60 FR 37594, July 21, 1995, unless otherwise noted.
(a) Basis. This subpart implements section 1888(d) of the Act, which provides for optional prospectively determined payment rates for qualified SNFs.
(b) Scope. This subpart sets forth the eligibility criteria an SNF must meet to qualify, the process governing election of prospectively determined payment rates, and the basis and methodology for determining prospectively determined payment rates.
For purposes of this subpart -
Area wage level means the average wage per hour for all classifications of employees as reported by health care facilities within a specified area.
Census region means one of the 9 census divisions, comprising the 50 States and the District of Columbia, established by the Bureau of the Census for statistical and reporting purposes.
Routine capital-related costs means the capital-related costs, allowable for Medicare purposes (as described in subpart G of this part), that are allocated to the SNF participating inpatient routine service cost center as reported on the Medicare cost report.
Routine operating costs means the cost of regular room, dietary, and nursing services, and minor medical and surgical supplies for which a separate charge is not customarily made. It does not include the costs of ancillary services, capital-related costs, or, where appropriate, return on equity.
Rural area means any area outside an urban area in a census region.
Urban area means -
(1) Prior to October 1, 2004, a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), or New England County Metropolitan Area (NECMA), as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, or a New England county deemed to be an urban area as listed in § 412.62(f)(1)(ii)(B) of this chapter.
(2) Effective October 1, 2004, a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, or a New England county deemed to be an urban area as specified under § 412.64.
(a) General rule. An SNF is eligible to receive a prospectively determined payment rate for a cost reporting period if it had fewer than 1,500 Medicare covered inpatient days as reported on a Medicare cost report in its immediately preceding cost reporting period. This criterion applies even if the SNF received a prospectively determined payment rate during the preceding cost reporting period.
(b) Less than a full cost reporting period. If the cost reporting period that precedes an SNF's request for prospectively determined payment is not a full cost reporting period, the SNF is eligible to receive prospectively determined payment rates only if the average daily Medicare census for the period (Medicare inpatient days divided by the total number of days in the cost reporting period) is not greater than 4.1.
(c) Newly-participating SNFs. An SNF is eligible to receive prospectively determined payment rates for its first cost reporting period for which it is approved to participate in Medicare.
(a) Requirements. An SNF must notify its contractor at least 30 calendar days before the beginning of the cost reporting period for which it requests to receive such payment that it elects prospectively determined payment rates. A separate request must be made for each cost reporting period for which an SNF seeks prospectively determined payment. A newly participating SNF with no preceding cost reporting period must make its election within 30 days of its notification of approval to participate in Medicare.
(b) Contractor notice. After evaluating an SNF's request for prospectively determined payment rates, the contractor notifies the SNF in writing as to whether the SNF meets any of the eligibility criteria described in § 413.304 and the timely election requirements under § 413.308(a). The contractor must notify the SNF of its initial and final determinations within 10 working days after it receives all the data necessary to make each determination. The contractor's determination is limited to one cost reporting period.
(c) Prohibition against revocation. An SNF may not revoke its request after it has received the initial determination of eligibility from the contractor and the cost reporting period has begun.
(d) Revocation by contractor. If an SNF is given tentative approval to receive a prospectively determined payment rate, and, after the start of the applicable cost reporting period, the contractor determines that the SNF does not meet the eligibility criteria, the contractor must revoke the prospectively determined payment option.
(a) Method of payment. Under the prospectively determined payment rate system, a qualified SNF receives a per diem payment of a predetermined rate for inpatient services furnished to Medicare beneficiaries. Each SNF's routine per diem payment rate is determined according to the methodology described in § 413.312 and is based on various components of SNF costs.
(b) Payment in full. The payment rate represents payment in full for routine services as described in § 413.314 (subject to applicable coinsurance as described in subpart G of part 409 of this title), and for routine capital costs. Payment is made in lieu of payment on a reasonable cost basis for routine services and for routine capital costs.
(a) Data used.
(1) To calculate the prospectively determined payment rates, CMS uses:
(i) The SNF cost data that were used to develop the applicable routine service cost limits;
(ii) A wage index to adjust for area wage differences; and
(iii) The most recent projections of increases in the costs from the SNF market basket index.
(2) In the annual schedule of rates published in the Federal Register under the authority of § 413.320, CMS announces the wage index and the annual percentage increases in the market basket used in the calculation of the rates.
(b) Calculation of per diem rate -
(1) Routine operating component of rate -
(i) Adjusting cost report data. The SNF market basket index is used to adjust the routine operating cost from the SNF cost report to reflect cost increases occurring between cost reporting periods represented in the data collected and the midpoint of the initial cost reporting period to which the payment rates apply.
(ii) Calculating a per diem cost. For each SNF, an adjusted routine operating per diem cost is computed by dividing the adjusted routine operating cost (see paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section) by the SNF's total patient days.
(iii) Adjusting for wage levels.
(A) The SNF's adjusted per diem routine operating cost calculated under paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section is then divided into labor-related and nonlabor-related portions.
(B) The labor-related portion is obtained by multiplying the SNF's adjusted per diem routine operating cost by a percentage that represents the labor-related portion of cost from the market basket. This percentage is published when the revised rates are published as described in § 413.320.
(C) The labor-related portion of each SNF's per diem cost is divided by the wage index applicable to the SNF's geographic location to arrive at the adjusted labor-related portion of routine cost.
(iv) Group means. SNFs are grouped by urban or rural location by census region. Separate means of adjusted labor-related and nonlabor routine operating costs for each SNF group are established in accordance with the SNF's region and urban or rural location. For each group, the mean labor-related and mean nonlabor-related per diem routine operating costs are multiplied by 105 percent.
(2) Computation of routine capital-related cost.
(i) The SNF routine capital-related cost for both direct and indirect capital costs allocated to routine services, as reported on the Medicare cost report, is obtained for each SNF in the data base.
(ii) For each SNF, the per diem capital-related cost is calculated by dividing the SNF's routine capital costs by its inpatient days.
(iii) SNFs are grouped by urban and rural location by census region, and mean per diem routine capital-related cost is determined for each group.
(iv) Each group mean per diem capital-related cost is multiplied by 105 percent.
(3) Computation of return on owner's equity for services furnished before October 1, 1993.
(i) Each proprietary SNF's Medicare return on equity is obtained from its cost report and the portion attributable to the routine service cost is determined as described in § 413.157.
(ii) For each proprietary SNF, per diem return on equity is calculated by dividing the routine cost related return on equity determined under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section by the SNF's total Medicare inpatient days.
(iii) Separate group means are computed for per diem return on equity of proprietary SNFs, based on regional and urban or rural classification.
(iv) Each group mean is multiplied by 105 percent.
(a) General rule. An SNF that elects to be paid under the prospectively determined payment rate system, and qualifies for such payment, is paid a per diem rate for inpatient routine services. This rate is adjusted to reflect area wage differences and the cost reporting period beginning date (if necessary) and is subject to the limitation specified in paragraph (d) of this section.
(b) Per diem rate. The prospectively determined payment rate for each urban and rural area in each census region is comprised of the following:
(1) A routine operating component, which is divided into:
(i) A labor-related portion adjusted by the appropriate wage index; and
(ii) A nonlabor-related portion.
(2) A routine capital-related cost portion.
(3) For proprietary SNFs only, a portion that is based on the return on owner's equity related to routine cost, applicable only for services furnished before October 1, 1993.
(c) Adjustment for cost reporting period.
(1) If a facility has a cost reporting period beginning after the beginning of the Federal fiscal year, the contractor increases the labor-related and nonlabor-related portions of the prospective payment rate that would otherwise apply to the SNF by an adjustment factor. Each factor represents the projected increase in the market basket index for a specific 12-month period. The factors are used to account for inflation in costs for cost reporting periods beginning after October 1. Adjustment factors are published in the annual notice of prospectively determined payment rates described in § 413.320.
(2) If a facility uses a cost reporting period that is not 12 months in duration, the contractor must obtain a special adjustment factor from CMS for the specific period.
(d) Limitation of prospectively determined payment rate. The per diem prospectively determined payment rate for an SNF, excluding capital-related costs and excluding return on equity for services furnished prior to October 1, 1993, may not exceed the individual SNF's routine service cost limit. Under § 413.30, the routine service cost limit is the limit determined without regard to exemptions, exceptions, or retroactive adjustments, and is the actual limit in effect when the provider elects to be paid a prospectively determined payment rate.
Ancillary services are paid on the basis of reasonable cost in accordance with section 1861(v)(1) of the Act and § 413.53.
At least 90 days before the beginning of a Federal fiscal year to which revised prospectively determined payment rates are to be applied, CMS publishes a notice in the Federal Register:
(a) Establishing the prospectively determined payment rates for routine services; and
(b) Explaining the basis on which the prospectively determined payment rates are calculated.
SNFs electing to be paid under the prospectively determined payment rate system may file a simplified cost report. The cost report contains a simplified method of cost finding to be used in lieu of cost methods described in § 413.24(d). This method is specified in the instructions for Form CMS-2540S, contained in sections 3000-3027.3 of Part 2 of the Provider Reimbursement Manual. This form may not be used by hospital-based SNFs or SNFs that are part of a health care complex. Those SNFs must file a cost report that reflects the shared services and administrative costs of the hospital and any other related facilities in the health care complex.