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Title 42

Displaying title 42, up to date as of 9/23/2021. Title 42 was last amended 9/15/2021.

Title 42

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§ 412.87 Additional payment for new medical services and technologies: General provisions.

(a) Basis. Sections 412.87 and 412.88 implement sections 1886(d)(5)(K) and 1886(d)(5)(L) of the Act, which authorize the Secretary to establish a mechanism to recognize the costs of new medical services and technologies under the hospital inpatient prospective payment system.

(b) Eligibility criteria. For discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2001, CMS provides for additional payments (as specified in § 412.88) beyond the standard DRG payments and outlier payments to a hospital for discharges involving covered inpatient hospital services that are new medical services and technologies, if the following conditions are met:

(1) A new medical service or technology represents an advance that substantially improves, relative to technologies previously available, the diagnosis or treatment of Medicare beneficiaries.

(i) The totality of the circumstances is considered when making a determination that a new medical service or technology represents an advance that substantially improves, relative to services or technologies previously available, the diagnosis or treatment of Medicare beneficiaries.

(ii) A determination that a new medical service or technology represents an advance that substantially improves, relative to services or technologies previously available, the diagnosis or treatment of Medicare beneficiaries means one of the following:

(A) The new medical service or technology offers a treatment option for a patient population unresponsive to, or ineligible for, currently available treatments.

(B) The new medical service or technology offers the ability to diagnose a medical condition in a patient population where that medical condition is currently undetectable, or offers the ability to diagnose a medical condition earlier in a patient population than allowed by currently available methods and there must also be evidence that use of the new medical service or technology to make a diagnosis affects the management of the patient.

(C) The use of the new medical service or technology significantly improves clinical outcomes relative to services or technologies previously available as demonstrated by one or more of the outcomes described in paragraphs (b)(1)(ii)(C(1) through (7) of this section.

(1) A reduction in at least one clinically significant adverse event, including a reduction in mortality or a clinically significant complication.

(2) A decreased rate of at least one subsequent diagnostic or therapeutic intervention.

(3) A decreased number of future hospitalizations or physician visits.

(4) A more rapid beneficial resolution of the disease process treatment including, but not limited to, a reduced length of stay or recovery time

(5) An improvement in one or more activities of daily living

(6) An improved quality of life

(7) A demonstrated greater medication adherence or compliance.

(D) The totality of the information otherwise demonstrates that the new medical service or technology substantially improves, relative to technologies previously available, the diagnosis or treatment of Medicare beneficiaries.

(iii) Evidence from published or unpublished information sources from within the United States or elsewhere may be sufficient to establish that a new medical service or technology represents an advance that substantially improves, relative to services or technologies previously available, the diagnosis or treatment of Medicare beneficiaries. Information source may include the following:

(A) Clinical trials;

(B) Peer reviewed journal articles;

(C) Study results;

(D) Meta-analyses;

(E) Consensus statements;

(F) White papers;

(G) Patient surveys;

(H) Case studies;

(I) Reports;

(J) Systematic literature reviews;

(K) Letters from major healthcare associations;

(L) Editorials and letters to the editor; and,

(M) Public comments.

(N) Other appropriate information sources may be considered.

(iv) The medical condition diagnosed or treated by the new medical service or technology may have a low prevalence among Medicare beneficiaries.

(v) The new medical service or technology may represent an advance that substantially improves, relative to services or technologies previously available, the diagnosis or treatment of a subpopulation of patients with the medical condition diagnosed or treated by the new medical service or technology.

(2) A medical service or technology may be considered new within 2 or 3 years after the point at which data begin to become available reflecting the inpatient hospital code (as defined in section 1886(d)(5)(K)(iii) of the Social Security Act) assigned to the new service or technology (depending on when a new code is assigned and data on the new service or technology become available for DRG recalibration). After CMS has recalibrated the DRGs, based on available data, to reflect the costs of an otherwise new medical service or technology, the medical service or technology will no longer be considered “new” under the criterion of this section.

(3) The DRG prospective payment rate otherwise applicable to discharges involving the medical service or technology is determined to be inadequate, based on application of a threshold amount to estimated charges incurred with respect to such discharges. To determine whether the payment would be adequate, CMS will determine whether the charges of the cases involving a new medical service or technology will exceed a threshold amount that is the lesser of 75 percent of the standardized amount (increased to reflect the difference between cost and charges) or 75 percent of one standard deviation beyond the geometric mean standardized charge for all cases in the DRG to which the new medical service or technology is assigned (or the case-weighted average of all relevant DRGs if the new medical service or technology occurs in many different DRGs). Standardized charges reflect the actual charges of a case adjusted by the prospective payment system payment factors applicable to an individual hospital, such as the wage index, the indirect medical education adjustment factor, and the disproportionate share adjustment factor.

(c) Eligibility criteria for alternative pathway for certain transformative new devices. For discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2020, CMS provides for additional payments (as specified in § 412.88) beyond the standard DRG payments and outlier payments to a hospital for discharges involving covered inpatient hospital services that are new medical devices, if the following conditions are met:

(1) A new medical device is part of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Breakthrough Devices Program and has received marketing authorization for the indication covered by the Breakthrough Device designation.

(2) A medical device that meets the condition in paragraph (c)(1) of this section will be considered new for not less than 2 years and not more than 3 years after the point at which data begin to become available reflecting the inpatient hospital code (as defined in section 1886(d)(5)(K)(iii) of the Social Security Act) assigned to the new technology (depending on when a new code is assigned and data on the new technology become available for DRG recalibration). After CMS has recalibrated the DRGs, based on available data, to reflect the costs of an otherwise new medical technology, the medical technology will no longer be considered “new” under the criterion of this section.

(3) The new medical device meets the conditions described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(d) Eligibility criteria for alternative pathway for certain antimicrobial products.

(1)

(i) A new medical product is designated by FDA as a Qualified Infectious Disease Product and has received marketing authorization for the indication covered by the Qualified Infectious Disease Product designation; or

(ii) For discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2021, a new medical product is approved under FDA's Limited Population Pathway for Antibacterial and Antifungal Drugs (LPAD) and used for the indication approved under the LPAD pathway.

(2) A medical product that meets the condition in paragraph (d)(1) of this section will be considered new for not less than 2 years and not more than 3 years after the point at which data begin to become available reflecting the inpatient hospital code (as defined in section 1886(d)(5)(K)(iii) of the Social Security Act) assigned to the new technology (depending on when a new code is assigned and data on the new technology become available for DRG recalibration). After CMS has recalibrated the DRGs, based on available data, to reflect the costs of an otherwise new medical technology, the medical technology will no longer be considered “new” under the criterion of this section.

(3) The new medical product meets the conditions described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(e) Announcement of determinations and deadline for consideration of new medical service or technology applications, and conditional approval for certain antimicrobial products.

(1) CMS will consider whether a new medical service or technology meets the eligibility criteria specified in paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section and announce the results in the Federal Register as part of its annual updates and changes to the IPPS. CMS will only consider any particular new medical service or technology for add-on payments under paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section.

(2) Except as provided for in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, CMS only considers, for add-on payments for a particular fiscal year, an application for which the new medical service or technology has received FDA marketing authorization by July 1 prior to the particular fiscal year.

(3) A technology for which an application is submitted under an alternative pathway for certain antimicrobial products under paragraph (d) of this section that does not receive FDA marketing authorization by the July 1 deadline specified in paragraph (e)(2) of this section may be conditionally approved for the new technology add-on payment for a particular fiscal year, effective for discharges beginning in the first quarter after FDA marketing authorization is granted, provided that FDA marketing authorization is granted before July 1 of the fiscal year for which the applicant applied for new technology add-on payments.

[66 FR 46924, Sept. 7, 2001, as amended at 68 FR 45469, Aug. 1, 2003; 69 FR 49243, Aug. 11, 2004; 73 FR 48755, Aug. 19, 2008; 74 FR 43997, Aug. 27, 2009; 82 FR 38511, Aug. 14, 2017; 84 FR 42611, Aug. 16, 2019; 85 FR 59020, Sept. 18, 2020]