This subpart sets forth procedures and criteria that are followed in determining whether Medicare will pay for emergency services furnished by a hospital that is located in the United States and does not have in effect a provider agreement, that is, an agreement to participate in Medicare.
As used in this subpart, unless the context indicates otherwise -
Emergency services means inpatient or outpatient hospital services that are necessary to prevent death or serious impairment of health and, because of the danger to life or health, require use of the most accessible hospital available and equipped to furnish those services.
Hospital means a facility that -
(1) Is primarily engaged in providing, by or under the supervision of doctors of medicine or osteopathy, inpatient services for the diagnosis, treatment, and care or rehabilitation of persons who are sick, injured, or disabled;
(2) Is not primarily engaged in providing skilled nursing care and related services for patients who require medical or nursing care, as described in section 1861(j)(1)(A) of the Act;
(3) Provides 24-hour nursing service in accordance with section 1861(e)(5) of the Act; and
(4) Is licensed, or is approved as meeting the standards for licensing, by the State or local licensing agency.
Reasonable charges means customary charges insofar as they are reasonable.
Without additional evidence of a threat to life or health, the following situations do not in themselves indicate a need for emergency services:
(a) Lack of care at home.
(b) Lack of transportation to a participating hospital.
(c) Death of the patient in the hospital.
Medicare pays for emergency services furnished to a beneficiary by a nonparticipating hospital or under arrangements made by such a hospital if the conditions of this section are met.
(a) General requirements.
(1) The services are of the type that Medicare would pay for if they were furnished by a participating hospital.
(2) The hospital has in effect an election to claim payment for all emergency services furnished in a calendar year in accordance with § 424.104.
(3) The need for emergency services arose while the beneficiary was not an inpatient in a hospital.
(4) In the case of inpatient hospital services, the services are furnished during a period in which the beneficiary could not be safely discharged or transferred to a participating hospital or other institution.
(5) The determination that the hospital was the most accessible hospital available and equipped to furnish the services is made in accordance with § 424.106.
(b) Medical information requirements. A physician (or, if appropriate, the hospital) submits medical information that -
(1) Describes the nature of the emergency and specifies why it required that the beneficiary be treated in the most accessible hospital;
(2) Establishes that all the conditions in paragraph (a) of this section are met; and
(3) Indicates when the emergency ended, which, for inpatient hospital services, is the earliest date on which the beneficiary could be safely discharged or transferred to a participating hospital or other institution.
(a) Terms of the election. The hospital agrees to the following:
(1) To comply with the provisions of subpart C of part 489 of this chapter relating to charges for items and services the hospital may make to the beneficiary, or any other person on his or her behalf.
(2) To comply with the provisions of subpart D of part 489 of this chapter relating to proper disposition of monies incorrectly collected from, or on behalf of a beneficiary.
(3) To request payment under the Medicare program based on amounts specified in § 413.74 of this chapter.
(b) Filing of election statement. An election statement must be filed on a form designated by CMS, signed by an authorized official of the hospital, and either received by CMS, or postmarked, before the close of the calendar year of election.
(c) Acceptance and effective date of election. If CMS accepts the election statement, the election is effective as of the earliest day of the calendar year of election from which CMS determines the hospital has been in continuous compliance with the requirements of section 1814(d) of the Act.
(d) Appeal by hospital. Any hospital dissatisfied with a determination that it does not qualify to claim reimbursement shall be entitled to appeal the determination as provided in part 498 of this chapter.
(e) Conditions for reinstatement after notice of failure to continue to qualify. If CMS has notified a hospital that it no longer qualifies to receive reimbursement for a calendar year, CMS will not accept another election statement from that hospital until CMS finds that -
(1) The reason for its failure to qualify has been removed; and
(2) There is reasonable assurance that it will not recur.
(a) Basic requirement.
(1) The hospital must be the most accessible one available and equipped to furnish the services.
(b) Factors that are considered. CMS considers the following factors in determining whether a nonparticipating hospital in a rural area meets the accessibility requirements:
(1) The relative distances of participating and nonparticipating hospitals in the area.
(2) The transportation facilities available to these hospitals.
(3) The quality of the roads to each hospital.
(4) The availability of beds at each hospital.
(5) Any other factors that bear on whether or not the services could be provided sooner in the nonparticipating hospitals than in a participating hospital in the general area.
In urban and suburban areas where both participating and nonparticipating hospitals are similarly available, CMS presumes that the services could have been provided in a participating hospital unless clear and convincing evidence shows that there was a medical or practical need to use the nonparticipating hospital.
(c) Factors that are not considered. CMS gives no consideration to the following factors in determining whether the nonparticipating hospital was the most accessible hospital:
(1) The personal preference of the beneficiary, the physician, or members of the family.
(2) The fact that the attending physician did not have staff privileges in a participating hospital which was available and the most accessible to the beneficiary.
(3) The location of previous medical records.
(d) Conditions under which the accessibility requirement is met. If a beneficiary must be taken to a hospital immediately for required diagnosis and treatment, the nonparticipating hospital meets the accessibility requirement if -
(1) It was the nearest hospital to the point where the emergency occurred, it was medically equipped to handle the type of emergency, and it was the most accessible, on the basis of the factors specified in paragraph (b) of this section; or
(2) There was a closer participating hospital equipped to handle the emergency, but the participating hospital did not have a bed available or would not accept the individual.
(a) Conditions for payment. Medicare pays the hospital for emergency services if the hospital -
(1) Has in effect a statement of election to claim payment for all covered emergency services furnished during a calendar year, in accordance with § 424.104;
(2) Claims payment in accordance with § 424.32; and
(3) Submits evidence requested by CMS to establish that the services meet the requirements of this subpart.
(b) Subsequent claims. If the hospital files subsequent claims because the initial claim did not include all the services furnished, those claims must include physicians' statements that -
(1) Contain sufficient information to clearly establish that, when the additional services were furnished, the emergency still existed; and
(2) Indicate when the emergency ended, which, for inpatient hospital services, is the earliest date on which the beneficiary could be safely discharged or transferred to a participating hospital or other institution.
Medicare pays the beneficiary for emergency services if the following conditions are met:
(a) The hospital does not have in effect an election to claim payment.
(b) The beneficiary, or someone on his or her behalf, submits -
(1) A claim that meets the requirements of § 424.32;
(2) An itemized hospital bill; and
(3) Evidence requested by CMS to establish that the services meet the requirements of this subpart.