(a) Except for exclusions under paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, the HHS Secretary has determined that the biological agents and toxins listed in this section have the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. The select agents and toxins marked with an asterisk (*) are designated as Tier 1 select agents and toxins and are subject to additional requirements as listed in this part.
(b) HHS select agents and toxins:
Bacillus cereus Biovar anthracis*
Botulinum neurotoxin producing species of Clostridium*
Conotoxins (Short, paralytic alpha conotoxins containing the following amino acid sequence X1CCX2PACGX3X4X5X6CX7)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
Eastern equine encephalitis virus
Lassa fever virus
Reconstructed replication competent forms of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus containing any portion of the coding regions of all eight gene segments (Reconstructed 1918 influenza virus)
SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
South American hemorrhagic fever viruses:
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (subtypes A-E)
Tick-borne encephalitis virus
Far Eastern subtype
Kyasanur Forest disease virus
Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus
Variola major virus (Smallpox virus)*
Variola minor virus (Alastrim)*
 C = Cysteine residues are all present as disulfides, with the 1st and 3rd Cysteine, and the 2nd and 4th Cysteine forming specific disulfide bridges; The consensus sequence includes known toxins α-MI and α-GI (shown above) as well as α-GIA, Ac1.1a, α-CnIA, α-CnIB; X1 = any amino acid(s) or Des-X; X2 = Asparagine or Histidine; P = Proline; A = Alanine; G = Glycine; X3 = Arginine or Lysine; X4 = Asparagine, Histidine, Lysine, Arginine, Tyrosine, Phenylalanine or Tryptophan; X5 = Tyrosine, Phenylalanine, or Tryptophan; X6 = Serine, Threonine, Glutamate, Aspartate, Glutamine, or Asparagine; X7 = Any amino acid(s) or Des X and; “Des X” = “an amino acid does not have to be present at this position.” For example if a peptide sequence were XCCHPA then the related peptide CCHPA would be designated as Des-X.
(c) Genetic Elements, Recombinant and/or Synthetic Nucleic Acids, and Recombinant and/or Synthetic Organisms:
(1) Nucleic acids that can produce infectious forms of any of the select agent viruses listed in paragraph (b) of this section.
(2) Recombinant and/or Synthetic nucleic acids that encode for the toxic form(s) of any of the toxins listed in paragraph (b) of this section if the nucleic acids:
(i) Can be expressed in vivo or in vitro, or
(ii) Are in a vector or recombinant host genome and can be expressed in vivo or in vitro.
(3) HHS select agents and toxins listed in paragraph (b) of this section that have been genetically modified.
(d) HHS select agents or toxins that meet any of the following criteria are excluded from the requirements of this part:
(1) Any HHS select agent or toxin that is in its naturally occurring environment provided the select agent or toxin has not been intentionally introduced, cultivated, collected, or otherwise extracted from its natural source.
(2) Non-viable HHS select agents or nontoxic HHS toxins.
(3) A select agent or toxin that has been subjected to decontamination or a destruction procedure when intended for waste disposal.
(4) A select agent or regulated nucleic acids that can produce infectious forms of any select agent virus that has been subjected to a validated inactivation procedure that is confirmed through a viability testing protocol. Surrogate strains that are known to possess equivalent properties with respect to inactivation can be used to validate an inactivation procedure; however, if there are known strain-to-strain variations in the resistance of a select agent to an inactivation procedure, then an inactivation procedure validated on a lesser resistant strain must also be validated on the more resistant strains.
(5) Material containing a select agent that is subjected to a procedure that removes all viable select agent cells, spores, or virus particles if the material is subjected to a viability testing protocol to ensure that the removal method has rendered the material free of all viable select agent.
(6) A select agent or regulated nucleic acids that can produce infectious forms of any select agent virus not subjected to a validated inactivation procedure or material containing a select agent not subjected to a procedure that removes all viable select agent cells, spores, or virus particles if the material is determined by the HHS Secretary to be effectively inactivated or effectively removed. To apply for a determination an individual or entity must submit a written request and supporting scientific information to CDC. A written decision granting or denying the request will be issued.
(7) Except as required in § 73.16(l), the aggregate amount of the toxin under the control of a principal investigator, treating physician or veterinarian, or commercial manufacturer or distributor does not, at any time, exceed the following amounts: 1000 mg of Abrin; 1 mg of Botulinum neurotoxins; 100 mg of Conotoxins (Short, paralytic alpha conotoxins containing the following amino acid sequence X1CCX2PACGX3X4X5X6CX7); 10,000 mg of Diacetoxyscirpenol; 1000 mg of Ricin; 500 mg of Saxitoxin; 100 mg of Staphylococcal enterotoxins (subtypes A-E); 10,000 mg of T-2 toxin; or 500 mg of Tetrodotoxin. Provided that,
(i) The toxin is transferred only after the transferor uses due diligence and documents the identification of the recipient and the legitimate need (e.g., prophylactic, protective, bona fide research, or other peaceful purpose) claimed by the recipient to use such toxin. Information to be documented includes, but is not limited to, the recipient identity information, including the recipient's name, institution name, address, telephone number and email address; name of the toxin and the total amount transferred; and the legitimate need claimed by the recipient. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section, the HHS Secretary retains the authority to, without prior notification, inspect and copy or request the submission of the due diligence documentation to the CDC.
(ii) Reports to CDC if they detect a known or suspected violation of Federal law or become aware of suspicious activity related to a toxin listed in this part.
(8) An animal inoculated with or exposed to an HHS select toxin.
(9) An HHS select toxin identified in an original food sample or clinical sample.
(10) For those laboratories that are not exempt under § 73.5(a) and § 73.6(a), Botulinum neurotoxin that is produced as a byproduct in the study of Botulinum neurotoxin producing species of Clostridium so long as the toxin has not been intentionally cultivated, collected, purified, or otherwise extracted, and the material containing the toxin is rendered non-toxic and disposed of within 30 days of the initiation of the culture.
(11) Waste generated during the delivery of patient care by health care professionals from a patient diagnosed with an illness or condition associated with a select agent, where that waste is decontaminated or transferred for destruction by complying with state and Federal regulations within seven calendar days of the conclusion of patient care.
(12) Any South American genotypes of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus and any West African Clade of Monkeypox virus provided that the individual or entity can identify that the agent is within the exclusion category.
(e) An attenuated strain of a select agent or a select toxin modified to be less potent or toxic may be excluded from the requirements of this part based upon a determination by the HHS Secretary that the attenuated strain or modified toxin does not pose a severe threat to public health and safety.
(1) To apply for exclusion, an individual or entity must submit a written request and supporting scientific information. A written decision granting or denying the request will be issued. An exclusion will be effective upon notification to the applicant. Exclusions will be listed on the National Select Agent Registry Web site at http://www.selectagents.gov/.
(2) If an excluded attenuated strain or modified toxin is subjected to any manipulation that restores or enhances its virulence or toxic activity, the resulting select agent or toxin will be subject to the requirements of this part.
(3) An individual or entity may make a written request to the HHS Secretary for reconsideration of a decision denying an application for the exclusion of an attenuated strain of a select agent or a select toxin modified to be less potent or toxic. The written request for reconsideration must state the facts and reasoning upon which the individual or entity relies to show the decision was incorrect. The HHS Secretary will grant or deny the request for reconsideration as promptly as circumstances allow and will state, in writing, the reasons for the decision.
(f) Any HHS select agent or toxin seized by a Federal law enforcement agency will be excluded from the requirements of this part during the period between seizure of the select agent or toxin and the transfer or destruction of such agent or toxin provided that:
(1) As soon as practicable, the Federal law enforcement agency transfers the seized select agent or toxin to an entity eligible to receive such agent or toxin or destroys the agent or toxin by a recognized sterilization or inactivation process,
(2) The Federal law enforcement agency safeguards and secures the seized select agent or toxin against theft, loss, or release, and reports any theft, loss, or release of such agent or toxin, and
(3) The Federal law enforcement agency reports the seizure of the select agent or toxin to CDC or APHIS.
(i) The seizure of Bacillus cereus Biovar anthracis, Botulinum neurotoxins, Botulinum neurotoxin producing species of Clostridium, Ebola viruses, Francisella tularensis, Marburg virus, Variola major virus (Smallpox virus), Variola minor (Alastrim), or Yersinia pestis must be reported within 24 hours by telephone, facsimile, or e-mail. This report must be followed by submission of APHIS/CDC Form 4 within seven calendar days after seizure of the select agent or toxin.
(ii) For all other HHS select agents or toxins, APHIS/CDC Form 4 must be submitted within seven calendar days after seizure of the agent or toxin.
(iii) A copy of APHIS/CDC Form 4 must be maintained for three years.
(4) The Federal law enforcement agency reports the final disposition of the select agent or toxin by submission of APHIS/CDC Form 4. A copy of the completed form must be maintained for three years.
[70 FR 13316, Mar. 18, 2005, as amended at 70 FR 61049, Oct. 20, 2005; 73 FR 61365, Oct. 16, 2008; 73 FR 64554, Oct. 30, 2008; 77 FR 61110, Oct. 5, 2012; 79 FR 26861, May 12, 2014; 81 FR 63143, Sept. 14, 2016; 82 FR 6290, Jan. 19, 2017]