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Title 40

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Title 40

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Subpart M - Land Treatment
Source:

47 FR 32361, July 26, 1982, unless otherwise noted.

§ 264.270 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that treat or dispose of hazardous waste in land treatment units, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise.

§ 264.271 Treatment program.

(a) An owner or operator subject to this subpart must establish a land treatment program that is designed to ensure that hazardous constituents placed in or on the treatment zone are degraded, transformed, or immobilized within the treatment zone. The Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the elements of the treatment program, including:

(1) The wastes that are capable of being treated at the unit based on a demonstration under § 264.272;

(2) Design measures and operating practices necessary to maximize the success of degradation, transformation, and immobilization processes in the treatment zone in accordance with § 264.273(a); and

(3) Unsaturated zone monitoring provisions meeting the requirements of § 264.278.

(b) The Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the hazardous constituents that must be degraded, transformed, or immobilized under this subpart. Hazardous constituents are constituents identified in appendix VIII of part 261 of this chapter that are reasonably expected to be in, or derived from, waste placed in or on the treatment zone.

(c) The Regional Administrator will specify the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the treatment zone in the facility permit. The treatment zone is the portion of the unsaturated zone below and including the land surface in which the owner or operator intends to maintain the conditions necessary for effective degradation, transformation, or immobilization of hazardous constituents. The maximum depth of the treatment zone must be:

(1) No more than 1.5 meters (5 feet) from the initial soil surface; and

(2) More than 1 meter (3 feet) above the seasonal high water table.

[47 FR 32361, July 26, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 264.272 Treatment demonstration.

(a) For each waste that will be applied to the treatment zone, the owner or operator must demonstrate, prior to application of the waste, that hazardous constituents in the waste can be completely degraded, transformed, or immobilized in the treatment zone.

(b) In making this demonstration, the owner or operator may use field tests, laboratory analyses, available data, or, in the case of existing units, operating data. If the owner or operator intends to conduct field tests or laboratory analyses in order to make the demonstration required under paragraph (a) of this section, he must obtain a treatment or disposal permit under § 270.63. The Regional Administrator will specify in this permit the testing, analytical, design, and operating requirements (including the duration of the tests and analyses, and, in the case of field tests, the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the treatment zone, monitoring procedures, closure and clean-up activities) necessary to meet the requirements in paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) Any field test or laboratory analysis conducted in order to make a demonstration under paragraph (a) of this section must:

(1) Accurately simulate the characteristics and operating conditions for the proposed land treatment unit including:

(i) The characteristics of the waste (including the presence of appendix VIII of part 261 of this chapter constituents);

(ii) The climate in the area;

(iii) The topography of the surrounding area;

(iv) The characteristics of the soil in the treatment zone (including depth); and

(v) The operating practices to be used at the unit.

(2) Be likely to show that hazardous constituents in the waste to be tested will be completely degraded, transformed, or immobilized in the treatment zone of the proposed land treatment unit; and

(3) Be conducted in a manner that protects human health and the environment considering:

(i) The characteristics of the waste to be tested;

(ii) The operating and monitoring measures taken during the course of the test;

(iii) The duration of the test;

(iv) The volume of waste used in the test;

(v) In the case of field tests, the potential for migration of hazardous constituents to ground water or surface water.

[47 FR 32361, July 26, 1982, as amended at 48 FR 14294, Apr. 1, 1983]

§ 264.273 Design and operating requirements.

The Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit how the owner or operator will design, construct, operate, and maintain the land treatment unit in compliance with this section.

(a) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain the unit to maximize the degradation, transformation, and immobilization of hazardous constituents in the treatment zone. The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain the unit in accord with all design and operating conditions that were used in the treatment demonstration under § 264.272. At a minimum, the Regional Administrator will specify the following in the facility permit:

(1) The rate and method of waste application to the treatment zone;

(2) Measures to control soil pH;

(3) Measures to enhance microbial or chemical reactions (e.g., fertilization, tilling); and

(4) Measures to control the moisture content of the treatment zone.

(b) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain the treatment zone to minimize run-off of hazardous constituents during the active life of the land treatment unit.

(c) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain a run-on control system capable of preventing flow onto the treatment zone during peak discharge from at least a 25-year storm.

(d) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain a run-off management system to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm.

(e) Collection and holding facilities (e.g., tanks or basins) associated with run-on and run-off control systems must be emptied or otherwise managed expeditiously after storms to maintain the design capacity of the system.

(f) If the treatment zone contains particulate matter which may be subject to wind dispersal, the owner or operator must manage the unit to control wind dispersal.

(g) The owner or operator must inspect the unit weekly and after storms to detect evidence of:

(1) Deterioration, malfunctions, or improper operation of run-on and run-off control systems; and

(2) Improper functioning of wind dispersal control measures.

[47 FR 32361, July 26, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§§ 264.274-264.275 [Reserved]
§ 264.276 Food-chain crops.

The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in or on the treatment zone only if the owner or operator satisfies the conditions of this section. The Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be grown.

(a)

(1) The owner or operator must demonstrate that there is no substantial risk to human health caused by the growth of such crops in or on the treatment zone by demonstrating, prior to the planting of such crops, that hazardous constituents other than cadmium:

(i) Will not be transferred to the food or feed portions of the crop by plant uptake or direct contact, and will not otherwise be ingested by food-chain animals (e.g., by grazing); or

(ii) Will not occur in greater concentrations in or on the food or feed portions of crops grown on the treatment zone than in or on identical portions of the same crops grown on untreated soils under similar conditions in the same region.

(2) The owner or operator must make the demonstration required under this paragraph prior to the planting of crops at the facility for all constituents identified in appendix VIII of part 261 of this chapter that are reasonably expected to be in, or derived from, waste placed in or on the treatment zone.

(3) In making a demonstration under this paragraph, the owner or operator may use field tests, greenhouse studies, available data, or, in the case of existing units, operating data, and must:

(i) Base the demonstration on conditions similar to those present in the treatment zone, including soil characteristics (e.g., pH, cation exchange capacity), specific wastes, application rates, application methods, and crops to be grown; and

(ii) Describe the procedures used in conducting any tests, including the sample selection criteria, sample size, analytical methods, and statistical procedures.

(4) If the owner or operator intends to conduct field tests or greenhouse studies in order to make the demonstration required under this paragraph, he must obtain a permit for conducting such activities.

(b) The owner or operator must comply with the following conditions if cadmium is contained in wastes applied to the treatment zone:

(1)

(i) The pH of the waste and soil mixture must be 6.5 or greater at the time of each waste application, except for waste containing cadmium at concentrations of 2 mg/kg (dry weight) or less;

(ii) The annual application of cadmium from waste must not exceed 0.5 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha) on land used for production of tobacco, leafy vegetables, or root crops grown for human consumption. For other food-chain crops, the annual cadmium application rate must not exceed:

Time period Annual Cd application rate (kilograms per hectare)
Present to June 30, 1984 2.0
July 1, 1984 to December 31, 1986 1.25
Beginning January 1, 1987 0.5

(iii) The cumulative application of cadmium from waste must not exceed 5 kg/ha if the waste and soil mixture has a pH of less than 6.5; and

(iv) If the waste and soil mixture has a pH of 6.5 or greater or is maintained at a pH of 6.5 or greater during crop growth, the cumulative application of cadmium from waste must not exceed: 5 kg/ha if soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) is less than 5 meq/100g; 10 kg/ha if soil CEC is 5-15 meq/100g; and 20 kg/ha if soil CEC is greater than 15 meq/100g; or

(2)

(i) Animal feed must be the only food-chain crop produced;

(ii) The pH of the waste and soil mixture must be 6.5 or greater at the time of waste application or at the time the crop is planted, whichever occurs later, and this pH level must be maintained whenever food-chain crops are grown;

(iii) There must be an operating plan which demonstrates how the animal feed will be distributed to preclude ingestion by humans. The operating plan must describe the measures to be taken to safeguard against possible health hazards from cadmium entering the food chain, which may result from alternative land uses; and

(iv) Future property owners must be notified by a stipulation in the land record or property deed which states that the property has received waste at high cadmium application rates and that food-chain crops must not be grown except in compliance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

§ 264.277 [Reserved]
§ 264.278 Unsaturated zone monitoring.

An owner or operator subject to this subpart must establish an unsaturated zone monitoring program to discharge the following responsibilities:

(a) The owner or operator must monitor the soil and soil-pore liquid to determine whether hazardous constituents migrate out of the treatment zone.

(1) The Regional Administrator will specify the hazardous constituents to be monitored in the facility permit. The hazardous constituents to be monitored are those specified under § 264.271(b).

(2) The Regional Administrator may require monitoring for principal hazardous constituents (PHCs) in lieu of the constituents specified under § 264.271(b). PHCs are hazardous constituents contained in the wastes to be applied at the unit that are the most difficult to treat, considering the combined effects of degradation, transformation, and immobilization. The Regional Administrator will establish PHCs if he finds, based on waste analyses, treatment demonstrations, or other data, that effective degradation, transformation, or immobilization of the PHCs will assure treatment at at least equivalent levels for the other hazardous constituents in the wastes.

(b) The owner or operator must install an unsaturated zone monitoring system that includes soil monitoring using soil cores and soil-pore liquid monitoring using devices such as lysimeters. The unsaturated zone monitoring system must consist of a sufficient number of sampling points at appropriate locations and depths to yield samples that:

(1) Represent the quality of background soil-pore liquid quality and the chemical make-up of soil that has not been affected by leakage from the treatment zone; and

(2) Indicate the quality of soil-pore liquid and the chemical make-up of the soil below the treatment zone.

(c) The owner or operator must establish a background value for each hazardous constituent to be monitored under paragraph (a) of this section. The permit will specify the background values for each constituent or specify the procedures to be used to calculate the background values.

(1) Background soil values may be based on a one-time sampling at a background plot having characteristics similar to those of the treatment zone.

(2) Background soil-pore liquid values must be based on at least quarterly sampling for one year at a background plot having characteristics similar to those of the treatment zone.

(3) The owner or operator must express all background values in a form necessary for the determination of statistically significant increases under paragraph (f) of this section.

(4) In taking samples used in the determination of all background values, the owner or operator must use an unsaturated zone monitoring system that complies with paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(d) The owner or operator must conduct soil monitoring and soil-pore liquid monitoring immediately below the treatment zone. The Regional Administrator will specify the frequency and timing of soil and soil-pore liquid monitoring in the facility permit after considering the frequency, timing, and rate of waste application, and the soil permeability. The owner or operator must express the results of soil and soil-pore liquid monitoring in a form necessary for the determination of statistically significant increases under paragraph (f) of this section.

(e) The owner or operator must use consistent sampling and analysis procedures that are designed to ensure sampling results that provide a reliable indication of soil-pore liquid quality and the chemical make-up of the soil below the treatment zone. At a minimum, the owner or operator must implement procedures and techniques for:

(1) Sample collection;

(2) Sample preservation and shipment;

(3) Analytical procedures; and

(4) Chain of custody control.

(f) The owner or operator must determine whether there is a statistically significant change over background values for any hazardous constituent to be monitored under paragraph (a) of this section below the treatment zone each time he conducts soil monitoring and soil-pore liquid monitoring under paragraph (d) of this section.

(1) In determining whether a statistically significant increase has occurred, the owner or operator must compare the value of each constituent, as determined under paragraph (d) of this section, to the background value for that constituent according to the statistical procedure specified in the facility permit under this paragraph.

(2) The owner or operator must determine whether there has been a statistically significant increase below the treatment zone within a reasonable time period after completion of sampling. The Regional Administrator will specify that time period in the facility permit after considering the complexity of the statistical test and the availability of laboratory facilities to perform the analysis of soil and soil-pore liquid samples.

(3) The owner or operator must determine whether there is a statistically significant increase below the treatment zone using a statistical procedure that provides reasonable confidence that migration from the treatment zone will be identified. The Regional Administrator will specify a statistical procedure in the facility permit that he finds:

(i) Is appropriate for the distribution of the data used to establish background values; and

(ii) Provides a reasonable balance between the probability of falsely identifying migration from the treatment zone and the probability of failing to identify real migration from the treatment zone.

(g) If the owner or operator determines, pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section, that there is a statistically significant increase of hazardous constituents below the treatment zone, he must:

(1) Notify the Regional Administrator of this finding in writing within seven days. The notification must indicate what constituents have shown statistically significant increases.

(2) Within 90 days, submit to the Regional Administrator an application for a permit modification to modify the operating practices at the facility in order to maximize the success of degradation, transformation, or immobilization processes in the treatment zone.

(h) If the owner or operator determines, pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section, that there is a statistically significant increase of hazardous constituents below the treatment zone, he may demonstrate that a source other than regulated units caused the increase or that the increase resulted from an error in sampling, analysis, or evaluation. While the owner or operator may make a demonstration under this paragraph in addition to, or in lieu of, submitting a permit modification application under paragraph (g)(2) of this section, he is not relieved of the requirement to submit a permit modification application within the time specified in paragraph (g)(2) of this section unless the demonstration made under this paragraph successfully shows that a source other than regulated units caused the increase or that the increase resulted from an error in sampling, analysis, or evaluation. In making a demonstration under this paragraph, the owner or operator must:

(1) Notify the Regional Administrator in writing within seven days of determining a statistically significant increase below the treatment zone that he intends to make a determination under this paragraph;

(2) Within 90 days, submit a report to the Regional Administrator demonstrating that a source other than the regulated units caused the increase or that the increase resulted from error in sampling, analysis, or evaluation;

(3) Within 90 days, submit to the Regional Administrator an application for a permit modification to make any appropriate changes to the unsaturated zone monitoring program at the facility; and

(4) Continue to monitor in accordance with the unsaturated zone monitoring program established under this section.

[47 FR 32361, July 26, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 264.279 Recordkeeping.

The owner or operator must include hazardous waste application dates and rates in the operating record required under § 264.73.

[47 FR 32361, July 26, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 264.280 Closure and post-closure care.

(a) During the closure period the owner or operator must:

(1) Continue all operations (including pH control) necessary to maximize degradation, transformation, or immobilization of hazardous constituents within the treatment zone as required under § 264.273(a), except to the extent such measures are inconsistent with paragraph (a)(8) of this section.

(2) Continue all operations in the treatment zone to minimize run-off of hazardous constituents as required under § 264.273(b);

(3) Maintain the run-on control system required under § 264.273(c);

(4) Maintain the run-off management system required under § 264.273(d);

(5) Control wind dispersal of hazardous waste if required under § 264.273(f);

(6) Continue to comply with any prohibitions or conditions concerning growth of food-chain crops under § 264.276;

(7) Continue unsaturated zone monitoring in compliance with § 264.278, except that soil-pore liquid monitoring may be terminated 90 days after the last application of waste to the treatment zone; and

(8) Establish a vegetative cover on the portion of the facility being closed at such time that the cover will not substantially impede degradation, transformation, or immobilization of hazardous constituents in the treatment zone. The vegetative cover must be capable of maintaining growth without extensive maintenance.

(b) For the purpose of complying with § 264.115 of this chapter, when closure is completed the owner or operator may submit to the Regional Administrator certification by an independent, qualified soil scientist, in lieu of a qualified Professional Engineer, that the facility has been closed in accordance with the specifications in the approved closure plan.

(c) During the post-closure care period the owner or operator must:

(1) Continue all operations (including pH control) necessary to enhance degradation and transformation and sustain immobilization of hazardous constituents in the treatment zone to the extent that such measures are consistent with other post-closure care activities;

(2) Maintain a vegetative cover over closed portions of the facility;

(3) Maintain the run-on control system required under § 264.273(c);

(4) Maintain the run-off management system required under § 264.273(d);

(5) Control wind dispersal of hazardous waste if required under § 264.273(f);

(6) Continue to comply with any prohibitions or conditions concerning growth of food-chain crops under § 264.276; and

(7) Continue unsaturated zone monitoring in compliance with § 264.278, excect that soil-pore liquid monitoring may be terminated 90 days after the last application of waste to the treatment zone.

(d) The owner or operator is not subject to regulation under paragraphs (a)(8) and (c) of this section if the Regional Administrator finds that the level of hazardous constituents in the treatment zone soil does not exceed the background value of those constituents by an amount that is statistically significant when using the test specified in paragraph (d)(3) of this section. The owner or operator may submit such a demonstration to the Regional Administrator at any time during the closure or post-closure care periods. For the purposes of this paragraph:

(1) The owner or operator must establish background soil values and determine whether there is a statistically significant increase over those values for all hazardous constituents specified in the facility permit under § 264.271 (b).

(i) Background soil values may be based on a one-time sampling of a background plot having characteristics similar to those of the treatment zone.

(ii) The owner or operator must express background values and values for hazardous constituents in the treatment zone in a form necessary for the determination of statistically significant increases under paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(2) In taking samples used in the determination of background and treatment zone values, the owner or operator must take samples at a sufficient number of sampling points and at appropriate locations and depths to yield samples that represent the chemical make-up of soil that has not been affected by leakage from the treatment zone and the soil within the treatment zone, respectively.

(3) In determining whether a statistically significant increase has occurred, the owner or operator must compare the value of each constituent in the treatment zone to the background value for that constituent using a statistical procedure that provides reasonable confidence that constituent presence in the treatment zone will be identified. The owner or operator must use a statistical procedure that:

(i) Is appropriate for the distribution of the data used to establish background values; and

(ii) Provides a reasonable balance between the probability of falsely identifying hazardous constituent presence in the treatment zone and the probability of failing to identify real presence in the treatment zone.

(e) The owner or operator is not subject to regulation under Subpart F of this chapter if the Regional Administrator finds that the owner or operator satisfies paragraph (d) of this section and if unsaturated zone monitoring under § 264.278 indicates that hazardous constituents have not migrated beyond the treatment zone during the active life of the land treatment unit.

[47 FR 32361, July 26, 1982, as amended at 71 FR 16906, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40273, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.281 Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

The owner or operator must not apply ignitable or reactive waste to the treatment zone unless the waste and the treatment zone meet all applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and:

(a) The waste is immediately incorporated into the soil so that:

(1) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolution of material no longer meets the definition of ignitable or reactive waste under § 261.21 or § 261.23 of this chapter; and

(2) Section 264.17(b) is complied with; or

(b) The waste is managed in such a way that it is protected from any material or conditions which may cause it to ignite or react.

[47 FR 32361, July 26, 1982, as amended at 55 FR 22685, June 1, 1990]

§ 264.282 Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

The owner or operator must not place incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials (see appendix V of this part for examples), in or on the same treatment zone, unless § 264.17(b) is complied with.

§ 264.283 Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

(a) Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26 and FO27 must not be placed in a land treatment unit unless the owner or operator operates the facility in accordance with a management plan for these wastes that is approved by the Regional Administrator pursuant to the standards set out in this paragraph, and in accord with all other applicable requirements of this part. The factors to be considered are:

(1) The volume, physical, and chemical characteristics of the wastes, including their potential to migrate through soil or to volatilize or escape into the atmosphere;

(2) The attenuative properties of underlying and surrounding soils or other materials;

(3) The mobilizing properties of other materials co-disposed with these wastes; and

(4) The effectiveness of additional treatment, design, or monitoring techniques.

(b) The Regional Administrator may determine that additional design, operating, and monitoring requirements are necessary for land treatment facilities managing hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27 in order to reduce the possibility of migration of these wastes to ground water, surface water, or air so as to protect human health and the environment.

[50 FR 2004, Jan. 14, 1985, as amended at 71 FR 40273, July 14, 2006]