The interdisciplinary team as defined at § 494.80 must develop and implement a written, individualized comprehensive plan of care that specifies the services necessary to address the patient's needs, as identified by the comprehensive assessment and changes in the patient's condition, and must include measurable and expected outcomes and estimated timetables to achieve these outcomes. The outcomes specified in the patient plan of care must be consistent with current evidence-based professionally-accepted clinical practice standards.
(a) Standard: Development of patient plan of care. The interdisciplinary team must develop a plan of care for each patient. The plan of care must address, but not be limited to, the following:
(1) Dose of dialysis. The interdisciplinary team must provide the necessary care and services to manage the patient's volume status; and achieve and sustain the prescribed dose of dialysis to meet a hemodialysis Kt/V of at least 1.2 and a peritoneal dialysis weekly Kt/V of at least 1.7 or meet an alternative equivalent professionally-accepted clinical practice standard for adequacy of dialysis.
(2) Nutritional status. The interdisciplinary team must provide the necessary care and counseling services to achieve and sustain an effective nutritional status. A patient's albumin level and body weight must be measured at least monthly. Additional evidence-based professionally-accepted clinical nutrition indicators may be monitored, as appropriate.
(3) Mineral metabolism. Provide the necessary care to manage mineral metabolism and prevent or treat renal bone disease.
(4) Anemia. The interdisciplinary team must provide the necessary care and services to achieve and sustain the clinically appropriate hemoglobin/hematocrit level. The patient's hemoglobin/hematocrit must be measured at least monthly. The dialysis facility must conduct an evaluation of the patient's anemia management needs. For a home dialysis patient, the facility must evaluate whether the patient can safely, aseptically, and effectively administer erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and store this medication under refrigeration if necessary. The patient's response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent(s), including blood pressure levels and utilization of iron stores, must be monitored on a routine basis.
(5) Vascular access. The interdisciplinary team must provide vascular access monitoring and appropriate, timely referrals to achieve and sustain vascular access. The hemodialysis patient must be evaluated for the appropriate vascular access type, taking into consideration co-morbid conditions, other risk factors, and whether the patient is a potential candidate for arteriovenous fistula placement. The patient's vascular access must be monitored to prevent access failure, including monitoring of arteriovenous grafts and fistulae for symptoms of stenosis.
(6) Psychosocial status. The interdisciplinary team must provide the necessary monitoring and social work interventions. These include counseling services and referrals for other social services, to assist the patient in achieving and sustaining an appropriate psychosocial status as measured by a standardized mental and physical assessment tool chosen by the social worker, at regular intervals, or more frequently on an as-needed basis.
(7) Modality -
(i) Home dialysis. The interdisciplinary team must identify a plan for the patient's home dialysis or explain why the patient is not a candidate for home dialysis.
(ii) Transplantation status. When the patient is a transplant referral candidate, the interdisciplinary team must develop plans for pursuing transplantation. The patient's plan of care must include documentation of the -
(A) Plan for transplantation, if the patient accepts the transplantation referral;
(B) Patient's decision, if the patient is a transplantation referral candidate but declines the transplantation referral; or
(C) Reason(s) for the patient's nonreferral as a transplantation candidate as documented in accordance with § 494.80(a)(10).
(8) Rehabilitation status. The interdisciplinary team must assist the patient in achieving and sustaining an appropriate level of productive activity, as desired by the patient, including the educational needs of pediatric patients (patients under the age of 18 years), and make rehabilitation and vocational rehabilitation referrals as appropriate.
(b) Standard: Implementation of the patient plan of care.
(1) The patient's plan of care must -
(i) Be completed by the interdisciplinary team, including the patient if the patient desires; and
(ii) Be signed by team members, including the patient or the patient's designee; or, if the patient chooses not to sign the plan of care, this choice must be documented on the plan of care, along with the reason the signature was not provided.
(2) Implementation of the initial plan of care must begin within the latter of 30 calendar days after admission to the dialysis facility or 13 outpatient hemodialysis sessions beginning with the first outpatient dialysis session. Implementation of monthly or annual updates of the plan of care must be performed within 15 days of the completion of the additional patient assessments specified in § 494.80(d).
(3) If the expected outcome is not achieved, the interdisciplinary team must adjust the patient's plan of care to achieve the specified goals. When a patient is unable to achieve the desired outcomes, the team must -
(i) Adjust the plan of care to reflect the patient's current condition;
(ii) Document in the record the reasons why the patient was unable to achieve the goals; and
(iii) Implement plan of care changes to address the issues identified in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section.
(4) The dialysis facility must ensure that all dialysis patients are seen by a physician, nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, or physician's assistant providing ESRD care at least monthly, as evidenced by a monthly progress note placed in the medical record, and periodically while the hemodialysis patient is receiving in-facility dialysis.
(c) Standard: Transplantation referral tracking. The interdisciplinary team must -
(1) Track the results of each kidney transplant center referral;
(2) Monitor the status of any facility patients who are on the transplant wait list; and
(3) Communicate with the transplant center regarding patient transplant status at least annually, and when there is a change in transplant candidate status.
(d) Standard: Patient education and training. The patient care plan must include, as applicable, education and training for patients and family members or caregivers or both, in aspects of the dialysis experience, dialysis management, infection prevention and personal care, home dialysis and self-care, quality of life, rehabilitation, transplantation, and the benefits and risks of various vascular access types.