57 FR 37268, Aug. 18, 1992, unless otherwise noted.
The requirements of this subpart apply to owners or operators who store or treat hazardous waste in units designed and operated under § 265.1101 of this subpart. The owner or operator is not subject to the definition of land disposal in RCRA section 3004(k) provided that the unit:
(a) Is a completely enclosed, self-supporting structure that is designed and constructed of manmade materials of sufficient strength and thickness to support themselves, the waste contents, and any personnel and heavy equipment that operate within the units, and to prevent failure due to pressure gradients, settlement, compression, or uplift, physical contact with the hazardous wastes to which they are exposed; climatic conditions; and the stresses of daily operation, including the movement of heavy equipment within the unit and contact of such equipment with containment walls;
(b) Has a primary barrier that is designed to be sufficiently durable to withstand the movement of personnel and handling equipment within the unit;
(c) If the unit is used to manage liquids, has:
(1) A primary barrier designed and constructed of materials to prevent migration of hazardous constituents into the barrier;
(2) A liquid collection system designed and constructed of materials to minimize the accumulation of liquid on the primary barrier; and
(3) A secondary containment system designed and constructed of materials to prevent migration of hazardous constituents into the barrier, with a leak detection and liquid collection system capable of detecting, collecting, and removing leaks of hazardous constituents at the earliest possible time, unless the unit has been granted a variance from the secondary containment system requirements under § 265.1101(b)(4);
(d) Has controls as needed to prevent fugitive dust emissions; and
(e) Is designed and operated to ensure containment and prevent the tracking of materials from the unit by personnel or equipment.
(a) All containment buildings must comply with the following design standards:
(1) The containment building must be completely enclosed with a floor, walls, and a roof to prevent exposure to the elements, (e.g., precipitation, wind, run-on), and to assure containment of managed wastes.
(2) The floor and containment walls of the unit, including the secondary containment system if required under paragraph (b) of this section, must be designed and constructed of materials of sufficient strength and thickness to support themselves, the waste contents, and any personnel and heavy equipment that operate within the unit, and to prevent failure due to pressure gradients, settlement, compression, or uplift, physical contact with the hazardous wastes to which they are exposed; climatic conditions; and the stresses of daily operation, including the movement of heavy equipment within the unit and contact of such equipment with containment walls. The unit must be designed so that it has sufficient structural strength to prevent collapse or other failure. All surfaces to be in contact with hazardous wastes must be chemically compatible with those wastes. EPA will consider standards established by professional organizations generally recognized by the industry such as the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) in judging the structural integrity requirements of this paragraph. If appropriate to the nature of the waste management operation to take place in the unit, an exception to the structural strength requirement may be made for light-weight doors and windows that meet these criteria:
(i) They provide an effective barrier against fugitive dust emissions under paragraph (c)(1)(iv); and
(ii) The unit is designed and operated in a fashion that assures that wastes will not actually come in contact with these openings.
(3) Incompatible hazardous wastes or treatment reagents must not be placed in the unit or its secondary containment system if they could cause the unit or secondary containment system to leak, corrode, or otherwise fail.
(4) A containment building must have a primary barrier designed to withstand the movement of personnel, waste, and handling equipment in the unit during the operating life of the unit and appropriate for the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste to be managed.
(b) For a containment building used to manage hazardous wastes containing free liquids or treated with free liquids (the presence of which is determined by the paint filter test, a visual examination, or other appropriate means), the owner or operator must include:
(1) A primary barrier designed and constructed of materials to prevent the migration of hazardous constituents into the barrier (e.g. a geomembrane covered by a concrete wear surface).
(2) A liquid collection and removal system to prevent the accumulation of liquid on the primary barrier of the containment building:
(i) The primary barrier must be sloped to drain liquids to the associated collection system; and
(ii) Liquids and waste must be collected and removed to minimize hydraulic head on the containment system at the earliest practicable time that protects human health and the environment.
(3) A secondary containment system including a secondary barrier designed and constructed to prevent migration of hazardous constituents into the barrier, and a leak detection system that is capable of detecting failure of the primary barrier and collecting accumulated hazardous wastes and liquids at the earliest practicable time.
(i) The requirements of the leak detection component of the secondary containment system are satisfied by installation of a system that is, at a minimum:
(A) Constructed with a bottom slope of 1 percent or more; and
(B) Constructed of a granular drainage material with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 × 10−2 cm/sec or more and a thickness of 12 inches (30.5 cm) or more, or constructed of synthetic or geonet drainage materials with a transmissivity of 3 × 10−5 m2/sec or more.
(ii) If treatment is to be conducted in the building, an area in which such treatment will be conducted must be designed to prevent the release of liquids, wet materials, or liquid aerosols to other portions of the building.
(iii) The secondary containment system must be constructed of materials that are chemically resistant to the waste and liquids managed in the containment building and of sufficient strength and thickness to prevent collapse under the pressure exerted by overlaying materials and by any equipment used in the containment building. (Containment buildings can serve as secondary containment systems for tanks placed within the building under certain conditions. A containment building can serve as an external liner system for a tank, provided it meets the requirements of § 265.193(e)(1). In addition, the containment building must meet the requirements of § 265.193 (b) and (c) to be considered an acceptable secondary containment system for a tank.)
(4) For existing units other than 90-day generator units, the Regional Administrator may delay the secondary containment requirement for up to two years, based on a demonstration by the owner or operator that the unit substantially meets the standards of this Subpart. In making this demonstration, the owner or operator must:
(i) Provide written notice to the Regional Administrator of their request by February 18, 1993. This notification must describe the unit and its operating practices with specific reference to the performance of existing containment systems, and specific plans for retrofitting the unit with secondary containment;
(ii) Respond to any comments from the Regional Administrator on these plans within 30 days; and
(iii) Fulfill the terms of the revised plans, if such plans are approved by the Regional Administrator.
(c) Owners or operators of all containment buildings must:
(1) Use controls and practices to ensure containment of the hazardous waste within the unit; and, at a minimum:
(i) Maintain the primary barrier to be free of significant cracks, gaps, corrosion, or other deterioration that could cause hazardous waste to be released from the primary barrier;
(ii) Maintain the level of the stored/treated hazardous waste within the containment walls of the unit so that the height of any containment wall is not exceeded;
(iii) Take measures to prevent the tracking of hazardous waste out of the unit by personnel or by equipment used in handling the waste. An area must be designated to decontaminate equipment and any rinsate must be collected and properly managed; and
(iv) Take measures to control fugitive dust emissions such that any openings (doors, windows, vents, cracks, etc.) exhibit no visible emissions. In addition, all associated particulate collection devices (e.g., fabric filter, electrostatic precipitator) must be operated and maintained with sound air pollution control practices. This state of no visible emissions must be maintained effectively at all times during normal operating conditions, including when vehicles and personnel are entering and exiting the unit.
(3) Throughout the active life of the containment building, if the owner or operator detects a condition that could lead to or has caused a release of hazardous waste, the owner or operator must repair the condition promptly, in accordance with the following procedures.
(i) Upon detection of a condition that has led to a release of hazardous waste (e.g., upon detection of leakage from the primary barrier) the owner or operator must:
(A) Enter a record of the discovery in the facility operating record;
(B) Immediately remove the portion of the containment building affected by the condition from service;
(C) Determine what steps must be taken to repair the containment building, remove any leakage from the secondary collection system, and establish a schedule for accomplishing the cleanup and repairs; and
(D) Within 7 days after the discovery of the condition, notify the Regional Administrator of the condition, and within 14 working days, provide a written notice to the Regional Administrator with a description of the steps taken to repair the containment building, and the schedule for accomplishing the work.
(ii) The Regional Administrator will review the information submitted, make a determination regarding whether the containment building must be removed from service completely or partially until repairs and cleanup are complete, and notify the owner or operator of the determination and the underlying rationale in writing.
(iii) Upon completing all repairs and cleanup the owner or operator must notify the Regional Administrator in writing and provide a verification, signed by a qualified, registered professional engineer, that the repairs and cleanup have been completed according to the written plan submitted in accordance with paragraph (c)(3)(i)(D) of this section.
(4) Inspect and record in the facility's operating record at least once every seven days data gathered from monitoring and leak detection equipment as well as the containment building and the area immediately surrounding the containment building to detect signs of releases of hazardous waste.
(d) For a containment building that contains both areas with and without secondary containment, the owner or operator must:
(2) Take measures to prevent the release of liquids or wet materials into areas without secondary containment; and
(3) Maintain in the facility's operating log a written description of the operating procedures used to maintain the integrity of areas without secondary containment.
(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subpart, the Regional Administrator may waive requirements for secondary containment for a permitted containment building where the owner or operator demonstrates that the only free liquids in the unit are limited amounts of dust suppression liquids required to meet occupational health and safety requirements, and where containment of managed wastes and liquids can be assured without a secondary containment system.
(a) At closure of a containment building, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste and leachate, and manage them as hazardous waste unless § 261.3(d) of this chapter applies. The closure plan, closure activities, cost estimates for closure, and financial responsibility for containment buildings must meet all of the requirements specified in subparts G and H of this part.
(b) If, after removing or decontaminating all residues and making all reasonable efforts to effect removal or decontamination of contaminated components, subsoils, structures, and equipment as required in paragraph (a) of this section, the owner or operator finds that not all contaminated subsoils can be practicably removed or decontaminated, he must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (§ 265.310). In addition, for the purposes of closure, post-closure, and financial responsibility, such a containment building is then considered to be a landfill, and the owner or operator must meet all of the requirements for landfills specified in subparts G and H of this part.