47 FR 32365, July 26, 1982, unless otherwise noted.
The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that dispose of hazardous waste in landfills, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise.
(a) Any landfill that is not covered by paragraph (c) of this section or § 265.301(a) of this chapter must have a liner system for all portions of the landfill (except for existing portions of such landfill). The liner system must have:
(1) A liner that is designed, constructed, and installed to prevent any migration of wastes out of the landfill to the adjacent subsurface soil or ground water or surface water at anytime during the active life (including the closure period) of the landfill. The liner must be constructed of materials that prevent wastes from passing into the liner during the active life of the facility. The liner must be:
(i) Constructed of materials that have appropriate chemical properties and sufficient strength and thickness to prevent failure due to pressure gradients (including static head and external hydrogeologic forces), physical contact with the waste or leachate to which they are exposed, climatic conditions, the stress of installation, and the stress of daily operation;
(ii) Placed upon a foundation or base capable of providing support to the liner and resistance to pressure gradients above and below the liner to prevent failure of the liner due to settlement, compression, or uplift; and
(iii) Installed to cover all surrounding earth likely to be in contact with the waste or leachate; and
(2) A leachate collection and removal system immediately above the liner that is designed, constructed, maintained, and operated to collect and remove leachate from the landfill. The Regional Administrator will specify design and operating conditions in the permit to ensure that the leachate depth over the liner does not exceed 30 cm (one foot). The leachate collection and removal system must be:
(i) Constructed of materials that are:
(A) Chemically resistant to the waste managed in the landfill and the leachate expected to be generated; and
(B) Of sufficient strength and thickness to prevent collapse under the pressures exerted by overlying wastes, waste cover materials, and by any equipment used at the landfill; and
(ii) Designed and operated to function without clogging through the scheduled closure of the landfill.
(b) The owner or operator will be exempted from the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section if the Regional Administrator finds, based on a demonstration by the owner or operator, that alternative design and operating practices, together with location characteristics, will prevent the migration of any hazardous constituents (see § 264.93) into the ground water or surface water at any future time. In deciding whether to grant an exemption, the Regional Administrator will consider:
(1) The nature and quantity of the wastes;
(2) The proposed alternate design and operation;
(3) The hydrogeologic setting of the facility, including the attenuative capacity and thickness of the liners and soils present between the landfill and ground water or surface water; and
(4) All other factors which would influence the quality and mobility of the leachate produced and the potential for it to migrate to ground water or surface water.
(c) The owner or operator of each new landfill unit on which construction commences after January 29, 1992, each lateral expansion of a landfill unit on which construction commences after July 29, 1992, and each replacement of an existing landfill unit that is to commence reuse after July 29, 1992 must install two or more liners and a leachate collection and removal system above and between such liners. “Construction commences” is as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter under “existing facility”.
(i) The liner system must include:
(A) A top liner designed and constructed of materials (e.g., a geomembrane) to prevent the migration of hazardous constituents into such liner during the active life and post-closure care period; and
(B) A composite bottom liner, consisting of at least two components. The upper component must be designed and constructed of materials (e.g., a geomembrane) to prevent the migration of hazardous constituents into this component during the active life and post-closure care period. The lower component must be designed and constructed of materials to minimize the migration of hazardous constituents if a breach in the upper component were to occur. The lower component must be constructed of at least 3 feet (91 cm) of compacted soil material with a hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1 × 10−7 cm/sec.
(2) The leachate collection and removal system immediately above the top liner must be designed, constructed, operated, and maintained to collect and remove leachate from the landfill during the active life and post-closure care period. The Regional Administrator will specify design and operating conditions in the permit to ensure that the leachate depth over the liner does not exceed 30 cm (one foot). The leachate collection and removal system must comply with paragraphs (c)(3) (iii) and (iv) of this section.
(3) The leachate collection and removal system between the liners, and immediately above the bottom composite liner in the case of multiple leachate collection and removal systems, is also a leak detection system. This leak detection system must be capable of detecting, collecting, and removing leaks of hazardous constituents at the earliest practicable time through all areas of the top liner likely to be exposed to waste or leachate during the active life and post-closure care period. The requirements for a leak detection system in this paragraph are satisfied by installation of a system that is, at a minimum:
(i) Constructed with a bottom slope of one percent or more;
(ii) Constructed of granular drainage materials with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 × 10−2 cm/sec or more and a thickness of 12 inches (30.5 cm) or more; or constructed of synthetic or geonet drainage materials with a transmissivity of 3 × 10−5 m2/sec or more;
(iii) Constructed of materials that are chemically resistant to the waste managed in the landfill and the leachate expected to be generated, and of sufficient strength and thickness to prevent collapse under the pressures exerted by overlying wastes, waste cover materials, and equipment used at the landfill;
(iv) Designed and operated to minimize clogging during the active life and post-closure care period; and
(v) Constructed with sumps and liquid removal methods (e.g., pumps) of sufficient size to collect and remove liquids from the sump and prevent liquids from backing up into the drainage layer. Each unit must have its own sump(s). The design of each sump and removal system must provide a method for measuring and recording the volume of liquids present in the sump and of liquids removed.
(4) The owner or operator shall collect and remove pumpable liquids in the leak detection system sumps to minimize the head on the bottom liner.
(5) The owner or operator of a leak detection system that is not located completely above the seasonal high water table must demonstrate that the operation of the leak detection system will not be adversely affected by the presence of ground water.
(d) The Regional Administrator may approve alternative design or operating practices to those specified in paragraph (c) of this section if the owner or operator demonstrates to the Regional Administrator that such design and operating practices, together with location characteristics:
(1) Will prevent the migration of any hazardous constituent into the ground water or surface water at least as effectively as the liners and leachate collection and removal systems specified in paragraph (c) of this section; and
(2) Will allow detection of leaks of hazardous constituents through the top liner at least as effectively.
(e) The double liner requirement set forth in paragraph (c) of this section may be waived by the Regional Administrator for any monofill, if:
(1) The monofill contains only hazardous wastes from foundry furnace emission controls or metal casting molding sand, and such wastes do not contain constituents which would render the wastes hazardous for reasons other than the Toxicity Characteristic in § 261.24 of this chapter, with EPA Hazardous Waste Numbers D004 through D017; and
(A) The monofill has at least one liner for which there is no evidence that such liner is leaking;
(B) The monofill is located more than one-quarter mile from an “underground source of drinking water” (as that term is defined in 40 CFR 270.2); and
(C) The monofill is in compliance with generally applicable ground-water monitoring requirements for facilities with permits under RCRA 3005(c); or
(ii) The owner or operator demonstrates that the monofill is located, designed and operated so as to assure that there will be no migration of any hazardous constituent into ground water or surface water at any future time.
(f) The owner or operator of any replacement landfill unit is exempt from paragraph (c) of this section if:
(1) The existing unit was constructed in compliance with the design standards of section 3004(o)(1)(A)(i) and (o)(5) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and
(2) There is no reason to believe that the liner is not functioning as designed.
(g) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain a run-on control system capable of preventing flow onto the active portion of the landfill during peak discharge from at least a 25-year storm.
(h) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain a run-off management system to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm.
(i) Collection and holding facilities (e.g., tanks or basins) associated with run-on and run-off control systems must be emptied or otherwise managed expeditiously after storms to maintain design capacity of the system.
(j) If the landfill contains any particulate matter which may be subject to wind dispersal, the owner or operator must cover or otherwise manage the landfill to control wind dispersal.
(k) The Regional Administrator will specify in the permit all design and operating practices that are necessary to ensure that the requirements of this section are satisfied.
(l) Any permit under RCRA 3005(c) which is issued for a landfill located within the State of Alabama shall require the installation of two or more liners and a leachate collection system above and between such liners, notwithstanding any other provision of RCRA.
(a) The Regional Administrator shall approve an action leakage rate for landfill units subject to § 264.301(c) or (d). The action leakage rate is the maximum design flow rate that the leak detection system (LDS) can remove without the fluid head on the bottom liner exceeding l foot. The action leakage rate must include an adequate safety margin to allow for uncertainties in the design (e.g., slope, hydraulic conductivity, thickness of drainage material), construction, operation, and location of the LDS, waste and leachate characteristics, likelihood and amounts of other sources of liquids in the LDS, and proposed response actions (e.g., the action leakage rate must consider decreases in the flow capacity of the system over time resulting from siltation and clogging, rib layover and creep of synthetic components of the system, overburden pressures, etc.).
(b) To determine if the action leakage rate has been exceeded, the owner or operator must convert the weekly or monthly flow rate from the monitoring data obtained under § 264.303(c) to an average daily flow rate (gallons per acre per day) for each sump. Unless the Regional Administrator approves a different calculation, the average daily flow rate for each sump must be calculated weekly during the active life and closure period, and monthly during the post-closure care period when monthly monitoring is required under § 264.303(c).
(a) During construction or installation, liners (except in the case of existing portions of landfills exempt from § 264.301(a)) and cover systems (e.g., membranes, sheets, or coatings) must be inspected for uniformity, damage, and imperfections (e.g., holes, cracks, thin spots, or foreign materials). Immediately after construction or installation:
(1) Synthetic liners and covers must be inspected to ensure tight seams and joints and the absence of tears, punctures, or blisters; and
(2) Soil-based and admixed liners and covers must be inspected for imperfections including lenses, cracks, channels, root holes, or other structural non-uniformities that may cause an increase in the permeability of the liner or cover.
(b) While a landfill is in operation, it must be inspected weekly and after storms to detect evidence of any of the following:
(1) Deterioration, malfunctions, or improper operation of run-on and run-off control systems;
(2) Proper functioning of wind dispersal control systems, where present; and
(3) The presence of leachate in and proper functioning of leachate collection and removal systems, where present.
(1) An owner or operator required to have a leak detection system under § 264.301(c) or (d) must record the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump at least once each week during the active life and closure period.
(2) After the final cover is installed, the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump must be recorded at least monthly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least quarterly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive quarters, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least semi-annually. If at any time during the post-closure care period the pump operating level is exceeded at units on quarterly or semi-annual recording schedules, the owner or operator must return to monthly recording of amounts of liquids removed from each sump until the liquid level again stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months.
(3) “Pump operating level” is a liquid level proposed by the owner or operator and approved by the Regional Administrator based on pump activation level, sump dimensions, and level that avoids backup into the drainage layer and minimizes head in the sump.
(a) The owner or operator of landfill units subject to § 264.301(c) or (d) must have an approved response action plan before receipt of waste. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section.
(b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate for any sump, the owner or operator must:
(1) Notify the Regional Administrator in writing of the exceedance within 7 days of the determination;
(2) Submit a preliminary written assessment to the Regional Administrator within 14 days of the determination, as to the amount of liquids, likely sources of liquids, possible location, size, and cause of any leaks, and short-term actions taken and planned;
(3) Determine to the extent practicable the location, size, and cause of any leak;
(4) Determine whether waste receipt should cease or be curtailed, whether any waste should be removed from the unit for inspection, repairs, or controls, and whether or not the unit should be closed;
(5) Determine any other short-term and longer-term actions to be taken to mitigate or stop any leaks; and
(6) Within 30 days after the notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the results of the analyses specified in paragraphs (b)(3), (4), and (5) of this section, the results of actions taken, and actions planned. Monthly thereafter, as long as the flow rate in the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate, the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator a report summarizing the results of any remedial actions taken and actions planned.
(i) Assess the source of liquids and amounts of liquids by source,
(ii) Conduct a fingerprint, hazardous constituent, or other analyses of the liquids in the leak detection system to identify the source of liquids and possible location of any leaks, and the hazard and mobility of the liquid; and
(iii) Assess the seriousness of any leaks in terms of potential for escaping into the environment; or
(2) Document why such assessments are not needed.
The owner or operator of a landfill must maintain the following items in the operating record required under § 264.73:
(a) On a map, the exact location and dimensions, including depth, of each cell with respect to permanently surveyed benchmarks; and
(b) The contents of each cell and the approximate location of each hazardous waste type within each cell.
(a) At final closure of the landfill or upon closure of any cell, the owner or operator must cover the landfill or cell with a final cover designed and constructed to:
(1) Provide long-term minimization of migration of liquids through the closed landfill;
(2) Function with minimum maintenance;
(3) Promote drainage and minimize erosion or abrasion of the cover;
(4) Accommodate settling and subsidence so that the cover's integrity is maintained; and
(5) Have a permeability less than or equal to the permeability of any bottom liner system or natural subsoils present.
(b) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure requirements contained in §§ 264.117 through 264.120, including maintenance and monitoring throughout the post-closure care period (specified in the permit under § 264.117). The owner or operator must:
(1) Maintain the integrity and effectiveness of the final cover, including making repairs to the cap as necessary to correct the effects of settling, subsidence, erosion, or other events;
(2) Continue to operate the leachate collection and removal system until leachate is no longer detected;
(3) Maintain and monitor the leak detection system in accordance with §§ 264.301(c)(3)(iv) and (4) and 264.303(c), and comply with all other applicable leak detection system requirements of this part;
(4) Maintain and monitor the ground-water monitoring system and comply with all other applicable requirements of subpart F of this part;
(5) Prevent run-on and run-off from eroding or otherwise damaging the final cover; and
(6) Protect and maintain surveyed benchmarks used in complying with § 264.309.
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, and in § 264.316, ignitable or reactive waste must not be placed in a landfill, unless the waste and landfill meet all applicable requirements of part 268, and:
(2) Section 264.17(b) is complied with.
(b) Except for prohibited wastes which remain subject to treatment standards in subpart D of part 268, ignitable wastes in containers may be landfilled without meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, provided that the wastes are disposed of in such a way that they are protected from any material or conditions which may cause them to ignite. At a minimum, ignitable wastes must be disposed of in non-leaking containers which are carefully handled and placed so as to avoid heat, sparks, rupture, or any other condition that might cause ignition of the wastes; must be covered daily with soil or other non-combustible material to minimize the potential for ignition of the wastes; and must not be disposed of in cells that contain or will contain other wastes which may generate heat sufficient to cause ignition of the waste.
(a) The placement of bulk or non-containerized liquid hazardous waste or hazardous waste containing free liquids (whether or not sorbents have been added) in any landfill is prohibited.
(b) To demonstrate the absence or presence of free liquids in either a containerized or a bulk waste, the following test must be used: Method 9095B (Paint Filter Liquids Test) as described in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11 of this chapter.
(c) Containers holding free liquids must not be placed in a landfill unless:
(1) All free-standing liquid:
(i) Has been removed by decanting, or other methods;
(ii) Has been mixed with sorbent or solidified so that free-standing liquid is no longer observed; or
(iii) Has been otherwise eliminated; or
(2) The container is very small, such as an ampule; or
(3) The container is designed to hold free liquids for use other than storage, such as a battery or capacitor; or
(d) Sorbents used to treat free liquids to be disposed of in landfills must be nonbiodegradable. Nonbiodegradable sorbents are: materials listed or described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section; materials that pass one of the tests in paragraph (d)(2) of this section; or materials that are determined by EPA to be nonbiodegradable through the part 260 petition process.
(1) Nonbiodegradable sorbents.
(i) Inorganic minerals, other inorganic materials, and elemental carbon (e.g., aluminosilicates, clays, smectites, Fuller's earth, bentonite, calcium bentonite, montmorillonite, calcined montmorillonite, kaolinite, micas (illite), vermiculites, zeolites; calcium carbonate (organic free limestone); oxides/hydroxides, alumina, lime, silica (sand), diatomaceous earth; perlite (volcanic glass); expanded volcanic rock; volcanic ash; cement kiln dust; fly ash; rice hull ash; activated charcoal/activated carbon); or
(ii) High molecular weight synthetic polymers (e.g., polyethylene, high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene, polystyrene, polyurethane, polyacrylate, polynorborene, polyisobutylene, ground synthetic rubber, cross-linked allylstyrene and tertiary butyl copolymers). This does not include polymers derived from biological material or polymers specifically designed to be degradable; or
(iii) Mixtures of these nonbiodegradable materials.
(2) Tests for nonbiodegradable sorbents.
(i) The sorbent material is determined to be nonbiodegradable under ASTM Method G21-70 (1984a) - Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Synthetic Polymer Materials to Fungi; or
(ii) The sorbent material is determined to be nonbiodegradable under ASTM Method G22-76 (1984b) - Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Plastics to Bacteria; or
(iii) The sorbent material is determined to be non-biodegradable under OECD test 301B: [CO2 Evolution (Modified Sturm Test)].
(e) The placement of any liquid which is not a hazardous waste in a landfill is prohibited unless the owner or operator of such landfill demonstrates to the Regional Administrator, or the Regional Administrator determines that:
(1) The only reasonably available alternative to the placement in such landfill is placement in a landfill or unlined surface impoundment, whether or not permitted or operating under interim status, which contains, or may reasonably be anticipated to contain, hazardous waste; and
(2) Placement in such owner or operator's landfill will not present a risk of contamination of any “underground source of drinking water” (as that term is defined in 40 CFR 270.2.)
[47 FR 32365, July 26, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 18374, Apr. 30, 1985; 50 FR 28748, July 15, 1985; 57 FR 54460, Nov. 18, 1992; 58 FR 46050, Aug. 31, 1993; 60 FR 35705, July 11, 1995; 70 FR 34581, June 14, 2005; 71 FR 16906, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40273, July 14, 2006; 75 FR 13006, Mar. 18, 2010]
Unless they are very small, such as an ampule, containers must be either:
(a) At least 90 percent full when placed in the landfill; or
(b) Crushed, shredded, or similarly reduced in volume to the maximum practical extent before burial in the landfill.
Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:
(a) Hazardous waste must be packaged in non-leaking inside containers. The inside containers must be of a design and constructed of a material that will not react dangerously with, be decomposed by, or be ignited by the contained waste. Inside containers must be tightly and securely sealed. The inside containers must be of the size and type specified in the Department of Transportation (DOT) hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste.
(b) The inside containers must be overpacked in an open head DOT-specification metal shipping container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at a minimum, a sufficient quantity of sorbent material, determined to be nonbiodegradable in accordance with § 264.314(d), to completely sorb all of the liquid contents of the inside containers. The metal outer container must be full after it has been packed with inside containers and sorbent material.
(c) The sorbent material used must not be capable of reacting dangerously with, being decomposed by, or being ignited by the contents of the inside containers, in accordance with § 264.17(b).
(d) Incompatible wastes, as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter, must not be placed in the same outside container.
(e) Reactive wastes, other than cyanide- or sulfide-bearing waste as defined in § 261.23(a)(5) of this chapter, must be treated or rendered non-reactive prior to packaging in accordance with paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section. Cyanide- and sulfide-bearing reactive waste may be packed in accordance with paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section without first being treated or rendered non-reactive.
(f) Such disposal is in compliance with the requirements of part 268. Persons who incinerate lab packs according to the requirements in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must meet the DOT specifications in 49 CFR 173.12 and be overpacked according to the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section.
(a) Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27 must not be placed in a landfill unless the owner or operator operates the landfill in accord with a management plan for these wastes that is approved by the Regional Administrator pursuant to the standards set out in this paragraph, and in accord with all other applicable requirements of this part. The factors to be considered are:
(1) The volume, physical, and chemical characteristics of the wastes, including their potential to migrate through the soil or to volatilize or escape into the atmosphere;
(2) The attenuative properties of underlying and surrounding soils or other materials;
(3) The mobilizing properties of other materials co-disposed with these wastes; and
(4) The effectiveness of additional treatment, design, or monitoring requirements.
(b) The Regional Administrator may determine that additional design, operating, and monitoring requirements are necessary for landfills managing hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27 in order to reduce the possibility of migration of these wastes to ground water, surface water, or air so as to protect human health and the environment.