(a) To implement remedies under § 264.101 or RCRA Section 3008(h), or to implement remedies at a permitted facility that is not subject to § 264.101, the Regional Administrator may designate an area at the facility as a corrective action management unit under the requirements in this section. Corrective action management unit means an area within a facility that is used only for managing CAMU-eligible wastes for implementing corrective action or cleanup at the facility. A CAMU must be located within the contiguous property under the control of the owner or operator where the wastes to be managed in the CAMU originated. One or more CAMUs may be designated at a facility.
(1) CAMU-eligible waste means:
(i) All solid and hazardous wastes, and all media (including ground water, surface water, soils, and sediments) and debris, that are managed for implementing cleanup. As-generated wastes (either hazardous or non-hazardous) from ongoing industrial operations at a site are not CAMU-eligible wastes.
(ii) Wastes that would otherwise meet the description in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section are not “CAMU-Eligible Wastes” where:
(A) The wastes are hazardous wastes found during cleanup in intact or substantially intact containers, tanks, or other non-land-based units found above ground, unless the wastes are first placed in the tanks, containers or non-land-based units as part of cleanup, or the containers or tanks are excavated during the course of cleanup; or
(B) The Regional Administrator exercises the discretion in paragraph (a)(2) of this section to prohibit the wastes from management in a CAMU.
(iii) Notwithstanding paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, where appropriate, as-generated non-hazardous waste may be placed in a CAMU where such waste is being used to facilitate treatment or the performance of the CAMU.
(2) The Regional Administrator may prohibit, where appropriate, the placement of waste in a CAMU where the Regional Administrator has or receives information that such wastes have not been managed in compliance with applicable land disposal treatment standards of part 268 of this chapter, or applicable unit design requirements of this part, or applicable unit design requirements of part 265 of this chapter, or that non-compliance with other applicable requirements of this chapter likely contributed to the release of the waste.
(3) Prohibition against placing liquids in CAMUs.
(i) The placement of bulk or noncontainerized liquid hazardous waste or free liquids contained in hazardous waste (whether or not sorbents have been added) in any CAMU is prohibited except where placement of such wastes facilitates the remedy selected for the waste.
(ii) The requirements in § 264.314(c) for placement of containers holding free liquids in landfills apply to placement in a CAMU except where placement facilitates the remedy selected for the waste.
(iii) The placement of any liquid which is not a hazardous waste in a CAMU is prohibited unless such placement facilitates the remedy selected for the waste or a demonstration is made pursuant to § 264.314(e).
(4) Placement of CAMU-eligible wastes into or within a CAMU does not constitute land disposal of hazardous wastes.
(5) Consolidation or placement of CAMU-eligible wastes into or within a CAMU does not constitute creation of a unit subject to minimum technology requirements.
(1) The Regional Administrator may designate a regulated unit (as defined in § 264.90(a)(2)) as a CAMU, or may incorporate a regulated unit into a CAMU, if:
(ii) Inclusion of the regulated unit will enhance implementation of effective, protective and reliable remedial actions for the facility.
(c) The Regional Administrator shall designate a CAMU that will be used for storage and/or treatment only in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section. The Regional Administrator shall designate all other CAMUs in accordance with the following:
(1) The CAMU shall facilitate the implementation of reliable, effective, protective, and cost-effective remedies;
(2) Waste management activities associated with the CAMU shall not create unacceptable risks to humans or to the environment resulting from exposure to hazardous wastes or hazardous constituents;
(3) The CAMU shall include uncontaminated areas of the facility, only if including such areas for the purpose of managing CAMU-eligible waste is more protective than management of such wastes at contaminated areas of the facility;
(4) Areas within the CAMU, where wastes remain in place after closure of the CAMU, shall be managed and contained so as to minimize future releases, to the extent practicable;
(5) The CAMU shall expedite the timing of remedial activity implementation, when appropriate and practicable;
(6) The CAMU shall enable the use, when appropriate, of treatment technologies (including innovative technologies) to enhance the long-term effectiveness of remedial actions by reducing the toxicity, mobility, or volume of wastes that will remain in place after closure of the CAMU; and
(7) The CAMU shall, to the extent practicable, minimize the land area of the facility upon which wastes will remain in place after closure of the CAMU.
(d) The owner/operator shall provide sufficient information to enable the Regional Administrator to designate a CAMU in accordance with the criteria in this section. This must include, unless not reasonably available, information on:
(1) The origin of the waste and how it was subsequently managed (including a description of the timing and circumstances surrounding the disposal and/or release);
(2) Whether the waste was listed or identified as hazardous at the time of disposal and/or release; and
(3) Whether the disposal and/or release of the waste occurred before or after the land disposal requirements of part 268 of this chapter were in effect for the waste listing or characteristic.
(e) The Regional Administrator shall specify, in the permit or order, requirements for CAMUs to include the following:
(1) The areal configuration of the CAMU.
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section, requirements for CAMU-eligible waste management to include the specification of applicable design, operation, treatment and closure requirements.
(3) Minimum design requirements. CAMUs, except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, into which wastes are placed must be designed in accordance with the following:
(i) Unless the Regional Administrator approves alternate requirements under paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section, CAMUs that consist of new, replacement, or laterally expanded units must include a composite liner and a leachate collection system that is designed and constructed to maintain less than a 30-cm depth of leachate over the liner. For purposes of this section, composite liner means a system consisting of two components; the upper component must consist of a minimum 30-mil flexible membrane liner (FML), and the lower component must consist of at least a two-foot layer of compacted soil with a hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1 × 10-7 cm/sec. FML components consisting of high density polyethylene (HDPE) must be at least 60 mil thick. The FML component must be installed in direct and uniform contact with the compacted soil component;
(ii) Alternate requirements. The Regional Administrator may approve alternate requirements if:
(A) The Regional Administrator finds that alternate design and operating practices, together with location characteristics, will prevent the migration of any hazardous constituents into the ground water or surface water at least as effectively as the liner and leachate collection systems in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section; or
(B) The CAMU is to be established in an area with existing significant levels of contamination, and the Regional Administrator finds that an alternative design, including a design that does not include a liner, would prevent migration from the unit that would exceed long-term remedial goals.
(4) Minimum treatment requirements: Unless the wastes will be placed in a CAMU for storage and/or treatment only in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section, CAMU-eligible wastes that, absent this section, would be subject to the treatment requirements of part 268 of this chapter, and that the Regional Administrator determines contain principal hazardous constituents must be treated to the standards specified in paragraph (e)(4)(iii) of this section.
(i) Principal hazardous constituents are those constituents that the Regional Administrator determines pose a risk to human health and the environment substantially higher than the cleanup levels or goals at the site.
(A) In general, the Regional Administrator will designate as principal hazardous constituents:
(1) Carcinogens that pose a potential direct risk from ingestion or inhalation at the site at or above 10−3; and
(2) Non-carcinogens that pose a potential direct risk from ingestion or inhalation at the site an order of magnitude or greater over their reference dose.
(B) The Regional Administrator will also designate constituents as principal hazardous constituents, where appropriate, when risks to human health and the environment posed by the potential migration of constituents in wastes to ground water are substantially higher than cleanup levels or goals at the site; when making such a designation, the Regional Administrator may consider such factors as constituent concentrations, and fate and transport characteristics under site conditions.
(C) The Regional Administrator may also designate other constituents as principal hazardous constituents that the Regional Administrator determines pose a risk to human health and the environment substantially higher than the cleanup levels or goals at the site.
(ii) In determining which constituents are “principal hazardous constituents,” the Regional Administrator must consider all constituents which, absent this section, would be subject to the treatment requirements in 40 CFR part 268.
(iii) Waste that the Regional Administrator determines contains principal hazardous constituents must meet treatment standards determined in accordance with paragraph (e)(4)(iv) or (e)(4)(v) of this section.
(iv) Treatment standards for wastes placed in CAMUs.
(A) For non-metals, treatment must achieve 90 percent reduction in total principal hazardous constituent concentrations, except as provided by paragraph (e)(4)(iv)(C) of this section.
(B) For metals, treatment must achieve 90 percent reduction in principal hazardous constituent concentrations as measured in leachate from the treated waste or media (tested according to the TCLP) or 90 percent reduction in total constituent concentrations (when a metal removal treatment technology is used), except as provided by paragraph (e)(4)(iv)(C) of this section.
(C) When treatment of any principal hazardous constituent to a 90 percent reduction standard would result in a concentration less than 10 times the Universal Treatment Standard for that constituent, treatment to achieve constituent concentrations less than 10 times the Universal Treatment Standard is not required. Universal Treatment Standards are identified in § 268.48 Table UTS of this chapter.
(D) For waste exhibiting the hazardous characteristic of ignitability, corrosivity or reactivity, the waste must also be treated to eliminate these characteristics.
(E) For debris, the debris must be treated in accordance with § 268.45 of this chapter, or by methods or to levels established under paragraphs (e)(4)(iv)(A) through (D) or paragraph (e)(4)(v) of this section, whichever the Regional Administrator determines is appropriate.
(F) Alternatives to TCLP. For metal bearing wastes for which metals removal treatment is not used, the Regional Administrator may specify a leaching test other than the TCLP (SW846 Method 1311, 40 CFR 260.11(c)(3)(v)) to measure treatment effectiveness, provided the Regional Administrator determines that an alternative leach testing protocol is appropriate for use, and that the alternative more accurately reflects conditions at the site that affect leaching.
(v) Adjusted standards. The Regional Administrator may adjust the treatment level or method in paragraph (e)(4)(iv) of this section to a higher or lower level, based on one or more of the following factors, as appropriate. The adjusted level or method must be protective of human health and the environment:
(A) The technical impracticability of treatment to the levels or by the methods in paragraph (e)(4)(iv) of this section;
(B) The levels or methods in paragraph (e)(4)(iv) of this section would result in concentrations of principal hazardous constituents (PHCs) that are significantly above or below cleanup standards applicable to the site (established either site-specifically, or promulgated under state or federal law);
(C) The views of the affected local community on the treatment levels or methods in paragraph (e)(4)(iv) of this section as applied at the site, and, for treatment levels, the treatment methods necessary to achieve these levels;
(D) The short-term risks presented by the on-site treatment method necessary to achieve the levels or treatment methods in paragraph (e)(4)(iv) of this section;
(E) The long-term protection offered by the engineering design of the CAMU and related engineering controls:
(1) Where the treatment standards in paragraph (e)(4)(iv) of this section are substantially met and the principal hazardous constituents in the waste or residuals are of very low mobility; or
(3) Where, after review of appropriate treatment technologies, the Regional Administrator determines that cost-effective treatment is not reasonably available, and the CAMU meets the Subtitle C liner and leachate collection requirements for new land disposal units at § 264.301(c) and (d); or
(4) Where cost-effective treatment has been used and the principal hazardous constituents in the treated wastes are of very low mobility; or
(5) Where, after review of appropriate treatment technologies, the Regional Administrator determines that cost-effective treatment is not reasonably available, the principal hazardous constituents in the wastes are of very low mobility, and either the CAMU meets or exceeds the liner standards for new, replacement, or laterally expanded CAMUs in paragraphs (e)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section, or the CAMU provides substantially equivalent or greater protection.
(vi) The treatment required by the treatment standards must be completed prior to, or within a reasonable time after, placement in the CAMU.
(vii) For the purpose of determining whether wastes placed in CAMUs have met site-specific treatment standards, the Regional Administrator may, as appropriate, specify a subset of the principal hazardous constituents in the waste as analytical surrogates for determining whether treatment standards have been met for other principal hazardous constituents. This specification will be based on the degree of difficulty of treatment and analysis of constituents with similar treatment properties.
(5) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, requirements for ground water monitoring and corrective action that are sufficient to:
(i) Continue to detect and to characterize the nature, extent, concentration, direction, and movement of existing releases of hazardous constituents in ground water from sources located within the CAMU; and
(ii) Detect and subsequently characterize releases of hazardous constituents to ground water that may occur from areas of the CAMU in which wastes will remain in place after closure of the CAMU; and
(iii) Require notification to the Regional Administrator and corrective action as necessary to protect human health and the environment for releases to ground water from the CAMU.
(6) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, closure and post-closure requirements:
(i) Closure of corrective action management units shall:
(A) Minimize the need for further maintenance; and
(B) Control, minimize, or eliminate, to the extent necessary to protect human health and the environment, for areas where wastes remain in place, post-closure escape of hazardous wastes, hazardous constituents, leachate, contaminated runoff, or hazardous waste decomposition products to the ground, to surface waters, or to the atmosphere.
(ii) Requirements for closure of CAMUs shall include the following, as appropriate and as deemed necessary by the Regional Administrator for a given CAMU:
(A) Requirements for excavation, removal, treatment or containment of wastes; and
(B) Requirements for removal and decontamination of equipment, devices, and structures used in CAMU-eligible waste management activities within the CAMU.
(iii) In establishing specific closure requirements for CAMUs under paragraph (e) of this section, the Regional Administrator shall consider the following factors:
(A) CAMU characteristics;
(B) Volume of wastes which remain in place after closure;
(C) Potential for releases from the CAMU;
(D) Physical and chemical characteristics of the waste;
(E) Hydrogeological and other relevant environmental conditions at the facility which may influence the migration of any potential or actual releases; and
(F) Potential for exposure of humans and environmental receptors if releases were to occur from the CAMU.
(iv) Cap requirements:
(A) At final closure of the CAMU, for areas in which wastes will remain after closure of the CAMU, with constituent concentrations at or above remedial levels or goals applicable to the site, the owner or operator must cover the CAMU with a final cover designed and constructed to meet the following performance criteria, except as provided in paragraph (e)(6)(iv)(B) of this section:
(1) Provide long-term minimization of migration of liquids through the closed unit;
(2) Function with minimum maintenance;
(3) Promote drainage and minimize erosion or abrasion of the cover;
(4) Accommodate settling and subsidence so that the cover's integrity is maintained; and
(5) Have a permeability less than or equal to the permeability of any bottom liner system or natural subsoils present.
(B) The Regional Administrator may determine that modifications to paragraph (e)(6)(iv)(A) of this section are needed to facilitate treatment or the performance of the CAMU (e.g., to promote biodegradation).
(v) Post-closure requirements as necessary to protect human health and the environment, to include, for areas where wastes will remain in place, monitoring and maintenance activities, and the frequency with which such activities shall be performed to ensure the integrity of any cap, final cover, or other containment system.
(f) CAMUs used for storage and/or treatment only are CAMUs in which wastes will not remain after closure. Such CAMUs must be designated in accordance with all of the requirements of this section, except as follows.
(1) CAMUs that are used for storage and/or treatment only and that operate in accordance with the time limits established in the staging pile regulations at § 264.554(d)(1)(iii), (h), and (i) are subject to the requirements for staging piles at § 264.554(d)(1)(i) and (ii), § 264.554(d)(2), § 264.554(e) and (f), and § 264.554(j) and (k) in lieu of the performance standards and requirements for CAMUs in this section at paragraphs (c) and (e)(3) through (6).
(i) Must operate in accordance with a time limit, established by the Regional Administrator, that is no longer than necessary to achieve a timely remedy selected for the waste, and
(g) CAMUs into which wastes are placed where all wastes have constituent levels at or below remedial levels or goals applicable to the site do not have to comply with the requirements for liners at paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section, caps at paragraph (e)(6)(iv) of this section, ground water monitoring requirements at paragraph (e)(5) of this section or, for treatment and/or storage-only CAMUs, the design standards at paragraph (f) of this section.
(h) The Regional Administrator shall provide public notice and a reasonable opportunity for public comment before designating a CAMU. Such notice shall include the rationale for any proposed adjustments under paragraph (e)(4)(v) of this section to the treatment standards in paragraph (e)(4)(iv) of this section.
(i) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Regional Administrator may impose additional requirements as necessary to protect human health and the environment.
(j) Incorporation of a CAMU into an existing permit must be approved by the Regional Administrator according to the procedures for Agency-initiated permit modifications under § 270.41 of this chapter, or according to the permit modification procedures of § 270.42 of this chapter.
(k) The designation of a CAMU does not change EPA's existing authority to address clean-up levels, media-specific points of compliance to be applied to remediation at a facility, or other remedy selection decisions.