Site Feedback

Title 42

Displaying title 42, up to date as of 9/17/2021. Title 42 was last amended 9/15/2021.

Title 42

eCFR Content

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the official legal print publication containing the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR) is a continuously updated online version of the CFR. It is not an official legal edition of the CFR.

Learn more about the eCFR, its status, and the editorial process.

§ 405.1877 Judicial review.

(a) Basis and scope.

(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 704 or any other provision of law, sections 205(h) and 1872 of the Act provide that a decision or other action by a reviewing entity is subject to judicial review solely to the extent authorized by section 1878(f)(1) of the Act. This section, along with the EJR provisions of § 405.1842 of this subpart, implements section 1878(f)(1) of the Act.

(2) Section 1878(f)(1) of the Act provides that a provider has a right to obtain judicial review of a final decision of the Board, or of a timely reversal, affirmation, or modification by the Administrator of a final Board decision, by filing a civil action in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in a Federal district court with venue no later than 60 days after the date of receipt by the provider of a final Board decision or a reversal, affirmation, or modification by the Administrator. The Secretary (and not the Administrator or CMS itself, or the contractor) is the only proper defendant in a civil action brought under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act.

(3) A Board decision is final and subject to judicial review under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act only if the decision -

(i) Is one of the Board decisions specified in § 405.1875(a)(2)(i) through (a)(2)(iii) of this subpart or, in a particular case, is deemed to be final by the Administrator under § 405.1875(a)(2)(iv) of this subpart; and

(ii) Is not reversed, affirmed, modified, or remanded by the Administrator under §§ 405.1875(e) and 405.1875(f) of this subpart within 60 days of the date of receipt by the provider of the Board's decision. A provider is not required to seek Administrator review under § 405.1875(c) first in order to seek judicial review of a Board decision that is final and subject to judicial review under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act.

(4) If the Administrator timely reverses, affirms, or modifies one of the Board decisions specified in § 405.1875(a)(2)(i) through (a)(2)(iii) of this subpart or deemed to be final by the Administrator in a particular case under § 405.1875(a)(2)(iv) of this subpart, the Administrator's reversal, affirmation, or modification is the only decision subject to judicial review under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act. A remand of a Board decision by the Administrator to the Board vacates the decision. Neither the Board's decision nor the Administrator's remand is a final decision subject to judicial review under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act (as described in § 405.1875(e)(4), § 405.1875(f)(1), and § 405.1875(f)(4) of this subpart).

(b) Determining when a civil action may be filed -

(1) General rule. Under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act, the 60-day periods for Administrator review of a decision by the Board, and for judicial review of any final Board decision, respectively, both begin to run on the same day. Paragraphs (b)(2), (b)(3) and (b)(4) of this section identify how various actions or inaction by the Administrator within the 60-day review period determine the scope and timing of any right a provider may have to judicial review under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act.

(2) Administrator declines review. If the Administrator declines any review of a Board decision specified in § 405.1875(a)(2) of this subpart, whether through inaction or in a written notice issued under § 405.1875(c)(3) of this subpart, the provider must file any civil action seeking judicial review of the Board's final decision under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act no later than 60 days after the date of receipt by the provider of the Board's decision.

(3) Administrator accepts review and renders timely decision. When the Administrator decides to review, in a notice under § 405.1875(c)(3) of this subpart, any issue in a Board decision specified as final, or deemed as final by the Administrator, under § 405.1875(a)(2) of this subpart, and he or she subsequently renders a decision within the 60-day review period (as described in § 405.1875(a)(1) of this subpart), the provider has no right to obtain judicial review of the Board's decision under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act.

(i) If the Administrator timely reverses, affirms, or modifies the Board's decision, the provider's only right under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act is to request judicial review of the Administrator's decision by filing a civil action no later than 60 days after the date of receipt by the provider of the Administrator's decision (as described in § 405.1877(a)(3) of this subpart).

(ii) If the Administrator timely vacates the Board's decision and remands for further proceedings (as described in § 405.1875(f)(1)(i) of this subpart), a provider has no right to judicial review under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act of the Board's decision or of the Administrator's remand (as described in § 405.1877(a)(3) of this subpart).

(4) Administrator accepts review and timely decision is not rendered. If the Administrator decides to review, in a notice under § 405.1875(c)(3) of this subpart, any issue in a Board decision specified as final, or deemed to be final by the Administrator, under § 405.1875(a)(2), but he or she does not render a decision within the 60-day review period, this subsequent inaction constitutes an affirmation of the Board's decision by the Administrator, for purposes of the time in which to seek judicial review. In this case, the provider must file any civil action requesting judicial review of the Administrator's final decision under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act no later than 60 days after the expiration of the 60-day period for a decision by the Administrator under § 405.1875(a)(1) and § 405.1875(e)(2) of this subpart.

(c) Statutory limitations on and preclusion of judicial review. The Act limits or precludes judicial review of certain matters at issue. Limitations on and preclusions of judicial review include the following:

(1) A finding in a contractor determination that expenses incurred for items and services furnished by a provider to an individual are not payable under title XVIII of the Act because those items or services are excluded from coverage under section 1862 of the Act, and the regulations at 42 CFR part 411, is not reviewable by the Board (as described in § 405.1840(b)(1) of this subpart) and is not subject to judicial review under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act; the finding is subject to judicial review solely in accordance with the applicable provisions of sections 1155, 1869, and 1879(d) of the Act, and of subpart I of part 405 and subpart B of part 478, as applicable.

(2) Certain matters affecting payments to hospitals under the prospective payment system are completely removed from administrative and judicial review, as provided in section 1886(d)(7) of the Act, and §§ 405.1804 and 405.1840(b)(2) of this subpart.

(3) Any Board remand order, or discovery or disclosure ruling or subpoena specified in § 405.1875(a)(3)(i) through (a)(3)(ii) of this subpart, or a decision by the Administrator following immediate review of a Board remand order, discovery ruling, or subpoena, is not subject to immediate judicial review under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act. Judicial review of all nonfinal Board actions, including any such Board remand order, discovery or disclosure ruling, or subpoena (except as provided in § 405.1857(e) of this subpart), is limited to review of a final agency decision as described in § 405.1877(a) of this subpart.

(d) Group appeals. If a final decision is issued by the Board or rendered by the Administrator, as applicable, in any group appeal brought under § 405.1837, those providers in the group appeal that seek judicial review of the final decision under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act must file a civil action as a group (as described in § 405.1877(e)(2) of this subpart) for the specific matter at issue and common factual or legal question that was addressed in the final agency decision in the group appeal.

(e) Venue for civil actions -

(1) Single provider appeals. A civil action under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act requesting judicial review of a final decision of the Board or the Administrator, as applicable, in a single provider appeal under § 405.1835 of this subpart must be brought in the District Court of the United States for the judicial district in which the provider is located or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia.

(2) Group appeals. A civil action under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act seeking judicial review of a final decision of the Board or the Administrator, as applicable, in a group appeal under § 405.1837 of this subpart must be brought in the District Court of the United States for the judicial district in which the greatest number of providers participating in both the group appeal and the civil action are located or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia.

(f) Service of process. Process must be served as described under 45 CFR part 4.

(g) Remand by a court -

(1) General rule. Under section 1874 of the Act, and § 421.5(b) of this chapter, the Secretary is the real party in interest in a civil action seeking relief under title XVIII of the Act. The Secretary has delegated to the Administrator the authority under section 1878(f)(1) of the Act to review decisions of the Board and, as applicable, render a final agency decision. If a court, in a civil action brought by a provider against the Secretary as the real party in interest regarding a matter pertaining to Medicare payment to the provider, orders a remand for further action by the Secretary, any component of HHS or CMS, or the contractor, the remand order must be deemed, except as provided in paragraph (g)(3) of this section, to be directed to the Administrator in the first instance, regardless of whether the court's remand order refers to the Secretary, the Administrator, the Board, any other component of HHS or CMS, or the contractor.

(2) Procedures.

(i) Upon receiving notification of a court remand order, the Administrator must prepare an appropriate remand order and, if applicable, file the order in any Board appeal at issue in the civil action.

(ii) The Administrator's remand order must -

(A) Describe the specific requirements of the court's remand order;

(B) Require compliance with those requirements by the pertinent component of HHS or CMS or by the contractor, as applicable; and

(C) Remand the matter to the appropriate entity for further action.

(iii) After the entity named in the Administrator's remand order completes its response to that order, the entity's response after remand is subject to further proceedings before the Board or the Administrator, as applicable, in accordance with this subpart. For example -

(A) If the contractor issues a revised contractor determination after remand, the provider may request a Board hearing on the revised determination (as described in §§ 405.1803(d) and 405.1889 of this subpart); or,

(B) If the contractor hearing officer(s) or the Board issues a new decision after remand, a decision may be reviewed by a CMS reviewing official or the Administrator, respectively (as described in §§ 405.1834 and 405.1875(f)(4) of this subpart).

(3) Exception. The provisions of paragraphs (g)(1) and (g)(2) of this section do not apply to the extent they may be inconsistent with the court's remand order or any other order of the court regarding the civil action.

(h) Implementation of final court judgment.

(1) When a final, non-appealable court judgment is issued in a civil action brought by a provider against the Secretary as the real party in interest regarding a matter affecting Medicare payment, a court judgment is subject to the provisions of § 405.1803(d) of this subpart.

(2) The provisions of paragraph (h)(1) of this section do not apply to the extent they may be inconsistent with the court's final judgment or any other order of a court regarding the civil action.

[73 FR 30264, May 23, 2008]