(a) Within one year after the effective date of these regulations, the owner or operator of a surface impoundment, landfill, or land treatment facility which is used to manage hazardous waste must implement a ground-water monitoring program capable of determining the facility's impact on the quality of ground water in the uppermost aquifer underlying the facility, except as § 265.1 and paragraph (c) of this section provide otherwise.
(b) Except as paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section provide otherwise, the owner or operator must install, operate, and maintain a ground-water monitoring system which meets the requirements of § 265.91, and must comply with §§ 265.92 through 265.94. This ground-water monitoring program must be carried out during the active life of the facility, and for disposal facilities, during the post-closure care period as well.
(c) All or part of the ground-water monitoring requirements of this subpart may be waived if the owner or operator can demonstrate that there is a low potential for migration of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents from the facility via the uppermost aquifer to water supply wells (domestic, industrial, or agricultural) or to surface water. This demonstration must be in writing, and must be kept at the facility. This demonstration must be certified by a qualified geologist or geotechnical engineer and must establish the following:
(1) The potential for migration of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents from the facility to the uppermost aquifer, by an evaluation of:
(i) A water balance of precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration; and
(ii) Unsaturated zone characteristics (i.e., geologic materials, physical properties, and depth to ground water); and
(2) The potential for hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents which enter the uppermost aquifer to migrate to a water supply well or surface water, by an evaluation of:
(i) Saturated zone characteristics (i.e., geologic materials, physical properties, and rate of ground-water flow); and
(ii) The proximity of the facility to water supply wells or surface water.
(d) If an owner or operator assumes (or knows) that ground-water monitoring of indicator parameters in accordance with §§ 265.91 and 265.92 would show statistically significant increases (or decreases in the case of pH) when evaluated under § 265.93(b), he may install, operate, and maintain an alternate ground-water monitoring system (other than the one described in §§ 265.91 and 265.92). If the owner or operator decides to use an alternate ground-water monitoring system he must:
(1) Within one year after the effective date of these regulations, develop a specific plan, certified by a qualified geologist or geotechnical engineer, which satisfies the requirements of § 265.93(d)(3), for an alternate ground-water monitoring system. This plan is to be placed in the facility's operating record and maintained until closure of the facility.
(2) Not later than one year after the effective date of these regulations, initiate the determinations specified in § 265.93(d)(4);
(3) Prepare a report in accordance with § 265.93(d)(5) and place it in the facility's operating record and maintain until closure of the facility.
(4) Continue to make the determinations specified in § 265.93(d)(4) on a quarterly basis until final closure of the facility; and
(5) Comply with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements in § 265.94(b).
(e) The ground-water monitoring requirements of this subpart may be waived with respect to any surface impoundment that
(1) Is used to neutralize wastes which are hazardous solely because they exhibit the corrosivity characteristic under § 261.22 of this chapter or are listed as hazardous wastes in subpart D of part 261 of this chapter only for this reason, and
(2) contains no other hazardous wastes, if the owner or operator can demonstrate that there is no potential for migration of hazardous wastes from the impoundment. The demonstration must establish, based upon consideration of the characteristics of the wastes and the impoundment, that the corrosive wastes will be neutralized to the extent that they no longer meet the corrosivity characteristic before they can migrate out of the impoundment. The demonstration must be in writing and must be certified by a qualified professional.
(f) The Regional Administrator may replace all or part of the requirements of this subpart applying to a regulated unit (as defined in 40 CFR 264.90), with alternative requirements developed for groundwater monitoring set out in an approved closure or post-closure plan or in an enforceable document (as defined in 40 CFR 270.1(c)(7)), where the Regional Administrator determines that:
(1) A regulated unit is situated among solid waste management units (or areas of concern), a release has occurred, and both the regulated unit and one or more solid waste management unit(s) (or areas of concern) are likely to have contributed to the release; and
(2) It is not necessary to apply the requirements of this subpart because the alternative requirements will protect human health and the environment. The alternative standards for the regulated unit must meet the requirements of 40 CFR 264.101(a).