(a) A Fund-financed remedial action undertaken pursuant to CERCLA section 104(a) cannot proceed unless a state provides its applicable required assurances. The assurances must be provided by the state prior to the initiation of remedial action pursuant to a Superfund state contract for EPA-lead (or political subdivision-lead) remedial action or pursuant to a cooperative agreement for a state-lead remedial action. The SMOA may not be used for this purpose. Federally recognized Indian tribes are not required to provide CERCLA section 104(c)(3) assurances for Fund-financed response actions. Further requirements pertaining to state, political subdivision, and federally recognized Indian tribe involvement in CERCLA response are found in 40 CFR part 35, subpart O.
(1) The state is not required to share in the cost of state- or EPA-lead Fund-financed removal actions (including remedial planning activities associated with remedial actions) conducted pursuant to CERCLA section 104 unless the facility was operated by the state or a political subdivision thereof at the time of disposal of hazardous substances therein and a remedial action is ultimately undertaken at the site. Such remedial planning activities include, but are not limited to, remedial investigations (RIs), feasibility studies (FSs), and remedial design (RD). States shall be required to share 50 percent, or greater, in the cost of all Fund-financed response actions if the facility was publicly operated at the time of the disposal of hazardous substances. For other facilities, except federal facilities, the state shall be required to share 10 percent of the cost of the remedial action.
(2) CERCLA section 104(c)(5) provides that EPA shall grant a state credit for reasonable, documented, direct, out-of-pocket, non-federal expenditures subject to the limitations specified in CERCLA section 104(c)(5). For a state to apply credit toward its cost share, it must enter into a cooperative agreement or Superfund state contract. The state must submit as soon as possible, but no later than at the time CERCLA section 104 assurances are provided for a remedial action, its accounting of eligible credit expenditures for EPA verification. Additional credit requirements are contained in 40 CFR part 35, subpart O.
(3) Credit may be applied to a state's future cost share requirements at NPL sites for response expenditures or obligations incurred by the state or a political subdivision from January 1, 1978 to December 11, 1980, and for the remedial action expenditures incurred only by the state after October 17, 1986.
(4) Credit that exceeds the required cost share at the site for which the credit is granted may be transferred to another site to offset a state's required remedial action cost share.
(1) Prior to a Fund-financed remedial action, the state must also provide its assurance in accordance with CERCLA section 104(c)(3)(A) to assume responsibility for operation and maintenance of implemented remedial actions for the expected life of such actions. In addition, when appropriate, as part of the O&M assurance, the state must assure that any institutional controls implemented as part of the remedial action at a site are in place, reliable, and will remain in place after the initiation of O&M. The state and EPA shall consult on a plan for operation and maintenance prior to the initiation of a remedial action.
(2) After a joint EPA/State inspection of the implemented Fund-financed remedial action under § 300.515(g), EPA may share, for any extension period established in § 300.435(f)(2), in the cost of the operation of the remedy to ensure that the remedy is operational and functional. In the case of restoration of ground or surface water, EPA shall share in the cost of the State's operation of ground- or surface-water restoration remedial actions as specified in § 300.435(f)(3).
(d) In accordance with CERCLA sections 104 (c)(3)(B) and 121(d)(3), if the remedial action requires off-site storage, destruction, treatment, or disposal, the state must provide its assurance before the remedial action begins on the availability of a hazardous waste disposal facility that is in compliance with CERCLA section 121(d)(3) and is acceptable to EPA.
(1) In accordance with CERCLA section 104(c)(9), EPA shall not provide any remedial action pursuant to CERCLA section 104 until the state in which the release occurs enters into a cooperative agreement or Superfund state contract with EPA providing assurances deemed adequate by EPA that the state will assure the availability of hazardous waste treatment or disposal facilities which:
(i) Have adequate capacity for the destruction, treatment, or secure disposition of all hazardous wastes that are reasonably expected to be generated within the state during the 20-year period following the date of such cooperative agreement or Superfund state contract and to be destroyed, treated, or disposed;
(ii) Are within the state, or outside the state in accordance with an interstate agreement or regional agreement or authority;
(iii) Are acceptable to EPA; and
(iv) Are in compliance with the requirements of Subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.
(2) This rule does not address whether or not Indian tribes are states for purposes of this paragraph (e).
(f) EPA may determine that an interest in real property must be acquired in order to conduct a response action. However, as provided in CERCLA section 104(j)(2), EPA may acquire an interest in real estate in order to conduct a remedial action only if the State in which the interest to be acquired is located provides assurances, through a contract, cooperative agreement or otherwise, that the State will accept transfer of the interest upon completion of the remedial action. For purposes of this paragraph, “completion of the remedial action” is the point at which operation and maintenance (O&M) measures would be initiated pursuant to § 300.435(f). The State may accept a transfer of interest at an earlier point in time if agreed upon in writing by the State and EPA. Indian tribe assurances are to be provided as set out at 40 CFR part 35, subpart O, § 35.6110(b)(2).