, 1991; 57 FR 43290, Sept. 18, 1992]

§ 73.151 Field strength measurements to establish performance of directional antennas.

The performance of a directional antenna may be verified either by field strength measurement or by computer modeling and sampling system verification.

(a) In addition to the information required by the license application form, the following showing must be submitted to establish, for each mode of directional operation, that the effective measured field strength (RMS) at 1 kilometer (km) is not less than 85 percent of the effective measured field strength (RMS) specified for the standard radiation pattern, or less than that specified in § 73.189(b) for the class of station involved, whichever is the higher value, and that the measured field strength at 1 km in any direction does not exceed the field shown in that direction on the standard radiation pattern for that mode of directional operation:

(1) A tabulation of inverse field strengths in the horizontal plane at 1 km, as determined from field strength measurements taken and analyzed in accordance with § 73.186, and a statement of the effective measured field strength (RMS). Measurements shall be made in the following directions:

(i) Those specified in the instrument of authorization.

(ii) In major lobes. Generally, one radial is sufficient to establish a major lobe; however, additional radials may be required.

(iii) Along additional radials to establish the shape of the pattern. In the case of a relatively simple directional antenna pattern, a total of six radials is sufficient. If two radials would be more than 90° apart, then an additional radial must be specified within that arc. When more complicated patterns are involved, that is, patterns having several or sharp lobes or nulls, measurements shall be taken along as many as 12 radials to definitely establish the pattern(s). Pattern symmetry may be assumed for complex patterns which might otherwise require measurements on more than 12 radials.

(2) A tabulation of:

(i) The phase difference of the current in each element with respect to the reference element, and whether the current leads (+) or lags (−) the current in the reference element, as indicated by the station's antenna monitor.

(ii) The ratio of the amplitude of the radio frequency current in each element to the current in the reference element, as indicated on the station's antenna monitor.

(3) A monitoring point shall be established on each radial for which the construction permit specifies a limit. The following information shall be supplied for each monitoring point:

(i) Measured field strength.

(ii) An accurate and detailed description of each monitoring point. The description may include, but shall not be limited to, geographic coordinates determined with a Global Positioning System receiver.

(iii) Clear photographs taken with the field strength meter in its measuring position and with the camera so located that its field of view takes in as many pertinent landmarks as possible.

(b) For stations authorized to operate with simple directional antenna systems (e.g., two towers) in the 1605-1705 kHz band, the measurements to support pattern RMS compliance referred to in paragraphs (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section are not required. In such cases, measured radials are required only in the direction of short-spaced allotments, or in directions specifically identified by the Commission.

(c) Computer modeling and sample system verification of modeled parameters to establish operation of a directional antenna consistent with the theoretical pattern. Each element of the directional array shall be modeled by use of a method of moments computer program, using the physical characteristics of each element to establish a model that does not violate any of the internal constraints of the computer program. Only arrays consisting of series-fed elements may have their performance verified by computer modeling and sample system verification.

(1) A matrix of impedance measurements at the base and/or feed point of each element in the array, with all other elements shorted and/or open circuited at their respective measurement locations, shall be made. The physical model of the individual antenna elements used in the computer program may be varied to match the measured impedance matrix, but the actual spacings and orientations of the array elements must be used. Towers may be modeled using individual vertical wires to represent them, or with multiple wires representing their leg and cross-member sections. The resulting model description (consisting of the length, radius, and number of segments of each wire for arrays using vertical wire sections to represent the towers, or the length, end-point coordinates, and radius of each wire used to represent leg and cross-member sections for arrays using detailed tower structure representations) as well as the assumed input feed and base region stray reactances shall be used to generate the drive impedances and sample system parameter values for the operating directional antenna pattern parameters.

(i) For arrays using vertical wires to represent each tower, the radii of cylinders shall be no less than 80 percent and no more than 150 percent of the radius of a circle with a circumference equal to the sum of the widths of the tower sides.

(ii) For arrays using multiple wires to represent leg and cross-member sections, the individual legs of the tower may be modeled at their actual diameters with appropriate interconnecting segments representing cross-members at regular intervals.

(iii) No less than one segment for each 10 electrical degrees of the tower's physical height shall be used for each element in the array.

(iv) Base calculations shall be made for a reference point at ground level or within one electrical degree elevation of the actual feed point.

(v) For uniform cross-section towers represented by vertical wires, each wire used for a given tower shall be between 75 to 125 percent of the physical length represented.

(vi) For self-supporting towers, stepped-radius wire sections may be employed to simulate the physical tower's taper, or the tower may be modeled with individual wire sections representing the legs and cross members.

(vii) The lumped series inductance of the feed system between the output port of each antenna tuning unit and the associated tower shall be no greater than 10 µH unless a measured value from the measurement point to the tower base with its insulator short circuited is used.

(viii) The shunt capacitance used to model the base region effects shall be no greater than 250 pF unless the measured or manufacturer's stated capacitance for each device other than the base insulator is used. The total capacitance of such devices shall be limited such that in no case will their total capacitive reactance be less than five times the magnitude of the tower base operating impedance without their effects being considered. This “five times” requirement only applies when the total capacitance used to model base region effects exceeds 250 pF and when base current sampling is used.

(ix) The orientation and distances among the individual antenna towers in the array shall be confirmed by a post-construction certification by a land surveyor (or, where permitted by local regulation, by an engineer) licensed or registered in the state or territory where the antenna system is located. Stations submitting a moment method proof for a pattern using towers that are part of an authorized AM array are exempt from the requirement to submit a surveyor's certification, provided that the tower geometry of the array is not being modified and that no new towers are being added to the array.

(x) An AM station that verified the performance of its directional antenna system using computer modeling and sampling system verification under this rule section, that makes modifications to tower or system components above the base insulator, shall follow the procedures set forth in section 1.30003(b)(2) of this chapter.

(2)

(i) The computer model, once verified by comparison with the measured base impedance matrix data, shall be used to determine the appropriate antenna monitor parameters. The moment method modeled parameters shall be established by using the verified moment method model to produce tower current distributions that, when numerically integrated and normalized to the reference tower, are identical to the specified field parameters of the theoretical directional antenna pattern. The samples used to drive the antenna monitor may be current transformers or voltage sampling devices at the outputs of the antenna matching networks or sampling loops located on the towers. If sample loops are used, they shall be located at the elevation where the current in the tower would be at a minimum if the tower were detuned in the horizontal plane, as determined by the moment method model parameters used to determine the antenna monitor parameters. Sample loops may be employed only when the towers are identical in cross-sectional structure, including both leg and cross member characteristics; if the towers are of unequal height, the sample loops shall be mounted identically with respect to tower cross members at the appropriate elevations above the base insulator. If the tower height used in the model is other than the physical height of the tower, the sampling loop shall be located at a height that is the same fraction of the total tower height as the minimum in tower current with the tower detuned in the model. Sample lines from the sensing element to the antenna monitor must be equal in both length (within one electrical degree) and characteristic impedance (within two ohms), as established by impedance measurements, including at the open-circuit resonant frequency closest to carrier frequency to establish length, at frequencies corresponding to odd multiples of1/8 wavelength immediately above and below the open circuit resonant frequency closest to carrier frequency, while open circuited, to establish characteristic impedance, and at carrier frequency or, if necessary, at nearby frequencies where the magnitude of the measured impedance is no greater than 200 ohms with the sampling devices connected. Samples may be obtained from current transformers at the output of the antenna coupling and matching equipment for base-fed towers whose actual electrical height is 120 degrees or less, or greater than 190 electrical degrees. Samples may be obtained from base voltage sampling devices at the output of the antenna coupling and matching equipment for base-fed towers whose actual electrical height is greater than 105 degrees. Samples obtained from sample loops located as described above can be used for any height of tower. For towers using base current or base voltage sampling derived at the output of the antenna coupling and matching equipment, the sampling devices shall be disconnected and calibrated by measuring their outputs with a common reference signal (a current through them or a voltage across them, as appropriate) and the calibration must agree within the manufacturer's specifications. A complete description of the sampling system, including the results of the measurements described in this paragraph, shall be submitted with the application for license.

(ii) Proper adjustment of an antenna pattern shall be determined by correlation between the measured antenna monitor sample indications and the parameters calculated by the method of moments program, and by correlation between the measured matrix impedances for each tower and those calculated by the method of moments program. The antenna monitor sample indications must be initially adjusted to agree with the moment method model within ±5 percent for the field ratio and ±3 degrees in phase. The measured matrix impedances must agree with the moment method model within ±2 ohms and ±4 percent for resistance and reactance.

(3) When the application for an initial license for a directional antenna system is submitted that is based on computer modeling and sample system verification, reference field strength measurement locations shall be established in the directions of pattern minima and maxima. On each radial corresponding to a pattern minimum or maximum, there shall be at least three measurement locations. The field strength shall be measured at each reference location at the time of the proof of performance. The license application shall include the measured field strength values at each reference point, along with a description of each measurement location, including GPS coordinates and datum reference. New reference field strength measurements are not required for subsequent license applications for the same directional antenna pattern and physical facilities.

[36 FR 919, Jan. 20, 1971, as amended at 42 FR 36828, July 18, 1977; 49 FR 23348, June 6, 1984; 50 FR 32416, Aug. 12, 1985; 56 FR 64862, Dec. 12, 1991; 63 FR 33876, June 22, 1998; 66 FR 20756, Apr. 25, 2001; 73 FR 64561, Oct. 30, 2008; 82 FR 51165, Nov. 3, 2017]

§ 73.152 Modification of directional antenna data.

(a) If, after construction and final adjustment of a directional antenna, a measured inverse distance field in any direction exceeds the field shown on the standard radiation pattern for the pertinent mode of directional operation, an application shall be filed, specifying a modified standard radiation pattern and/or such changes as may be required in operating parameters so that all measured effective fields will be contained within the modified standard radiation pattern. Permittees may also file an application specifying a modified standard radiation pattern, even when measured radiation has not exceeded the standard pattern, in order to allow additional tolerance for monitoring point limits.

(b) If, following a partial proof of performance, a licensee discovers that radiation exceeds the standard pattern on one or more radials because of circumstances beyond the licensee's control, a modified standard pattern may be requested. The licensee shall submit, concurrently, Forms 301-AM and 302-AM. Form 301-AM shall include an exhibit demonstrating that no interference would result from the augmentation. Form 302-AM shall include the results of the partial proof, along with full directional and nondirectional measurements on the radial(s) to be augmented, including close-in points and a determination of the inverse distance field in accordance with § 73.186.

(c) Normally, a modified standard pattern is not acceptable at the initial construction permit stage, before a proof-of-performance has been completed. However, in certain cases, where it can be shown that modification is necessary, a modified standard pattern will be acceptable at the initial construction permit stage. Following is a non-inclusive list of items to be considered in determining whether a modification is acceptable at the initial construction permit stage:

(1) When the proposed pattern is essentially the same as an existing pattern at the same antenna site. (e.g., A DA-D station proposing to become a DA-1 station.)

(2) Excessive reradiating structures, which should be shown on a plat of the antenna site and surrounding area.

(3) Other environmental factors; they should be fully described.

(4) Judgment and experience of the engineer preparing the engineering portion of the application. This must be supported with a full discussion of the pertinent factors.

(d) The following general principles shall govern the situations in paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) in this section:

(1) Where a measured field in any direction will exceed the authorized standard pattern, the license application may specify the level at which the input power to the antenna shall be limited to maintain the measured field at a value not in excess of that shown on the standard pattern, and shall specify the common point current corresponding to this power level. This value of common point current will be specified on the license for that station.

(2) Where any excessive field does not result in objectionable interference to another station, a modification of construction permit application may be submitted with a modified standard pattern encompassing all augmented fields. The modified standard pattern shall supersede the previously submitted standard radiation pattern for that station in the pertinent mode of directional operation. Following are the possible methods of creating a modified standard pattern:

(i) The modified pattern may be computed by making the entire pattern larger than the original pattern (i.e., have a higher RMS value) if the measured fields systematically exceed the confines of the original pattern. The larger pattern shall be computed by using a larger multiplying constant, k, in the theoretical pattern equation (Eq. 1) in § 73.150(b)(1).

(ii) Where the measured field exceeds the pattern in discrete directions, but objectionable interference does not result, the pattern may be expanded over sectors including these directions. When this “augmentation” is desired, it shall be achieved by application of the following equation:

E(φ,θ)aug = √ { E(φ,θ)std }2 + A{g(θ) cos (180 DA/S }2

where:

E(φ,θ)std is the standard pattern field at some particular azimuth and elevation angle, before augmentation, computed pursuant to Eq. 2, § 73.150(b)(1)(i).

E(φ,θ)aug. is the field in the direction specified above, after augmentation.

A = E(φ, O)2aug−E(φ, O)2std in whichφ is the central azimuth of augmentation. E(φ, O)aug and E(φ, O)std are the fields in the horizontal plane at the central azimuth of augmentation.

Note:

“A” must be positive, except during the process of converting non-standard patterns to standard patterns pursuant to the Report and Order in Docket No. 21473, and in making minor changes to stations with patterns developed during the conversion. However, even when “A” is negative, “A” cannot be so negative that E(φ,α)aug is less than E(φ,θ)th at any azimuth or vertical elevation angle.

g(θ) is defined in § 73.150(b)(1)(i).

S is the angular range, or “span”, over which augmentation is applied. The span is centered on the central azimuth of augmentation. At the limits of the span, the augmented pattern merges into the unaugmented pattern. Spans may overlap.

DA is the absolute horizontal angle between the azimuth at which the augmented pattern value is being computed and the central azimuth of augmentation. (DA cannot exceed 1/2 S.)

In the case where there are spans which overlap, the above formula shall be applied repeatedly, once for each augmentation, in ascending order of central azimuth of augmentation, beginning with zero degrees representing true North. Note that, when spans overlap, there will be, in effect, an augmentation of an augmentation. And, if the span of an earlier augmentation overlaps the central azimuth of a later augmentation, the value of “A” for the later augmentation will be different than the value of “A” without the overlap of the earlier span.

(iii) A combination of paragraphs (d)(2)(i) and (d)(2)(ii), of this section, with (d)(2)(i) being applied before (d)(2)(ii) is applied.

(iv) Where augmentation is allowable under the terms of this section, the requested amount of augmentation shall be centered upon the measured radial and shall not exceed the following:

(A) The actual measured inverse distance field value, where the radial does not involve a required monitoring point.

(B) 120% of the actual measured inverse field value, where the radial has a monitoring point required by the instrument of authorization.

Whereas some pattern smoothing can be accommodated, the extent of the requested span(s) shall be minimized and in no case shall a requested augmentation span extend to a radial azimuth for which the analyzed measurement data does not show a need for augmentation.

(3) A Modified Standard Pattern shall be specifically labeled as such, and shall be plotted in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (b)(2) of § 73.150. The effective (RMS) field strength in the horizontal plane of E(φ,α)std, E(φ,α)th, and the root sum square (RSS) value of the inverse fields of the array elements (derived from the equation for E(φ,α)th), shall be tabulated on the page on which the horizontal plane pattern is plotted. Where sector augmentation has been employed in designing the modified pattern, the direction of maximum augmentation (i.e., the central azimuth of augmentation) shall be indicated on the horizontal plane pattern for each augmented sector, and the limits of each sector shall also be shown. Field values within an augmented sector, computed prior to augmentation, shall be depicted by a broken line.

(4) There shall be submitted, for each modified standard pattern, complete tabulations of final computed data used in plotting the pattern. In addition, for each augmented sector, the central azimuth of augmentation, span, and radiation at the central azimuth of augmentation (E(φ,α)aug) shall be tabulated.

(5) The parameters used in computing the modified standard pattern shall be specified with realistic precision. Following is a list of the maximum acceptable precision:

(i) Central Azimuth of Augmentation: to the nearest 0.1 degree.

(ii) Span: to the nearest 0.1 degree.

(iii) Radiation at Central Azimuth of Augmentation: 4 significant figures.

(e) Sample calculations for a modified standard pattern follow. First, assume the existing standard pattern in § 73.150(c). Then, assume the following augmentation parameters:

Augmentation number Central azimuth Span Radiation at central azimuth
1 110 40 1,300
2 240 50 52
3 250 10 130

Following is a tabulation of part of the modified standard pattern:

Azimuth 0 30 60 Vertical angle
0 28.86 68.05 72.06
105 1,299.42 872.14 254.21
235 39.00 35.74 38.71
247 100.47 66.69 32.78

[46 FR 11992, Feb. 12, 1981, as amended at 56 FR 64862, Dec. 12, 1991; 66 FR 20756, Apr. 25, 2001]

§ 73.153 Field strength measurements in support of applications or evidence at hearings.

In the determination of interference, groundwave field strength measurements will take precedence over theoretical values, provided such measurements are properly taken and presented. When measurements of groundwave signal strength are presented, they shall be sufficiently complete in accordance with § 73.186 to determine the field strength at 1 mile in the pertinent directions for that station. The antenna resistance measurements required by § 73.186 need not be taken or submitted.

[44 FR 36037, June 20, 1979, as amended at 56 FR 64862, Dec. 12, 1991]

§ 73.154 AM directional antenna partial proof of performance measurements.

(a) A partial proof of performance consists of at least 8 field strength measurements made on each of the radials that includes a monitoring point.

(b) The measurements are to be made within 3 to 15 kilometers from the center of the antenna array. When a monitoring point as designated on the station authorization lies on a particular radial, one of the measurements must be made at that point. One of the following methods shall be used for the partial proof:

(1) Measurement points shall be selected from the points measured in latest full proof of performance provided that the points can be identified with reasonable certainty, and that land development or other factors have not significantly altered propagation characteristics since the last full proof. At each point, the licensee shall measure directional field strength for comparison to either the directional or the nondirectional field strength measured at that point in the last full proof.

(2) In the event that a meaningful comparison to full proof measurements cannot be made, the licensee shall measure both directional and nondirectional field strength at eight points on each radial. The points need not be limited to those measured in the last full proof of performance.

(c) The results of the measurements are to be analyzed as follows. Either the arithmetic average or the logarithmic average of the ratios of the field strength at each measurement point to the corresponding field strength in the most recent complete proof of performance shall be used to establish the inverse distance fields. (The logarithmic average for each radial is the antilogarithm of the mean of the logarithms of the ratios of field strength (new to old) for each measurement location along a given radial). When new nondirectional measurements are used as the reference, as described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, either the arithmetic or logarithmic averages of directional to nondirectional field strength on each radial shall be used in conjunction with the measured nondirectional field from the last proof to establish the inverse distance field.

(d) The result of the most recent partial proof of performance measurements and analysis is to be retained in the station records available to the FCC upon request. Maps showing new measurement points, i.e., points not measured in the last full proof, shall be associated with the partial proof in the station's records, and shall be provided to the FCC upon request.

[66 FR 20756, Apr. 25, 2001, as amended at 82 FR 51165, Nov. 3, 2017]

§ 73.155 Directional antenna performance recertification.

A station licensed with a directional antenna pattern pursuant to a proof of performance using moment method modeling and internal array parameters as described in § 73.151(c) shall recertify the performance of the antenna monitor sampling system only in the case of repair to or replacement of affected system components, and then only as to the repaired or replaced system components. Any recertification of repaired or replaced system components shall be performed in the same manner as an original certification of the affected system components under § 73.151(c)(2)(i) of this part. The results of the recertification measurements shall be retained in the station's public inspection file.

[82 FR 51162, Nov. 3, 2017]

§ 73.157 Antenna testing during daytime.

(a) The licensee of a station using a directional antenna during daytime or nighttime hours may, without further authority, operate during daytime hours with the licensed nighttime directional facilities or with a nondirectional antenna when conducting monitoring point field strength measurements or antenna proof of performance measurements.

(b) Operation pursuant to this section is subject to the following conditions:

(1) No harmful interference will be caused to any other station.

(2) The FCC may notify the licensee to modify or cease such operation to resolve interference complaints or when such action may appear to be in the public interest, convenience and necessity.

(3) Such operation shall be undertaken only for the purpose of taking monitoring point field strength measurements or antenna proof of performance measurements, and shall be restricted to the minimum time required to accomplish the measurements.

(4) Operating power in the nondirectional mode shall be adjusted to the same power as was utilized for the most recent nondirectional proof of performance covering the licensed facilities.

[50 FR 30947, July 31, 1985]

§ 73.158 Directional antenna monitoring points.

(a) When a licensee of a station using a directional antenna system finds that a field monitoring point, as specified on the station authorization, is no longer accessible or is unsuitable because of nearby construction or other disturbances to the measured field, an application to change the monitoring point location, including FCC Form 302-AM, is to be promptly submitted to the FCC in Washington, DC.

(1) If the monitoring point has become inaccessible or otherwise unsuitable, but there has been no significant construction or other change in the vicinity of the monitoring point which may affect field strength readings, the licensee shall select a new monitoring point from the points measured in the last full proof of performance. A recent field strength measurement at the new monitoring point shall also be provided.

(2) Alternatively, if changes in the electromagnetic environment have affected field strength readings at the monitoring point, the licensee shall submit the results of a partial proof of performance, analyzed in accordance with § 73.154, on the affected radial.

(3) The licensee shall submit an accurate, written description of the new monitoring point in relation to nearby permanent landmarks.

(4) The licensee shall submit a photograph showing the new monitoring point in relation to nearby permanent landmarks that can be used in locating the point accurately at all times throughout the year. Do not use seasonal or temporary features in either the written descriptions or photographs as landmarks for locating field points.

(b) When the description of the monitoring point as shown on the station license is no longer correct due to road or building construction or other changes, the licensee must prepare and file with the FCC, in Washington, DC, a request for a corrected station license showing the new monitoring point description. The request shall include the information specified in paragraphs (a)(3) and (4) of this section, and a copy of the station's current license.

[66 FR 20757, Apr. 25, 2001, as amended at 84 FR 2758, Feb. 8, 2019]

§ 73.160 Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(θ).

(a) The vertical plane radiation characteristics show the relative field being radiated at a given vertical angle, with respect to the horizontal plane. The vertical angle, represented as θ, is 0 degrees in the horizontal plane, and 90 degrees when perpendicular to the horizontal plane. The vertical plane radiation characteristic is referred to as f(θ). The generic formula for f(θ) is:

f(θ) = E(θ)/E(O)

where:

E(θ) is the radiation from the tower at angle θ.

E(O) is the radiation from the tower in the horizontal plane.

(b) Listed below are formulas for f(θ) for several common towers.

(1) For a typical tower, which is not top-loaded or sectionalized, the following formula shall be used:

where:

G is the electrical height of the tower, not including the base insulator and pier. (In the case of a folded unipole tower, the entire radiating structure's electrical height is used.)

(2) For a top-loaded tower, the following formula shall be used:

where:

A is the physical height of the tower, in electrical degrees, and

B is the difference, in electrical degrees, between the apparent electrical height (G, based on current distribution) and the actual physical height.

G is the apparent electrical height: the sum of A and B; A + B.

See Figure 1 of this section.

(3) For a sectionalized tower, the following formula shall be used:

where:

A is the physical height, in electrical degrees, of the lower section of the tower.

B is the difference between the apparent electrical height (based on current distribution) of the lower section of the tower and the physical height of the lower section of the tower.

C is the physical height of the entire tower, in electrical degrees.

D is the difference between the apparent electrical height of the tower (based on current distribution of the upper section) and the physical height of the entire tower. D will be zero if the sectionalized tower is not top-loaded.

G is the sum of A and B; A + B.

H is the sum of C and D; C + D.

Δ is the difference between H and A; H−A.

See Figure 2 of this section.

(c) One of the above f(θ) formulas must be used in computing radiation in the vertical plane, unless the applicant submits a special formula for a particular type of antenna. If a special formula is submitted, it must be accompanied by a complete derivation and sample calculations. Submission of values for f(θ) only in a tabular or graphical format (i.e., without a formula) is not acceptable.

(d) Following are sample calculations. (The number of significant figures shown here should not be interpreted as a limitation on the number of significant figures used in actual calculations.)

(1) For a typical tower, as described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, assume that G = 120 electrical degrees:

θ f(θ)
0 1.0000
30 0.7698
60 0.3458

(2) For a top-loaded tower, as described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, assume A = 120 electrical degrees, B = 20 electrical degrees, and G = 140 electrical degrees, (120 + 20):

θ f(θ)
0 1.0000
30 0.7364
60 0.2960

(3) For a sectionalized tower, as described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, assume A = 120 electrical degrees, B = 20 electrical degrees, C = 220 electrical degrees, D = 15 electrical degrees, G = 140 electrical degrees (120 + 20), H = 235 electrical degrees (220 + 15), and Δ = 115 electrical degrees (235−120):

θ f(θ)
0 1.0000
30 0.5930
60 0.1423

[46 FR 11993, Feb. 12, 1981]

§ 73.182 Engineering standards of allocation.

(a) Sections 73.21 to 73.37, inclusive, govern allocation of facilities in the AM broadcast band 535-1705 kHz. § 73.21 establishes three classes of channels in this band, namely, clear, regional and local. The classes and power of AM broadcast stations which will be assigned to the various channels are set forth in § 73.21. The classifications of the AM broadcast stations are as follows:

(1) Class A stations operate on clear channels with powers no less than 10kW nor greater than 50 kW. These stations are designed to render primary and secondary service over an extended area, with their primary services areas protected from objectionable interference from other stations on the same and adjacent channels. Their secondary service areas are protected from objectionable interference from co-channel stations. For purposes of protection, Class A stations may be divided into two groups, those located in any of the contiguous 48 States and those located in Alaska in accordance with § 73.25.

(i) The mainland U.S. Class A stations are those assigned to the channels allocated by § 73.25. The power of these stations shall be 50 kW. The Class A stations in this group are afforded protection as follows:

(A) Daytime. To the 0.1 mV/m groundwave contour from stations on the same channel, and to the 0.5 mV/m groundwave contour from stations on adjacent channels.

(B) Nighttime. To the 0.5 mV/m-50% skywave contour from stations on the same channels.

(ii) Class A stations in Alaska operate on the channels allocated by § 73.25 with a minimum power of 10 kW, a maximum power of 50 kW and an antenna efficiency of 215 mV/m/kW at 1 kilometer. Stations operating on these channels in Alaska which have not been designated as Class A stations in response to licensee request will continue to be considered as Class B stations. During daytime hours a Class A station in Alaska is protected to the 100 µV/m groundwave contour from co-channel stations. During nighttime hours, a Class A station in Alaska is protected to the 100 µV/m-50 percent skywave contour from co-channel stations. The 0.5 mV/m groundwave contour is protected both daytime and nighttime from stations on adjacent channels.

Note:

In the Report and Order in MM Docket No. 83-807, the Commission designated 15 stations operating on U.S. clear channels as Alaskan Class A stations. Eleven of these stations already have Alaskan Class A facilities and are to be protected accordingly. Permanent designation of the other four stations as Alaskan Class A is conditioned on their constructing minimum Alaskan Class A facilities no later than December 31, 1989. Until that date or until such facilities are obtained, these four stations shall be temporarily designated as Alaskan Class A stations, and calculations involving these stations should be based on existing facilities but with an assumed power of 10 kW. Thereafter, these stations are to be protected based on their actual Alaskan Class A facilities. If any of these stations does not obtain Alaskan Class A facilities in the period specified, it is to be protected as a Class B station based on its actual facilities. These four stations may increase power to 10 kW without regard to the impact on co-channel Class B stations. However, power increases by these stations above 10 kW (or by existing Alaskan Class A stations beyond their current power level) are subject to applicable protection requirements for co-channel Class B stations. Other stations not on the original list but which meet applicable requirements may obtain Alaskan Class A status by seeking such designation from the Commission. If a power increase or other change in facilities by a station not on the original list is required to obtain minimum Alaskan Class A facilities, any such application shall meet the interference protection requirements applicable to an Alaskan Class A proposal on the channel.

(2) Class B stations are stations which operate on clear and regional channels with powers not less than 0.25 kW nor more than 50 kW. These stations render primary service only, the area of which depends on their geographical location, power, and frequency. It is recommended that Class B stations be located so that the interference received from other stations will not limit the service area to a groundwave contour value greater than 2.0 mV/m nighttime and to the 0.5 mV/m groundwave contour daytime, which are the values for the mutual protection between this class of stations and other stations of the same class.

Note:

See §§ 73.21(b)(1) and 73.26(b) concerning power restrictions and classifications relative to Class B, Class C, and Class D stations in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Stations in the above-named places that are reclassified from Class C to Class B stations under § 73.26(b) shall not be authorized to increase power to levels that would increase the nighttime interference-free limit of co-channel Class C stations in the conterminous United States.

(3) Class C stations operate on local channels, normally rendering primary service to a community and the suburban or rural areas immediately contiguous thereto, with powers not less than 0.25 kW, nor more than 1 kW, except as provided in § 73.21(c)(1). Such stations are normally protected to the daytime 0.5 mV/m contour. On local channels the separation required for the daytime protection shall also determine the nighttime separation. Where directional antennas are employed daytime by Class C stations operating with more than 0.25 kW power, the separations required shall in no case be less than those necessary to afford protection, assuming nondirectional operation with 0.25 kW. In no case will 0.25 kW or greater nighttime power be authorized to a station unable to operate nondirectionally with a power of 0.25 kW during daytime hours. The actual nighttime limitation will be calculated. For nighttime protection purposes, Class C stations in the 48 contiguous United States may assume that stations in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands operating on 1230, 1240, 1340, 1400, 1450, and 1490 kHz are Class C stations.

(4) Class D stations operate on clear and regional channels with daytime powers of not less than 0.25 kW (or equivalent RMS field of 107.5 mV/m at 1 kilometer if less than 0.25 kW) and not more than 50 kW. Class D stations that have previously received nighttime authority to operate with powers of less 0.25 kW (or equivalent RMS fields of less than 107.5 mV/m at 1 kilometer) are not required to provide nighttime coverage in accordance with § 73.24(i) and are not protected from interference during nighttime hours. Such nighttime authority is permitted on the basis of full nighttime protection being afforded to all Class A and Class B stations.

(b) When a station is already limited by interference from other stations to a contour value greater than that normally protected for its class, the individual received limits shall be the established standard for such station with respect to interference from each other station.

(c) The four classes of AM broadcast stations have in general three types of service areas, i.e., primary, secondary and intermittent. (See § 73.14 for the definitions of primary, secondary, and intermittent service areas.) Class A stations render service to all three areas. Class B stations render service to a primary area but the secondary and intermittent service areas may be materially limited or destroyed due to interference from other stations, depending on the station assignments involved. Class C and Class D stations usually have only primary service areas. Interference from other stations may limit intermittent service areas and generally prevents any secondary service to those stations which operate at night. Complete intermittent service may still be obtained in many cases depending on the station assignments involved.

(d) The groundwave signal strength required to render primary service is 2 mV/m for communities with populations of 2,500 or more and 0.5 mV/m for communities with populations of less than 2,500. See § 73.184 for curves showing distance to various groundwave field strength contours for different frequencies and ground conductivities, and also see § 73.183, “Groundwave signals.”

(e) A Class C station may be authorized to operate with a directional antenna during daytime hours providing the power is at least 0.25 kW. In computing the degrees of protection which such antenna will afford, the radiation produced by the directional antenna system will be assumed to be no less, in any direction, than that which would result from non-directional operation using a single element of the directional array, with 0.25 kW.

(f) All classes of broadcast stations have primary service areas subject to limitation by fading and noise, and interference from other stations to the contours set out for each class of station.

(g) Secondary service is provided during nighttime hours in areas where the skywave field strength, 50% or more of the time, is 0.5 mV/m or greater (0.1 mV/m in Alaska). Satisfactory secondary service to cities is not considered possible unless the field strength of the skywave signal approaches or exceeds the value of the groundwave field strength that is required for primary service. Secondary service is subject to some interference and extensive fading whereas the primary service area of a station is subject to no objectionable interference or fading. Only Class A stations are assigned on the basis of rendering secondary service.

Note:

Standards have not been established for objectionable fading because of the relationship to receiver characteristics. Selective fading causes audio distortion and signal strength reduction below the noise level, objectionable characteristics inherent in many modern receivers. The AVC circuits in the better designed receivers generally maintain the audio output at a sufficiently constant level to permit satisfactory reception during most fading conditions.

(h) Intermittent service is rendered by the groundwave and begins at the outer boundary of the primary service area and extends to a distance where the signal strength decreases to a value that is too low to provide any service. This may be as low as a few µV/m in certain areas and as high as several millivolts per meter in other areas of high noise level, interference from other stations, or objectionable fading at night. The intermittent service area may vary widely from day to night and generally varies over shorter intervals of time. Only Class A stations are protected from interference from other stations to the intermittent service area.

(i) Broadcast stations are licensed to operate unlimited time, limited time, daytime, share time, and specified hours. (See §§ 73.1710, 73.1725, 73.1720, 73.1715, and 73.1730.) Applications for new stations shall specify unlimited time operation only.

(j) Section 73.24 sets out the general requirements for modifying the facilities of a licensed station and for establishing a new station. Sections 73.24(b) and 73.37 include interference related provisions that be considered in connection with an application to modify the facilities of an existing station or to establish a new station. Section 73.30 describes the procedural steps required to receive an authorization to operate in the 1605-1705 kHz band.

(k) Objectionable nighttime interference from a broadcast station occurs when, at a specified field strength contour with respect to the desired station, the field strength of an undesired station (co-channel or first adjacent channel, after application of proper protection ratio) exceeds for 10% or more of the time the values set forth in these standards. The value derived from the root-sum-square of all interference contributions represents the extent of a station's interference-free coverage.

(1) With respect to the root-sum-square (RSS) values of interfering field strengths referred to in this section, calculation of nighttime interference-free service is accomplished by considering the signals on the three channels of concern (co- and first adjacencies) in order of decreasing magnitude, adding the squares of the values and extracting the square root of the sum, excluding those signals which are less than 50% of the RSS values of the higher signals already included.

(2) With respect to the root-sum-square values of interfering field strengths referred to in this section, calculation of nighttime interference for non-coverage purposes is accomplished by considering the signals on the three channels of concern (co- and first adjacencies) in order of decreasing magnitude, adding the squares of the values and extracting the square root of the sum, excluding those signals which are less than 25% of the RSS values of the higher signals already included.

(3) With respect to the root-sum-square values of interfering field strengths referred to in this section, calculation is accomplished by considering the signals on the three channels of concern (co- and first adjacencies) in order of decreasing magnitude, adding the squares of the values and extracting the square root of the sum. The 0% exclusion method applies only to the determination of an improvement factor value for evaluating a station's eligibility for migration to the band 1605-1705 kHz.

(4) The RSS value will not be considered to be increased when a new interfering signal is added which is less than the appropriate exclusion percentage as applied to the RSS value of the interference from existing stations, and which at the same time is not greater than the smallest signal included in the RSS value of interference from existing stations.

(5) It is recognized that application of the above “50% exclusion” method (or any exclusion method using a per cent value greater than zero) of calculating the RSS interference may result in some cases in anomalies wherein the addition of a new interfering signal or the increase in value of an existing interfering signal will cause the exclusion of a previously included signal and may cause a decrease in the calculated RSS value of interference. In order to provide the Commission with more realistic information regarding gains and losses in service (as a basis for determination of the relative merits of a proposed operation) the following alternate method for calculating the proposed RSS values of interference will be employed wherever applicable.

(6) In the cases where it is proposed to add a new interfering signal which is not less than 50% (or 25%, depending on which study is being performed) of the RSS value of interference from existing stations or which is greater that the smallest signal already included to obtain this RSS value, the RSS limitation after addition of the new signal shall be calculated without excluding any signal previously included. Similarly, in cases where it is proposed to increase the value of one of the existing interfering signals which has been included in the RSS value, the RSS limitation after the increase shall be calculated without excluding the interference from any source previously included.

(7) If the new or increased signal proposed in such cases is ultimately authorized, the RSS values of interference to other stations affected will thereafter be calculated by the “50% exclusion” (or 25% exclusion, depending on which study is being performed) method without regard to this alternate method of calculation.

(8) Examples of RSS interference calculations:

(i) Existing interferences:

Station No. 1 - 1.00 mV/m.

Station No. 2 - 0.60 mV/m.

Station No. 3 - 0.59 mV/m.

Station No. 4 - 0.58 mV/m.

The RSS value from Nos. 1, 2 and 3 is 1.31 mV/m; therefore interference from No. 4 is excluded for it is less than 50% of 1.31 mV/m.

(ii) Station A receives interferences from:

Station No. 1 - 1.00 mV/m.

Station No. 2 - 0.60 mV/m.

Station No. 3 - 0.59 mV/m.

It is proposed to add a new limitation, 0.68 mV/m. This is more than 50% of 1.31 mV/m, the RSS value from Nos. 1, 2 and 3. The RSS value of Station No. 1 and of the proposed station would be 1.21 m/Vm which is more than twice as large as the limitation from Station No. 2 or No. 3. However, under the above provision the new signal and the three existing interferences are nevertheless calculated for purposes of comparative studies, resulting in an RSS value of 1.47 mV/m. However, if the proposed station is ultimately authorized, only No. 1 and the new signal are included in all subsequent calculations for the reason that Nos. 2 and 3 are less than 50% of 1.21 mV/m, the RSS value of the new signal and No. 1.

(iii) Station A receives interferences from:

Station No. 1 - 1.00 mV/m.

Station No. 2 - 0.60 mV/m.

Station No. 3 - 0.59 mV/m.

No. 1 proposes to increase the limitation it imposes on Station A to 1.21 mV/m. Although the limitations from stations Nos. 2 and 3 are less than 50% of the 1.21 mV/m limitation, under the above provision they are nevertheless included for comparative studies, and the RSS limitation is calculated to be 1.47 mV/m. However, if the increase proposed by Station No. 1 is authorized, the RSS value then calculated is 1.21 mV/m because Stations Nos. 2 and 3 are excluded in view of the fact that the limitations they impose are less than 50% of 1.21 mV/m.

Note:

The principles demonstrated in the previous examples for the calculation of the 50% exclusion method also apply to calculations using the 25% exclusion method after appropriate adjustment.

(l) Objectionable nighttime interference from a station shall be considered to exist to a station when, at the field strength contour specified in paragraph (q) of this section with respect to the class to which the station belongs, the field strength of an interfering station operating on the same channel or on a first adjacent channel after signal adjustment using the proper protection ratio, exceeds for 10% or more of the time the value of the permissible interfering signal set forth opposite such class in paragraph (q) of this section.

(m) For the purpose of estimating the coverage and the interfering effects of stations in the absence of field strength measurements, use shall be made of Figure 8 of § 73.190, which describes the estimated effective field (for 1 kW power input) of simple vertical omnidirectional antennas of various heights with ground systems having at least 120 quarter-wavelength radials. Certain approximations, based on the curve or other appropriate theory, may be made when other than such antennas and ground systems are employed, but in any event the effective field to be employed shall not be less than the following:

Class of station Effective
field
(at 1 km)
All Class A (except Alaskan) 275 mV/m.
Class A (Alaskan), B and D 215 mV/m.
Class C 180 mV/m.

(n) The existence or absence of objectionable groundwave interference from stations on the same or adjacent channels shall be determined by actual measurements made in accordance with the method described in § 73.186, or in the absence of such measurements, by reference to the propagation curves of § 73.184. The existence or absence of objectionable interference due to skywave propagation shall be determined by reference to Formula 2 in § 73.190.

(o) Computation of skywave field strength values: -

(1) Fifty percent skywave field strength values (clear channel). In computing the fifty percent skywave field strength values of a Class A clear channel station, use shall be made of Formula 1 of § 73.190, entitled “Skywave Field Strength” for 50 percent of the time.

(2) Ten percent skywave field strength values. In computing the 10% skywave field strength for stations on a single signal or an RSS basis, Formula 2 in § 73.190 shall be used.

(3) Determination of angles of departure. In calculating skywave field strength for stations on all channels, the pertinent vertical angle shall be determined by use of the formula in § 73.190(d).

(p) The distance to any specified groundwave field strength contour for any frequency may be determined from the appropriate curves in § 73.184 entitled “Ground Wave Field Strength vs. Distance.”

(q) Normally protected service contours and permissible interference signals for broadcast stations are as follows (for Class A stations, see also paragraph (a) of this section):

Class of station Class of channel used Signal strength contour of area protected from
objectionable interference[remove footnote reference]
(µV/m)
Permissible interfering signal
(µV/m)
Day1 Night Day1 Night2
A Clear SC 100 SC 500 50% SW SC 5 SC 25.
AC 500 AC 500 GW AC 250 AC 250.
A (Alaskan) ......do SC 100 SC 100 50% SW SC 5 SC 5.
AC 500 AC 500 GW AC 250 AC 250.
B Clear 500 20001 25 25.
Regional AC 250 250.
C Local 500 No presc.3 SC 25 Not presc.
D Clear 500 Not presc. SC 25 Not presc.
Regional AC 250
Note:

SC = Same channel; AC = Adjacent channel; SW = Skywave; GW = Groundwave

(r) The following table of logarithmic expressions is to be used as required for determining the minimum permissible ratio of the field strength of a desired to an undesired signal. This table shall be used in conjunction with the protected contours specified in paragraph (q) of this section.

Frequency separation of desired to undesired signals (kHz) Desired Groundwave to: Desired 50% Skywave to Undesired 10% Skywave (dB)
Undesired groundwave (dB) Undesired 10% Skywave (dB)
0 26 26 26
10 6 6 not presc.

(s) Two stations, one with a frequency twice of the other, should not be assigned in the same groundwave service area unless special precautions are taken to avoid interference from the second harmonic of the station operating on the lower frequency. Additionally, in selecting a frequency, consideration should be given to the fact that occasionally the frequency assignment of two stations in the same area may bear such a relation to the intermediate frequency of some broadcast receivers as to cause “image” interference, However, since this can usually be rectified by readjustment of the intermediate frequency of such receivers, the Commission, in general, will not take this kind of interference into consideration when authorizing stations.

(t) The groundwave service of two stations operating with synchronized carriers and broadcasting identical programs will be subject to some distortion in areas where the signals from the two stations are of comparable strength. For the purpose of estimating coverage of such stations, areas in which the signal ratio is between 1:2 and 2:1 will not be considered as receiving satisfactory service.

Note:

Two stations are considered to be operated synchronously when the carriers are maintained within 0.2 Hz of each other and they transmit identical program s.

[56 FR 64862, Dec. 12, 1991; 57 FR 43290, Sept. 18, 1992, as amended at 58 FR 27950, May 12, 1993; 81 FR 2759, Jan. 19, 2016]

§ 73.183 Groundwave signals.

(a) Interference that may be caused by a proposed assignment or an existing assignment during daytime hours should be determined, when possible, by measurements on the frequency involved or on another frequency over the same terrain and by means for the curves in § 73.184 entitled “Ground Wave Field Strength versus Distance.”

Note:

Groundwave field strength measurements will not be accepted or considered for the purpose of establishing that interference to a station in a foreign country other than Canada, or that the field strength at the border thereof, would be less than indicated by the use of the ground conductivity maps and engineering standards contained in this part and applicable international agreements. Satisfactory groundwave measurements offered for the purpose of demonstrating values of conductivity other than those shown by Figure M3 in problems involving protection of Canadian stations will be considered only if, after review thereof, the appropriate agency of the Canadian government notifies the Commission that they are acceptable for such purpose.

(b)

(1) In all cases where measurements taken in accordance with the requirements are not available, the groundwave strength must be determined by means of the pertinent map of ground conductivity and the groundwave curves of field strength versus distance. The conductivity of a given terrain may be determined by measurements of any broadcast signal traversing the terrain involved. Figure M3 (See Note 1) shows the conductivity throughout the United States by general areas of reasonably uniform conductivity. When it is clear that only one conductivity value is involved, Figure R3 of § 73.190, may be used. It is a replica of Figure M3, and is contained in these standards. In all other situations Figure M3 must be employed. It is recognized that in areas of limited size or over a particular path, the conductivity may vary widely from the values given; therefore, these maps are to be used only when accurate and acceptable measurements have not been made.

(2) For determinations of interference and service requiring a knowledge of ground conductivities in other countries, the ground conductivity maps comprising Appendix 1 to Annex 2 of each of the following international agreements may be used:

(i) For Canada, the U.S.-Canada AM Agreement, 1984;

(ii) For Mexico, the U.S.-Mexico AM Agreement, 1986; and

(iii) For other Western Hemisphere countries, the Regional Agreement for the Medium Frequency Broadcasting Service in Region 2.

Where different conductivities appear in the maps of two countries on opposite sides of the border, such differences are to be considered as real, even if they are not explained by geophysical cleavages.

(c) Example of determining interference by the graphs in § 73.184:

It is desired to determine whether objectionable interference exists between a proposed 5 kW Class B station on 990 kHz and an existing 1 kW Class B station on first adjacent channel, 1000 kHz. The distance between the two stations is 260 kilometers and both stations operate nondirectionally with antenna systems that produce a horizontal effective field of 282 in mV/m at one kilometer. (See § 73.185 regarding use of directional antennas.) The ground conductivity at the site of each station and along the intervening terrain is 6 mS/m. The protection to Class B stations during daytime is to the 500 µV/m (0.5 Vm) contour using a 6 dB protection factor. The distance to the 500 µV/m groundwave contour of the 1 kW station is determined by the use of the appropriate curve in § 73.184. Since the curve is plotted for 100 mV/m at a 1 kilometer, to find the distance of the 0.5 mV/m contour of the 1 kw station, it is necessary to determine the distance to the 0.1773 m/Vm contour.

(100 × 0.5 / 282 = 0.1773)

Using the 6 mS/m curve, the estimated radius of the 0.5 mV/m contour is 62.5 kilometers. Subtracting this distance from the distance between the two stations leaves 197.5 kilometers. Using the same propagation curve, the signal from the 5 kW station at this distance is seen to be 0.059 mV/m. Since a protection ratio of 6 dB, desired to undesired signal, applies to stations separated by 10 kHz, the undesired signal could have had a value of up to 0.25 mV/m without causing objectionable interference. For co-channel studies, a desired to undesired signal ratio of no less than 20:1 (26 dB) is required to avoid causing objectionable interference.

(d) Where a signal traverses a path over which different conductivities exist, the distance to a particular groundwave field strength contour shall be determined by the use of the equivalent distance method. Reasonably accurate results may be expected in determining field strengths at a distance from the antenna by application of the equivalent distance method when the unattenuated field of the antenna, the various ground conductivities and the location of discontinuities are known. This method considers a wave to be propagated across a given conductivity according to the curve for a homogeneous earth of that conductivity. When the wave crosses from a region of one conductivity into a region of a second conductivity, the equivalent distance of the receiving point from the transmitter changes abruptly but the field strength does not. From a point just inside the second region the transmitter appears to be at that distance where, on the curve for a homogeneous earth of the second conductivity, the field strength equals the value that occurred just across the boundary in the first region. Thus the equivalent distance from the receiving point to the transmitter may be either greater or less than the actual distance. An imaginary transmitter is considered to exist at that equivalent distance. This technique is not intended to be used as a means of evaluating unattenuated field or ground conductivity by the analysis of measured data. The method to be employed for such determinations is set out in § 73.186.

(e) Example of the use of the equivalent distance method;

It is desired to determine the distance to the 0.5 mV/m and 0.025 mV/m contours of a station on a frequency of 1000 kHz with an inverse distance field of 100 mV/m at one kilometer being radiated over a path having a conductivity of 10 mS/m for a distance of 20 kilometers, 5 mS/m for the next 30 kilometers and 15 mS/m thereafter. Using the appropriate curve in § 73.184, Graph 12, at a distance of 20 kilometers on the curve for 10 mS/m, the field strength is found to be 2.84 mV/m. On the 5mS/m curve, the equivalent distance to this field strength is 14.92 kilometers, which is 5.08 (20−14.92 kilometers nearer to the transmitter. Continuing on the propagation curve, the distance to a field strength of 0.5 mV/m is found to be 36.11 kilometers.

The actual length of the path travelled, however, is 41.19 (36.11 + 5.08) kilometers. Continuing on this propagation curve to the conductivity change at 44.92 (50.00−5.08) kilometers, the field strength is found to be 0.304 mV/m. On the 15 mS/m propagation curve, the equivalent distance to this field strength is 82.94 kilometers, which changes the effective path length by 38.02 (82.94−44.92) kilometers. Continuing on this propagation curve, the distance to a field strength of 0.025 mV/m is seen to be 224.4 kilometers. The actual length of the path travelled, however, is 191.46 (224.4 + 5.08−38.02) kilometers.

[28 FR 13574, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 44 FR 36037, June 20, 1979; 48 FR 9011, Mar. 3, 1983; 50 FR 18822, May 2, 1985; 50 FR 24522, June 11, 1985; 51 FR 9965, Mar. 24, 1986; 54 FR 39736, Sept. 28, 1989; 56 FR 64866, Dec. 12, 1991; 57 FR 43290, Sept. 18, 1992]

§ 73.184 Groundwave field strength graphs.

(a) Graphs 1 to 20 show, for each of 20 frequencies, the computed values of groundwave field strength as a function of groundwave conductivity and distance from the source of radiation. The groundwave field strength is considered to be that part of the vertical component of the electric field which has not been reflected from the ionosphere nor from the troposphere. These 20 families of curves are plotted on log-log graph paper and each is to be used for the range of frequencies shown thereon. Computations are based on a dielectric constant of the ground (referred to air as unity) equal to 15 for land and 80 for sea water and for the ground conductivities (expressed in mS/m) given on the curves. The curves show the variation of the groundwave field strength with distance to be expected for transmission from a vertical antenna at the surface of a uniformly conducting spherical earth with the groundwave constants shown on the curves. The curves are for an antenna power of such efficiency and current distribution that the inverse distance (unattenuated) field is 100 mV/m at 1 kilometer. The curves are valid for distances that are large compared to the dimensions of the antenna for other than short vertical antennas.

(b) The inverse distance field (100 mV/m divided by the distance in kilometers) corresponds to the groundwave field intensity to be expected from an antenna with the same radiation efficiency when it is located over a perfectly conducting earth. To determine the value of the groundwave field intensity corresponding to a value of inverse distance field other than 100 mV/m at 1 kilometer, multiply the field strength as given on these graphs by the desired value of inverse distance field at 1 kilometer divided by 100; for example, to determine the groundwave field strength for a station with an inverse distance field of 2700 mV/m at 1 kilometer, simply multiply the values given on the charts by 27. The value of the inverse distance field to be used for a particular antenna depends upon the power input to the antenna, the nature of the ground in the neighborhood of the antenna, and the geometry of the antenna. For methods of calculating the interrelations between these variables and the inverse distance field, see “The Propagation of Radio Waves Over the Surface of the Earth and in the Upper Atmosphere,” Part II, by Mr. K.A. Norton, Proc. I.R.E., Vol. 25, September 1937, pp. 1203-1237.

Note:

The computed values of field strength versus distance used to plot Graphs 1 to 20 are available in tabular form. For information on obtaining copies of these tabulations call or write the Consumer Affairs Office, Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC 20554, (202) 632-7000.

(c) Provided the value of the dielectric constant is near 15, the ground conductivity curves of Graphs 1 to 20 may be compared with actual field strength measurement data to determine the appropriate values of the ground conductivity and the inverse distance field strength at 1 kilometer. This is accomplished by plotting the measured field strengths on transparent log-log graph paper similar to that used for Graphs 1 to 20 and superimposing the plotted graph over the Graph corresponding to the frequency of the station measured. The plotted graph is then shifted vertically until the plotted measurement data is best aligned with one of the conductivity curves on the Graph; the intersection of the inverse distance line on the Graph with the 1 kilometer abscissa on the plotted graph determines the inverse distance field strength at 1 kilometer. For other values of dielectric constant, the following procedure may be used to determine the dielectric constant of the ground, the ground conductivity and the inverse distance field strength at 1 kilometer. Graph 21 gives the relative values of groundwave field strength over a plane earth as a function of the numerical distance p and phase angle b. On graph paper with coordinates similar to those of Graph 21, plot the measured values of field strength as ordinates versus the corresponding distances from the antenna in kilometers as abscissae. The data should be plotted only for distances greater than one wavelength (or, when this is greater, five times the vertical height of the antenna in the case of a nondirectional antenna or 10 times the spacing between the elements of a directional antenna) and for distances less than 80f1/3 MHz kilometers (i.e., 80 kilometers at 1 MHz). Then, using a light box, place the plotted graph over Graph 21 and shift the plotted graph vertically and horizontally (making sure that the vertical lines on both sheets are parallel) until the best fit with the data is obtained with one of the curves on Graph 21. When the two sheets are properly lined up, the value of the field strength corresponding to the intersection of the inverse distance line of Graph 21 with the 1 kilometer abscissa on the data sheet is the inverse distance field strength at 1 kilometer, and the values of the numerical distance at 1 kilometer, p1, and of b are also determined. Knowing the values of b and p1 (the numerical distance at one kilometer), we may substitute in the following approximate values of the ground conductivity and dielectric constant.

(R/λ)1 = Number of wavelengths in 1 kilometer,

fMHz = frequency expressed in megahertz,

ε = dielectric constant on the ground referred to air as unity.

First solve for χ by substituting the known values of p1, (R/λ)1, and cos b in equation (1). Equation (2) may then be solved for δ and equation (3) for ε. At distances greater than 80/f1/3 MHz kilometers the curves of Graph 21 do not give the correct relative values of field strength since the curvature of the earth weakens the field more rapidly than these plane earth curves would indicate. Thus, no attempt should be made to fit experimental data to these curves at the larger distances.

Note:

For other values of dielectric constant, use can be made of the computer program which was employed by the FCC in generating the curves in Graphs 1 to 20. For information on obtaining a printout of this program, call or write the Consumer Affairs Office, Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC 200554, (202) 632-7000.

(d) At sufficiently short distances (less than 55 kilometers at AM broadcast frequencies), such that the curvature of the earth does not introduce an additional attenuation of the waves, the curves of Graph 21 may be used to determine the groundwave field strength of transmitting and receiving antennas at the surface of the earth for any radiated power, frequency, or set of ground constants. First, trace the straight inverse distance line corresponding to the power radiated on transparent log-log graph paper similar to that of Graph 21, labelling the ordinates of the chart in terms of field strength, and the abscissae in terms of distance. Next, using the formulas given on Graph 21, calculate the value of the numerical distance, p, at 1 kilometer, and the value of b. Then superimpose the log-log graph paper over Graph 21, shifting it vertically until both inverse distance lines coincide and shifting it horizontally until the numerical distance at 1 kilometer on Graph 21 coincides with 1 kilometer on the log-log graph paper. The curve of Graph 21 corresponding to the calculated value of b is then traced on the log-log graph paper giving the field strength versus distance in kilometers.

(e) This paragraph consists of the following Graphs 1 to 20 and 21.

Note:

The referenced graphs are not published in the CFR, nor will they be included in the Commission's automated rules system. For information on obtaining copies of the graphs call or write the Consumer Affairs Office, Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC 20554, Telephone: (202) 632-7000.

[28 FR 13574, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 50 FR 18823, May 2, 1985; 51 FR 45891, Dec. 23, 1986; 52 FR 36878, Oct. 1, 1987; 56 FR 64866, Dec. 12, 1991; 57 FR 43290, Sept. 18, 1992]

§ 73.185 Computation of interfering signal.

(a) Measured values of radiation are not to be used in calculating overlap, interference, and coverage.

(1) In the case of an antenna which is intended to be non-directional in the horizontal plane, an ideal non-directional radiation pattern shall be used in determining interference, overlap, and coverage, even if the antenna is not actually non-directional.

(2) In the case of an antenna which is directional in the horizontal plane, the radiation which shall be used in determining interference, overlap, and coverage is that calculated pursuant to § 73.150 or § 73.152, depending on whether the station has a standard or modified standard pattern.

(3) In the case of calculation of interference or overlap to (not from) a foreign station, the notified radiation shall be used, even if the notified radiation differs from that in paragraphs (a) (1) or (2) of this section.

(b) For skywave signals from stations operating on all channels, interference shall be determined from the appropriate formulas and Figure 6a contained in § 73.190.

(c) The formulas in § 73.190(d) depicted in Figure 6a of § 73.190, entitled “Angles of Departure versus Transmission Range” are to be used in determining the angles in the vertical pattern of the antenna of an interfering station to be considered as pertinent to transmission by one reflection. To provide for variation in the pertinent vertical angle due to variations of ionosphere height and ionosphere scattering, the curves 2 and 3 indicate the upper and lower angles within which the radiated field is to be considered. The maximum value of field strength occurring between these angles shall be used to determine the multiplying factor to apply to the 10 percent skywave field intensity value determined from Formula 2 in § 73.190. The multiplying factor is found by dividing the maximum radiation between the pertinent angles by 100 mV/m.

(d) Example of the use of skywave curves and formulas: Assume a proposed new Class B station from which interference may be expected is located at a distance of 724 kilometers from a licensed Class B station. The proposed station specifies geographic coordinates of 40°00′00″ N and 100°00′00″ W and the station to be protected is located at an azimuth of 45° true at geographic coordinates of 44°26′05″ N and 93°32′54″ W. The critical angles of radiation as determined from Figure 6a of § 73.190 for use with Class B stations are 9.6° and 16.6°. If the vertical pattern of the antenna of the proposed station in the direction of the existing station is such that, between the angles of 9.6° and 16.6° above the horizon the maximum radiation is 260 mV/m at one kilometer, the value of the 50% field, as derived from Formula 1 of § 73.190, is 0.06217 mV/m at the location of the existing station. To obtain the value of the 10% field, the 50% value must be adjusted by a factor derived from Formula 2 of § 73.190. The value in this case is 8.42 dB. Thus, the 10% field is 0.1616 mV/m. Using this in conjunction with the co-channel protection ratio of 26 dB, the resultant nighttime limit from the proposed station to the licensed station is 3.232 mV/m.

(e) In the case of an antenna which is non-directional in the horizontal plane, the vertical distribution of the relative fields should be computed pursuant to § 73.160. In the case of an antenna which is directional in the horizontal plane, the vertical pattern in the great circle direction toward the point of reception in question must first be calculated. In cases where the radiation in the vertical plane, at the pertinent azimuth, contains a large lobe at a higher angle than the pertinent angle for one reflection, the method of calculating interference will not be restricted to that just described; each such case will be considered on the basis of the best knowledge available.

(f) In performing calculations to determine permissible radiation from stations operating presunrise or postsunset in accordance with § 73.99, calculated diurnal factors will be multiplied by the values of skywave field strength for such stations obtained from Formula 1 or 2 of § 73.190.

(1) The diurnal factor is determined using the time of day at the mid-point of path between the site of the interfering station and the point at which interference is being calculated. Diurnal factors are computed using the formula Df = a + bF + cF2 + dF3 where:

Df represents the diurnal factor,

F is the frequency in MHz,

a,b,c, and d are constants obtained from the tables in paragraph (k)(2)

A diurnal factor greater than one will not be used in calculations and interpolation is to be used between calculated values where necessary. For reference purposes, curves for presunrise and postsunset diurnal factors are contained in Figures 13 and 14 of § 73.190.

(2) Constants used in calculating diurnal factors for the presunrise and postsunset periods are contained in paragraphs (f)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section respectively. The columns labeled Tmp represent the number of hours before and after sunrise and sunset at the path midpoint.

(i) Presunrise Constants

Tmp a b c d
−2 1.3084 .0083 −.0155 .0144
−1.75 1.3165 −.4919 .6011 −.1884
−1.5 1.0079 .0296 .1488 −.0452
−1.25 .7773 .3751 −.1911 .0736
−1 .6230 .1547 .2654 −.1006
−.75 .3718 .1178 .3632 −.1172
−.5 .2151 .0737 .4167 −.1413
−.25 .2027 −.2560 .7269 −.2577
SR .1504 −.2325 .5374 −.1729
+ .25 .1057 −.2092 .4148 −.1239
+ 5. .0642 −.1295 .2583 −.0699
+ .75 .0446 −.1002 .1754 −.0405
+ 1 .0148 .0135 .0462 .0010

(ii) Postsunset Constants

Tmp a b c d
1.75 .9495 −.0187 .0720 −.0290
1.5 .7196 .3583 −.2280 .0611
1.25 .6756 .1518 .0279 −.0163
1.0 .5486 .1401 .0952 −.0288
.75 .3003 .4050 −.0961 .0256
.5 .1186 .4281 −.0799 .0197
.25 .0382 .3706 −.0673 .0171
SS .0002 .3024 −.0540 .0086
−.25 .0278 .0458 .1473 −.0486
−.5 .0203 .0132 .1166 −.0340
−.75 .0152 −.0002 .0786 −.0185
−1.0 −.0043 .0452 −.0040 .0103
−1.25 .0010 .0135 .0103 .0047
−1.5 .0018 .0052 .0069 .0042
−1.75 −.0012 .0122 −.0076 .0076
−2.0 −.0024 .0141 −.0141 .0091

(f) For stations operating on regional and local channels, interfering skywave field intensities shall be determined in accordance with the procedure specified in (d) of this section and illustrated in (e) of this section, except that Figure 2 of § 73.190 is used in place of Figure 1a and 1b and the formulas of § 73.190. In using Figure 2 of § 73.190, one additional parameter must be considered, i.e., the variation of received field with the latitude of the path.

(g) Figure 2 of § 73.190, “10 percent Skywave Signal Range Chart,” shows the signal as a function of the latitude of the transmission path, which is defined as the geographic latitude of the midpoint between the transmitter and receiver. When using Figure 2 of § 73.190, latitude 35° should be used in case the mid-point of the path lies below 35° North and latitude 50° should be used in case the mid-point of the path lies above 50° North.

[30 FR 13783, Oct. 29, 1965, as amended at 33 FR 15420, Oct. 17, 1968; 46 FR 11995, Feb. 12, 1981; 48 FR 42958, Sept. 20, 1983; 50 FR 18843, May 2, 1985; 56 FR 64867, Dec. 12, 1991]

§ 73.186 Establishment of effective field at one kilometer.

(a) Section 73.189 provides that certain minimum field strengths are acceptable in lieu of the required minimum physical heights of the antennas proper. Also, in other situations, it may be necessary to determine the effective field. The following requirements shall govern the taking and submission of data on the field strength produced:

(1) Beginning as near to the antenna as possible without including the induction field and to provide for the fact that a broadcast antenna is not a point source of radiation (not less than one wave length or 5 times the vertical height in the case of a single element, i.e., nondirectional antenna or 10 times the spacing between the elements of a directional antenna), measurements shall be made on six or more radials, at intervals of approximately 0.2 kilometer up to 3 kilometers from the antenna, at intervals of approximately one kilometer from 3 kilometers to 5 kilometers from the antenna, at intervals of approximately 2 kilometers from 5 kilometers to 15 kilometers from the antenna, and a few additional measurements if needed at greater distances from the antenna. Where the antenna is rurally located and unobstructed measurements can be made, there shall be at least 15 measurements on each radial. These shall include at least 7 measurements within 3 kilometers of the antenna. However, where the antenna is located in a city where unobstructed measurements are difficult to make, measurements shall be made on each radial at as many unobstructed locations as possible, even though the intervals are considerably less than stated above, particularly within 3 kilometers of the antenna. In cases where it is not possible to obtain accurate measurements at the closer distances (even out to 8 or 10 kilometers due to the character of the intervening terrain), the measurements at greater distances should be made at closer intervals.

(2) The data required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section should be plotted for each radial in accordance with either of the two methods set forth below:

(i) Using log-log coordinate paper, plot field strengths as ordinate and distance as abscissa.

(ii) Using semi-log coordinate paper, plot field strength times distance as ordinate on the log scale and distance as abscissa on the linear scale.

(3) However, regardless of which of the methods in paragraph (a)(2) of this section is employed, the proper curve to be drawn through the points plotted shall be determined by comparison with the curves in § 73.184 as follows: Place the sheet on which the actual points have been plotted over the appropriate Graph in § 73.184, hold to the light if necessary and adjust until the curve most closely matching the points is found. This curve should then be drawn on the sheet on which the points were plotted, together with the inverse distance curve corresponding to that curve. The field at 1 kilometer for the radial concerned shall be the ordinate on the inverse distance curve at 1 kilometer.

(4) When all radials have been analyzed in accordance with paragraph (a)(3) of this section, a curve shall be plotted on polar coordinate paper from the fields obtained, which gives the inverse distance field pattern at 1 kilometer. The radius of a circle, the area of which is equal to the area bounded by this pattern, is the effective field. (See § 73.14.)

(5) The antenna power of the station shall be maintained at the authorized level during all field measurements. The power determination will be made using the direct method as described in § 73.51(a) with instruments of acceptable accuracy specified in § 73.1215.

(b) Complete data taken in conjunction with the field strength measurements shall be submitted to the Commission in affidavit form including the following:

(1) Tabulation by number of each point of measurement to agree with the maps required in paragraph (c) of this section, the date and time of each measurement, the field strength (E), the distance from the antenna (D) and the product of the field strength and distance (ED) (if data for each radial are plotted on semilogarithmic paper, see paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section) for each point of measurement.

(2) Description of method used to take field strength measurements.

(3) The family of theoretical curves used in determining the curve for each radial properly identified by conductivity and dielectric constants.

(4) The curves drawn for each radial and the field strength pattern.

(5) The antenna resistance at the operating frequency.

(6) Antenna current or currents maintained during field strength measurements.

(c) Maps showing each measurement point numbered to agree with the required tabulation shall be retained in the station records and shall be available to the FCC upon request.

[28 FR 13574, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 41 FR 44178, Oct. 7, 1976; 46 FR 11995, Feb. 12, 1981; 49 FR 49851, Dec. 24, 1984; 50 FR 18843, May 2, 1985; 50 FR 47055, Nov. 14, 1985; 51 FR 2707, Jan. 21, 1986; 52 FR 10570, Apr. 2, 1987; 66 FR 20757, Apr. 25, 2001]

§ 73.187 Limitation on daytime radiation.

(a)

(1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (a)(2) and (3) of this section, no authorization will be granted for a Class B or Class D station on a frequency specified in § 73.25 if the proposed operation would radiate during the period of critical hours (the two hours after local sunrise and the two hours before local sunset) toward any point on the 0.1 mV/m contour of a co-channel U.S. Class A station, at or below the pertinent vertical angle determined from Curve 2 of Figure 6a of § 73.190, values in excess of those obtained as provided in paragraph (b) of this section.

(2) The limitation set forth in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall not apply in the following cases:

(i) Any Class B or Class D operation authorized before November 30, 1959; or

(ii) For Class B and Class D stations authorized before November 30, 1959, subsequent changes of facilities which do not involve a change in frequency, an increase in radiation toward any point on the 0.1 mV/m contour of a co-channel U.S. Class A station, or the move of transmitter site materially closer to the 0.1 mV/m contour of such Class A station.

(3) A Class B or Class D station authorized before November 30, 1959, and subsequently authorized to increase daytime radiation in any direction toward the 0.1 mV/m contour of a co-channel U.S. Class A station (without a change in frequency or a move of transmitter site materially closer to such contour), may not, during the two hours after local sunrise or the two hours before local sunset, radiate in such directions a value exceeding the higher of:

(i) The value radiated in such directions with facilities last authorized before November 30, 1959, or

(ii) The limitation specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(b) To obtain the maximum permissible radiation for a Class B or Class D station on a given frequency from 640 through 990 kHz, multiply the radiation value obtained for the given distance and azimuth from the 500 kHz chart (Figure 9 of § 73.190) by the appropriate interpolation factor shown in the K500 column of paragraph (c) of this section; and multiply the radiation value obtained for the given distance and azimuth from the 1000 kHz chart (Figure 10 of § 73.190) by the appropriate interpolation factor shown in the K1000 column of paragraph (c) of this section. Add the two products thus obtained; the result is the maximum radiation value applicable to the Class B or Class D station in the pertinent directions. For frequencies from 1010 to 1580 kHz, obtain in a similar manner the proper radiation values from the 1000 and 1600 kHz charts (Figures 10 and 11 of § 73.190), multiply each of these values by the appropriate interpolation factors in the K′1000 and K′1600 columns in paragraph (c) of this section, and add the products.

(c) Interpolation factors.

(1) Frequencies below 1000 kHz.

fkHz K500 K1000
640 0.720 0.280
650 0.700 0.300
660 0.680 0.320
670 0.660 0.340
680 0.640 0.360
690 0.620 0.380
700 0.600 0.400
710 0.580 0.420
720 0.560 0.440
730 0.540 0.460
740 0.520 0.480
750 0.500 0.500
760 0.480 0.520
770 0.460 0.540
780 0.440 0.560
800 0.400 0.600
810 0.380 0.620
820 0.360 0.640
830 0.340 0.660
840 0.320 0.680
850 0.300 0.700
860 0.280 0.720
870 0.260 0.740
880 0.240 0.760
890 0.220 0.780
900 0.200 0.800
940 0.120 0.880
990 0.020 0.980

(2) Frequencies above 1000 kHz.

f′kHz K′1000 K′1600
1010 0.983 0.017
1020 0.967 0.033
1030 0.950 0.050
1040 0.933 0.067
1050 0.917 0.083
1060 0.900 0.100
1070 0.883 0.117
1080 0.867 0.133
1090 0.850 0.150
1100 0.833 0.167
1110 0.817 0.183
1120 0.800 0.200
1130 0.783 0.217
1140 0.767 0.233
1160 0.733 0.267
1170 0.717 0.283
1180 0.700 0.300
1190 0.683 0.317
1200 0.667 0.333
1210 0.650 0.350
1220 0.633 0.367
1500 0.167 0.833
1510 0.150 0.850
1520 0.133 0.867
1530 0.117 0.883
1540 0.100 0.900
1550 0.083 0.917
1560 0.067 0.933
1570 0.050 0.950
1580 0.033 0.967

[28 FR 13574, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 49 FR 43962, Nov. 1, 1984; 56 FR 64868, Dec. 12, 1991]

§ 73.189 Minimum antenna heights or field strength requirements.

(a) Section 73.45 requires that all applicants for new, additional, or different broadcast facilities and all licensees requesting authority to move 0the transmitter of an existing station, shall specify a radiating system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements of good engineering practice for the class and power of the station.

(b) The specifications deemed necessary to meet the requirements of good engineering practice at the present state of the art are set out in detail below.

(1) The licensee of a AM broadcast station requesting a change in power, time of operation, frequency, or transmitter location must also request authority to install a new antenna system or to make changes in the existing antenna system which will meet the minimum height requirements, or submit evidence that the present antenna system meets the minimum requirements with respect to field strength, before favorable consideration will be given thereto. (See § 73.186.) In the event it is proposed to make substantial changes in an existing antenna system, the changes shall be such as to meet the minimum height requirements or will be permitted subject to the submission of field strength measurements showing that it meets the minimum requirements with respect to effective field strength.

(2) These minimum actual physical vertical heights of antennas permitted to be installed are shown by curves A, B, and C of Figure 7 of § 73.190 as follows:

(i) Class C stations, and stations in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands on 1230, 1240, 1340, 1400, 1450 and 1490 kHz that were formerly Class C and were redesignated as Class B pursuant to § 73.26(b), 45 meters or a minimum effective field strength of 180 mV/m for 1 kW at 1 kilometer (90 mV/m for 0.25 kW at 1 kilometer). (This height applies to a Class C station on a local channel only. Curve A shall apply to any Class C stations in the 48 conterminous States that are assigned to Regional channels.)

(ii) Class A (Alaska), Class B and Class D stations other than those covered in § 73.189(b)(2)(i), a minimum effective field strength of 215 mV/m for 1 kW at 1 kilometer.

(iii) Class A stations, a minimum effective field strength of 275 mV/m for 1 kW at 1 kilometer.

(3) The heights given on the graph for the antenna apply regardless of whether the antenna is located on the ground or on a building. Except for the reduction of shadows, locating the antenna on a building does not necessarily increase the efficiency and where the height of the building is in the order of a quarter wave the efficiency may be materially reduced.

(4) At the present development of the art, it is considered that where a vertical radiator is employed with its base on the ground, the ground system should consist of buried radial wires at least one-fourth wave length long. There should be as many of these radials evenly spaced as practicable and in no event less than 90. (120 radials of 0.35 to 0.4 of a wave length in length and spaced 3° is considered an excellent ground system and in case of high base voltage, a base screen of suitable dimensions should be employed.)

(5) In case it is contended that the required antenna efficiency can be obtained with an antenna of height or ground system less than the minimum specified, a complete field strength survey must be supplied to the Commission showing that the field strength at a mile without absorption fulfills the minimum requirements. (See § 73.186.) This field survey must be made by a qualified engineer using equipment of acceptable accuracy.

(6) The main element or elements of a directional antenna system shall meet the above minimum requirements with respect to height or effective field strength. No directional antenna system will be approved which is so designed that the effective field of the array is less than the minimum prescribed for the class of station concerned, or in case of a Class A station less than 90 percent of the ground wave field which would be obtained from a perfect antenna of the height specified by Figure 7 of § 73.190 for operation on frequencies below 1000 kHz, and in the case of a Class B or Class D station less than 90 percent of the ground wave field which would be obtained from a perfect antenna of the height specified by Figure 7 of § 73.190 for operation on frequencies below 750 kHz.

[28 FR 13574, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 31 FR 8069, June 8, 1966; 33 FR 15420, Oct. 17, 1968; 44 FR 36038, June 20, 1979; 50 FR 18844, May 2, 1985; 51 FR 2707, Jan. 21, 1986; 51 FR 4753, Feb. 7, 1986; 52 FR 10570, Apr. 2, 1987; 56 FR 64868, Dec. 12, 1991; 81 FR 2760, Jan. 19, 2016]

§ 73.190 Engineering charts and related formulas.

(a) This section consists of the following Figures: 2, r3, 5, 6a, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13. Additionally, formulas that are directly related to graphs are included.

(b) Formula 1 is used for calculation of 50% skywave field strength values.

Formula 1. Skywave field strength, 50% of the time (at SS + 6):

The skywave field strength, Fc(50), for a characteristic field strength of 100 mV/m at 1 km is given by:

The slant distance, D, is given by:

The geomagnetic latitude of the midpoint of the path, ΦM, is given by:

ΦM = arcsin[sin aM sin 78.5° + cos aM cos 78.5° cos(69 + bM)]degrees (Eq. 3)

The short great-circle path distance, d, is given by:

Where:

d° = arccos[sin aT sin aR + cos aT cos aR cos(bRbT)]degrees (Eq.5)

Where:

aT is the geographic latitude of the transmitting terminal (degrees)

aR is the geographic latitude of the receiving terminal (degrees)

bT is the geographic longitude of the transmitting terminal (degrees)

bR is the geographic longitude of the receiving terminal (degrees)

aM is the geographic latitude of the midpoint of the great-circle path (degrees) and is given by:

bM is the geographic longitude of the midpoint of the great-circle path (degrees) and is given by:

Note (1): If |FM| is greater than 60 degrees, equation (1) is evaluated for | FM| = 60 degrees.

Note (2): North and east are considered positive; south and west negative.

Note (3): In equation (7), k = −1 for west to east paths (i.e., bR >bT), otherwise k = 1.

(c) Formula 2 is used for calculation of 10% skywave field strength values.

Formula 2. Skywave field strength, 10% of the time (at SS + 6):

The skywave field strength, Fc(10), is given by:

Fc(10) = Fc(50) + Δ dB(µV/m)

Where:

Δ = 6 when | FM| <40

Δ = 0.2 | FM| − 2 when 40 ≤| FM| ≤60

Δ = 10 when | FM| >60

(d) Figure 6a depicts angles of departure versus transmission range. These angles may also be computed using the following formulas:

Where:

d = distance in kilometers

n = 1 for 50% field strength values

n = 2 or 3 for 10% field strength values

and where

K1 = 0.00752

K2 = 0.00938

K3 = 0.00565

Note:

Computations using these formulas should not be carried beyond 0.1 degree.

(e) In the event of disagreement between computed values using the formulas shown above and values obtained directly from the figures, the computed values will control.

[28 FR 13574, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 30 FR 12720, Oct. 6, 1965; 33 FR 15420, Oct. 17, 1968; 48 FR 42959, Sept. 20, 1983; 49 FR 43963, Nov. 1, 1984; 50 FR 18844, May 2, 1985; 51 FR 4753, Feb. 7, 1986; 52 FR 36879, Oct. 1, 1987; 56 FR 64869, Dec. 12, 1991]

Subpart B - FM Broadcast Stations
§ 73.201 Numerical designation of FM broadcast channels.

The FM broadcast band consists of that portion of the radio frequency spectrum between 88 MHz and 108 MHz. It is divided into 100 channels of 200 kHz each. For convenience, the frequencies available for FM broadcasting (including those assigned to noncommercial educational broadcasting) are given numerical designations which are shown in the table below:

Frequency (Mc/s) Channel No.
88.1 201
88.3 202
88.5 203
88.7 204
88.9 205
89.1 206
89.3 207
89.5 208
89.7 209
89.9 210
90.1 211
90.3 212
90.5 213
90.7 214
90.9 215
91.1 216
91.3 217
91.5 218
91.7 219
91.9 220
92.1 221
92.3 222
92.5 223
92.7 224
92.9 225
93.1 226
93.3 227
93.5 228
93.7 229
93.9 230
94.1 231
94.3 232
94.5 233
94.7 234
94.9 235
95.1 236
95.3 237
95.5 238
95.7 239
95.9 240
96.1 241
96.3 242
96.5 243
96.7 244
96.9 245
97.1 246
97.3 247
97.5 248
97.7 249
97.9 250
98.1 251
98.3 252
98.5 253
98.7 254
98.9 255
99.1 256
99.3 257
99.5 258
99.7 259
99.9 260
100.1 261
100.3 262
100.5 263
100.7 264
100.9 265
101.1 266
101.3 267
101.5 268
101.7 269
101.9 270
102.1 271
102.3 272
102.5 273
102.7 274
102.9 275
103.1 276
103.3 277
103.5 278
103.7 279
103.9 280
104.1 281
104.3 282
104.5 283
104.7 284
104.9 285
105.1 286
105.3 287
105.5 288
105.7 289
105.9 290
106.1 291
106.3 292
106.5 293
106.7 294
106.9 295
107.1 296
107.3 297
107.5 298
107.7 299
107.9 300

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 30 FR 4480, Apr. 7, 1965; 52 FR 10570, Apr. 2, 1987]

§ 73.202 Table of Allotments.

(a) General. The following Table of Allotments contains the channels (other than noncommercial educational Channels 201-220) designated for use in communities in the United States, its territories, and possessions, and not currently assigned to a licensee or permittee or subject to a pending application for construction permit or license. All listed channels are for Class B stations in Zones I and I-A and for Class C stations in Zone II unless otherwise specifically designated. Channels to which licensed, permitted, and “reserved” facilities have been assigned are reflected in the Media Bureau's publicly available Consolidated Data Base System.

(1) Channels designated with an asterisk may be used only by noncommercial educational broadcast stations. The rules governing the use of those channels are contained in part 73, subpart C of this chapter. An entity that would be eligible to operate a noncommercial educational broadcast station can, in conjunction with an initial petition for rulemaking filed pursuant to part 1, subpart C of this chapter, request that a nonreserved FM channel (channels 221 through 300) be allotted as reserved only for noncommercial educational broadcasting by demonstrating the following:

(i) No reserved channel can be used without causing prohibited interference to TV channel 6 stations or foreign broadcast stations; or

(ii) The applicant is technically precluded from using the reserved band by existing stations or previously filed applications and the proposed station would provide a first or second noncommercial educational radio service to 2,000 or more people who constitute 10% of the population within the proposed allocation's 60 dBu (1 mV/m) service contour.

(2) Each channel listed in the Table of Allotments reflects the class of station that is authorized to use it based on the minimum and maximum facility requirements for each class contained in § 73.211.

Note:

The provisions of this paragraph [(a)(2) of this section] become effective [3 years from the effective date of the Report and Order in BC Docket 80-90].

(b) Table of FM Allotments.

Table 1 to Paragraph (b)

[U.S. States]

Channel No.
ALABAMA
Camden 230A
Hamilton 221A
Maplesville 292A
Thomaston 280C3
Waverly 262A
ALASKA
Kotzebue 280A
Yakutat 280A
ARIZONA
Aguila 297C2
Bagdad 299C3
Desert Hills 292A
Ehrenberg 228C2
First Mesa 281C
Leupp 293C1
Overgaard 234C1
Parker 257C2
Paulden 228C3
Peach Springs †265A
Pima *296A
Quartzsite 275C3
Rough Rock 258C2
Salome 231A
Sells 285A
Snowflake 259C2
Somerton *260C3
Tusayan 222C1
Wickenburg 229C3
ARKANSAS
Dermott 224A
Heber Springs 270C3
Hermitage 300A
Rison 255A
Strong 296C3
CALIFORNIA
Alturas 277C
Avenal 269A
Barstow 267A
Boonville 300A
Cartago 233A
Cedarville 238A
Coalinga 247B1
Coalinga 261B
Cottonwood 221A
Dos Palos 240A
Earlimart 228A
Essex 280B
Firebaugh 234A
Ford City 271A
Ft. Bragg 253B1
Hemet *273A
Lindsay 277B1
Lake Isabella 239A
Ludlow 261B1
Portola 258A
Randsburg 275A
Sacramento 300B
Shasta Lake 224A
Sutter Creek *298A
Visalia 241A
Westley *238A
Wofford Heights 251A
COLORADO
Akron 279C1
Battlement Mesa 275C3
Calhan 284C3
Dinosaur 262C1
Dotsero 261A
Dove Creek 229C3
Eckley 257C1
Hugo 222A
Idalia 231A
Lake City 247A
Olathe *270C2, *293C
Stratton 246C1
Walden 226A
Yampa 277C3
CONNECTICUT
DELAWARE
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
FLORIDA
Cross City 249C3
Fort Walton Beach 295A
Horseshoe Beach *234C3
Otter Creek *240A
GEORGIA
Maysville 265A
Pembroke 257C1
Plains 290A
Tignall 287A
HAWAII
Kualapuu 296C2
IDAHO
McCall 280A
ILLINOIS
Abingdon 291A
Cedarville *258A
Greenup *230A
Pinckneyville *282A
INDIANA
Fowler *291A
Madison *265A
Terre Haute *298B
IOWA
Asbury *254A
Dunkerton 280A
Keosauqua *271C3
Rockford 225A
Rudd *268A
KANSAS
Council Grove *281C3
KENTUCKY
Irvington 261A
Perryville 298A
LOUISIANA
Bastrop 228A
Florien 222A
Golden Meadow *289C2
Haynesville 286A
Hornbeck 269A
Oil City 285A
Rosepine 281A
Wisner 300C3
MAINE
MARYLAND
Newark 235A
MASSACHUSETTS
Orange 247A
West Tisbury *282A
MICHIGAN
Carney 260A
Custer 260A
Houghton 242C1
Lake Isabella 255A
Lexington *256A
Onekama 227C3
Pigeon 267A
MINNESOTA
Baudette 233C1
Grand Marais 245C3
Grand Portage 224C, 274C
Red Lake 287C1
MISSISSIPPI
Bruce 233A
Cleveland 226C2
Drew 237A
McLain 245A
Mound Bayou 270A
New Albany 268A
New Augusta 269A
Summit 228A
MISSOURI
Bourbon 231A
Columbia 252C2
Cuba 269A
Eminence 281A
Laurie 265C3 Maryville 285C3
Wheatland 272A
MONTANA
Bozeman *240C3
Cut Bank 265C2
Lima 265C2
Valler 289C1
NEBRASKA
Bayard 251A
NEVADA
Caliente 264A
Owyhee 247C3
Silver Springs 273C
Tonopah 224A
NEW HAMPSHIRE
Enfield 282A
Groveton 268A
Jefferson 247A
Stratford 254A
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
Animas 279C1
Carrizozo 261C2
Chama 241C3
Crownpoint †297A
Des Moines 287C
Lovington 269C3
Roswell 237C0
Skyline-Ganipa 240A
Tohatchi 268C2
Virden 228C1
NEW YORK
Amherst *221A
Keeseville 231A
Livingston Manor 296A
Narrowsburg 275A
Rhinebeck *273A
Rosendale 255A
Sagaponack 233A
Shelter Island 277A
Westfield 265A
NORTH CAROLINA
Dillsboro *237A
NORTH DAKOTA
Beulah 250A
Gackle 256C1
Medina 222C1
Sarles 290C1
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
Arnett 293C2
Cheyenne 247C2
Clayton 262A
Coalgate 242A
Connerville 247A
Cordell *229A
Covington 290A
Hennessey 249A
Millerton 265C2
Savanna 275A
Vici 249A
Wayne 266A
Waukomie 292A
Wright City 295A
OREGON
Altamont 235C1
Arlington 295C2
Boardman 231C3
Dallas *252C3
Diamond Lake 251A
Huntington 228C1
Manzanita 248C3
Merrill 289A
Moro 283C2
Powers 293C2
Prineville 267C1
Vale 288C
Waldport 229C2
PENNSYLVANIA
Liberty *298A
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
Edgefield 238A
SOUTH DAKOTA
Eagle Butt 228C1
Edgemont 289C1
TENNESSEE
Englewood 250A
TEXAS
Albany 255A
Annona 263A
Asherton 284A
Aspermont 226C2
Austwell 290A
Balmorhea 283C
Batesville 250A
Benjamin 237C3
Big Lake 246A, 252C2, 281C1, 296C3
Big Spring 265C3
Bogata 247A
Bruni 293A
Canadian 235C1
Carbon 238A
Carrizo Springs 228A, 295A
Centerville 274A
Christine 245C3
Cotulla 264A, 289A
Crosbyton 264C3
Crystal Beach 268A
Cuney 259A
Dalhart 261C2
Dickens 240A, 294A
Dilley 291A
Early 294A
Eden 294A
El Indio 236A
Encinal 259A, 286A
Encino 250A, 283A
Estelline 263C3
Fort Stockton 263C
Freer 288A
Garwood 247A
George West 292A
Girard 248C3
Goldwaithe 297A
Goree 277A
Groom 223A, 273A
Guthrie 252A
Hale Center 236C1
Hamlin 283C2
Harper 256C3
Hawley 269A
Hebbronville 282A
Hereford 278C2
Hico 293A
Iraan 269C2
Jacksonville 236A
Jayton 231C2
Junction 277C3, 297A
Kermit 289C3
Knox City 293A, 297A
Leakey 257A, 275A, 299A
Llano 242C3
Lockney 271C3
Lometa 253A
Longview 300C2
Lovelady 288A
Marathon 276C1
Marquez 296A
Mason 281C2, 239C2
Matador 244C2, 276C3
Matagorda 291A
McCamey 233C3, 237C3
McLean 298C3
Memphis 283A, 292A
Menard 265A, 292A
Meyersville 261A
Midway 251A
Milano 274A
Moody 256A
Moran 281A
Mount Enterprise 279A
Muleshoe 227C1
Mullin 224A, 277A
Munday 270C1
Newcastle 263A
O'Donnell 249A
Olney 282A
Oakwood 233A
Paducah 234C3
Paint Rock 296C3
Palacios 264A
Palacios 259C1
Pearsall 277A
Port Isabel 288A
Premont 264C3, 287A
Presidio 292C1
Quanah 251C3
Richland Springs 235A, 299A
Rising Star 290C3
Roaring Springs 227A, 249C3
Roby 290A
Rocksprings 291A
Roscoe 228A
Rule 253A
San Isidro 255A, 278A
Sanderson 274C1, 286C2
Sanger 281C3
Seymour 222C2
Sheffield 224C2
Silverton 221A
Smiley 280A
Spur 260C3
Teague 237C3
Trinity 251A
Turkey 221C2, 269A
Van Alstyne *260A
Wellington 248C3, 253C3
Wells 254A
Westbrook 272A
Zapata 292A
UTAH
Huntington 287C3
Milford 288C
Paragonah 258A
Toquerville 281C
VERMONT
Hardwick 290A
West Rutland 298A
VIRGINIA
Chincoteague 233A
WASHINGTON
Coupeville 266A
Dayton 272A
Kahlotus 283A
Oak Harbor *233A, 277A
Raymond 300A
Trout Lake 236A
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
Ashland *275A
Crandon 276A
Hayward *232C2
Laona 272C3
New Holstein 258A
Tomahawk 265C3
WYOMING
Albin 282C3
Baggs 277A
Bairoil 235C3
Basin 299C1
Cora 274C2
Dubois 242A
Jackson *294C2
Lusk 242A
Manville 255C1
Marbleton 257C1
Medicine Bow 259C3
Meeteetse 259C
Pine Bluffs 287A
Rawlins 298C2
Rozet 256C3
Wamsutter 285A
Wheatland 286A, 293A
U.S. Territories
AMERICAN SAMOA
CENTRAL MARIANAS
GARAPAN
GUAM
PUERTO RICO
VIRGIN ISLANDS
Charlotte Amalie 237B
Charlotte Amalie *275A

[30 FR 12711, Oct. 6, 1965]

§ 73.203 Availability of channels.

(a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section and § 1.401(d) of this chapter and 73.3573(a)(1), applications may be filed to construct new FM broadcast stations only at the communities and on the channels contained in the Table of Allotments (§ 73.202(b)).

(b) Applications filed on a first come, first served basis for the minor modification of an existing FM broadcast station may propose any change in channel and/or class and/or community not defined as major in § 73.3573(a). Applications for a change in community of license must comply with the requirements set forth in § 73.3573(g).

Note to § 73.203:

This section is limited to non-reserved band changes in channel and/or class and/or community. Applications requesting such changes must meet either the minimum spacing requirements of § 73.207 at the site specified in the application, without resort to the provisions of the Commission's rules permitting short spaced stations as set forth in §§ 73.213 through 73.215, or demonstrate by a separate exhibit attached to the application the existence of a suitable allotment site that fully complies with §§ 73.207 and 73.315 without resort to §§ 73.213 through 73.215.

[71 FR 76219, Dec. 20, 2006]

§ 73.204 International agreements and other restrictions on use of channels.

See §§ 73.207, 73.220 and 73.1650.

[49 FR 10264, Mar. 20, 1984]

§ 73.205 Zones.

For the purpose of allotments and assignments, the United States is divided into three zones as follows:

(a) Zone I consists of that portion of the United States located within the confines of the following lines drawn on the United States Albers Equal Area Projection Map (based on standard parallels 291/2° and 451/2°; North American datum): Beginning at the most easterly point on the State boundary line between North Carolina and Virginia; thence in a straight line to a point on the Virginia-West Virginia boundary line located at north latitude 37°49′ and west longitude 80°12′30″; thence westerly along the southern boundary lines of the States of West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois to a point at the junction of the Illinois, Kentucky, and Missouri State boundary lines; thence northerly along the western boundary line of the State of Illinois to a point at the junction of the Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin State boundary lines; thence easterly along the northern State boundary line of Illinois to the 90th meridian; thence north along this meridian to the 43.5° parallel; thence east along this parallel to the United States-Canada border; thence southerly and following that border until it again intersects the 43.5° parallel; thence east along this parallel to the 71st meridian; thence in a straight line to the intersection of the 69th meridian and the 45th parallel; thence east along the 45th parallel to the Atlantic Ocean. When any of the above lines pass through a city, the city shall be considered to be located in Zone I. (See Figure 1 of § 73.699.)

(b) Zone I-A consists of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and that portion of the State of California which is located south of the 40th parallel.

(c) Zone II consists of Alaska, Hawaii and the rest of the United States which is not located in either Zone I or Zone I-A.

[29 FR 14116, Oct. 14, 1964, and 31 FR 10125, July 27, 1966, as amended at 48 FR 29504, June 27, 1983]

§ 73.207 Minimum distance separation between stations.

(a) Except for assignments made pursuant to § 73.213 or 73.215, FM allotments and assignments must be separated from other allotments and assignments on the same channel (co-channel) and five pairs of adjacent channels by not less than the minimum distances specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. The Commission will not accept petitions to amend the Table of Allotments unless the reference points meet all of the minimum distance separation requirements of this section. The Commission will not accept applications for new stations, or applications to change the channel or location of existing assignments unless transmitter sites meet the minimum distance separation requirements of this section, or such applications conform to the requirements of § 73.213 or 73.215. However, applications to modify the facilities of stations with short-spaced antenna locations authorized pursuant to prior waivers of the distance separation requirements may be accepted, provided that such applications propose to maintain or improve that particular spacing deficiency. Class D (secondary) assignments are subject only to the distance separation requirements contained in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. (See § 73.512 for rules governing the channel and location of Class D (secondary) assignments.)

(b) The distances listed in Tables A, B, and C apply to allotments and assignments on the same channel and each of five pairs of adjacent channels. The five pairs of adjacent channels are the first (200 kHz above and 200 kHz below the channel under consideration), the second (400 kHz above and below), the third (600 kHz above and below), the fifty-third (10.6 MHz above and below), and the fifty-fourth (10.8 MHz above and below). The distances in the Tables apply regardless of whether the proposed station class appears first or second in the “Relation” column of the table.

(1) Domestic allotments and assignments must be separated from each other by not less than the distances in Table A which follows:

Table A - Minimum Distance Separation Requirements in Kilometers (miles)

Relation Co-channel 200 kHz 400/600 kHz 10.6/10.8 MHz
A to A 115 (71) 72 (45) 31 (19) 10 (6)
A to B1 143 (89) 96 (60) 48 (30) 12 (7)
A to B 178 (111) 113 (70) 69 (43) 15 (9)
A to C3 142 (88) 89 (55) 42 (26) 12 (7)
A to C2 166 (103) 106 (66) 55 (34) 15 (9)
A to C1 200 (124) 133 (83) 75 (47) 22 (14)
A to C0 215 (134) 152 (94) 86 (53) 25 (16)
A to C 226 (140) 165 (103) 95 (59) 29 (18)
B1 to B1 175 (109) 114 (71) 50 (31) 14 (9)
B1 to B 211 (131) 145 (90) 71 (44) 17 (11)
B1 to C3 175 (109) 114 (71) 50 (31) 14 (9)
B1 to C2 200 (124) 134 (83) 56 (35) 17 (11)
B1 to C1 233 (145) 161 (100) 77 (48) 24 (15)
B1 to C0 248 (154) 180 (112) 87 (54) 27 (17)
B1 to C 259 (161) 193 (120) 105 (65) 31 (19)
B to B 241 (150) 169 (105) 74 (46) 20 (12)
B to C3 211 (131) 145 (90) 71 (44) 17 (11)
B to C2 241 (150) 169 (105) 74 (46) 20 (12)
B to C1 270 (168) 195 (121) 79 (49) 27 (17)
B to C0 272 (169) 214 (133) 89 (55) 31 (19)
B to C 274 (170) 217 (135) 105 (65) 35 (22)
C3 to C3 153 (95) 99 (62) 43 (27) 14 (9)
C3 to C2 177 (110) 117 (73) 56 (35) 17 (11)
C3 to C1 211 (131) 144 (90) 76 (47) 24 (15)
C3 to C0 226 (140) 163 (101) 87 (54) 27 (17)
C3 to C 237 (147) 176 (109) 96 (60) 31 (19)
C2 to C2 190 (118) 130 (81) 58 (36) 20 (12)
C2 to C1 224 (139) 158 (98) 79 (49) 27 (17)
C2 to C0 239 (148) 176 (109) 89 (55) 31 (19)
C2 to C 249 (155) 188 (117) 105 (65) 35 (22)
C1 to C1 245 (152) 177 (110) 82 (51) 34 (21)
C1 to C0 259 (161) 196 (122) 94 (58) 37 (23)
C1 to C 270 (168) 209 (130) 105 (65) 41 (25)
C0 to C0 270 (168) 207 (129) 96 (60) 41 (25)
C0 to C 281 (175) 220 (137) 105 (65) 45 (28)
C to C 290 (180) 241 (150) 105 (65) 48 (30)

(2) Under the Canada-United States FM Broadcasting Agreement, domestic U.S. allotments and assignments within 320 kilometers (199 miles) of the common border must be separated from Canadian allotments and assignments by not less than the distances given in Table B, which follows. When applying Table B, U.S. Class C2 allotments and assignments are considered to be Class B; also, U.S. Class C3 allotments and assignments and U.S. Class A assignments operating with more than 3 kW ERP and 100 meters antenna HAAT (or equivalent lower ERP and higher antenna HAAT based on a class contour distance of 24 km) are considered to be Class B1.

Table B - Minimum Distance Separation Requirements in Kilometers

Relation Co-Channel Adjacent Channels I.F.
0 kHz 200 kHz 400 kHz 600 kHz 10.6/10.8 MHz
A-A 132 85 45 37 8
A-B1 180 113 62 54 16
A-B 206 132 76 69 16
A-C1 239 164 98 90 32
A-C 242 177 108 100 32
B1-B1 197 131 70 57 24
B1-B 223 149 84 71 24
B1-C1 256 181 106 92 40
B1-C 259 195 116 103 40
B-B 237 164 94 74 24
B-C1 271 195 115 95 40
B-C 274 209 125 106 40
C1-C1 292 217 134 101 48
C1-C 302 230 144 111 48
C-C 306 241 153 113 48

(3) Under the 1992 Mexico-United States FM Broadcasting Agreement, domestic U.S. assignments or allotments within 320 kilometers (199 miles) of the common border must be separated from Mexican assignments or allotments by not less than the distances given in Table C in this paragraph (b)(3). When applying Table C -

(i) U.S. or Mexican assignments or allotments which have been notified internationally as Class A are limited to a maximum of 3.0 kW ERP at 100 meters HAAT, or the equivalent;

(ii) U.S. or Mexican assignments or allotments which have been notified internationally as Class AA are limited to a maximum of 6.0 kW ERP at 100 meters HAAT, or the equivalent;

(iii) U.S. Class C3 assignments or allotments are considered Class B1;

(iv) U.S. Class C2 assignments or allotments are considered Class B; and

(v) Class C1 assignments or allotments assume maximum facilities of 100 kW ERP at 300 meters HAAT. However, U.S. Class C1 stations may not, in any event, exceed the domestic U.S. limit of 100 kW ERP at 299 meters HAAT, or the equivalent.

Table C - Minimum Distance Separation Requirements in Kilometers

Relation Co-Channel 200 kHz 400 kHz or 600 kHz 10.6 or 10.8 MHz (I.F.)
A to A 100 61 25 8
A to AA 111 68 31 9
A to B1 138 88 48 11
A to B 163 105 65 14
A to C1 196 129 74 21
A to C 210 161 94 28
AA to AA 115 72 31 10
AA to B1 143 96 48 12
AA to B 178 125 69 15
AA to C1 200 133 75 22
AA to C 226 165 95 29
B1 to B1 175 114 50 14
B1 to B 211 145 71 17
B1 to C1 233 161 77 24
B1 to C 259 193 96 31
B to B 237 164 65 20
B to C1 270 195 79 27
B to C 270 215 98 35
C1 to C1 245 177 82 34
C1 to C 270 209 102 41
C to C 290 228 105 48

(c) The distances listed below apply only to allotments and assignments on Channel 253 (98.5 MHz). The Commission will not accept petitions to amend the Table of Allotments, applications for new stations, or applications to change the channel or location of existing assignments where the following minimum distances (between transmitter sites, in kilometers) from any TV Channel 6 allotment or assignment are not met:

Minimum Distance Separation From TV Channel 6 (82-88 MHz)

FM Class TV Zone I TV Zones II & III
A 17 22
B1 19 23
B 22 26
C3 19 23
C2 22 26
C1 29 33
C 36 41

[48 FR 29504, June 27, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 10264, Mar. 20, 1984; 49 FR 19670, May 9, 1984; 49 FR 50047, Dec. 26, 1984; 51 FR 26250, July 22, 1986; 54 FR 14963, Apr. 14, 1989; 54 FR 16366, Apr. 24, 1989; 54 FR 19374, May 5, 1989; 54 FR 35338, Aug. 25, 1989; 56 FR 27426, June 14, 1991; 56 FR 57293, Nov. 8, 1991; 62 FR 50256, Sept. 25, 1997; 65 FR 79776, Dec. 20, 2000]

§ 73.208 Reference points and distance computations.

(a)

(1) The following reference points must be used to determine distance separation requirements when petitions to amend the Table of Allotments (§ 73.202(b)) are considered:

(i) First, transmitter sites if authorized, or if proposed in applications with cut-off protection pursuant to paragraph (a)(3) of this section;

(ii) Second, reference coordinates designated by the FCC;

(iii) Third, coordinates listed in the United States Department of Interior publication entitled Index to the National Atlas of the United States of America; or

(iv) Last, coordinates of the main post office.

(The community's reference points for which the petition is submitted will normally be the coordinates listed in the above publication.)

(2) When the distance between communities is calculated using community reference points and it does not meet the minimum separation requirements of § 73.207, the channel may still be allotted if a transmitter site is available that would meet the minimum separation requirements and still permit the proposed station to meet the minimum field strength requirements of § 73.315. A showing indicating the availability of a suitable site should be sumitted with the petition. In cases where a station is not authorized in a community or communities and the proposed channel cannot meet the separation requirement a showing should also be made indicating adequate distance between suitable transmitter sites for all communities.

(3) Petitions to amend the Table of Allotments that do not meet minimum distance separation requirements to transmitter sites specified in pending applications will not be considered unless they are filed no later than:

(i) The last day of a filing window if the application is for a new FM facility or a major change in the non-reserved band and is filed during a filing window established under section 73.3564(d)(3); or

(ii) The cut-off date established in a Commission Public Notice under § 73.3564(d) and 73.3573(e) if the application is for a new FM facility or a major change in the reserved band; or

(iii) The date of receipt of all other types of FM applications. If an application is amended so as to create a conflict with a petition for rule making filed prior to the date the amendment is filed, the amended application will be treated as if filed on the date of the amendment for purposes of this paragraph (a)(3).

Note:

If the filing of a conflicting FM application renders an otherwise timely filed counterproposal unacceptable, the counterproposal may be considered in the rulemaking proceeding if it is amended to protect the site of the previously filed FM application within 15 days after being placed on the Public Notice routinely issued by the staff concerning the filing of counterproposals. No proposals involving communities not already included in the proceeding can be introduced during the reply comment period as a method of resolving conflicts. The counterproponent is required to make a showing that, at the time it filed the counterproposal, it did not know, and could not have known by exercising due diligence, of the pendency of the conflicting FM application.

(b) Station separations in licensing proceedings shall be determined by the distance between the coordinates of the proposed transmitter site in one community and

(1) The coordinates of an authorized transmitter site for the pertinent channel in the other community; or, where such transmitter site is not available for use as a reference point,

(2) Reference coordinates designated by the FCC; or, if none are designated,

(3) The coordinates of the other community as listed in the publication listed in paragraph (a) of this section; or, if not contained therein,

(4) The coordinates of the main post office of such other community.

(5) In addition, where there are pending applications in other communities which, if granted, would have to be considered in determining station separations, the coordinates of the transmitter sites proposed in such applications must be used to determine whether the requirements with respect to minimum separations between the proposed stations in the respective cities have been met.

(c) The method given in this paragraph shall be used to compute the distance between two reference points, except that, for computation of distance involving stations in Canada and Mexico, the method for distance computation specified in the applicable international agreement shall be used instead. The method set forth in this paragraph is valid only for distances not exceeding 475 km (295 miles).

(1) Convert the latitudes and longitudes of each reference point from degree-minute-second format to degree-decimal format by dividing minutes by 60 and seconds by 3600, then adding the results to degrees.

(2) Calculate the middle latitude between the two reference points by averaging the two latitudes as follows:

ML = (LAT1dd + LAT2dd) ÷ 2

(3) Calculate the number of kilometers per degree latitude difference for the middle latitude calculated in paragraph (c)(2) as follows:

KPDlat = 111.13209−0.56605 cos(2ML) + 0.00120 cos(4ML)

(4) Calculate the number of kilometers per degree longitude difference for the middle latitude calculated in paragraph (c)(2) as follows:

KPDlon = 111.41513 cos(ML)−0.09455 cos(3ML) + 0.00012 cos(5ML)

(5) Calculate the North-South distance in kilometers as follows:

NS = KPDlat(LAT1dd−LAT2dd)

(6) Calculate the East-West distance in kilometers as follows:

EW = KPDlon(LON1dd−LON2dd)

(7) Calculate the distance between the two reference points by taking the square root of the sum of the squares of the East-West and North-South distances as follows:

DIST = (NS2 + EW2)0.5

(8) Round the distance to the nearest kilometer.

(9) Terms used in this section are defined as follows:

(i) LAT1dd and LON1dd = the coordinates of the first reference point in degree-decimal format.

(ii) LAT2dd and LON2dd = the coordinates of the second reference point in degree-decimal format.

(iii) ML = the middle latitude in degree-decimal format.

(iv) KPDlat = the number of kilometers per degree of latitude at a given middle latitude.

(v) KPDlon = the number of kilometers per degree of longitude at a given middle latitude.

(vi) NS = the North-South distance in kilometers.

(vii) EW = the East-West distance in kilometers.

(viii) DIST = the distance between the two reference points, in kilometers.

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 29 FR 14116, Oct. 14, 1964; 48 FR 29505, June 27, 1983; 52 FR 37788, Oct. 9, 1987; 52 FR 39920, Oct. 26, 1987; 54 FR 9806, Mar. 8, 1989; 57 FR 36020, Aug. 12, 1992; 58 FR 38537, July 19, 1993]

§ 73.209 Protection from interference.

(a) Permittees and licensees of FM broadcast stations are not protected from any interference which may be caused by the grant of a new station, or of authority to modify the facilities of an existing station, in accordance with the provisions of this subpart. However, they are protected from interference caused by Class D (secondary) noncommercial educational FM stations. See § 73.509.

(b) The nature and extent of the protection from interference afforded FM broadcast stations operating on Channels 221-300 is limited to that which results when assignments are made in accordance with the rules in this subpart.

(c) Permittees and licensees of FM stations are not protected from interference which may be caused by the grant of a new LPFM station or of authority to modify an existing LPFM station, except as provided in subpart G of this part.

[43 FR 39715, Sept. 6, 1978 and 48 FR 29505, June 27, 1983; 54 FR 9802, Mar. 8, 1989; 65 FR 7640, Feb. 15, 2000; 65 FR 67299, Nov. 9, 2000]

§ 73.210 Station classes.

(a) The rules applicable to a particular station, including minimum and maximum facilities requirements, are determined by its class. Possible class designations depend upon the zone in which the station's transmitter is located, or proposed to be located. The zones are defined in § 73.205. Allotted station classes are indicated in the Table of Allotments, § 73.202. Class A, B1 and B stations may be authorized in Zones I and I-A. Class A, C3, C2, C1, C0 and C stations may be authorized in Zone II.

(b) The power and antenna height requirements for each class are set forth in § 73.211. If a station has an ERP and an antenna HAAT such that it cannot be classified using the maximum limits and minimum requirements in § 73.211, its class shall be determined using the following procedure:

(1) Determine the reference distance of the station using the procedure in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of § 73.211. If this distance is less than or equal to 28 km, the station is Class A; otherwise,

(2) For a station in Zone I or Zone I-A, except for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands:

(i) If this distance is greater than 28 km and less than or equal to 39 km, the station is Class B1.

(ii) If this distance is greater than 39 km and less than or equal to 52 km, the station is Class B.

(3) For a station in Zone II:

(i) If this distance is greater than 28 km and less than or equal to 39 km, the station is Class C3.

(ii) If this distance is greater than 39 km and less than or equal to 52 km, the station is Class C2.

(iii) If this distance is greater than 52 km and less than or equal to 72 km, the station is Class C1.

(iv) If this distance is greater than 72 km and less than or equal to 83 km, the station is Class C0.

(v) If this distance is greater than 83 km and less than or equal to 92 km, the station is Class C.

(4) For a station in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands:

(i) If this distance is less than or equal to 42 km, the station is Class A.

(ii) If this distance is greater than 42 km and less than or equal to 46 km, the station is Class B1.

(iii) If this distance is greater then 46 km and less than or equal to 78 km, the station is Class B.

[52 FR 37788, Oct. 9, 1987; 52 FR 39920, Oct. 26, 1987, as amended at 54 FR 16367, Apr. 24, 1989; 54 FR 19374, May 5, 1989; 54 FR 35339, Aug. 25, 1989; 65 FR 79777, Dec. 20, 2000]

§ 73.211 Power and antenna height requirements.

(a) Minimum requirements.

(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(3) and (b)(2) of this section, FM stations must operate with a minimum effective radiated power (ERP) as follows:

(i) The minimum ERP for Class A stations is 0.1 kW.

(ii) The ERP for Class B1 stations must exceed 6 kW.

(iii) The ERP for Class B stations must exceed 25 kW.

(iv) The ERP for Class C3 stations must exceed 6 kW.

(v) The ERP for Class C2 stations must exceed 25 kW.

(vi) The ERP for Class C1 stations must exceed 50 kW.

(vii) The minimum ERP for Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW.

(2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above average terrain (HAAT) of at least 300 meters (984 feet). Class C stations must have an antenna height above average terrain (HAAT) of at least 451 meters (1480 feet).

(3) Stations of any class except Class A may have an ERP less than that specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, provided that the reference distance, determined in accordance with paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, exceeds the distance to the class contour for the next lower class. Class A stations may have an ERP less than 100 watts provided that the reference distance, determined in accordance with paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, equals or exceeds 6 kilometers.

(b) Maximum limits.

(1) Except for stations located in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands, the maximum ERP in any direction, reference HAAT, and distance to the class contour for each FM station class are listed below:

Station class Maximum ERP Reference HAAT in meters (ft.) Class contour distance in kilometers
A 6 kW (7.8 dBk) 100 (328) 28
B1 25 kW (14.0 dBk) 100 (328) 39
B 50 kW (17.0 dBk) 150 (492) 52
C3 25 kW (14.0 dBk) 100 (328) 39
C2 50 kW (17.0 dBk) 150 (492) 52
C1 100 kW (20.0 dBk) 299 (981) 72
C0 100 kW (20.0 dBk) 450 (1476) 83
C 100 kW (20.0 dBk) 600 (1968) 92

(i) The reference distance of a station is obtained by finding the predicted distance to the 1mV/m contour using Figure 1 of § 73.333 and then rounding to the nearest kilometer. Antenna HAAT is determined using the procedure in § 73.313. If the HAAT so determined is less than 30 meters (100 feet), a HAAT of 30 meters must be used when finding the predicted distance to the 1 mV/m contour.

(ii) If a station's ERP is equal to the maximum for its class, its antenna HAAT must not exceed the reference HAAT, regardless of the reference distance. For example, a Class A station operating with 6 kW ERP may have an antenna HAAT of 100 meters, but not 101 meters, even though the reference distance is 28 km in both cases.

(iii) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, no station will be authorized in Zone I or I-A with an ERP equal to 50 kW and a HAAT exceeding 150 meters. No station will be authorized in Zone II with an ERP equal to 100 kW and a HAAT exceeding 600 meters.

(2) If a station has an antenna HAAT greater than the reference HAAT for its class, its ERP must be lower than the class maximum such that the reference distance does not exceed the class contour distance. If the antenna HAAT is so great that the station's ERP must be lower than the minimum ERP for its class (specified in paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(3) of this section), that lower ERP will become the minimum for that station.

(3) For stations located in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands, the maximum ERP in any direction, reference HAAT, and distance to the class contour for each FM station class are listed below:

Station class Maximum ERP Reference HAAT in meters (ft.) Class contour distance in kilometers
A 6kW (7.8 dBk) 240 (787) 42
B1 25kW (14.0 dBk) 150 (492) 46
B 50kW (17.0 dBk) 472 (1549) 78

(c) Existing stations. Stations authorized prior to March 1, 1984 that do not conform to the requirements of this section may continue to operate as authorized. Stations operating with facilities in excess of those specified in paragraph (b) of this section may not increase their effective radiated powers or extend their 1 mV/m field strength contour beyond the location permitted by their present authorizations. The provisions of this section will not apply to applications to increase facilities for those stations operating with less than the minimum power specified in paragraph (a) of this section.

(d) Existing Class C stations below minimum antenna HAAT. Class C stations authorized prior to January 19, 2001 that do not meet the minimum antenna HAAT specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section for Class C stations may continue to operate as authorized subject to the reclassification procedures set forth in Note 4 to § 73.3573.

[53 FR 17042, May 13, 1988, as amended at 54 FR 16367, Apr. 24, 1989; 54 FR 19374, May 5, 1989; 54 FR 35339, Aug. 25, 1989; 65 FR 79777, Dec. 20, 2000]

§ 73.212 Administrative changes in authorizations.

(a) In the issuance of FM broadcast station authorizations, the Commission will specify the transmitter output power and effective radiated power in accordance with the following tabulation:

Power (watts or kW) Rounded out to nearest figure (watts or kW)
1 to 3 .05
3 to 10 .1
10 to 30 .5
30 to 100 1
100 to 300 5
300 to 1,000 10

(b) Antenna heights above average terrain will be rounded out to the nearest meter.

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 48 FR 29506, June 27, 1983]

§ 73.213 Grandfathered short-spaced stations.

(a) Stations at locations authorized prior to November 16, 1964, that did not meet the separation distances required by § 73.207 and have remained continuously short-spaced since that time may be modified or relocated with respect to such short-spaced stations, provided that (i) any area predicted to receive interference lies completely within any area currently predicted to receive co-channel or first-adjacent channel interference as calculated in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, or that (ii) a showing is provided pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of this section that demonstrates that the public interest would be served by the proposed changes.

(1) The F(50,50) curves in Figure 1 of § 73.333 are to be used in conjunction with the proposed effective radiated power and antenna height above average terrain, as calculated pursuant to § 73.313(c), (d)(2) and (d)(3), using data for as many radials as necessary, to determine the location of the desired (service) field strength. The F(50,10) curves in Figure 1a of § 73.333 are to be used in conjunction with the proposed effective radiated power and antenna height above average terrain, as calculated pursuant to § 73.313(c), (d)(2) and (d)(3), using data for as many radials as necessary, to determine the location of the undesired (interfering) field strength. Predicted interference is defined to exist only for locations where the desired (service) field strength exceeds 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) for a Class B station, 0.7 mV/m (57 dBu) for a Class B1 station, and 1 mV/m (60 dBu) for any other class of station.

(i) Co-channel interference is predicted to exist, for the purpose of this section, at all locations where the undesired (interfering station) F(50,10) field strength exceeds a value 20 dB below the desired (service) F(50,50) field strength of the station being considered (e.g., where the protected field strength is 60 dBu, the interfering field strength must be 40 dBu or more for predicted interference to exist).

(ii) First-adjacent channel interference is predicted to exist, for the purpose of this section, at all locations where the undesired (interfering station) F(50,10) field strength exceeds a value 6 dB below the desired (service) F(50,50) field strength of the station being considered (e.g., where the protected field strength is 60 dBu, the interfering field strength must be 54 dBu or more for predicted interference to exist).

(2) For co-channel and first-adjacent channel stations, a showing that the public interest would be served by the changes proposed in an application must include exhibits demonstrating that the total area and population subject to co-channel or first-adjacent channel interference, caused and received, would be maintained or decreased. In addition, the showing must include exhibits demonstrating that the area and the population subject to co-channel or first-adjacent channel interference caused by the proposed facility to each short-spaced station individually is not increased. In all cases, the applicant must also show that any area predicted to lose service as a result of new co-channel or first-adjacent-channel interference has adequate aural service remaining. For the purpose of this section, adequate service is defined as 5 or more aural services (AM or FM).

(3) For co-channel and first-adjacent-channel stations, a copy of any application proposing interference caused in any areas where interference is not currently caused must be served upon the licensee(s) of the affected short-spaced station(s).

(4) For stations covered by this paragraph (a), there are no distance separation or interference protection requirements with respect to second-adjacent and third-adjacent channel short-spacings that have existed continuously since November 16, 1964.

(b) Stations at locations authorized prior to May 17, 1989, that did not meet the IF separation distances required by § 73.207 and have remained short-spaced since that time may be modified or relocated provided that the overlap area of the two stations' 36 mV/m field strength contours is not increased.

(c) Short spacings involving at least one Class A allotment or authorization. Stations that became short spaced on or after November 16, 1964 (including stations that do not meet the minimum distance separation requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section and that propose to maintain or increase their existing distance separations) may be modified or relocated in accordance with paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section, except that this provision does not apply to stations that became short spaced by grant of applications filed after October 1, 1989, or filed pursuant to § 73.215. If the reference coordinates of an allotment are short spaced to an authorized facility or another allotment (as a result of the revision of § 73.207 in the Second Report and Order in MM Docket No. 88-375), an application for the allotment may be authorized, and subsequently modified after grant, in accordance with paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section only with respect to such short spacing. No other stations will be authorized pursuant to these paragraphs.

(1) Applications for authorization under requirements equivalent to those of prior rules. Each application for authority to operate a Class A station with no more than 3000 watts ERP and 100 meters antenna HAAT (or equivalent lower ERP and higher antenna HAAT based on a class contour distance of 24 km) must specify a transmitter site that meets the minimum distance separation requirements in this paragraph. Each application for authority to operate a Class A station with more than 3000 watts ERP (up to a maximum of 5800 watts), but with an antenna HAAT lower than 100 meters such that the distance to the predicted 0.05 mV/m (34 dBµV/m) F(50,10) field strength contour does not exceed 98 km must specify a transmitter site that meets the minimum distance separation requirements in this paragraph. Each application for authority to operate an FM station of any class other than Class A must specify a transmitter site that meets the minimum distance separation requirements in this paragraph with respect to Class A stations operating pursuant to this paragraph or paragraph (c)(2) of this section, and that meets the minimum distance separation requirements of § 73.207 with respect to all other stations.

Minimum Distance Separation Requirements in Kilometers (miles)

Relation Co-channel 200 kHz 400/600 kHz 10.6/10.8 MHz
A to A 105 (65) 64 (40) 27 (17) 8 (5)
A to B1 138 (86) 88 (55) 48 (30) 11 (6)
A to B 163 (101) 105 (65) 69 (43) 14 (9)
A to C3 138 (86) 84 (52) 42 (26) 11 (6)
A to C2 163 (101) 105 (65) 55 (34) 14 (9)
A to C1 196 (122) 129 (80) 74 (46) 21 (13)
A to C 222 (138) 161 (100) 94 (58) 28 (17)

(2) Applications for authorization of Class A facilities greater than 3,000 watts ERP and 100 meters HAAT. Each application to operate a Class A station with an ERP and HAAT such that the reference distance would exceed 24 kilometers must contain an exhibit demonstrating the consent of the licensee of each co-channel, first, second or third adjacent channel station (for which the requirements of § 73.207 are not met) to a grant of that application. Each such application must specify a transmitter site that meets the applicable IF-related channel distance separation requirements of § 73.207. Applications that specify a new transmitter site which is short-spaced to an FM station other than another Class A station which is seeking a mutual increase in facilities may be granted only if no alternative fully-spaced site or less short-spaced site is available. Licensees of Class A stations seeking mutual increases in facilities need not show that a fully spaced site or less short-spaced site is available. Applications submitted pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph may be granted only if such action is consistent with the public interest.

[52 FR 37789, Oct. 9, 1987, as amended at 54 FR 14964, Apr. 14, 1989; 54 FR 35339, Aug. 25, 1989; 56 FR 27426, June 14, 1991; 62 FR 50521, Sept. 26, 1997; 63 FR 33876, June 22, 1998]

§ 73.215 Contour protection for short-spaced assignments.

The Commission will accept applications that specify short-spaced antenna locations (locations that do not meet the domestic co-channel and adjacent channel minimum distance separation requirements of § 73.207); Provided That, such applications propose contour protection, as defined in paragraph (a) of this section, with all short-spaced assignments, applications and allotments, and meet the other applicable requirements of this section. Each application to be processed pursuant to this section must specifically request such processing on its face, and must include the necessary exhibit to demonstrate that the requisite contour protection will be provided. Such applications may be granted when the Commission determines that such action would serve the public interest, convenience, and necessity.

(a) Contour protection. Contour protection, for the purpose of this section, means that on the same channel and on the first, second and third adjacent channels, the predicted interfering contours of the proposed station do not overlap the predicted protected contours of other short-spaced assignments, applications and allotments, and the predicted interfering contours of other short-spaced assignments, applications and allotments do not overlap the predicted protected contour of the proposed station.

(1) The protected contours, for the purpose of this section, are defined as follows. For all Class B and B1 stations on Channels 221 through 300 inclusive, the F(50,50) field strengths along the protected contours are 0.5 mV/m (54 dBµ) and 0.7 mV/m (57 dBµ), respectively. For all other stations, the F(50,50) field strength along the protected contour is 1.0 mV/m (60 dBµ).

(2) The interfering contours, for the purpose of this section, are defined as follows. For co-channel stations, the F(50,10) field strength along the interfering contour is 20 dB lower than the F(50,50) field strength along the protected contour for which overlap is prohibited. For first adjacent channel stations (±200 kHz), the F(50,10) field strength along the interfering contour is 6 dB lower than the F(50,50) field strength along the protected contour for which overlap is prohibited. For both second and third adjacent channel stations (±400 kHz and ±600 kHz), the F(50,10) field strength along the interfering contour is 40 dB higher than the F(50,50) field strength along the protected contour for which overlap is prohibited.

(3) The locations of the protected and interfering contours of the proposed station and the other short-spaced assignments, applications and allotments must be determined in accordance with the procedures of paragraphs (c), (d)(2) and (d)(3) of § 73.313, using data for as many radials as necessary to accurately locate the contours.

(4) Protected and interfering contours (in dBu) for stations in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands are as follows:

Station with interfering contour Station with protected contour
Class A Class B1 Class B
Interfering Protected Interfering Protected Interfering Protected
Co-Channel:
Class A 46 66 41 61 40 60
Class B1 43 63 39 59 38 58
Class B 45 65 41 61 41 61
1st Adj. Channel:
Class A 61 67 56 62 59 65
Class B1 57 63 54 60 54 60
Class B 62 68 56 62 57 63
2nd-3rd Adj. Channel:
Class A 107 67 100 60 104 64
Class B1 99 59 100 60 104 64
Class B 94 54 94 54 104 64

(b) Applicants requesting short-spaced assignments pursuant to this section must take into account the following factors in demonstrating that contour protection is achieved:

(1) The ERP and antenna HAAT of the proposed station in the direction of the contours of other short-spaced assignments, applications and allotments. If a directional antenna is proposed, the pattern of that antenna must be used to calculate the ERP in particular directions. See § 73.316 for additional requirements for directional antennas.

(2) The ERP and antenna HAAT of other short-spaced assignments, applications and allotments in the direction of the contours of the proposed station. The ERP and antenna HAATs in the directions of concern must be determined as follows:

(i) For vacant allotments, contours are based on the presumed use, at the allotment's reference point, of the maximum ERP that could be authorized for the station class of the allotment, and antenna HAATs in the directions of concern that would result from a non-directional antenna mounted at a standard eight-radial antenna HAAT equal to the reference HAAT for the station class of the allotment.

(ii) For existing stations that were not authorized pursuant to this section, including stations with authorized ERP that exceeds the maximum ERP permitted by § 73.211 for the standard eight-radial antenna HAAT employed, and for applications not requesting authorization pursuant to this section, contours are based on the presumed use of the maximum ERP for the applicable station class (as specified in § 73.211), and the antenna HAATs in the directions of concern that would result from a non-directional antenna mounted at a standard eight-radial antenna HAAT equal to the reference HAAT for the applicable station class, without regard to any other restrictions that may apply (e.g. zoning laws, FAA constraints, application of § 73.213).

(iii) For stations authorized pursuant to this section, except stations with authorized ERP that exceeds the maximum ERP permitted by § 73.211 for the standard eight-radial antenna HAAT employed, contours are based on the use of the authorized ERP in the directions of concern, and HAATs in the directions of concern derived from the authorized standard eight-radial antenna HAAT. For stations with authorized ERP that exceeds the maximum ERP permitted by § 73.211 for the standard eight-radial antenna HAAT employed, authorized under this section, contours are based on the presumed use of the maximum ERP for the applicable station class (as specified in § 73.211), and antenna HAATs in the directions of concern that would result from a non-directional antenna mounted at a standard eight-radial antenna HAAT equal to the reference HAAT for the applicable station class, without regard to any other restrictions that may apply.

(iv) For applications containing a request for authorization pursuant to this section, except for applications to continue operation with authorized ERP that exceeds the maximum ERP permitted by § 73.211 for the standard eight-radial antenna HAAT employed, contours are based on the use of the proposed ERP in the directions of concern, and antenna HAATs in the directions of concern derived from the proposed standard eight-radial antenna HAAT. For applications to continue operation with an ERP that exceeds the maximum ERP permitted by § 73.211 for the standard eight-radial HAAT employed, if processing is requested under this section, contours are based on the presumed use of the maximum ERP for the applicable station class (as specified in § 73.211), and antenna HAATs in the directions of concern that would result from a nondirectional antenna mounted at a standard eight-radial antenna HAAT equal to the reference HAAT for the applicable station class, without regard to any other restrictions that may apply.

Note to paragraph (b):

Applicants are cautioned that the antenna HAAT in any particular direction of concern will not usually be the same as the standard eight-radial antenna HAAT or the reference HAAT for the station class.

(c) Applications submitted for processing pursuant to this section are not required to propose contour protection of any assignment, application or allotment for which the minimum distance separation requirements of § 73.207 are met, and may, in the directions of those assignments, applications and allotments, employ the maximum ERP permitted by § 73.211 for the standard eight-radial antenna HAAT employed.

(d) Stations authorized pursuant to this section may be subsequently authorized on the basis of compliance with the domestic minimum separation distance requirements of § 73.207, upon filing of an FCC Form 301 or FCC Form 340 (as appropriate) requesting a modification of authorization.

(e) The Commission will not accept applications that specify a short-spaced antenna location for which the following minimum distance separation requirements, in kilometers (miles), are not met:

Relation Co-Channel 200 kHz 400/600 kHz
A to A 92 (57) 49 (30) 25 (16)
A to B1 119 (74) 72 (45) 42 (26)
A to B 143 (89) 96 (60) 63 (39)
A to C3 119 (74) 72 (45) 36 (22)
A to C2 143 (89) 89 (55) 49 (30)
A to C1 178 (111) 111 (69) 69 (43)
A to C0 193 (120) 130 (81) 80 (50)
A to C 203 (126) 142 (88) 89 (55)
B1 to B1 143 (89) 96 (60) 44 (27)
B1 to B 178 (111) 114 (71) 65 (40)
B1 to C3 143 (89) 96 (60) 44 (27)
B1 to C2 175 (109) 114 (71) 50 (31)
B1 to C1 200 (124) 134 (83) 71 (44)
B1 to C0 0215 (134) 153 (95) 81 (50)
B1 to C 233 (145) 165 (103) 99 (61)
B to B 211 (131) 145 (90) 68 (42)
B to C3 178 (111) 114 (70) 65 (40)
B to C2 211 (131) 145 (90) 68 (42)
B to C1 241 (150) 169 (105) 73 (45)
B to C0 266 (165) 195 (121) 83 (52)
B to C 268 (163) 195 (121) 99 (61)
C3 to C3 142 (88) 89 (55) 37 (23)
C3 to C2 166 (103) 106 (66) 50 (31)
C3 to C1 200 (124) 133 (83) 70 (43)
C3to C0 215 (134) 152 (94) 81 (50)
C3 to C 226 (140) 165 (103) 90 (56)
C2 to C2 177 (110) 117 (73) 52 (32)
C2 to C1 211 (131) 144 (90) 73 (45)
C2 to C0 227 (141) 163 (101) 83 (52)
C2 to C 237 (147) 176 (109) 96 (61)
C1 to C1 224 (139) 158 (98) 76 (47)
C1 to C0 239 (148) 176 (109) 88 (55)
C1 to C 249 (155) 188 (117) 99 (61)
C0 to C0 259 (161) 196 (122) 90 (56)
C0 to C 270 (168) 207 (129 99 (61)
C to C 270 (168) 209 (130) 99 (61)

[54 FR 9802, Mar. 8, 1989, as amended at 54 FR 35340, Aug. 25, 1989; 56 FR 57294, Nov. 8, 1991; 57 FR 46325, Oct. 8, 1992; 65 FR 79777, Dec. 20, 2000; 66 FR 8149, Jan. 29, 2001]

§ 73.220 Restrictions on use of channels.

(a) The frequency 89.1 MHz (channel 206) is revised in the New York City metropolitan area for the use of the United Nations with the equivalent of an antenna height of 150 meters (492 feet) above average terrain and effective radiated power of 20 kWs, and the FCC will make no assignments which would cause objectionable interference with such use.

(b) [Reserved]

[43 FR 45845, Oct. 4, 1978, as amended at 46 FR 50376, Oct. 13, 1981, 47 FR 30068, July 12, 1982; 48 FR 29507, June 27, 1983; 70 FR 46676, Aug. 10, 2005]

§ 73.232 Territorial exclusivity.

No licensee of an FM broadcast station shall have any arrangement with a network organization which prevents or hinders another station serving substantially the same area from broadcasting the network's programs not taken by the former station, or which prevents or hinders another station serving a substantially different area from broadcasting any program of the network organization: Provided, however, That this section does not prohibit arrangements under which the station is granted first call within its primary service area upon the network's programs. The term “network organization” means any organization originating program material, with or without commercial messages, and furnishing the same to stations interconnected so as to permit simultaneous broadcast by all or some of them. However, arrangements involving only stations under common ownership, or only the rebroadcast by one station of programming from another with no compensation other than a lump-sum payment by the station rebroadcasting, are not considered arrangements with a network organization. The term “arrangement“ means any contract, arrangement or understanding, express or implied.

[42 FR 16422, Mar. 28, 1977, as amended at 57 FR 48333, Oct. 23, 1992]

§ 73.258 Indicating instruments.

(a) Each FM broadcast station shall be equipped with indicating instruments which conform with the specifications described in § 73.1215 for determining power by the indirect method; for indicating the relative amplitude of the transmission line radio frequency current, voltage, or power; and with such other instruments as are necessary for the proper adjustment, operation, and maintenance of the transmitting system.

(b) The function of each instrument shall be clearly and permanently shown in the instrument itself or on the panel immediately adjacent thereto.

(c) In the event that any one of these indicating instruments becomes defective when no substitute which conforms with the required specifications is available, the station may be operated without the defective instrument pending its repair or replacement for a period not in excess of 60 days without further authority of the FCC: Provided that, if the defective instrument is the transmission line meter of a station which determines the output power by the direct method, the operating power shall be determined by the indirect method in accordance with § 73.267(c) during the entire time the station is operated without the transmission line meter.

(d) If conditions beyond the control of the licensee prevent the restoration of the meter to service within the above allowed period, an informal letter request in accordance with § 73.3549 may be filed with the FCC, Attention: Audio Division, Media Bureau, in Washington, DC for such additional time as may be required to complete repairs of the defective instrument.

[41 FR 36818, Sept. 1, 1976, as amended at 48 FR 44805, Sept. 30, 1983; 50 FR 32416, Aug. 12, 1985; 63 FR 33876, June 22, 1998; 67 FR 13231, Mar. 21, 2002]

§ 73.267 Determining operating power.

(a) The operating power of each FM station is to be determined by either the direct or indirect method.

(b) Direct method. The direct method of power determination for an FM station uses the indications of a calibrated transmission line meter (responsive to relative voltage, current, or power) located at the RF output terminals of the transmitter. This meter must be calibrated whenever there is any indication that the calibration is inaccurate or whenever any component of the metering circuit is repaired or replaced. The calibration must cover, as a minimum, the range from 90% to 105% of authorized power. The meter calibration may be checked by measuring the power at the transmitter terminals while either:

(1) Operating the transmitter into the transmitting antenna, and determining actual operating power by the indirect method described in § 73.267(c); or

(2) Operating the transmitter into a load (of substantially zero reactance and a resistance equal to the transmission line characteristic impedance) and using an electrical device (within ±5% accuracy) or temperature and coolant flow indicator (within ±4% accuracy) to determine the power.

(3) The calibration must cover, as a minimum, the range from 90% to 105% of authorized power and the meter must provide clear indications which will permit maintaining the operating power within the prescribed tolerance or the meter shall be calibrated to read directly in power units.

(c) Indirect method. The operating power is determined by the indirect method by applying an appropriate factor to the input power to the last radio-frequency power amplifier stage of the transmitter, using the following formula:

Transmitter output power = Ep × Ip × F

Where:

Ep = DC input voltage of final radio stage.

Ip = Total DC input current of final radio stage.

F = Efficiency factor.

(1) If the above formula is not appropriate for the design of the transmitter final amplifier, use a formula specified by the transmitter manufacturer with other appropriate operating parameters.

(2) The value of the efficiency factor, F, established for the authorized transmitter output power is to be used for maintaining the operating power, even though there may be some variation in F over the power operating range of the transmitter.

(3) The value of F is to be determined and a record kept thereof by one of the following procedures listed in order of preference:

(i) Using the most recent measurement data for calibration of the transmission line meter according to the procedures described in paragraph (b) of this section or the most recent measurements made by the licensee establishing the value of F. In the case of composite transmitters or those in which the final amplifier stages have been modified pursuant to FCC approval, the licensee must furnish the FCC and also retain with the station records the measurement data used as a basis for determining the value of F.

(ii) Using measurement data shown on the transmitter manufacturer's test data supplied to the licensee; Provided, That measurements were made at the authorized frequency and transmitter output power.

(iii) Using the transmitter manufacturer's measurement data submitted to the FCC for type acceptance and as shown in the instruction book supplied to the licensee.

[44 FR 58731, Oct. 11, 1979, as amended at 45 FR 28141, Apr. 28, 1980; 48 FR 38479, Aug. 24, 1983; 49 FR 4210, Feb. 3, 1984; 49 FR 49851, Dec. 24, 1984]

§ 73.277 Permissible transmissions.

(a) No FM broadcast licensee or permittee shall enter into any agreement, arrangement or understanding, oral or written, whereby it undertakes to supply, or receives consideration for supplying, on its main channel a functional music, background music, or other subscription service (including storecasting) for reception in the place or places of business of any subscriber.

(b) The transmission (or interruption) of radio energy in the FM broadcast band is permissible only pursuant to a station license, program test authority, construction permit, or experimental authorization and the provisions of this part of the rules.

[29 FR 7471, June 10, 1964. Redesignated at 39 FR 38655, Nov. 1, 1974 and amended at 48 FR 28454, June 22, 1983]

§ 73.293 Use of FM multiplex subcarriers.

Licensees of FM broadcast stations may transmit, without further authorization, subcarrier communication services in accordance with the provisions of §§ 73.319 and 73.322.

[51 FR 17028, May 8, 1986]

§ 73.295 FM subsidiary communications services.

(a) Subsidiary communication services are those transmitted on a subcarrier within the FM baseband signal, but do not include services which enhance the main program broadcast service, or exclusively relate to station operations (see § 73.293). Subsidiary communications include, but are not limited to services such as functional music, specialized foreign language programs, radio reading services, utility load management, market and financial data and news, paging and calling, traffic control signal switching, bilingual television audio, and point to point or multipoint messages.

(b) FM subsidiary communications services that are common carrier in nature are subject to common carrier regulation. Licensees operating such services are required to apply to the FCC for the appropriate authorization and to comply with all policies and rules applicable to the service. Responsibility for making the initial determinations of whether a particular activity is common carriage rests with the FM station licensee. Initial determinations by licensees are subject to FCC examination and may be reviewed at the FCC's discretion.

(c) Subsidiary communications services are of a secondary nature under the authority of the FM station authorization, and the authority to provide such communications services may not be retained or transferred in any manner separate from the station's authorization. The grant or renewal of an FM station permit or license is not furthered or promoted by proposed or past services. The permittee or licensee must establish that the broadcast operation is in the public interest wholly apart from the subsidiary communications services provided.

(d) The station identification, delayed recording and sponsor identification announcements required by §§ 73.1201, 73.1208, and 73.1212 are not applicable to material transmitted under an SCA.

(e) The licensee or permittee must retain control over all material transmitted in a broadcast mode via the station's facilities, with the right to reject any material that it deems inappropriate or undesirable.

[48 FR 28454, June 22, 1983, as amended at 48 FR 44805, Sept. 30, 1983; 49 FR 33663, Aug. 15, 1984; 50 FR 32416, Aug. 12, 1985; 57 FR 48333, Oct. 23, 1992]

§ 73.297 FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

(a) An FM broadcast station may, without specific authority from the FCC, transmit stereophonic (biphonic, quadraphonic, etc.) sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment under the provisions of §§ 2.1001, 73.322, and 73.1590 of the Rules. Prior to commencement of stereophonic sound broadcasting, equipment performance measurements must be made to ensure that the transmitted signal complies with all applicable rules and standards.

(b) Each licensee or permittee engaging in multichannel broadcasting must measure the pilot subcarrier frequency as often as necessary to ensure that it is kept at all times within 2 Hz of the authorized frequency.

[48 FR 28454, June 22, 1983, and 48 FR 38479, Aug. 24, 1983]

§ 73.310 FM technical definitions.

(a) Frequency modulation. Antenna height above average terrain (HAAT). HAAT is calculated by: determining the average of the antenna heights above the terrain from 3 to 16 kilometers (2 to 10 miles) from the antenna for the eight directions evenly spaced for each 45° of azimuth starting with True North (a different antenna height will be determined in each direction from the antenna): and computing the average of these separate heights. In some cases less than eight directions may be used. (See § 73.313(d).) Where circular or elliptical polarization is used, the antenna height above average terrain must be based upon the height of the radiation of the antenna that transmits the horizontal component of radiation.

Antenna power gain. The square of the ratio of the root-mean-square (RMS) free space field strength produced at 1 kilometer in the horizontal plane in millivolts per meter for 1 kW antenna input power to 221.4 mV/m. This ratio is expressed in decibels (dB). If specified for a particular direction, antenna power gain is based on that field strength in the direction only.

Auxiliary facility. An auxiliary facility is an antenna separate from the main facility's antenna, permanently installed on the same tower or at a different location, from which a station may broadcast for short periods without prior Commission authorization or notice to the Commission while the main facility is not in operation (e.g., where tower work necessitates turning off the main antenna or where lightning has caused damage to the main antenna or transmission system) (See § 73.1675).

Center frequency. The term “center frequency” means:

(1) The average frequency of the emitted wave when modulated by a sinusoidal signal.

(2) The frequency of the emitted wave without modulation.

Composite antenna pattern. The composite antenna pattern is a relative field horizontal plane pattern for 360 degrees of azimuth, for which the value at a particular azimuth is the greater of the horizontally polarized or vertically polarized component relative field values. The composite antenna pattern is normalized to a maximum of unity (1.000) relative field.

Composite baseband signal. A signal which is composed of all program and other communications signals that frequency modulates the FM carrier.

Effective radiated power. The term “effective radiated power” means the product of the antenna power (transmitter output power less transmission line loss) times: (1) The antenna power gain, or (2) the antenna field gain squared. Where circular or elliptical polarization is employed, the term effective radiated power is applied separately to the horizontal and vertical components of radiation. For allocation purposes, the effective radiated power authorized is the horizontally polarized component of radiation only.

Equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP). The term “equivalent isotropically radiated power (also known as “effective radiated power above isotropic) means the product of the antenna input power and the antenna gain in a given direction relative to an isotropic antenna.

FM Blanketing. Blanketing is that form of interference to the reception of other broadcast stations which is caused by the presence of an FM broadcast signal of 115 dBu (562 mV/m) or greater signal strength in the area adjacent to the antenna of the transmitting station. The 115 dBu contour is referred to as the blanketing contour and the area within this contour is referred to as the blanketing area.

FM broadcast band. The band of frequencies extending from 88 to 108 MHz, which includes those assigned to noncommercial educational broadcasting.

FM broadcast channel. A band of frequencies 200 kHz wide and designated by its center frequency. Channels for FM broadcast stations begin at 88.1 MHz and continue in successive steps of 200 kHz to and including 107.9 MHz.

FM broadcast station. A station employing frequency modulation in the FM broadcast band and licensed primarily for the transmission of radiotelephone emissions intended to be received by the general public.

Field strength. The electric field strength in the horizontal plane.

Free space field strength. The field strength that would exist at a point in the absence of waves reflected from the earth or other reflecting objects.

Frequency departure. The amount of variation of a carrier frequency or center frequency from its assigned value.

Frequency deviation. The peak difference between modulated wave and the carrier frequency.

Frequency modulation. A system of modulation where the instantaneous radio frequency varies in proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal (amplitude of modulating signal to be measured after pre-emphasis, if used) and the instantaneous radio frequency is independent of the frequency of the modulating signal.

Frequency swing. The peak difference between the maximum and the minimum values of the instantaneous frequency of the carrier wave during modulation.

Multiplex transmission. The term “multiplex transmission” means the simultaneous transmission of two or more signals within a single channel. Multiplex transmission as applied to FM broadcast stations means the transmission of facsimile or other signals in addition to the regular broadcast signals.

Percentage modulation. The ratio of the actual frequency deviation to the frequency deviation defined as 100% modulation, expressed in percentage. For FM broadcast stations, a frequency deviation of ±75kHz is defined as 100% modulation.

(b) Stereophonic sound broadcasting. Cross-talk. An undesired signal occurring in one channel caused by an electrical signal in another channel.

FM stereophonic broadcast. The transmission of a stereophonic program by a single FM broadcast station utilizing the main channel and a stereophonic subchannel.

Left (or right) signal. The electrical output of a microphone or combination of microphones placed so as to convey the intensity, time, and location of sounds originating predominately to the listener's left (or right) of the center of the performing area.

Left (or right) stereophonic channel. The left (or right) signal as electrically reproduced in reception of FM stereophonic broadcasts.

Main channel. The band of frequencies from 50 to 15,000 Hz which frequency-modulate the main carrier.

Pilot subcarrier. A subcarrier that serves as a control signal for use in the reception of FM stereophonic sound broadcasts.

Stereophonic separation. The ratio of the electrical signal caused in sound channel A to the signal caused in sound channel B by the transmission of only a channel B signal. Channels A and B may be any two channels of a stereophonic sound broadcast transmission system.

Stereophonic sound. The audio information carried by plurality of channels arranged to afford the listener a sense of the spatial distribution of sound sources. Stereophonic sound broadcasting includes, but is not limited to, biphonic (two channel), triphonic (three channel) and quadrophonic (four channel) program services.

Stereophonic sound subcarrier. A subcarrier within the FM broadcast baseband used for transmitting signals for stereophonic sound reception of the main broadcast program service.

Stereophonic sound subchannel. The band of frequencies from 23 kHz to 99 kHz containing sound subcarriers and their associated sidebands.

(c) Visual transmissions. Communications or message transmitted on a subcarrier intended for reception and visual presentation on a viewing screen, teleprinter, facsimile printer, or other form of graphic display or record.

(d) Control and telemetry transmissions. Signals transmitted on a multiplex subcarrier intended for any form of control and switching functions or for equipment status data and aural or visual alarms.

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 39 FR 10575, Mar. 21, 1974; 44 FR 36038, June 20, 1979; 48 FR 28454, June 22, 1983; 48 FR 29507, June 27, 1983; 48 FR 37216, Aug. 17, 1983; 49 FR 45145, Nov. 15, 1984; 57 FR 48333, Oct. 23, 1992; 62 FR 51058, Sept. 30, 1997]

§ 73.311 Field strength contours.

(a) Applications for FM broadcast authorizations must show the field strength contours required by FCC Form 301 or FCC Form 340, as appropriate.

(b) The field strength contours provided for in this section shall be considered for the following purposes only:

(1) In the estimation of coverage resulting from the selection of a particular transmitter site by an applicant for an FM broadcast station.

(2) In connection with problems of coverage arising out of application of § 73.3555.

(3) In determining compliance with § 73.315(a) concerning the minimum field strength to be provided over the principal community to be served.

(4) In determining compliance with § 73.215 concerning contour protection.

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 31 FR 10126, July 27, 1966; 32 FR 11471, Aug. 9, 1967; 52 FR 10570, Apr. 2, 1987; 54 FR 9802, Mar. 8, 1989]

§ 73.312 Topographic data.

(a) In the preparation of the profile graphs previously described, and in determining the location and height above mean sea level of the antenna site, the elevation or contour intervals shall be taken from United States Geological Survey Topographic Quadrangle Maps, United States Army Corps of Engineers Maps or Tennessee Valley Authority maps, whichever is the latest, for all areas for which such maps are available. If such maps are not published for the area in question, the next best topographic information should be used. Topographic data may sometimes be obtained from state and municipal agencies. The data from the Sectional Aeronautical Charts (including bench marks) or railroad depot elevations and highway elevations from road maps may be used where no better information is available. In cases where limited topographic data can be obtained, use may be made of an altimeter in a car driven along roads extending generally radially from the transmitter site.

(b) The Commission will not ordinarily require the submission of topographical maps for areas beyond 24 km (15 miles) from the antenna site, but the maps must include the principal city or cities to be served. If it appears necessary, additional data may be requested.

(c) The U.S. Geological Survey Topography Quadrangle Sheets may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Department of the Interior, Washington, DC 20240. The Sectional Aeronautical Charts are available from the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Department of Commerce, Washington, DC 20235. These maps may also be secured from branch offices and from authorized agents or dealers in most principal cities.

(d) In lieu of maps, the average terrain elevation may be computer generated except in cases of dispute, using elevations from a 30 second, point or better topographic data file. The file must be identified and the data processed for intermediate points along each radial using linear interpolation techniques. The height above mean sea level of the antenna site must be obtained manually using appropriate topographic maps.

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 31 FR 10126, July 27, 1966; 49 FR 48937, Dec. 17, 1984; 58 FR 44950, Aug. 25, 1993; 63 FR 33877, June 22, 1998]

§ 73.313 Prediction of coverage.

(a) All predictions of coverage made pursuant to this section shall be made without regard to interference and shall be made only on the basis of estimated field strengths.

(b) Predictions of coverage shall be made only for the same purposes as relate to the use of field strength contours as specified in § 73.311.

(c) In predicting the distance to the field strength contours, the F(50,50) field strength chart, Figure 1 of § 73.333 must be used. The 50% field strength is defined as that value exceeded for 50% of the time.

(1) The F(50,50) chart gives the estimated 50% field strengths exceeded at 50% of the locations in dB above 1 uV/m. The chart is based on an effective power radiated from a half-wave dipole antenna in free space, that produces an unattenuated field strength at 1 kilometer of about 107 dB above 1 uV/m (221.4 mV/m).

(2) To use the chart for other ERP values, convert the ordinate scale by the appropriate adjustment in dB. For example, the ordinate scale for an ERP of 50 kW should be adjusted by 17 dB [10 log (50 kW) = 17 dBk], and therefore a field strength of 60 dBu would correspond to the field strength value at (60−17 =) 44 dBu on the chart. When predicting the distance to field strength contours, use the maximum ERP of the main radiated lobe in the pertinent azimuthal direction (do not account for beam tilt). When predicting field strengths over areas not in the plane of the maximum main lobe, use the ERP in the direction of such areas, determined by considering the appropriate vertical radiation pattern.

(d) The antenna height to be used with this chart is the height of the radiation center of the antenna above the average terrain along the radial in question. In determining the average elevation of the terrain, the elevations between 3 and 16 kilometers from the antenna site are used.

(1) Profile graphs must be drawn for eight radials beginning at the antenna site and extending 16 kilometers therefrom. The radials should be drawn for each 45° of azimuth starting with True North. At least one radial must include the principal community to be served even though it may be more than 16 kilometers from the antenna site. However, in the event none of the evenly spaced radials include the principal community to be served, and one or more such radials are drawn in addition, these radials must not be used in computing the antenna height above average terrain.

(2) Where the 3 to 16 kilometers portion of a radial extends in whole or in part over a large body of water or extends over foreign territory but the 50 uV/m (34 dBu) contour encompasses land area within the United States beyond the 16 kilometers portion of the radial, the entire 3 to 16 kilometers portion of the radial must be included in the computation of antenna height above average terrain. However, where the 50 uV/m (34 dBu) contour does not so encompass United States land area, and

(i) the entire 3 to 16 kilometers portion of the radial extends over large bodies of water or over foreign territory, such radial must be completely omitted from the computation of antenna height above average terrain, and

(ii) where a part of the 3 to 16 kilometers portion of a radial extends over large bodies of water or foreign territory, only that part of the radial extending from 3 kilometers to the outermost portion of land in the United States covered by the radial used must be used in the computation of antenna height above average terrain.

(3) The profile graph for each radial should be plotted by contour intervals of from 12 to 30 meters and, where the data permits, at least 50 points of elevation (generally uniformly spaced) should be used for each radial. In instances of very rugged terrain where the use of contour intervals of 30 meters would result in several points in a short distance, 60 or 120 meter contour intervals may be used for such distances. On the other hand, where the terrain is uniform or gently sloping the smallest contour interval indicated on the topographic map should be used, although only relatively few points may be available. The profile graph should indicate the topography accurately for each radial, and the graphs should be plotted with the distance in kilometers as the abscissa and the elevation in meters above mean sea level as the ordinate. The profile graphs should indicate the source of the topographical data used. The graph should also show the elevation of the center of the radiating system. The graph may be plotted either on rectangular coordinate paper or on special paper that shows the curvature of the earth. It is not necessary to take the curvature of the earth into consideration in this procedure as this factor is taken care of in the charts showing signal strengths. The average elevation of the 13 kilometer distance between 3 and 16 kilometers from the antenna site should then be determined from the profile graph for each radial. This may be obtained by averaging a large number of equally spaced points, by using a planimeter, or by obtaining the median elevation (that exceeded for 50% of the distance) in sectors and averaging those values.

(4) Examples of HAAT calculations:

(i) The heights above average terrain on the eight radials are as follows:

Meters
120
45° 255
90° 185
135° 90
180° −10
225° −85
270° 40
315° 85

The antenna height above terrain (defined in § 73.310(a)) is computed as follows:

(120 + 255 + 185 + 90 − 10 − 85 + 40 + 85) / 8 = 85 meters.

(ii) Same as paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section, except the 0° radial is entirely over sea water. The antenna height above average terrain is computed as follows (note that the divisor is 7 not 8):

(255 + 185 + 90 − 10 − 85 + 40 + 85) / 7 = 80 meters.

(iii) Same as paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section, except that only the first 10 kilometers of the 90° radial are in the United States; beyond 10 kilometers the 90° radial is in a foreign country. The height above average terrain of the 3 to 10 kilometer portion of the 90° radial is 105 meters. The antenna height above average terrain is computed as follows (note that the divisor is 8 not 7.5):

(120 + 255 + 105 + 90 − 10 − 85 + 40 + 85) / 8 = 75 meters.

(e) In cases where the terrain in one or more directions from the antenna site departs widely from the average elevation of the 3 to 16 kilometer sector, the prediction method may indicate contour distances that are different from what may be expected in practice. For example, a mountain ridge may indicate the practical limit of service although the prediction method may indicate otherwise. In such cases, the prediction method should be followed, but a supplemental showing may be made concerning the contour distances as determined by other means. Such supplemental showings should describe the procedure used and should include sample calculations. Maps of predicted coverage should include both the coverage as predicted by the regular method and as predicted by a supplemental method. When measurements of area are required, these should include the area obtained by the regular prediction method and the area obtained by the supplemental method. In directions where the terrain is such that antenna heights less than 30 meters for the 3 to 16 kilometer sector are obtained, an assumed height of 30 meters must be used for the prediction of coverage. However, where the actual contour distances are critical factors, a supplemental showing of expected coverage must be included together with a description of the method used in predicting such coverage. In special cases, the FCC may require additional information as to terrain and coverage.

(f) The effect of terrain roughness on the predicted field strength of a signal at points distant from an FM transmitting antenna is assumed to depend on the magnitude of a terrain roughness factor (h) which, for a specific propagation path, is determined by the characteristics of a segment of the terrain profile for that path 40 kilometers in length located between 10 and 50 kilometers from the antenna. The terrain roughness factor has a value equal to the distance, in meters, between elevations exceeded by all points on the profile for 10% and 90% respectively, of the length of the profile segment. (See § 73.333, Figure 4.)

(g) If the lowest field strength value of interest is initially predicted to occur over a particular propagation path at a distance that is less than 50 kilometers from the antenna, the terrain profile segment used in the determination of terrain roughness factor over that path must be that included between points 10 kilometers from the transmitter and such lesser distances. No terrain roughness correction need be applied when all field strength values of interest are predicted to occur 10 kilometers or less from the transmitting antenna.

(h) Profile segments prepared for terrain roughness factor determinations are to be plotted in rectangular coordinates, with no less than 50 points evenly spaced within the segment using data obtained from topographic maps with contour intervals of approximately 15 meters (50 feet) or less if available.

(i) The field strength charts (§ 73.333, Figs. 1-1a) were developed assuming a terrain roughness factor of 50 meters, which is considered to be representative of average terrain in the United States. Where the roughness factor for a particular propagation path is found to depart appreciably from this value, a terrain roughness correction (ΔF) should be applied to field strength values along this path, as predicted with the use of these charts. The magnitude and sign of this correction, for any value of Δh, may be determined from a chart included in § 73.333 as Figure 5.

(j) Alternatively, the terrain roughness correction may be computed using the following formula:

ΔF = 1.9−0.03(Δh)(1 + f/300)

Where:

ΔF = terrain roughness correction in dB

Δk = terrain roughness factor in meters

f = frequency of signal in MHz (MHz)

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 40 FR 27678, July 1, 1975; 48 FR 29507, June 27, 1983; 52 FR 11655, Apr. 10, 1987; 52 FR 37789, Oct. 9, 1987; 57 FR 48333, Oct. 23, 1992; 63 FR 33877, June 22, 1998]

§ 73.314 Field strength measurements.

(a) Except as provided for in § 73.209, FM broadcast stations shall not be protected from any type of interference or propagation effect. Persons desiring to submit testimony, evidence or data to the Commission for the purpose of showing that the technical standards contained in this subpart do not properly reflect the levels of any given type of interference or propagation effect may do so only in appropriate rule making proceedings concerning the amendment of such technical standards. Persons making field strength measurements for formal submission to the Commission in rule making proceedings, or making such measurements upon the request of the Commission, shall follow the procedure for making and reporting such measurements outlined in paragraph (b) of this section. In instances where a showing of the measured level of a signal prevailing over a specific community is appropriate, the procedure for making and reporting field strength measurements for this purpose is set forth in paragraph (c) of this section.

(b) Collection of field strength data for propagation analysis.

(1) Preparation for measurements.

(i) On large scale topographic maps, eight or more radials are drawn from the transmitter location to the maximum distance at which measurements are to be made, with the angles included between adjacent radials of approximately equal size. Radials should be oriented so as to traverse representative types of terrain. The specific number of radials and their orientation should be such as to accomplish this objective.

(ii) Each radial is marked, at a point exactly 16 kilometers from the transmitter and, at greater distances, at successive 3 kilometer intervals. Where measurements are to be conducted over extremely rugged terrain, shorter intervals may be used, but all such intervals must be of equal length. Accessible roads intersecting each radial as nearly as possible at each 3 kilometer marker are selected. These intersections are the points on the radial at which measurements are to be made, and are referred to subsequently as measuring locations. The elevation of each measuring location should approach the elevation at the corresponding 3 kilometer marker as nearly as possible.

(2) Measurement procedure. All measurements must be made utilizing a receiving antenna designed for reception of the horizontally polarized signal component, elevated 9 meters above the roadbed. At each measuring location, the following procedure must be used:

(i) The instrument calibration is checked.

(ii) The antenna is elevated to a height of 9 meters.

(iii) The receiving antenna is rotated to determine if the strongest signal is arriving from the direction of the transmitter.

(iv) The antenna is oriented so that the sector of its response pattern over which maximum gain is realized is in the direction of the transmitter.

(v) A mobile run of at least 30 meters is made, that is centered on the intersection of the radial and the road, and the measured field strength is continuously recorded on a chart recorder over the length of the run.

(vi) The actual measuring location is marked exactly on the topographic map, and a written record, keyed to the specific location, is made of all factors which may affect the recorded field, such as topography, height and types of vegetation, buildings, obstacles, weather, and other local features.

(vii) If, during the test conducted as described in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section, the strongest signal is found to come from a direction other than from the transmitter, after the mobile run prescribed in paragraph (b)(2)(v) of this section is concluded, additional measurements must be made in a “cluster” of at least five fixed points. At each such point, the field strengths with the antenna oriented toward the transmitter, and with the antenna oriented so as to receive the strongest field, are measured and recorded. Generally, all points should be within 60 meters of the center point of the mobile run.

(viii) If overhead obstacles preclude a mobile run of at least 30 meters, a “cluster” of five spot measurements may be made in lieu of this run. The first measurement in the cluster is identified. Generally, the locations for other measurements must be within 60 meters of the location of the first.

(3) Method of reporting measurements. A report of measurements to the Commission shall be submitted in affidavit form, in triplicate, and should contain the following information:

(i) Tables of field strength measurements, which, for each measuring location, set forth the following data:

(A) Distance from the transmitting antenna.

(B) Ground elevation at measuring location.

(C) Date, time of day, and weather.

(D) Median field in dBu for 0 dBk, for mobile run or for cluster, as well as maximum and minimum measured field strengths.

(E) Notes describing each measuring location.

(ii) U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps, on which is shown the exact location at which each measurement was made. The original plots shall be made on maps of the largest available scale. Copies may be reduced in size for convenient submission to the Commission, but not to the extent that important detail is lost. The original maps shall be made available, if requested. If a large number of maps is involved, an index map should be submitted.

(iii) All information necessary to determine the pertinent characteristics of the transmitting installation, including frequency, geographical coordinates of antenna site, rated and actual power output of transmitter, measured transmission line loss, antenna power gain, height of antenna above ground, above mean sea level, and above average terrain. The effective radiated power should be computed, and horizontal and vertical plane patterns of the transmitting antenna should be submitted.

(iv) A list of calibrated equipment used in the field strength survey, which, for each instrument, specifies its manufacturer, type, serial number and rated accuracy, and the date of its most recent calibration by the manufacturer, or by a laboratory. Complete details of any instrument not of standard manufacture shall be submitted.

(v) A detailed description of the calibration of the measuring equipment, including field strength meters, measuring antenna, and connecting cable.

(vi) Terrain profiles in each direction in which measurements were made, drawn on curved earth paper for equivalent 4/3 earth radius, of the largest available scale.

(c) Collection of field strength data to determine FM broadcast service in specific communities.

(1) Preparation for measurement.

(i) The population (P) of the community, and its suburbs, if any, is determined by reference to an appropriate source, e.g., the 1970 U.S. Census tables of population of cities and urbanized areas.

(ii) The number of locations at which measurements are to be made shall be at least 15, and shall be approximately equal to 0.1(P)1/2, if this product is a number greater than 15.

(iii) A rectangular grid, of such size and shape as to encompass the boundaries of the community is drawn on an accurate map of the community. The number of line intersections on the grid included within the boundaries of the community shall be at least equal to the required number of measuring locations. The position of each intersection on the community map determines the location at which a measurement shall be made.

(2) Measurement procedure. All measurements must be made using a receiving antenna designed for reception of the horizontally polarized signal component, elevated 9 meters above ground level.

(i) Each measuring location shall be chosen as close as feasible to a point indicated on the map, as previously prepared, and at as nearly the same elevation as that point as possible.

(ii) At each measuring location, after equipment calibration and elevation of the antenna, a check is made to determine whether the strongest signal arrives from a direction other than from the transmitter.

(iii) At 20 percent or more of the measuring locations, mobile runs, as described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section shall be made, with no less than three such mobile runs in any case. The points at which mobile measurements are made shall be well separated. Spot measurements may be made at other measuring points.

(iv) Each actual measuring location is marked exactly on the map of the community, and suitably keyed. A written record shall be maintained, describing, for each location, factors which may affect the recorded field, such as the approximate time of measurement, weather, topography, overhead wiring, heights and types of vegetation, buildings and other structures. The orientation, with respect to the measuring location shall be indicated of objects of such shape and size as to be capable of causing shadows or reflections. If the strongest signal received was found to arrive from a direction other than that of the transmitter, this fact shall be recorded.

(3) Method of reporting measurements. A report of measurements to the Commission shall be submitted in affidavit form, in triplicate, and should contain the following information:

(i) A map of the community showing each actual measuring location, specifically identifying the points at which mobile runs were made.

(ii) A table keyed to the above map, showing the field strength at each measuring point, reduced to dBu for the actual effective radiated power of the station. Weather, date, and time of each measurement shall be indicated.

(iii) Notes describing each measuring location.

(iv) A topographic map of the largest available scale on which are marked the community and the transmitter site of the station whose signals have been measured, which includes all areas on or near the direct path of signal propagation.

(v) Computations of the mean and standard deviation of all measured field strengths, or a graph on which the distribution of measured field strength values is plotted.

(vi) A list of calibrated equipment used for the measurements, which for each instrument, specifies its manufacturer, type, serial number and rated accuracy, and the date of its most recent calibration by the manufacturer, or by a laboratory. Complete details of any instrument not of standard manufacture shall be submitted.

(vii) A detailed description of the procedure employed in the calibration of the measuring equipment, including field strength meters, measuring antenna, and connecting cable.

[40 FR 27682, July 1, 1975; 40 FR 28802, July 9, 1975, as amended at 48 FR 29508, June 27, 1983]

§ 73.315 FM transmitter location.

(a) The transmitter location shall be chosen so that, on the basis of the effective radiated power and antenna height above average terrain employed, a minimum field strength of 70 dB above one uV/m (dBu), or 3.16 mV/m, will be provided over the entire principal community to be served.

(b) The transmitter location should be chosen to maximize coverage to the city of license while minimizing interference. This is normally accomplished by locating in the least populated area available while maintaining the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section. In general, the transmitting antenna of a station should be located in the most sparsely populated area available at the highest elevation available. The location of the antenna should be so chosen that line-of-sight can be obtained from the antenna over the principle city or cities to be served; in no event should there be a major obstruction in this path.

(c) The transmitting location should be selected so that the 1 mV/m contour encompasses the urban population within the area to be served. It is recognized that topography, shape of the desired service area, and population distribution may make the choice of a transmitter location difficult. In such cases consideration may be given to the use of a directional antenna system, although it is generally preferable to choose a site where a nondirectional antenna may be employed.

(d) In cases of questionable antenna locations it is desirable to conduct propagation tests to indicate the field strength expected in the principal city or cities to be served and in other areas, particularly where severe shadow problems may be expected. In considering applications proposing the use of such locations, the Commission may require site tests to be made. Such tests should include measurements made in accordance with the measurement procedures described in § 73.314, and full data thereon shall be supplied to the Commission. The test transmitter should employ an antenna having a height as close as possible to the proposed antenna height, using a balloon or other support if necessary and feasible. Information concerning the authorization of site tests may be obtained from the Commission upon request.

(e) Cognizance must of course be taken regarding the possible hazard of the proposed antenna structure to aviation and the proximity of the proposed site to airports and airways. Procedures and standards with respect to the Commission's consideration of proposed antenna structures which will serve as a guide to persons intending to apply for radio station licenses are contained in Part 17 of this chapter (Construction, Marking, and Lighting of Antenna Structures).

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 41 FR 22943, June 8, 1976; 49 FR 38131, Sept. 27, 1984; 49 FR 45146, Nov. 15, 1984; 51 FR 9965, Mar. 24, 1986; 52 FR 10570, Apr. 2, 1987; 65 FR 79778, Dec. 20, 2000]

§ 73.316 FM antenna systems.

(a) It shall be standard to employ horizontal polarization; however, circular or elliptical polarization may be employed if desired. Clockwise or counterclockwise rotation may be used. The supplemental vertically polarized effective radiated power required for circular or elliptical polarization shall in no event exceed the effective radiated power authorized.

(b) Directional antennas. A directional antenna is an antenna that is designed or altered for the purpose of obtaining a non-circular radiation pattern.

(1) Applications for the use of directional antennas that propose a ratio of maximum to minimum radiation in the horizontal plane of more than 15 dB will not be accepted.