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Title 40

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Title 40

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Subpart O - Incinerators
§ 264.340 Applicability.

(a) The regulations of this subpart apply to owners and operators of hazardous waste incinerators (as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter), except as § 264.1 provides otherwise.

(b) Integration of the MACT standards.

(1) Except as provided by paragraphs (b)(2) through (b)(4) of this section, the standards of this part do not apply to a new hazardous waste incineration unit that becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005; or no longer apply when an owner or operator of an existing hazardous waste incineration unit demonstrates compliance with the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) requirements of part 63, subpart EEE, of this chapter by conducting a comprehensive performance test and submitting to the Administrator a Notification of Compliance under §§ 63.1207(j) and 63.1210(d) of this chapter documenting compliance with the requirements of part 63, subpart EEE, of this chapter. Nevertheless, even after this demonstration of compliance with the MACT standards, RCRA permit conditions that were based on the standards of this part will continue to be in effect until they are removed from the permit or the permit is terminated or revoked, unless the permit expressly provides otherwise.

(2) The MACT standards do not replace the closure requirements of § 264.351 or the applicable requirements of subparts A through H, BB and CC of this part.

(3) The particulate matter standard of § 264.343(c) remains in effect for incinerators that elect to comply with the alternative to the particulate matter standard under §§ 63.1206(b)(14) and 63.1219(e) of this chapter.

(4) The following requirements remain in effect for startup, shutdown, and malfunction events if you elect to comply with § 270.235(a)(1)(i) of this chapter to minimize emissions of toxic compounds from these events:

(i) Section 264.345(a) requiring that an incinerator operate in accordance with operating requirements specified in the permit; and

(ii) Section 264.345(c) requiring compliance with the emission standards and operating requirements during startup and shutdown if hazardous waste is in the combustion chamber, except for particular hazardous wastes.

(c) After consideration of the waste analysis included with part B of the permit application, the Regional Administrator, in establishing the permit conditions, must exempt the applicant from all requirements of this subpart except § 264.341 (Waste analysis) and § 264.351 (Closure),

(1) If the Regional Administrator finds that the waste to be burned is:

(i) Listed as a hazardous waste in part 261, subpart D, of this chapter solely because it is ignitable (Hazard Code I), corrosive (Hazard Code C), or both; or

(ii) Listed as a hazardous waste in part 261, subpart D, of this chapter solely because it is reactive (Hazard Code R) for characteristics other than those listed in § 261.23(a) (4) and (5), and will not be burned when other hazardous wastes are present in the combustion zone; or

(iii) A hazardous waste solely because it possesses the characteristic of ignitability, corrosivity, or both, as determined by the test for characteristics of hazardous wastes under part 261, subpart C, of this chapter; or

(iv) A hazardous waste solely because it possesses any of the reactivity characteristics described by § 261.23(a) (1), (2), (3), (6), (7), and (8) of this chapter, and will not be burned when other hazardous wastes are present in the combustion zone; and

(2) If the waste analysis shows that the waste contains none of the hazardous constituents listed in part 261, appendix VIII, of this chapter, which would reasonably be expected to be in the waste.

(d) If the waste to be burned is one which is described by paragraphs (b)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of this section and contains insignificant concentrations of the hazardous constituents listed in part 261, appendix VIII, of this chapter, then the Regional Administrator may, in establishing permit conditions, exempt the applicant from all requirements of this subpart, except § 264.341 (Waste analysis) and § 264.351 (Closure), after consideration of the waste analysis included with part B of the permit application, unless the Regional Administrator finds that the waste will pose a threat to human health and the environment when burned in an incinerator.

(e) The owner or operator of an incinerator may conduct trial burns subject only to the requirements of § 270.62 of this chapter (Short term and incinerator permits).

[46 FR 7678, Jan. 23, 1981, as amended at 47 FR 27532, June 24, 1982; 48 FR 14295, Apr. 1, 1983; 50 FR 665, Jan. 4, 1985; 50 FR 49203, Nov. 29, 1985; 56 FR 7207, Feb. 21, 1991; 64 FR 53074, Sept. 30, 1999; 66 FR 35106, July 3, 2001; 67 FR 6815, Feb. 13, 2002; 70 FR 59575, Oct. 12, 2005; 73 FR 18983, Apr. 8, 2008]

§ 264.341 Waste analysis.

(a) As a portion of the trial burn plan required by § 270.62 of this chapter, or with part B of the permit application, the owner or operator must have included an analysis of the waste feed sufficient to provide all information required by § 270.62(b) or § 270.19 of this chapter. Owners or operators of new hazardous waste incinerators must provide the information required by § 270.62(c) or § 270.19 of this chapter to the greatest extent possible.

(b) Throughout normal operation the owner or operator must conduct sufficient waste analysis to verify that waste feed to the incinerator is within the physical and chemical composition limits specified in his permit (under § 264.345(b)).

[46 FR 7678, Jan. 23, 1981, as amended at 47 FR 27532, June 24, 1982; 48 FR 14295, Apr. 1, 1983; 48 FR 30115, June 30, 1983; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 264.342 Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).

(a) Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in the waste feed must be treated to the extent required by the performance standard of § 264.343.

(b)

(1) One or more POHCs will be specified in the facility's permit, from among those constituents listed in part 261, appendix VIII of this chapter, for each waste feed to be burned. This specification will be based on the degree of difficulty of incineration of the organic constituents in the waste and on their concentration or mass in the waste feed, considering the results of waste analyses and trial burns or alternative data submitted with part B of the facility's permit application. Organic constituents which represent the greatest degree of difficulty of incineration will be those most likely to be designated as POHCs. Constituents are more likely to be designated as POHCs if they are present in large quantities or concentrations in the waste.

(2) Trial POHCs will be designated for performance of trial burns in accordance with the procedure specified in § 270.62 of this chapter for obtaining trial burn permits.

[46 FR 7678, Jan. 23, 1981, as amended at 48 FR 14295, Apr. 1, 1983]

§ 264.343 Performance standards.

An incinerator burning hazardous waste must be designed, constructed, and maintained so that, when operated in accordance with operating requirements specified under § 264.345, it will meet the following performance standards:

(a)

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, an incinerator burning hazardous waste must achieve a destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for each principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) designated (under § 264.342) in its permit for each waste feed. DRE is determined for each POHC from the following equation:

where:

Win = mass feed rate of one principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) in the waste stream feeding the incinerator

and

Wout = mass emission rate of the same POHC present in exhaust emissions prior to release to the atmosphere.

(2) An incinerator burning hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, or FO27 must achieve a destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.9999% for each principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) designated (under § 264.342) in its permit. This performance must be demonstrated on POHCs that are more difficult to incinerate than tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. DRE is determined for each POHC from the equation in § 264.343(a)(1).

(b) An incinerator burning hazardous waste and producing stack emissions of more than 1.8 kilograms per hour (4 pounds per hour) of hydrogen chloride (HCl) must control HCl emissions such that the rate of emission is no greater than the larger of either 1.8 kilograms per hour or 1% of the HCl in the stack gas prior to entering any pollution control equipment.

(c) An incinerator burning hazardous waste must not emit particulate matter in excess of 180 milligrams per dry standard cubic meter (0.08 grains per dry standard cubic foot) when corrected for the amount of oxygen in the stack gas according to the formula:

Where Pc is the corrected concentration of particulate matter, Pm is the measured concentration of particulate matter, and Y is the measured concentration of oxygen in the stack gas, using the Orsat method for oxygen analysis of dry flue gas, presented in part 60, appendix A (Method 3), of this chapter. This correction procedure is to be used by all hazardous waste incinerators except those operating under conditions of oxygen enrichment. For these facilities, the Regional Administrator will select an appropriate correction procedure, to be specified in the facility permit.

(d) For purposes of permit enforcement, compliance with the operating requirements specified in the permit (under § 264.345) will be regarded as compliance with this section. However, evidence that compliance with those permit conditions is insufficient to ensure compliance with the performance requirements of this section may be “information” justifying modification, revocation, or reissuance of a permit under § 270.41 of this chapter.

[46 FR 7678, Jan. 23, 1981, as amended at 47 FR 27532, June 24, 1982; 48 FR 14295, Apr. 1, 1983; 50 FR 2005, Jan. 14, 1985; 71 FR 16906, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

(a) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste incinerator may burn only wastes specified in his permit and only under operating conditions specified for those wastes under § 264.345, except:

(1) In approved trial burns under § 270.62 of this chapter; or

(2) Under exemptions created by § 264.340.

(b) Other hazardous wastes may be burned only after operating conditions have been specified in a new permit or a permit modification as applicable. Operating requirements for new wastes may be based on either trial burn results or alternative data included with part B of a permit application under § 270.19 of this chapter.

(c) The permit for a new hazardous waste incinerator must establish appropriate conditions for each of the applicable requirements of this subpart, including but not limited to allowable waste feeds and operating conditions necessary to meet the requirements of § 264.345, sufficient to comply with the following standards:

(1) For the period beginning with initial introduction of hazardous waste to the incinerator and ending with initiation of the trial burn, and only for the minimum time required to establish operating conditions required in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, not to exceed a duration of 720 hours operating time for treatment of hazardous waste, the operating requirements must be those most likely to ensure compliance with the performance standards of § 264.343, based on the Regional Administrator's engineering judgment. The Regional Administrator may extend the duration of this period once for up to 720 additional hours when good cause for the extension is demonstrated by the applicant.

(2) For the duration of the trial burn, the operating requirements must be sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the performance standards of § 264.343 and must be in accordance with the approved trial burn plan;

(3) For the period immediately following completion of the trial burn, and only for the minimum period sufficient to allow sample analysis, data computation, and submission of the trial burn results by the applicant, and review of the trial burn results and modification of the facility permit by the Regional Administrator, the operating requirements must be those most likely to ensure compliance with the performance standards of § 264.343, based on the Regional Administrator's engineering judgement.

(4) For the remaining duration of the permit, the operating requirements must be those demonstrated, in a trial burn or by alternative data specified in § 270.19(c) of this chapter, as sufficient to ensure compliance with the performance standards of § 264.343.

[46 FR 7678, Jan. 23, 1981, as amended at 47 FR 27532, June 24, 1982; 48 FR 14295, Apr. 1, 1983; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 71 FR 40273, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.345 Operating requirements.

(a) An incinerator must be operated in accordance with operating requirements specified in the permit. These will be specified on a case-by-case basis as those demonstrated (in a trial burn or in alternative data as specified in § 264.344(b) and included with part B of a facility's permit application) to be sufficient to comply with the performance standards of § 264.343.

(b) Each set of operating requirements will specify the composition of the waste feed (including acceptable variations in the physical or chemical properties of the waste feed which will not affect compliance with the performance requirement of § 264.343) to which the operating requirements apply. For each such waste feed, the permit will specify acceptable operating limits including the following conditions:

(1) Carbon monoxide (CO) level in the stack exhaust gas;

(2) Waste feed rate;

(3) Combustion temperature;

(4) An appropriate indicator of combustion gas velocity;

(5) Allowable variations in incinerator system design or operating procedures; and

(6) Such other operating requirements as are necessary to ensure that the performance standards of § 264.343 are met.

(c) During start-up and shut-down of an incinerator, hazardous waste (except wastes exempted in accordance with § 264.340) must not be fed into the incinerator unless the incinerator is operating within the conditions of operation (temperature, air feed rate, etc.) specified in the permit.

(d) Fugitive emissions from the combustion zone must be controlled by:

(1) Keeping the combustion zone totally sealed against fugitive emissions; or

(2) Maintaining a combustion zone pressure lower than atmospheric pressure; or

(3) An alternate means of control demonstrated (with part B of the permit application) to provide fugitive emissions control equivalent to maintenance of combustion zone pressure lower than atmospheric pressure.

(e) An incinerator must be operated with a functioning system to automatically cut off waste feed to the incinerator when operating conditions deviate from limits established under paragraph (a) of this section.

(f) An incinerator must cease operation when changes in waste feed, incinerator design, or operating conditions exceed limits designated in its permit.

[46 FR 7678, Jan. 23, 1981, as amended at 47 FR 27532, June 24, 1982; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 264.346 [Reserved]
§ 264.347 Monitoring and inspections.

(a) The owner or operator must conduct, as a minimum, the following monitoring while incinerating hazardous waste:

(1) Combustion temperature, waste feed rate, and the indicator of combustion gas velocity specified in the facility permit must be monitored on a continuous basis.

(2) CO must be monitored on a continuous basis at a point in the incinerator downstream of the combustion zone and prior to release to the atmosphere.

(3) Upon request by the Regional Administrator, sampling and analysis of the waste and exhaust emissions must be conducted to verify that the operating requirements established in the permit achieve the performance standards of § 264.343.

(b) The incinerator and associated equipment (pumps, valves, conveyors, pipes, etc.) must be subjected to thorough visual inspection, at least daily, for leaks, spills, fugitive emissions, and signs of tampering.

(c) The emergency waste feed cutoff system and associated alarms must be tested at least weekly to verify operability, unless the applicant demonstrates to the Regional Administrator that weekly inspections will unduly restrict or upset operations and that less frequent inspection will be adequate. At a minimum, operational testing must be conducted at least monthly.

(d) This monitoring and inspection data must be recorded and the records must be placed in the operating record required by § 264.73 of this part and maintained in the operating record for five years.

[46 FR 7678, Jan. 23, 1981, as amended at 47 FR 27533, June 24, 1982; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 71 FR 16907, Apr. 4, 2006]

§§ 264.348-264.350 [Reserved]
§ 264.351 Closure.

At closure the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including, but not limited to, ash, scrubber waters, and scrubber sludges) from the incinerator site.

[Comment: At closure, as throughout the operating period, unless the owner or operator can demonstrate, in accordance with § 261.3(d) of this chapter, that the residue removed from the incinerator is not a hazardous waste, the owner or operator becomes a generator of hazardous waste and must manage it in accordance with applicable requirements of parts 262 through 266 of this chapter.]

[46 FR 7678, Jan. 23, 1981]