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Title 40

Displaying title 40, up to date as of 9/16/2021. Title 40 was last amended 9/14/2021.

Title 40

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Subpart F - Ground-Water Monitoring
§ 265.90 Applicability.

(a) Within one year after the effective date of these regulations, the owner or operator of a surface impoundment, landfill, or land treatment facility which is used to manage hazardous waste must implement a ground-water monitoring program capable of determining the facility's impact on the quality of ground water in the uppermost aquifer underlying the facility, except as § 265.1 and paragraph (c) of this section provide otherwise.

(b) Except as paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section provide otherwise, the owner or operator must install, operate, and maintain a ground-water monitoring system which meets the requirements of § 265.91, and must comply with §§ 265.92 through 265.94. This ground-water monitoring program must be carried out during the active life of the facility, and for disposal facilities, during the post-closure care period as well.

(c) All or part of the ground-water monitoring requirements of this subpart may be waived if the owner or operator can demonstrate that there is a low potential for migration of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents from the facility via the uppermost aquifer to water supply wells (domestic, industrial, or agricultural) or to surface water. This demonstration must be in writing, and must be kept at the facility. This demonstration must be certified by a qualified geologist or geotechnical engineer and must establish the following:

(1) The potential for migration of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents from the facility to the uppermost aquifer, by an evaluation of:

(i) A water balance of precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration; and

(ii) Unsaturated zone characteristics (i.e., geologic materials, physical properties, and depth to ground water); and

(2) The potential for hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents which enter the uppermost aquifer to migrate to a water supply well or surface water, by an evaluation of:

(i) Saturated zone characteristics (i.e., geologic materials, physical properties, and rate of ground-water flow); and

(ii) The proximity of the facility to water supply wells or surface water.

(d) If an owner or operator assumes (or knows) that ground-water monitoring of indicator parameters in accordance with §§ 265.91 and 265.92 would show statistically significant increases (or decreases in the case of pH) when evaluated under § 265.93(b), he may install, operate, and maintain an alternate ground-water monitoring system (other than the one described in §§ 265.91 and 265.92). If the owner or operator decides to use an alternate ground-water monitoring system he must:

(1) Within one year after the effective date of these regulations, develop a specific plan, certified by a qualified geologist or geotechnical engineer, which satisfies the requirements of § 265.93(d)(3), for an alternate ground-water monitoring system. This plan is to be placed in the facility's operating record and maintained until closure of the facility.

(2) Not later than one year after the effective date of these regulations, initiate the determinations specified in § 265.93(d)(4);

(3) Prepare a report in accordance with § 265.93(d)(5) and place it in the facility's operating record and maintain until closure of the facility.

(4) Continue to make the determinations specified in § 265.93(d)(4) on a quarterly basis until final closure of the facility; and

(5) Comply with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements in § 265.94(b).

(e) The ground-water monitoring requirements of this subpart may be waived with respect to any surface impoundment that

(1) Is used to neutralize wastes which are hazardous solely because they exhibit the corrosivity characteristic under § 261.22 of this chapter or are listed as hazardous wastes in subpart D of part 261 of this chapter only for this reason, and

(2) contains no other hazardous wastes, if the owner or operator can demonstrate that there is no potential for migration of hazardous wastes from the impoundment. The demonstration must establish, based upon consideration of the characteristics of the wastes and the impoundment, that the corrosive wastes will be neutralized to the extent that they no longer meet the corrosivity characteristic before they can migrate out of the impoundment. The demonstration must be in writing and must be certified by a qualified professional.

(f) The Regional Administrator may replace all or part of the requirements of this subpart applying to a regulated unit (as defined in 40 CFR 264.90), with alternative requirements developed for groundwater monitoring set out in an approved closure or post-closure plan or in an enforceable document (as defined in 40 CFR 270.1(c)(7)), where the Regional Administrator determines that:

(1) A regulated unit is situated among solid waste management units (or areas of concern), a release has occurred, and both the regulated unit and one or more solid waste management unit(s) (or areas of concern) are likely to have contributed to the release; and

(2) It is not necessary to apply the requirements of this subpart because the alternative requirements will protect human health and the environment. The alternative standards for the regulated unit must meet the requirements of 40 CFR 264.101(a).

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 1255, Jan. 11, 1982; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 63 FR 56734, Oct. 22, 1998; 71 FR 16909, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40274, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system.

(a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:

(1) Monitoring wells (at least one) installed hydraulically upgradient (i.e., in the direction of increasing static head) from the limit of the waste management area. Their number, locations, and depths must be sufficient to yield ground-water samples that are:

(i) Representative of background ground-water quality in the uppermost aquifer near the facility; and

(ii) Not affected by the facility; and

(2) Monitoring wells (at least three) installed hydraulically downgradient (i.e., in the direction of decreasing static head) at the limit of the waste management area. Their number, locations, and depths must ensure that they immediately detect any statistically significant amounts of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents that migrate from the waste management area to the uppermost aquifer.

(3) The facility owner or operator may demonstrate that an alternate hydraulically downgradient monitoring well location will meet the criteria outlined below. The demonstration must be in writing and kept at the facility. The demonstration must be certified by a qualified ground-water scientist and establish that:

(i) An existing physical obstacle prevents monitoring well installation at the hydraulically downgradient limit of the waste management area; and

(ii) The selected alternate downgradient location is as close to the limit of the waste management area as practical; and

(iii) The location ensures detection that, given the alternate location, is as early as possible of any statistically significant amounts of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents that migrate from the waste management area to the uppermost aquifer.

(iv) Lateral expansion, new, or replacement units are not eligible for an alternate downgradient location under this paragraph.

(b) Separate monitoring systems for each waste management component of a facility are not required provided that provisions for sampling upgradient and downgradient water quality will detect any discharge from the waste management area.

(1) In the case of a facility consisting of only one surface impoundment, landfill, or land treatment area, the waste management area is described by the waste boundary (perimeter).

(2) In the case of a facility consisting of more than one surface impoundment, landfill, or land treatment area, the waste management area is described by an imaginary boundary line which circumscribes the several waste management components.

(c) All monitoring wells must be cased in a manner that maintains the integrity of the monitoring well bore hole. This casing must be screened or perforated, and packed with gravel or sand where necessary, to enable sample collection at depths where appropriate aquifer flow zones exist. The annular space (i.e., the space between the bore hole and well casing) above the sampling depth must be sealed with a suitable material (e.g., cement grout or bentonite slurry) to prevent contamination of samples and the ground water.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 56 FR 66369, Dec. 23, 1991]

§ 265.92 Sampling and analysis.

(a) The owner or operator must obtain and analyze samples from the installed ground-water monitoring system. The owner or operator must develop and follow a ground-water sampling and analysis plan. He must keep this plan at the facility. The plan must include procedures and techniques for:

(1) Sample collection;

(2) Sample preservation and shipment;

(3) Analytical procedures; and

(4) Chain of custody control.

[Comment: See “Procedures Manual For Ground-water Monitoring At Solid Waste Disposal Facilities,” EPA-530/SW-611, August 1977 and “Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes,” EPA-600/4-79-020, March 1979 for discussions of sampling and analysis procedures.]

(b) The owner or operator must determine the concentration or value of the following parameters in ground-water samples in accordance with paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section:

(1) Parameters characterizing the suitability of the ground water as a drinking water supply, as specified in appendix III.

(2) Parameters establishing ground-water quality:

(i) Chloride

(ii) Iron

(iii) Manganese

(iv) Phenols

(v) Sodium

(vi) Sulfate

[Comment: These parameters are to be used as a basis for comparison in the event a ground-water quality assessment is required under § 265.93(d).]

(3) Parameters used as indicators of ground-water contamination:

(i) pH

(ii) Specific Conductance

(iii) Total Organic Carbon

(iv) Total Organic Halogen

(c)

(1) For all monitoring wells, the owner or operator must establish initial background concentrations or values of all parameters specified in paragraph (b) of this section. He must do this quarterly for one year.

(2) For each of the indicator parameters specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, at least four replicate measurements must be obtained for each sample and the initial background arithmetic mean and variance must be determined by pooling the replicate measurements for the respective parameter concentrations or values in samples obtained from upgradient wells during the first year.

(d) After the first year, all monitoring wells must be sampled and the samples analyzed with the following frequencies:

(1) Samples collected to establish ground-water quality must be obtained and analyzed for the parameters specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section at least annually.

(2) Samples collected to indicate ground-water contamination must be obtained and analyzed for the parameters specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section at least semi-annually.

(e) Elevation of the ground-water surface at each monitoring well must be determined each time a sample is obtained.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 265.93 Preparation, evaluation, and response.

(a) Within one year after the effective date of these regulations, the owner or operator must prepare an outline of a ground-water quality assessment program. The outline must describe a more comprehensive ground-water monitoring program (than that described in §§ 265.91 and 265.92) capable of determining:

(1) Whether hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents have entered the ground water;

(2) The rate and extent of migration of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents in the ground water; and

(3) The concentrations of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents in the ground water.

(b) For each indicator parameter specified in § 265.92(b)(3), the owner or operator must calculate the arithmetic mean and variance, based on at least four replicate measurements on each sample, for each well monitored in accordance with § 265.92(d)(2), and compare these results with its initial background arithmetic mean. The comparison must consider individually each of the wells in the monitoring system, and must use the Student's t-test at the 0.01 level of significance (see appendix IV) to determine statistically significant increases (and decreases, in the case of pH) over initial background.

(c)

(1) If the comparisons for the upgradient wells made under paragraph (b) of this section show a significant increase (or pH decrease), the owner or operator must submit this information in accordance with § 265.94(a)(2)(ii).

(2) If the comparisons for downgradient wells made under paragraph (b) of this section show a significant increase (or pH decrease), the owner or operator must then immediately obtain additional ground-water samples from those downgradient wells where a significant difference was detected, split the samples in two, and obtain analyses of all additional samples to determine whether the significant difference was a result of laboratory error.

(d)

(1) If the analyses performed under paragraph (c)(2) of this section confirm the significant increase (or pH decrease), the owner or operator must provide written notice to the Regional Administrator - within seven days of the date of such confirmation - that the facility may be affecting ground-water quality.

(2) Within 15 days after the notification under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the owner or operator must develop a specific plan, based on the outline required under paragraph (a) of this section and certified by a qualified geologist or geotechnical engineer, for a ground-water quality assessment at the facility. This plan must be placed in the facility operating record and be maintained until closure of the facility.

(3) The plan to be submitted under § 265.90(d)(1) or paragraph (d)(2) of this section must specify:

(i) The number, location, and depth of wells;

(ii) Sampling and analytical methods for those hazardous wastes or hazardous waste constituents in the facility;

(iii) Evaluation procedures, including any use of previously-gathered ground-water quality information; and

(iv) A schedule of implementation.

(4) The owner or operator must implement the ground-water quality assessment plan which satisfies the requirements of paragraph (d)(3) of this section, and, at a minimum, determine:

(i) The rate and extent of migration of the hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents in the ground water; and

(ii) The concentrations of the hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents in the ground water.

(5) The owner or operator must make his first determination under paragraph (d)(4) of this section, as soon as technically feasible, and prepare a report containing an assessment of ground-water quality. This report must be placed in the facility operating record and be maintained until closure of the facility.

(6) If the owner or operator determines, based on the results of the first determination under paragraph (d)(4) of this section, that no hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents from the facility have entered the ground water, then he may reinstate the indicator evaluation program described in § 265.92 and paragraph (b) of this section. If the owner or operator reinstates the indicator evaluation program, he must so notify the Regional Administrator in the report submitted under paragraph (d)(5) of this section.

(7) If the owner or operator determines, based on the first determination under paragraph (d)(4) of this section, that hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents from the facility have entered the ground water, then he:

(i) Must continue to make the determinations required under paragraph (d)(4) of this section on a quarterly basis until final closure of the facility, if the ground-water quality assessment plan was implemented prior to final closure of the facility; or

(ii) May cease to make the determinations required under paragraph (d)(4) of this section, if the ground-water quality assessment plan was implemented during the post-closure care period.

(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subpart, any ground-water quality assessment to satisfy the requirements of § 265.93(d)(4) which is initiated prior to final closure of the facility must be completed and reported in accordance with § 265.93(d)(5).

(f) Unless the ground water is monitored to satisfy the requirements of § 265.93(d)(4), at least annually the owner or operator must evaluate the data on ground-water surface elevations obtained under § 265.92(e) to determine whether the requirements under § 265.91(a) for locating the monitoring wells continues to be satisfied. If the evaluation shows that § 265.91(a) is no longer satisfied, the owner or operator must immediately modify the number, location, or depth of the monitoring wells to bring the ground-water monitoring system into compliance with this requirement.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 71 FR 16909, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 265.94 Recordkeeping and reporting.

(a) Unless the ground water is monitored to satisfy the requirements of § 265.93(d)(4), the owner or operator must:

(1) Keep records of the analyses required in § 265.92(c) and (d), the associated ground-water surface elevations required in § 265.92(e), and the evaluations required in § 265.93(b) throughout the active life of the facility, and, for disposal facilities, throughout the post-closure care period as well; and

(2) Report the following ground-water monitoring information to the Regional Administrator:

(i) During the first year when initial background concentrations are being established for the facility: concentrations or values of the parameters listed in § 265.92(b)(1) for each ground-water monitoring well within 15 days after completing each quarterly analysis. The owner or operator must separately identify for each monitoring well any parameters whose concentration or value has been found to exceed the maximum contaminant levels listed in appendix III.

(ii) Annually: Concentrations or values of the parameters listed in § 265.92(b)(3) for each ground-water monitoring well, along with the required evaluations for these parameters under § 265.93(b). The owner or operator must separately identify any significant differences from initial background found in the upgradient wells, in accordance with § 265.93(c)(1). During the active life of the facility, this information must be submitted no later than March 1 following each calendar year.

(iii) No later than March 1 following each calendar year: Results of the evaluations of ground-water surface elevations under § 265.93(f), and a description of the response to that evaluation, where applicable.

(b) If the ground water is monitored to satisfy the requirements of § 265.93(d)(4), the owner or operator must:

(1) Keep records of the analyses and evaluations specified in the plan, which satisfies the requirements of § 265.93(d)(3), throughout the active life of the facility, and, for disposal facilities, throughout the post-closure care period as well; and

(2) Annually, until final closure of the facility, submit to the Regional Administrator a report containing the results of his or her ground-water quality assessment program which includes, but is not limited to, the calculated (or measured) rate of migration of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents in the ground water during the reporting period. This information must be submitted no later than March 1 following each calendar year.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 3982, Jan. 28, 1983; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]