The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that use surface impoundments to treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise.
(a) The owner or operator of each new surface impoundment unit, each lateral expansion of a surface impoundment unit, and each replacement of an existing surface impoundment unit must install two or more liners, and a leachate collection and removal system between the liners, and operate the leachate collection and removal system, in accordance with § 264.221(c), unless exempted under § 264.221(d), (e), or (f) of this Chapter.
(b) The owner or operator of each unit referred to in paragraph (a) of this section must notify the Regional Administrator at least sixty days prior to receiving waste. The owner or operator of each facility submitting notice must file a part B application within six months of the receipt of such notice.
(c) The owner or operator of any replacement surface impoundment unit is exempt from paragraph (a) of this section if:
(1) The existing unit was constructed in compliance with the design standards of § 3004(o)(1)(A)(i) and (o)(5) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and
(2) There is no reason to believe that the liner is not functioning as designed.
(d) The double liner requirement set forth in paragraph (a) of this section may be waived by the Regional Administrator for any monofill, if:
(1) The monofill contains only hazardous wastes from foundry furnace emission controls or metal casting molding sand, and such wastes do not contain constituents which would render the wastes hazardous for reasons other than the Toxicity Characteristic in § 261.24 of this chapter, with EPA Hazardous Waste Numbers D004 through D017; and
(A) The monofill has at least one liner for which there is no evidence that such liner is leaking. For the purposes of this paragraph the term “liner” means a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent hazardous waste from passing into the liner at any time during the active life of the facility, or a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent hazardous waste from migrating beyond the liner to adjacent subsurface soil, ground water, or surface water at any time during the active life of the facility. In the case of any surface impoundment which has been exempted from the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section on the basis of a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent hazardous waste from passing beyond the liner, at the closure of such impoundment the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, all contaminated liner material, and contaminated soil to the extent practicable. If all contaminated soil is not removed or decontaminated, the owner or operator of such impoundment must comply with appropriate post-closure requirements, including but not limited to ground-water monitoring and corrective action;
(B) The monofill is located more than one-quarter mile from an “underground source of drinking water” (as that term is defined in 40 CFR 270.2); and
(C) The monofill is in compliance with generally applicable ground-water monitoring requirements for facilities with permits under RCRA section 3005(c); or
(ii) The owner or operator demonstrates that the monofill is located, designed and operated so as to assure that there will be no migration of any hazardous constituent into ground water or surface water at any future time.
(e) In the case of any unit in which the liner and leachate collection system has been installed pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section and in good faith compliance with paragraph (a) of this section and with guidance documents governing liners and leachate collection systems under paragraph (a) of this section, no liner or leachate collection system which is different from that which was so installed pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section will be required for such unit by the Regional Administrator when issuing the first permit to such facility, except that the Regional Administrator will not be precluded from requiring installation of a new liner when the Regional Administrator has reason to believe that any liner installed pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section is leaking.
(f) A surface impoundment must maintain enough freeboard to prevent any overtopping of the dike by overfilling, wave action, or a storm. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, there must be at least 60 centimeters (two feet) of freeboard.
(g) A freeboard level less than 60 centimeters (two feet) may be maintained if the owner or operator obtains certification by a qualified engineer that alternate design features or operating plans will, to the best of his knowledge and opinion, prevent overtopping of the dike. The certification, along with a written identification of alternate design features or operating plans preventing overtopping, must be maintained at the facility.
(h) Surface impoundments that are newly subject to RCRA section 3005(j)(1) due to the promulgation of additional listings or characteristics for the identification of hazardous waste must be in compliance with paragraphs (a), (c) and (d) of this section not later than 48 months after the promulgation of the additional listing or characteristic. This compliance period shall not be cut short as the result of the promulgation of land disposal prohibitions under part 268 of this chapter or the granting of an extension to the effective date of a prohibition pursuant to § 268.5 of this chapter, within this 48-month period.
[50 FR 16048, Apr. 23, 1985. Redesignated at 57 FR 3492, Jan. 29, 1992. 50 FR 28749, July 15, 1985, as amended at 55 FR 11876, Mar. 29, 1990; 57 FR 3492, Jan. 29, 1992; 57 FR 37267, Aug. 18, 1992; 71 FR 16911, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]
(a) The owner or operator of surface impoundment units subject to § 265.221(a) must submit a proposed action leakage rate to the Regional Administrator when submitting the notice required under § 265.221(b). Within 60 days of receipt of the notification, the Regional Administrator will: Establish an action leakage rate, either as proposed by the owner or operator or modified using the criteria in this section; or extend the review period for up to 30 days. If no action is taken by the Regional Administrator before the original 60 or extended 90 day review periods, the action leakage rate will be approved as proposed by the owner or operator.
(b) The Regional Administrator shall approve an action leakage rate for surface impoundment units subject to § 265.221(a). The action leakage rate is the maximum design flow rate that the leak detection system (LDS) can remove without the fluid head on the bottom liner exceeding 1 foot. The action leakage rate must include an adequate safety margin to allow for uncertainties in the design (e.g., slope, hydraulic conductivity, thickness of drainage material), construction, operation, and location of the LDS, waste and leachate characteristics, likelihood and amounts of other sources of liquids in the LDS, and proposed response actions (e.g., the action leakage rate must consider decreases in the flow capacity of the system over time resulting from siltation and clogging, rib layover and creep of synthetic components of the system, overburden pressures, etc.).
(c) To determine if the action leakage rate has been exceeded, the owner or operator must convert the weekly or monthly flow rate from the monitoring data obtained under § 265.226(b), to an average daily flow rate (gallons per acre per day) for each sump. Unless the Regional Administrator approves a different calculation, the average daily flow rate for each sump must be calculated weekly during the active life and closure period, and if the unit closes in accordance with § 265.228(a)(2), monthly during the post-closure care period when monthly monitoring is required under § 265.226(b).
[57 FR 3492, Jan. 29, 1992]
All earthen dikes must have a protective cover, such as grass, shale, or rock, to minimize wind and water erosion and to preserve their structural integrity.
(a) The owner or operator of surface impoundment units subject to § 265.221(a) must develop and keep on site until closure of the facility a response action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section.
(b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate for any sump, the owner or operator must:
(1) Notify the Regional Administrator in writing of the exceedance within 7 days of the determination;
(2) Submit a preliminary written assessment to the Regional Administrator within 14 days of the determination, as to the amount of liquids, likely sources of liquids, possible location, size, and cause of any leaks, and short-term actions taken and planned;
(3) Determine to the extent practicable the location, size, and cause of any leak;
(4) Determine whether waste receipt should cease or be curtailed, whether any waste should be removed from the unit for inspection, repairs, or controls, and whether or not the unit should be closed;
(5) Determine any other short-term and longer-term actions to be taken to mitigate or stop any leaks; and
(6) Within 30 days after the notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the results of the analyses specified in paragraphs (b)(3), (4), and (5) of this section, the results of actions taken, and actions planned. Monthly thereafter, as long as the flow rate in the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate, the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator a report summarizing the results of any remedial actions taken and actions planned.
(i) Assess the source of liquids and amounts of liquids by source,
(ii) Conduct a fingerprint, hazardous constituent, or other analyses of the liquids in the leak detection system to identify the source of liquids and possible location of any leaks, and the hazard and mobility of the liquid; and
(iii) Assess the seriousness of any leaks in terms of potential for escaping into the environment; or
(2) Document why such assessments are not needed.
(a) In addition to the waste analyses required by § 265.13, whenever a surface impoundment is to be used to:
(1) Chemically treat a hazardous waste which is substantially different from waste previously treated in that impoundment; or
(2) Chemically treat hazardous waste with a substantially different process than any previously used in that impoundment; the owner or operator must, before treating the different waste or using the different process:
(i) Conduct waste analyses and trial treatment tests (e.g., bench scale or pilot plant scale tests); or
(ii) Obtain written, documented information on similar treatment of similar waste under similar operating conditions; to show that this treatment will comply with § 265.17(b).
[Comment: As required by § 265.13, the waste analysis plan must include analyses needed to comply with §§ 265.229 and 265.230. As required by § 265.73, the owner or operator must place the results from each waste analysis and trial test, or the documented information, in the operating record of the facility.]
(a) The owner or operator must inspect:
(1) The freeboard level at least once each operating day to ensure compliance with § 265.222, and
(2) The surface impoundment, including dikes and vegetation surrounding the dike, at least once a week to detect any leaks, deterioration, or failures in the impoundment.
(1) An owner or operator required to have a leak detection system under § 265.221(a) must record the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump at least once each week during the active life and closure period.
(2) After the final cover is installed, the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump must be recorded at least monthly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least quarterly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive quarters, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least semi-annually. If at any time during the post-closure care period the pump operating level is exceeded at units on quarterly or semi-annual recording schedules, the owner or operator must return to monthly recording of amounts of liquids removed from each sump until the liquid level again stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months.
(3) “Pump operating level” is a liquid level proposed by the owner or operator and approved by the Regional Administrator based on pump activation level, sump dimensions, and level that avoids backup into the drainage layer and minimizes head in the sump. The timing for submission and approval of the proposed “pump operating level” will be in accordance with § 265.222(a).
[Comment: As required by § 265.15(c), the owner or operator must remedy any deterioration or malfunction he finds.]
(a) At closure, the owner or operator must:
(1) Remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste and leachate, and manage them as hazardous waste unless § 261.3(d) of this chapter applies; or
(2) Close the impoundment and provide post-closure care for a landfill under subpart G and § 265.310, including the following:
(i) Eliminate free liquids by removing liquid wastes or solidifying the remaining wastes and waste residues;
(ii) Stabilize remaining wastes to a bearing capacity sufficient to support the final cover; and
(iii) Cover the surface impoundment with a final cover designed and constructed to:
(A) Provide long-term minimization of the migration of liquids through the closed impoundment;
(B) Function with minimum maintenance;
(C) Promote drainage and minimize erosion or abrasion of the cover;
(D) Accommodate settling and subsidence so that the cover's integrity is maintained; and
(E) Have a permeability less than or equal to the permeability of any bottom liner system or natural subsoils present.
(b) In addition to the requirements of subpart G, and § 265.310, during the post-closure care period, the owner or operator of a surface impoundment in which wastes, waste residues, or contaminated materials remain after closure in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (a)(2) of this section must:
(1) Maintain the integrity and effectiveness of the final cover, including making repairs to the cover as necessary to correct the effects of settling, subsidence, erosion, or other events;
(2) Maintain and monitor the leak detection system in accordance with §§ 264.221(c)(2)(iv) and (3) of this chapter and 265.226(b) and comply with all other applicable leak detection system requirements of this part;
(3) Maintain and monitor the ground-water monitoring system and comply with all other applicable requirements of subpart F of this part; and
(4) Prevent run-on and run-off from eroding or otherwise damaging the final cover.
Ignitable or reactive waste must not be placed in a surface impoundment, unless the waste and impoundment satisfy all applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and:
(a) The waste is treated, rendered, or mixed before or immediately after placement in the impoundment so that:
(2) Section 265.17(b) is complied with; or
(1) The waste is managed in such a way that it is protected from any material or conditions which may cause it to ignite or react; and
(2) The owner or operator obtains a certification from a qualified chemist or engineer that, to the best of his knowledge and opinion, the design features or operating plans of the facility will prevent ignition or reaction; and
(3) The certification and the basis for it are maintained at the facility; or
(c) The surface impoundment is used solely for emergencies.
Incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, (see appendix V for examples) must not be placed in the same surface impoundment, unless § 265.17(b) is complied with.