(a) A laboratory issued a certificate must permit CMS or a CMS agent to conduct an inspection to assess the laboratory's compliance with the requirements of this part. A CLIA-exempt laboratory and a laboratory that requests, or is issued a certificate of accreditation, must permit CMS or a CMS agent to conduct validation and complaint inspections.
(b) General requirements. As part of the inspection process, CMS or a CMS agent may require the laboratory to do the following:
(1) Test samples, including proficiency testing samples, or perform procedures.
(2) Permit interviews of all personnel concerning the laboratory's compliance with the applicable requirements of this part.
(3) Permit laboratory personnel to be observed performing all phases of the total testing process (preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic).
(4) Permit CMS or a CMS agent access to all areas encompassed under the certificate including, but not limited to, the following:
(i) Specimen procurement and processing areas.
(ii) Storage facilities for specimens, reagents, supplies, records, and reports.
(iii) Testing and reporting areas.
(5) Provide CMS or a CMS agent with copies or exact duplicates of all records and data it requires.
(c) Accessible records and data. A laboratory must have all records and data accessible and retrievable within a reasonable time frame during the course of the inspection.
(d) Requirement to provide information and data. A laboratory must provide, upon request, all information and data needed by CMS or a CMS agent to make a determination of the laboratory's compliance with the applicable requirements of this part.
(e) Reinspection. CMS or a CMS agent may reinspect a laboratory at any time to evaluate the ability of the laboratory to provide accurate and reliable test results.
(f) Complaint inspection. CMS or a CMS agent may conduct an inspection when there are complaints alleging noncompliance with any of the requirements of this part.
(g) Failure to permit an inspection or reinspection. Failure to permit CMS or a CMS agent to conduct an inspection or reinspection results in the suspension or cancellation of the laboratory's participation in Medicare and Medicaid for payment, and suspension or limitation of, or action to revoke the laboratory's CLIA certificate, in accordance with subpart R of this part.