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Title 40

Displaying title 40, up to date as of 9/14/2021. Title 40 was last amended 9/14/2021.

Title 40

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Subpart N - Landfills
§ 265.300 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that dispose of hazardous waste in landfills, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise. A waste pile used as a disposal facility is a landfill and is governed by this subpart.

§ 265.301 Design and operating requirements.

(a) The owner or operator of each new landfill unit, each lateral expansion of a landfill unit, and each replacement of an existing landfill unit must install two or more liners and a leachate collection and removal system above and between such liners, and operate the leachate collection and removal system, in accordance with § 264.301(c), unless exempted under § 264.301(d), (e), or (f) of this chapter.

(b) The owner or operator of each unit referred to in paragraph (a) of this section must notify the Regional Administrator at least sixty days prior to receiving waste. The owner or operator of each facility submitting notice must file a part B application within six months of the receipt of such notice.

(c) The owner or operator of any replacement landfill unit is exempt from paragraph (a) of this section if:

(1) The existing unit was constructed in compliance with the design standards of section 3004(o)(1)(A)(i) and (o)(5) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and

(2) There is no reason to believe that the liner is not functioning as designed.

(d) The double liner requirement set forth in paragraph (a) of this section may be waived by the Regional Administrator for any monofill, if:

(1) The monofill contains only hazardous wastes from foundry furnace emission controls or metal casting molding sand, and such wastes do not contain constituents which would render the wastes hazardous for reasons other than the Toxicity Characteristic in § 261.24 of this chapter, with EPA Hazardous Waste Numbers D004 through D017; and

(2)

(i)

(A) The monofill has at least one liner for which there is no evidence that such liner is leaking;

(B) The monofill is located more than one-quarter mile from an “underground source of drinking water” (as that term is defined in 40 CFR 270.2); and

(C) The monofill is in compliance with generally applicable ground-water monitoring requirements for facilities with permits under RCRA section 3005(c); or

(ii) The owner or operator demonstrates that the monofill is located, designed and operated so as to assure that there will be no migration of any hazardous constituent into ground water or surface water at any future time.

(e) In the case of any unit in which the liner and leachate collection system has been installed pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section and in good faith compliance with paragraph (a) of this section and with guidance documents governing liners and leachate collection systems under paragraph (a) of this section, no liner or leachate collection system which is different from that which was so installed pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section will be required for such unit by the Regional Administrator when issuing the first permit to such facility, except that the Regional Administrator will not be precluded from requiring installation of a new liner when the Regional Administrator has reason to believe that any liner installed pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section is leaking.

(f) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain a run-on control system capable of preventing flow onto the active portion of the landfill during peak discharge from at least a 25-year storm.

(g) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate and maintain a run-off management system to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm.

(h) Collection and holding facilities (e.g., tanks or basins) associated with run-on and run-off control systems must be emptied or otherwise managed expeditiously after storms to maintain design capacity of the system.

(i) The owner or operator of a landfill containing hazardous waste which is subject to dispersal by wind must cover or otherwise manage the landfill so that wind dispersal of the hazardous waste is controlled.

[Comment: As required by § 265.13, the waste analysis plan must include analyses needed to comply with §§ 265.312, 265.313, and 265.314. As required by § 265.73, the owner or operator must place the results of these analyses in the operating record of the facility.]

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 32368, July 26, 1982; 50 FR 18374, Apr. 30, 1985. Redesignated from § 265.302 at 57 FR 3494, Jan. 29, 1992; 50 FR 28750, July 15, 1985, as amended at 57 FR 3494, Jan. 29, 1992; 57 FR 30658, July 10, 1992; 71 FR 16911, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.302 Action leakage rate.

(a) The owner or operator of landfill units subject to § 265.301(a) must submit a proposed action leakage rate to the Regional Administrator when submitting the notice required under § 265.301(b). Within 60 days of receipt of the notification, the Regional Administrator will: Establish an action leakage rate, either as proposed by the owner or operator or modified using the criteria in this section; or extend the review period for up to 30 days. If no action is taken by the Regional Administrator before the original 60 or extended 90 day review periods, the action leakage rate will be approved as proposed by the owner or operator.

(b) The Regional Administrator shall approve an action leakage rate for land fill units subject to § 265.301(a). The action leakage rate is the maximum design flow rate that the leak detection system (LDS) can remove without the fluid head on the bottom liner exceeding 1 foot. The action leakage rate must include an adequate safety margin to allow for uncertainties in the design (e.g., slope, hydraulic conductivity, thickness of drainage material), construction, operation, and location of the LDS, waste and leachate characteristics, likelihood and amounts of other sources of liquids in the LDS, and proposed response actions (e.g., the action leakage rate must consider decreases in the flow capacity of the system over time resulting from siltation and clogging, rib layover and creep of synthetic components of the system, overburden pressures, etc.).

(c) To determine if the action leakage rate has been exceeded, the owner or operator must convert the weekly or monthly flow rate from the monitoring data obtained under § 265.304 to an average daily flow rate (gallons per acre per day) for each sump. Unless the Regional Administrator approves a different calculation, the average daily flow rate for each sump must be calculated weekly during the active life and closure period, and monthly during the post-closure care period when monthly monitoring is required under § 265.304(b).

[57 FR 3494, Jan. 29, 1992, as amended at 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.303 Response actions.

(a) The owner or operator of landfill units subject to § 265.301(a) must develop and keep on site until closure of the facility a response action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate for any sump, the owner or operator must:

(1) Notify the Regional Administrator in writing of the exceedance within 7 days of the determination;

(2) Submit a preliminary written assessment to the Regional Administrator within 14 days of the determination, as to the amount of liquids, likely sources of liquids, possible location, size, and cause of any leaks, and short-term actions taken and planned;

(3) Determine to the extent practicable the location, size, and cause of any leak;

(4) Determine whether waste receipt should cease or be curtailed, whether any waste should be removed from the unit for inspection, repairs, or controls, and whether or not the unit should be closed;

(5) Determine any other short-term and longer-term actions to be taken to mitigate or stop any leaks; and

(6) Within 30 days after the notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the results of the analyses specified in paragraphs (b)(3), (4), and (5) of this section, the results of actions taken, and actions planned. Monthly thereafter, as long as the flow rate in the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate, the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator a report summarizing the results of any remedial actions taken and actions planned.

(c) To make the leak and/or remediation determinations in paragraphs (b)(3), (4), and (5) of this section, the owner or operator must:

(1)

(i) Assess the source of liquids and amounts of liquids by source,

(ii) Conduct a fingerprint, hazardous constituent, or other analyses of the liquids in the leak detection system to identify the source of liquids and possible location of any leaks, and the hazard and mobility of the liquid; and

(iii) Assess the seriousness of any leaks in terms of potential for escaping into the environment; or

(2) Document why such assessments are not needed.

[57 FR 3494, Jan. 29, 1992, as amended at 71 FR 16912, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.304 Monitoring and inspection.

(a) An owner or operator required to have a leak detection system under § 265.301(a) must record the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump at least once each week during the active life and closure period.

(b) After the final cover is installed, the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump must be recorded at least monthly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least quarterly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive quarters, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least semi-annually. If at any time during the post-closure care period the pump operating level is exceeded at units on quarterly or semi-annual recording schedules, the owner or operator must return to monthly recording of amounts of liquids removed from each sump until the liquid level again stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months.

(c) “Pump operating level” is a liquid level proposed by the owner or operator and approved by the Regional Administrator based on pump activation level, sump dimensions, and level that avoids backup into the drainage layer and minimizes head in the sump. The timing for submission and approval of the proposed “pump operating level” will be in accordance with § 265.302(a).

[57 FR 3495, Jan. 29, 1992]

§§ 265.305-265.308 [Reserved]
§ 265.309 Surveying and recordkeeping.

The owner or operator of a landfill must maintain the following items in the operating record required in § 265.73:

(a) On a map, the exact location and dimensions, including depth, of each cell with respect to permanently surveyed benchmarks; and

(b) The contents of each cell and the approximate location of each hazardous waste type within each cell.

§ 265.310 Closure and post-closure care.

(a) At final closure of the landfill or upon closure of any cell, the owner or operator must cover the landfill or cell with a final cover designed and constructed to:

(1) Provide long-term minimization of migration of liquids through the closed landfill;

(2) Function with minimum maintenance;

(3) Promote drainage and minimize erosion or abrasion of the cover;

(4) Accommodate settling and subsidence so that the cover's integrity is maintained; and

(5) Have a permeability less than or equal to the permeability of any bottom liner system or natural subsoils present.

(b) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure requirements contained in §§ 265.117 through 265.120 including maintenance and monitoring throughout the post-closure care period. The owner or operator must:

(1) Maintain the integrity and effectiveness of the final cover, including making repairs to the cover as necessary to correct the effects of settling, subsidence, erosion, or other events;

(2) Maintain and monitor the leak detection system in accordance with §§ 264.301(c)(3)(iv) and (4) of this chapter and 265.304(b), and comply with all other applicable leak detection system requirements of this part;

(3) Maintain and monitor the ground-water monitoring system and comply with all other applicable requirements of subpart F of this part;

(4) Prevent run-on and run-off from eroding or otherwise damaging the final cover; and

(5) Protect and maintain surveyed benchmarks used in complying with § 265.309.

[50 FR 16048, Apr. 23, 1985, as amended at 57 FR 3495, Jan. 29, 1992]

§ 265.311 [Reserved]
§ 265.312 Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, and in § 265.316, ignitable or reactive waste must not be placed in a landfill, unless the waste and landfill meets all applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and:

(1) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolution of material no longer meets the definition of ignitable or reactive waste under § 261.21 or § 261.23 of this chapter; and

(2) Section 265.17(b) is complied with.

(b) Except for prohibited wastes which remain subject to treatment standards in subpart D of part 268, ignitable wastes in containers may be landfilled without meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, provided that the wastes are disposed of in such a way that they are protected from any material or conditions which may cause them to ignite. At a minimum, ignitable wastes must be disposed of in non-leaking containers which are carefully handled and placed so as to avoid heat, sparks, rupture, or any other condition that might cause ignition of the wastes; must be covered daily with soil or other non-combustible material to minimize the potential for ignition of the wastes; and must not be disposed of in cells that contain or will contain other wastes which may generate heat sufficient to cause ignition of the waste.

[47 FR 32368, July 26, 1982, as amended at 55 FR 22686, June 1, 1990; 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.313 Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

Incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, (see appendix V for examples) must not be placed in the same landfill cell, unless § 265.17(b) is complied with.

§ 265.314 Special requirements for bulk and containerized liquids.

(a) The placement of bulk or non-containerized liquid hazardous waste or hazardous waste containing free liquids (whether or not sorbents have been added) in any landfill is prohibited.

(b) Containers holding free liquids must not be placed in a landfill unless:

(1) All free-standing liquid,

(i) has been removed by decanting, or other methods,

(ii) has been mixed with sorbent or solidified so that free-standing liquid is no longer observed; or

(iii) had been otherwise eliminated; or

(2) The container is very small, such as an ampule; or

(3) The container is designed to hold free liquids for use other than storage, such as a battery or capacitor; or

(4) The container is a lab pack as defined in § 265.316 and is disposed of in accordance with § 265.316.

(c) To demonstrate the absence or presence of free liquids in either a containerized or a bulk waste, the following test must be used: Method 9095B (Paint Filter Liquids Test) as described in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11 of this chapter.

(d) The date for compliance with paragraph (a) of this section is November 19, 1981. The date for compliance with paragraph (c) of this section is March 22, 1982.

(e) Sorbents used to treat free liquids to be disposed of in landfills must be nonbiodegradable. Nonbiodegradable sorbents are: materials listed or described in paragraph (e)(1) of this section; materials that pass one of the tests in paragraph (e)(2) of this section; or materials that are determined by EPA to be nonbiodegradable through the Part 260 petition process.

(1) Nonbiodegradable sorbents.

(i) Inorganic minerals, other inorganic materials, and elemental carbon (e.g., aluminosilicates, clays, smectites, Fuller's earth, bentonite, calcium bentonite, montmorillonite, calcined montmorillonite, kaolinite, micas (illite), vermiculites, zeolites; calcium carbonate (organic free limestone); oxides/hydroxides, alumina, lime, silica (sand), diatomaceous earth; perlite (volcanic glass); expanded volcanic rock; volcanic ash; cement kiln dust; fly ash; rice hull ash; activated charcoal/activated carbon); or

(ii) High molecular weight synthetic polymers (e.g., polyethylene, high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene, polystyrene, polyurethane, polyacrylate, polynorborene, polyisobutylene, ground synthetic rubber, cross-linked allylstyrene and tertiary butyl copolymers). This does not include polymers derived from biological material or polymers specifically designed to be degradable; or

(iii) Mixtures of these nonbiodegradable materials.

(2) Tests for nonbiodegradable sorbents.

(i) The sorbent material is determined to be nonbiodegradable under ASTM Method G21-70 (1984a) - Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Synthetic Polymer Materials to Fungi; or

(ii) The sorbent material is determined to be nonbiodegradable under ASTM Method G22-76 (1984b) - Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Plastics to Bacteria; or

(iii) The sorbent material is determined to be non-biodegradable under OECD test 301B: [CO2 Evolution (Modified Sturm Test)].

(f) The placement of any liquid which is not a hazardous waste in a landfill is prohibited unless the owner or operator of such landfill demonstrates to the Regional Administrator or the Regional Administrator determines that:

(1) The only reasonably available alternative to the placement in such landfill is placement in a landfill or unlined surface impoundment, whether or not permitted or operating under interim status, which contains, or may reasonably be anticipated to contain, hazardous waste; and

(2) Placement in such owner or operator's landfill will not present a risk of contamination of any “underground source of drinking water” (as that term is defined in 40 CFR 270.2).

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 12318, Mar. 22, 1982; 47 FR 32369, July 26, 1982; 50 FR 18374, Apr. 30, 1985; 50 FR 28750, July 15, 1985; 51 FR 19177, May 28, 1986; 57 FR 54461, Nov. 18, 1992; 58 FR 46050, Aug. 31, 1993; 60 FR 35705, July 11, 1995; 70 FR 34585, June 14, 2005; 71 FR 16912, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006; 75 FR 13006, Mar. 18, 2010]

§ 265.315 Special requirements for containers.

Unless they are very small, such as an ampule, containers must be either:

(a) At least 90 percent full when placed in the landfill; or

(b) Crushed, shredded, or similarly reduced in volume to the maximum practical extent before burial in the landfill.

[50 FR 16048, Apr. 23, 1985]

§ 265.316 Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:

(a) Hazardous waste must be packaged in non-leaking inside containers. The inside containers must be of a design and constructed of a material that will not react dangerously with, be decomposed by, or be ignited by the waste held therein. Inside containers must be tightly and securely sealed. The inside containers must be of the size and type specified in the Department of Transportation (DOT) hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR parts 173, 178 and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste.

(b) The inside containers must be overpacked in an open head DOT-specification metal shipping container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at a minimum, a sufficient quantity of sorbent material, determined to be nonbiodegradable in accordance with § 265.314(e), to completely sorb all of the liquid contents of the inside containers. The metal outer container must be full after it has been packed with inside containers and sorbent material.

(c) The sorbent material used must not be capable of reacting dangerously with, being decomposed by, or being ignited by the contents of the inside containers in accordance with § 265.17(b).

(d) Incompatible wastes, as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter, must not be placed in the same outside container.

(e) Reactive waste, other than cyanide- or sulfide-bearing waste as defined in § 261.23(a)(5) of this chapter, must be treated or rendered non-reactive prior to packaging in accordance with paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section. Cyanide- and sulfide-bearing reactive waste may be packaged in accordance with paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section without first being treated or rendered non-reactive.

(f) Such disposal is in compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR part 268. Persons who incinerate lab packs according to the requirements in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must meet the DOT specifications in 49 CFR 173.12 and be overpacked according to the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section.

[46 FR 56596, Nov. 17, 1981, as amended at 55 FR 22686, June 1, 1990; 57 FR 54461, Nov. 18, 1992; 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006; 75 FR 13006, Mar. 18, 2010]