In determining the amount of any penalty, HHS may take into account the following:
(a) The entity's previous record of compliance. This may include any of the following:
(1) Any history of prior violations by the responsible entity, including whether, at any time before determination of the current violation(s), HHS or any State found the responsible entity liable for civil or administrative sanctions in connection with a violation of Affordable Care Act requirements regarding minimum loss ratios.
(2) Evidence that the responsible entity has never had a complaint for noncompliance with Affordable Care Act requirements regarding MLRs filed with a State or HHS.
(3) Such other factors as justice may require.
(b) The gravity of the violation. This may include any of the following:
(1) The frequency of the violation, taking into consideration whether any violation is an isolated occurrence, represents a pattern, or is widespread.
(2) The level of financial and other impacts on affected individuals.
(3) Other factors as justice may require.