(a) Basis, scope, and applicability -
(1) Statutory basis -
(i) Basic provisions.
(A) Section 1815 of the Act requires that the Secretary make interim payments to providers and periodically determine the amount that should be paid under Part A of Medicare to each provider for the services it furnishes.
(B) Section 1814(b) of the Act (for Part A) and section 1833(a) (for Part B) provide for payment on the basis of the lesser of a provider's reasonable costs or customary charges.
(C) Section 1861(v) of the Act defines “reasonable cost”.
(ii) Additional provisions.
(A) Section 1138(b) of the Act specifies the conditions for Medicare payment for organ procurement costs.
(B) Section 1814(j) of the Act provides for exceptions to the “lower of costs or charges” provisions.
(C) Sections 1815(a) and 1833(e) of the Act provide the Secretary with authority to request information from providers to determine the amount of Medicare payment due providers.
(D) Section 1833(a)(4) and (i)(3) of the Act provide for payment of a blended amount for certain surgical services furnished in a hospital's outpatient department.
(E) Section 1833(n) of the Act provides for payment of a blended amount for outpatient hospital diagnostic procedures such as radiology.
(F) Section 1834(c)(1)(C) of the Act establishes the method for determining Medicare payment for screening mammograms performed by hospitals.
(G) Section 1834(g) of the Act provides that payment for critical access hospital (CAH) outpatient services is the reasonable costs of the CAH in providing these services, as determined in accordance with section 1861(v)(1)(A) of the Act and the applicable principles of cost reimbursement in this part and in part 415 of this chapter.
(H) Section 1881 of the Act authorizes payment for services furnished to ESRD patients.
(I) Section 1883 of the Act provides for payment for post-hospital SNF care furnished by a rural hospital that has swing-bed approval.
(J) Sections 1886(a) and (b) of the Act impose a ceiling on the rate of increase in hospital inpatient costs.
(K) Section 1886(h) of the Act provides for payment to a hospital for the services of interns and residents in approved teaching programs on the basis of a “per resident” amount.
(2) Scope. This part sets forth regulations governing Medicare payment for services furnished to beneficiaries by -
(i) Hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs);
(ii) Skilled nursing facilities (SNFs);
(iii) Home health agencies (HHAs);
(iv) End-stage renal disease (ESRD) facilities;
(v) Organ procurement agencies (OPAs) and histocompatibility laboratories.
(3) Applicability. The payment principles and related policies set forth in this part are binding on CMS and its fiscal contractors, on the Provider Reimbursement Review Board, and on the entities listed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.
(b) Reasonable cost reimbursement. Except as provided under paragraphs (c) through (h) of this section, Medicare is generally required, under section 1814(b) of the Act (for services covered under Part A) and under section 1833(a)(2) of the Act (for services covered under Part B) to pay for services furnished by providers on the basis of reasonable costs as defined in section 1861(v) of the Act, or the provider's customary charges for those services, if lower. Regulations implementing section 1861(v) are found generally in this part beginning at § 413.5.
(c) Outpatient maintenance dialysis and related services. Section 1881 of the Act authorizes special rules for the coverage of and payment for services furnished to ESRD patients. Sections 413.170 and 413.174 implement various provisions of section 1881. In particular, § 413.170 establishes a prospective payment method for outpatient maintenance dialysis services that applies both to hospital-based and independent ESRD facilities, and under which Medicare pays for both home and infacility dialysis services furnished on or after August 1, 1983.
(d) Payment for inpatient hospital services.
(1) For cost reporting periods beginning before October 1, 1983, the amount paid for inpatient hospital services is determined on a reasonable cost basis.
(2) Payment to short-term general hospitals located in the 50 States and the District of Columbia for the operating costs of hospital inpatient services for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 1983, and for the capital-related costs of inpatient services for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 1991, are determined prospectively on a per discharge basis under part 412 of this chapter except as follows:
(i) Payment for capital-related costs for cost reporting periods beginning before October 1, 1991, medical education costs, kidney acquisition costs, and the costs of certain anesthesia services, is described in § 412.113 of this chapter.
(ii) Payment to children's hospitals that are excluded from the prospective payment systems under subpart B of part 412 of this chapter, and hospitals outside the 50 States and the District of Columbia is on a reasonable cost basis, subject to the provisions of § 413.40.
(iii) Payment to hospitals subject to a State reimbursement control system is described in paragraph (e) of this section.
(iv) For cost reporting periods beginning before January 1, 2005, payment to psychiatric hospitals (as well as separate psychiatric units (distinct parts) of short-term general hospitals) that are excluded under subpart B of part 412 of this chapter from the prospective payment system is on a reasonable cost basis, subject to the provisions of § 413.40.
(v) For cost reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2005, payment to inpatient psychiatric facilities that meet the conditions of § 412.404 of this chapter, is made under the prospective payment system described in subpart N of part 412 of this chapter.
(vi) For cost reporting periods beginning before January 1, 2002, payment to rehabilitation hospitals (as well as separate rehabilitation units (distinct parts) of short-term general hospitals), that are excluded under subpart B of part 412 of this subchapter from the prospective payment systems is made on a reasonable cost basis, subject to the provisions of § 413.40.
(vii) For cost reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2002, payment to rehabilitation hospitals (as well as separate rehabilitation units (distinct parts) of short-term general hospitals) that meet the conditions of § 412.604 of this chapter is based on prospectively determined rates under subpart P of part 412 of this subchapter.
(viii) For cost reporting periods beginning before October 1, 2002, payment to long-term care hospitals that are excluded under subpart B of Part 412 of this subchapter from the prospective payment systems is on a reasonable cost basis, subject to the provisions of § 413.40.
(e) State reimbursement control systems. Beginning October 1, 1983, Medicare reimbursement for inpatient hospital services may be made in accordance with a State reimbursement control system rather than under the Medicare reimbursement principles set forth in this part, if the State system is approved by CMS. Regulations implementing this alternative reimbursement authority are set forth in subpart C of part 403 of this chapter.
(f) Services of qualified nonphysician anesthetists. For cost reporting periods, or any part of a cost reporting period, beginning on or after January 1, 1989, costs incurred for the services of qualified nonphysician anesthetists are not paid on a reasonable cost basis unless the provisions of § 412.113(c)(2) of this chapter apply. These services are paid under the special rules set forth in § 405.553 of this chapter.
(g) Payment for services furnished in SNFs.
(1) Except as specified in paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section, the amount paid for services furnished in cost reporting periods beginning before July 1, 1998, is determined on a reasonable cost basis or, where applicable, in accordance with the prospectively determined payment rates for low-volume SNFs established under section 1888(d) of the Act, as set forth in subpart I of this part.
(2) The amount paid for services (other than those described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter) -
(i) That are furnished in cost reporting periods beginning on or after July 1, 1998, to a resident who is in a covered Part A stay, is determined in accordance with the prospectively determined payment rates for SNFs established under section 1888(e) of the Act, as set forth in subpart J of this part.
(ii) That are furnished on or after July 1, 1998, to a resident who is not in a covered Part A stay, is determined in accordance with any applicable Part B fee schedule or, for a particular item or service to which no fee schedule applies, by using the existing payment methodology utilized under Part B for such item or service.
(h) Payment for services furnished by HHAs. The amount paid for home health services as defined in section 1861(m) of the Act (except durable medical equipment and the covered osteoporosis drug as provided for in that section) that are furnished beginning on or after October 1, 2000 to an eligible beneficiary under a home health plan of care is determined according to the prospectively determined payment rates for HHAs set forth in part 484, subpart E of this chapter.
[51 FR 34793, Sept. 30, 1986]
(a) In formulating methods for making fair and equitable reimbursement for services rendered beneficiaries of the program, payment is to be made on the basis of current costs of the individual provider, rather than costs of a past period or a fixed negotiated rate. All necessary and proper expenses of an institution in the production of services, including normal standby costs, are recognized. Furthermore, the share of the total institutional cost that is borne by the program is related to the care furnished beneficiaries so that no part of their cost would need to be borne by other patients. Conversely, costs attributable to other patients of the institution are not to be borne by the program. Thus, the application of this approach, with appropriate accounting support, will result in meeting actual costs of services to beneficiaries as such costs vary from institution to institution. However, payments to providers of services for services furnished Medicare beneficiaries are subject to the provisions of §§ 413.13 and 413.30.
(b) Putting these several points together, certain tests have been evolved for the principles of reimbursement and certain goals have been established that they should be designed to accomplish. In general terms, these are the tests or objectives:
(1) That the methods of reimbursement should result in current payment so that institutions will not be disadvantaged, as they sometimes are under other arrangements, by having to put up money for the purchase of goods and services well before they receive reimbursement.
(2) That, in addition to current payment, there should be retroactive adjustment so that increases in costs are taken fully into account as they actually occurred, not just prospectively.
(3) That there be a division of the allowable costs between the beneficiaries of this program and the other patients of the provider that takes account of the actual use of services by the beneficiaries of this program and that is fair to each provider individually.
(4) That there be sufficient flexibility in the methods of reimbursement to be used, particularly at the beginning of the program, to take account of the great differences in the present state of development of recordkeeping.
(5) That the principles should result in the equitable treatment of both nonprofit organizations and profit-making organizations.
(6) That there should be a recognition of the need of hospitals and other providers to keep pace with growing needs and to make improvements.
(c) As formulated herein, the principles given recognition to such factors as depreciation, interest, bad debts, educational costs, compensation of owners, and an allowance for a reasonable return on equity capital (in the case of certain proprietary providers). With respect to allowable costs some items of inclusion and exclusion are:
(1) An appropriate part of the net cost of approved educational activities will be included.
(2) Costs incurred for research purposes, over and above usual patient care, will not be included.
(4) The value of services provided by nonpaid workers, as members of an organization (including services of members of religious orders) having an agreement with the provider to furnish such services, is includable in the amount that would be paid others for similar work.
(5) Discounts and allowances received on the purchase of goods or services are reductions of the cost to which they relate.
(6) Bad debts growing out of the failure of a beneficiary to pay the deductible, or the coinsurance, will be reimbursed (after bona fide efforts at collection).
(7) Charity and courtesy allowances are not includable, although “fringe benefit” allowances for employees under a formal plan will be includable as part of their compensation.
(8) A reasonable allowance of compensation for the services of owners in profitmaking organizations will be allowed providing their services are actually performed in a necessary function.
(9) Reasonable cost of physicians' direct medical and surgical services (including supervision of interns and residents in the care of individual patients) furnished in a teaching hospital may be reimbursed as a provider cost (as described in § 415.162 of this chapter) if elected as provided for in § 415.160 of this chapter.
(d) In developing these principles of reimbursement for the Medicare program, all of the considerations inherent in allowances for depreciation were studied. The principles, as presented, provide options to meet varied situations. Depreciation will essentially be on an historical cost basis but since many institutions do not have adequate records of old assets, the principles provide an optional allowance in lieu of such depreciation for assets acquired before 1966. For assets acquired after 1965, the historical cost basis must be used. All assets actually in use for production of services for Medicare beneficiaries will be recognized even though they may have been fully or partially depreciated for other purposes. Assets financed with public funds may be depreciated. Although funding of depreciation is not required, there is an incentive for it since income from funded depreciation is not considered as an offset which must be taken to reduce the interest expense that is allowable as a program cost.
(e) A return on the equity capital of proprietary facilities, as described in § 413.157, is an allowance in addition to the reasonable cost of covered services furnished to beneficiaries.
(f) Renal dialysis items and services furnished under the ESRD provision are reimbursed and reported under §§ 413.170 and 413.174 respectively. For special rules concerning health maintenance organizations (HMOs), and providers of services and other health care facilities that are owned or operated by an HMO, or related to an HMO by common ownership or control, see §§ 417.242(b)(14) and 417.250(c) of this chapter.
[51 FR 34793, Sept. 30, 1986; 51 FR 37398, Oct. 22, 1986, as amended at 52 FR 21225, June 4, 1987; 52 FR 23398, June 19, 1987; 57 FR 39829, Sept. 1, 1992; 60 FR 63189, Dec. 8, 1995; 61 FR 63748, Dec. 2, 1996]
(a) Principle. All payments to providers of services must be based on the reasonable cost of services covered under Medicare and related to the care of beneficiaries. Reasonable cost includes all necessary and proper costs incurred in furnishing the services, subject to principles relating to specific items of revenue and cost. However, for cost reporting periods beginning after December 31, 1973, payments to providers of services are based on the lesser of the reasonable cost of services covered under Medicare and furnished to program beneficiaries or the customary charges to the general public for such services, as provided for in § 413.13.
(b) Definitions -
(1) Reasonable cost. Reasonable cost of any services must be determined in accordance with regulations establishing the method or methods to be used, and the items to be included. The regulations in this part take into account both direct and indirect costs of providers of services. The objective is that under the methods of determining costs, the costs with respect to individuals covered by the program will not be borne by individuals not so covered, and the costs with respect to individuals not so covered will not be borne by the program. These regulations also provide for the making of suitable retroactive adjustments after the provider has submitted fiscal and statistical reports. The retroactive adjustment will represent the difference between the amount received by the provider during the year for covered services from both Medicare and the beneficiaries and the amount determined in accordance with an accepted method of cost apportionment to be the actual cost of services furnished to beneficiaries during the year.
(2) Necessary and proper costs. Necessary and proper costs are costs that are appropriate and helpful in developing and maintaining the operation of patient care facilities and activities. They are usually costs that are common and accepted occurrences in the field of the provider's activity.
(1) It is the intent of Medicare that payments to providers of services should be fair to the providers, to the contributors to the Medicare trust funds, and to other patients.
(2) The costs of providers' services vary from one provider to another and the variations generally reflect differences in scope of services and intensity of care. The provision in Medicare for payment of reasonable cost of services is intended to meet the actual costs, however widely they may vary from one institution to another. This is subject to a limitation if a particular institution's costs are found to be substantially out of line with other institutions in the same area that are similar in size, scope of services, utilization, and other relevant factors.
(3) The determination of reasonable cost of services must be based on cost related to the care of Medicare beneficiaries. Reasonable cost includes all necessary and proper expenses incurred in furnishing services, such as administrative costs, maintenance costs, and premium payments for employee health and pension plans. It includes both direct and indirect costs and normal standby costs. However, if the provider's operating costs include amounts not related to patient care, specifically not reimbursable under the program, or flowing from the provision of luxury items or services (that is, those items or services substantially in excess of or more expensive than those generally considered necessary for the provision of needed health services), such amounts will not be allowable. The reasonable cost basis of reimbursement contemplates that the providers of services would be reimbursed the actual costs of providing quality care however widely the actual costs may vary from provider to provider and from time to time for the same provider.
(a) Definitions. As used in this section -
Customary charges means the regular rates that providers charge both beneficiaries and other paying patients for the services furnished to them.
Fair compensation means the reasonable cost of covered services.
Nominal charge means a charge equal to 60 percent or less of the reasonable cost of a service.
Public provider means a provider operated by a Federal, State, county, city, or other local government agency or instrumentality.
Reasonable cost means cost actually incurred, to the extent that cost is necessary for the efficient delivery of the service, and subject to the exclusions specified in paragraph (d) of this section.
(b) Application of the lesser of costs or charges (LCC) principle -
(1) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, CMS pays providers the lesser of the reasonable cost or the customary charges for services furnished to Medicare beneficiaries. Reasonable cost and customary charges are compared separately for Part A services and Part B services.
(i) A provider's reasonable cost for covered services furnished to Medicare beneficiaries during a cost reporting period is $125,000.
(ii) The provider's customary charges for those services is $110,000.
(iii) CMS pays the provider $110,000 less the deductible and coinsurance amounts for which the beneficiaries are responsible.
(c) Exceptions to the LCC principle -
(1) Providers not subject to the LCC principle. CMS pays the following providers the fair compensation for the services they furnish:
(ii) Public providers that furnish services free of charge or at a nominal charge.
(iii) Any provider that requests payment of fair compensation and can demonstrate to its contractor that a significant portion of its patients are low income and that its charges are less than costs because its customary practice is to charge patients on the basis of their ability to pay.
(2) Services not subject to the LCC principle. The following services are not subject to the LCC principle:
(i) Part A inpatient hospital services. Inpatient hospital services are not subject to the LCC principle if they are subject to either of the following:
(A) The prospective payment system under part 412 of this chapter.
(B) The rate of increase limits set forth in § 413.40.
(ii) Facility services related to ambulatory surgical procedures performed in outpatient hospital departments. Facility services related to ambulatory surgical procedures performed in hospital outpatient departments are subject to the payment methodology set forth in § 413.118.
(iii) Services furnished by a critical access hospital (CAH). Inpatient and outpatient services furnished by a CAH are subject to the payment methodology set forth in § 413.70.
(iv) Hospital outpatient radiology services. Hospital outpatient radiology services are subject to the payment methodology set forth in § 413.122.
(v) Other diagnostic procedures performed by a hospital on an outpatient basis. Other outpatient diagnostic procedures are subject to the payment methodology set forth in § 413.122.
(vi) Skilled nursing facility services. Skilled nursing facility services subject to the payment methodology set forth in §§ 413.330 et seq.
(d) Exclusions from reasonable cost. For purposes of comparison with customary charges under this section, reasonable cost does not include the following:
(1) Payments made to a provider as reimbursement for bad debts arising from noncollection of Medicare deductible and coinsurance amounts, as provided in § 413.89.
(2) Amounts that represent the recovery of excess depreciation resulting from termination from the Medicare program or a decrease in Medicare utilization applicable to prior cost reporting periods, as provided in § 413.134.
(3) Amounts that result from disposition of depreciable assets, applicable to prior cost reporting periods, as provided in § 413.134.
(4) Payments to funds for the donated services of teaching physicians, as provided in § 413.85.
(5) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section for making nominal charge determinations in special situations, graduate medical education costs.
(e) Reductions in customary charges. Customary charges are reduced in proportion to the ratio of the aggregate amount actually collected from charge-paying non-Medicare patients to the amount that would have been realized had customary charges been paid, if the provider -
(1) Did not actually impose charges on most of the patients liable for payment for its services on a charge basis; or
(2) Failed to make a reasonable effort to collect those charges.
(f) Nominal charge determinations. In determining whether a provider's customary charges equal 60 percent or less of its reasonable costs, the following rules apply:
(1) General rule. The determination is based on charges actually billed to charge-paying, non-Medicare patients, and (except for clinical diagnostic laboratory tests that are paid under section 1833(h) of the Act) is made separately for Part A services and Part B services.
(2) Determination in special situations.
(i) Charges based on ability to pay. For providers that have a sliding scale or discounted charges based on patients' ability to pay, the determination -
(A) Is based on charges billed to all charge-paying patients;
(B) Uses the ratio of the sliding scale charges to the provider's full customary charges; and
(C) Applies the ratio to the discounted charges to equate those charges to customary charges.
(ii) HHA services. In determining nominal charges for HHAs, all Part A and Part B services, with the exception of DME, are considered together.
(iii) Graduate medical education. When making the nominal charge determination, graduate medical education payments (or the provider's reasonable costs for that education, if supported by appropriate data) are included in reasonable costs.
(a) Principle. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, costs applicable to services, facilities, and supplies furnished to the provider by organizations related to the provider by common ownership or control are includable in the allowable cost of the provider at the cost to the related organization. However, such cost must not exceed the price of comparable services, facilities, or supplies that could be purchased elsewhere.
(b) Definitions -
(1) Related to the provider. Related to the provider means that the provider to a significant extent is associated or affiliated with or has control of or is controlled by the organization furnishing the services, facilities, or supplies.
(2) Common ownership. Common ownership exists if an individual or individuals possess significant ownership or equity in the provider and the institution or organization serving the provider.
(3) Control. Control exists if an individual or an organization has the power, directly or indirectly, significantly to influence or direct the actions or policies of an organization or institution.
(1) Individuals and organizations associate with others for various reasons and by various means. Some deem it appropriate to do so to assure a steady flow of supplies or services, to reduce competition, to gain a tax advantage, to extend influence, and for other reasons. These goals may be accomplished by means of ownership or control, by financial assistance, by management assistance, and other ways.
(2) If the provider obtains items of services, facilities, or supplies from an organization, even though it is a separate legal entity, and the organization is owned or controlled by the owner(s) of the provider, in effect the items are obtained from itself. An example would be a corporation building a hospital or a nursing home and then leasing it to another corporation controlled by the owner. Therefore, reimbursable cost should include the costs for these items at the cost to the supplying organization. However, if the price in the open market for comparable services, facilities, or supplies is lower than the cost to the supplier, the allowable cost to the provider may not exceed the market price.
(1) An exception is provided to this general principle if the provider demonstrates by convincing evidence to the satisfaction of the contractor, that -
(i) The supplying organization is a bona fide separate organization;
(ii) A substantial part of its business activity of the type carried on with the provider is transacted with others than the provider and organizations related to the supplier by common ownership or control and there is an open, competitive market for the type of services, facilities, or supplies furnished by the organization;
(iii) The services, facilities, or supplies are those that commonly are obtained by institutions such as the provider from other organizations and are not a basic element of patient care ordinarily furnished directly to patients by such institutions; and
(iv) The charge to the provider is in line with the charge for such services, facilities, or supplies in the open market and no more than the charge made under comparable circumstances to others by the organization for such services, facilities, or supplies.
(2) In such cases, the charge by the supplier to the provider for such services, facilities, or supplies is allowable as cost.