This section defines the various methods by which the cargo may be heated or cooled.
(a) Boiloff. Cargo pressure and temperatures are maintained by permitting the cargo to boil naturally and the cargo vapor thus generated removed from the tank by venting.
(b) External cargo cooling -
(1) Cargo vapor compression. A refrigeration system in which the cargo vapors generated within the tank are withdrawn, compressed, and the lower energy vapor or its condensate returned to the tank.
(2) External heat exchange. A refrigeration system in which the cargo vapor or liquid is cooled outside the cargo tanks by being passed through a heat exchanger. Refrigeration is not accomplished by direct compression of the cargo.
(c) Internal heat exchange. A refrigeration system in which a cooling fluid is passed through heat transfer coils immersed in the cargo tank liquid or vapor phases.
(d) Tank refrigeration. A refrigeration system in which the cooling fluid is passed around the cargo tank exterior in order to remove heat from the tank or its surroundings.
(e) No refrigeration. A system that allows the liquefied gas to warm up and increase in pressure. The insulation and tank design pressure shall be adequate to provide for a suitable margin for the operating time and temperatures involved.
(f) Tank heating.
(1) A system in which the cargo is heated by means of steam or other heat transfer fluid running through coils within or around the tank. The cargo itself does not leave the tank.
(2) A recirculating system in which the cargo leaves the tank, is pumped through a heater and then returned to the tank.
Materials used in the construction of temperature or pressure control systems shall be suitable for the intended application and meet the requirements of Subchapter F and the Special Requirements section of this subchapter.
Construction of machinery or equipment, such as heat exchangers, condensers, piping, etc., associated with temperature or pressure control systems shall meet the requirements of Subchapter F of this chapter. The electrical portions of these installations shall meet the requirements of Subchapter J of this chapter.
Control systems, required by Table 151.05 shall be provided with an audible or visual high cargo temperature or high cargo pressure alarm which is discernible at the towboat. The alarm shall operate when either the pressure or the temperature exceeds the operating limits of the system. The alarm may monitor either pressure or temperature, but must be independent of the control system.
(a) Boiloff systems. The venting of cargo boiloff to atmosphere shall not be used as a primary means of temperature or pressure control unless specifically authorized by the Commandant.
(b) Vapor compression, tank refrigeration, and secondary refrigeration systems: The required cooling capacity of refrigeration systems shall be sufficient to maintain the cargo at design operating conditions with ambient temperature of 115 °F still air and 90 °F still water. The number and arrangement of compressors shall be such that the required cooling capacity of the system is maintained with one compressor inoperative. Portions of the system other than the compressors need not have standby capacity.