(a) Any entity operating or administering a program or activity under this part shall take appropriate steps to ensure that communications with individuals with disabilities are as effective as communications with others in such programs or activities, in accordance with the standards found at 28 CFR 35.160 through 35.164. Where the regulatory provisions referenced in this section use the term “public entity,” the term “entity” shall apply in its place.
(b) A recipient or State Exchange shall provide appropriate auxiliary aids and services, including interpreters and information in alternate formats, to individuals with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary to afford such persons an equal opportunity to benefit from the service in question.
(1) Auxiliary aids and services include:
(i) Interpreters on-site or through video remote interpreting (VRI) services, as defined in 28 CFR 35.104 and 36.303(f); note takers; real-time computer-aided transcription services; written materials; exchange of written notes; telephone handset amplifiers; assistive listening devices; assistive listening systems; telephones compatible with hearing aids; closed caption decoders; open and closed captioning, including real-time captioning; voice, text, and video-based telecommunication products and systems, text telephones (TTYs), videophones, and captioned telephones, or equally effective telecommunications devices; videotext displays; accessible information and communication technology; or other effective methods of making aurally delivered information available to individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing; and
(ii) Readers; taped texts; audio recordings; Braille materials and displays; screen reader software; magnification software; optical readers; secondary auditory programs; large print materials; accessible information and communication technology; or other effective methods of making visually delivered materials available to individuals who are blind or have low vision.
(2) When an entity is required to provide an interpreter under paragraph (b) of this section, the interpreting service shall be provided to individuals free of charge and in a timely manner, via a remote interpreting service or an onsite appearance, by an interpreter who
(i) Adheres to generally accepted interpreter ethics principles, including client confidentiality; and
(ii) Is able to interpret effectively, accurately, and impartially, both receptively and expressively, using any necessary specialized vocabulary, terminology and phraseology.
(3) An interpreter for an individual with a disability for purposes of this section can include, for example, sign language interpreters, oral transliterators (individuals who represent or spell in the characters of another alphabet), and cued language transliterators (individuals who represent or spell by using a small number of handshapes).
(c) Disability means, with respect to an individual, a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities of such individual; a record of such an impairment; or being regarded as having such an impairment, as defined and construed in the Rehabilitation Act, 29 U.S.C. 705(9)(B), which incorporates the definition of disability in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 12102 et seq.). Where this part cross-references regulatory provisions that use the term “handicap,” “handicap” means “disability” as defined in this section.