(a) Fiscally sound operation -
(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound operation, as demonstrated by the following:
(i) Total assets greater than total unsubordinated liabilities. In evaluating assets and liabilities, loan funds awarded or guaranteed under section 1306 of the PHS Act are not included as liabilities.
(ii) Sufficient cash flow and adequate liquidity to meet obligations as they become due.
(iii) A net operating surplus, or a financial plan that meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section.
(iv) An insolvency protection plan that meets the requirements of § 417.122(b) for protection of enrollees.
(v) A fidelity bond or bonds, procured and maintained by the HMO, in an amount fixed by its policymaking body but not less than $100,000 per individual, covering each officer and employee entrusted with the handling of its funds. The bond may have reasonable deductibles, based upon the financial strength of the HMO.
(vi) Insurance policies or other arrangements, secured and maintained by the HMO and approved by CMS to insure the HMO against losses arising from professional liability claims, fire, theft, fraud, embezzlement, and other casualty risks.
(2) Financial plan requirement.
(i) If an HMO has not earned a cumulative net operating surplus during the three most recent fiscal years, did not earn a net operating surplus during the most recent fiscal year or does not have positive net worth, the HMO must submit a financial plan satisfactory to CMS to achieve net operating surplus within available fiscal resources.
(ii) This plan must include -
(A) A detailed marketing plan;
(B) Statements of revenue and expense on an accrual basis;
(C) Sources and uses of funds statements; and
(D) Balance sheets.
(b) Assumption of financial risk. Each HMO must assume full financial risk on a prospective basis for the provision of basic health services, except that it may obtain insurance or make other arrangements as follows:
(1) For the cost of providing to any enrollee basic health services with an aggregate value of more than $5,000 in any year.
(2) For the cost of basic health services obtained by its enrollees from sources other than the HMO because medical necessity required that they be furnished before they could be secured through the HMO.
(3) For not more than 90 percent of the amount by which its costs for any of its fiscal years exceed 115 percent of its income for that fiscal year.
(4) For physicians or other health professionals, health care institutions, or any other combination of such individuals or institutions to assume all or part of the financial risk on a prospective basis for their furnishing of basic health services to the HMO's enrollees.