In order to be excluded from the prospective payment system as specified in § 412.1(a)(1), and paid under the prospective payment system as specified in § 412.1(a)(2), a psychiatric unit must meet the following requirements:
(a) Admit only patients whose admission to the unit is required for active treatment, of an intensity that can be provided appropriately only in an inpatient hospital setting, of a psychiatric principal diagnosis that is listed in the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification.
(b) Furnish, through the use of qualified personnel, psychological services, social work services, psychiatric nursing, and therapeutic activities.
(c) Maintain medical records that permit determination of the degree and intensity of the treatment provided to individuals who are furnished services in the unit, and that meet the following requirements:
(1) Development of assessment/diagnostic data. Medical records must stress the psychiatric components of the record, including history of findings and treatment provided for the psychiatric condition for which the inpatient is treated in the unit.
(i) The identification data must include the inpatient's legal status.
(ii) A provisional or admitting diagnosis must be made on every inpatient at the time of admission, and must include the diagnoses of intercurrent diseases as well as the psychiatric diagnoses.
(iii) The reasons for admission must be clearly documented as stated by the inpatient or others significantly involved, or both.
(iv) The social service records, including reports of interviews with inpatients, family members, and others must provide an assessment of home plans and family attitudes, and community resource contacts as well as a social history.
(v) When indicated, a complete neurological examination must be recorded at the time of the admission physical examination.
(2) Psychiatric evaluation. Each inpatient must receive a psychiatric evaluation that must -
(i) Be completed within 60 hours of admission;
(ii) Include a medical history;
(iii) Contain a record of mental status;
(iv) Note the onset of illness and the circumstances leading to admission;
(v) Describe attitudes and behavior;
(vi) Estimate intellectual functioning, memory functioning, and orientation; and
(vii) Include an inventory of the inpatient's assets in descriptive, not interpretative fashion.
(3) Treatment plan.
(i) Each inpatient must have an individual comprehensive treatment plan that must be based on an inventory of the inpatient's strengths and disabilities. The written plan must include a substantiated diagnosis; short-term and long-term goals; the specific treatment modalities utilized; the responsibilities of each member of the treatment team; and adequate documentation to justify the diagnosis and the treatment and rehabilitation activities carried out; and
(ii) The treatment received by the inpatient must be documented in such a way as to assure that all active therapeutic efforts are included.
(4) Recording progress. Progress notes must be recorded by the doctor of medicine or osteopathy responsible for the care of the inpatient, a nurse, social worker and, when appropriate, others significantly involved in active treatment modalities. The frequency of progress notes is determined by the condition of the inpatient but must be recorded at least weekly for the first two months and at least once a month thereafter and must contain recommendations for revisions in the treatment plan as indicated as well as precise assessment of the inpatient's progress in accordance with the original or revised treatment plan.
(5) Discharge planning and discharge summary. The record of each patient who has been discharged must have a discharge summary that includes a recapitulation of the inpatient's hospitalization in the unit and recommendations from appropriate services concerning follow-up or aftercare as well as a brief summary of the patient's condition on discharge.
(d) Meet special staff requirements in that the unit must have adequate numbers of qualified professional and supportive staff to evaluate inpatients, formulate written, individualized, comprehensive treatment plans, provide active treatment measures and engage in discharge planning, as follows:
(1) Personnel. The unit must employ or undertake to provide adequate numbers of qualified professional, technical, and consultative personnel to -
(i) Evaluate inpatients;
(ii) Formulate written, individualized, comprehensive treatment plans;
(iii) Provide active treatment measures; and
(iv) Engage in discharge planning.
(2) Director of inpatient psychiatric services: Medical staff. Inpatient psychiatric services must be under the supervision of a clinical director, service chief, or equivalent who is qualified to provide the leadership required for an intensive treatment program. The number and qualifications of doctors of medicine and osteopathy must be adequate to provide essential psychiatric services.
(i) The clinical director, service chief, or equivalent must meet the training and experience requirements for examination by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology or the American Osteopathic Board of Neurology and Psychiatry.
(ii) The director must monitor and evaluate the quality and appropriateness of services and treatment provided by the medical staff.
(3) Nursing services. The unit must have a qualified director of psychiatric nursing services. In addition to the director of nursing, there must be adequate numbers of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers to provide nursing care necessary under each inpatient's active treatment program and to maintain progress notes on each inpatient.
(i) The director of psychiatric nursing services must be a registered nurse who has a master's degree in psychiatric or mental health nursing, or its equivalent, from a school of nursing accredited by the National League for Nursing, or be qualified by education and experience in the care of the mentally ill. The director must demonstrate competence to participate in interdisciplinary formulation of individual treatment plans; to give skilled nursing care and therapy; and to direct, monitor, and evaluate the nursing care furnished.
(ii) The staffing pattern must ensure the availability of a registered nurse 24 hours each day. There must be adequate numbers of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers to provide the nursing care necessary under each inpatient's active treatment program.
(4) Psychological services. The unit must provide or have available psychological services to meet the needs of the inpatients. The services must be furnished in accordance with acceptable standards of practice, service objectives, and established policies and procedures.
(5) Social services. There must be a director of social services who monitors and evaluates the quality and appropriateness of social services furnished. The services must be furnished in accordance with accepted standards of practice and established policies and procedures. Social service staff responsibilities must include, but are not limited to, participating in discharge planning, arranging for follow-up care, and developing mechanisms for exchange of appropriate information with sources outside the hospital.
(6) Therapeutic activities. The unit must provide a therapeutic activities program.
(i) The program must be appropriate to the needs and interests of inpatients and be directed toward restoring and maintaining optimal levels of physical and psychosocial functioning.
(ii) The number of qualified therapists, support personnel, and consultants must be adequate to provide comprehensive therapeutic activities consistent with each inpatient's active treatment program.