47 FR 32357, July 26, 1982, unless otherwise noted.
The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that use surface impoundments to treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste except as § 264.1 provides otherwise.
(a) Any surface impoundment that is not covered by paragraph (c) of this section or § 265.221 of this chapter must have a liner for all portions of the impoundment (except for existing portions of such impoundments). The liner must be designed, constructed, and installed to prevent any migration of wastes out of the impoundment to the adjacent subsurface soil or ground water or surface water at any time during the active life (including the closure period) of the impoundment. The liner may be constructed of materials that may allow wastes to migrate into the liner (but not into the adjacent subsurface soil or ground water or surface water) during the active life of the facility, provided that the impoundment is closed in accordance with § 264.228(a)(1). For impoundments that will be closed in accordance with § 264.228(a)(2), the liner must be constructed of materials that can prevent wastes from migrating into the liner during the active life of the facility. The liner must be:
(1) Constructed of materials that have appropriate chemical properties and sufficient strength and thickness to prevent failure due to pressure gradients (including static head and external hydrogeologic forces), physical contact with the waste or leachate to which they are exposed, climatic conditions, the stress of installation, and the stress of daily operation;
(2) Placed upon a foundation or base capable of providing support to the liner and resistance to pressure gradients above and below the liner to prevent failure of the liner due to settlement, compression, or uplift; and
(3) Installed to cover all surrounding earth likely to be in contact with the waste or leachate.
(b) The owner or operator will be exempted from the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section if the Regional Administrator finds, based on a demonstration by the owner or operator, that alternate design and operating practices, together with location characteristics, will prevent the migration of any hazardous constituents (see § 264.93) into the ground water or surface water at any future time. In deciding whether to grant an exemption, the Regional Administrator will consider:
(1) The nature and quantity of the wastes;
(2) The proposed alternate design and operation;
(3) The hydrogeologic setting of the facility, including the attenuative capacity and thickness of the liners and soils present between the impoundment and ground water or surface water; and
(4) All other factors which would influence the quality and mobility of the leachate produced and the potential for it to migrate to ground water or surface water.
(c) The owner or operator of each new surface impoundment unit on which construction commences after January 29, 1992, each lateral expansion of a surface impoundment unit on which construction commences after July 29, 1992 and each replacement of an existing surface impoundment unit that is to commence reuse after July 29, 1992 must install two or more liners and a leachate collection and removal system between such liners. “Construction commences” is as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter under “existing facility”.
(i) The liner system must include:
(A) A top liner designed and constructed of materials (e.g., a geomembrane) to prevent the migration of hazardous constituents into such liner during the active life and post-closure care period; and
(B) A composite bottom liner, consisting of at least two components. The upper component must be designed and constructed of materials (e.g., a geomembrane) to prevent the migration of hazardous constituents into this component during the active life and post-closure care period. The lower component must be designed and constructed of materials to minimize the migration of hazardous constituents if a breach in the upper component were to occur. The lower component must be constructed of at least 3 feet (91 cm) of compacted soil material with a hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1 × 10−7 cm/sec.
(2) The leachate collection and removal system between the liners, and immediately above the bottom composite liner in the case of multiple leachate collection and removal systems, is also a leak detection system. This leak detection system must be capable of detecting, collecting, and removing leaks of hazardous constituents at the earliest practicable time through all areas of the top liner likely to be exposed to waste or leachate during the active life and post-closure care period. The requirements for a leak detection system in this paragraph are satisfied by installation of a system that is, at a minimum:
(i) Constructed with a bottom slope of one percent or more;
(ii) Constructed of granular drainage materials with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 × 10−1 cm/sec or more and a thickness of 12 inches (30.5 cm) or more; or constructed of synthetic or geonet drainage materials with a transmissivity of 3 × 10−4 m2sec or more;
(iii) Constructed of materials that are chemically resistant to the waste managed in the surface impoundment and the leachate expected to be generated, and of sufficient strength and thickness to prevent collapse under the pressures exerted by overlying wastes and any waste cover materials or equipment used at the surface impoundment;
(iv) Designed and operated to minimize clogging during the active life and post-closure care period; and
(v) Constructed with sumps and liquid removal methods (e.g., pumps) of sufficient size to collect and remove liquids from the sump and prevent liquids from backing up into the drainage layer. Each unit must have its own sump(s). The design of each sump and removal system must provide a method for measuring and recording the volume of liquids present in the sump and of liquids removed.
(3) The owner or operator shall collect and remove pumpable liquids in the sumps to minimize the head on the bottom liner.
(4) The owner or operator of a leak detection system that is not located completely above the seasonal high water table must demonstrate that the operation of the leak detection system will not be adversely affected by the presence of ground water.
(d) The Regional Administrator may approve alternative design or operating practices to those specified in paragraph (c) of this section if the owner or operator demonstrates to the Regional Administrator that such design and operating practices, together with location characteristics:
(1) Will prevent the migration of any hazardous constituent into the ground water or surface water at least as effectively as the liners and leachate collection and removal system specified in paragraph (c) of this section; and
(2) Will allow detection of leaks of hazardous constituents through the top liner at least as effectively.
(e) The double liner requirement set forth in paragraph (c) of this section may be waived by the Regional Administrator for any monofill, if:
(1) The monofill contains only hazardous wastes from foundry furnace emission controls or metal casting molding sand, and such wastes do not contain constituents which would render the wastes hazardous for reasons other than the toxicity characteristic in § 261.24 of this chapter; and
(A) The monofill has at least one liner for which there is no evidence that such liner is leaking. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “liner” means a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent hazardous waste from passing into the liner at any time during the active life of the facility, or a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent hazardous waste from migrating beyond the liner to adjacent subsurface soil, ground water, or surface water at any time during the active life of the facility. In the case of any surface impoundment which has been exempted from the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section on the basis of a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent hazardous waste from passing beyond the liner, at the closure of such impoundment, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, all contaminated liner material, and contaminated soil to the extent practicable. If all contaminated soil is not removed or decontaminated, the owner or operator of such impoundment will comply with appropriate post-closure requirements, including but not limited to ground-water monitoring and corrective action;
(B) The monofill is located more than one-quarter mile from an “underground source of drinking water” (as that term is defined in 40 CFR 270.2); and
(C) The monofill is in compliance with generally applicable ground-water monitoring requirements for facilities with permits under RCRA section 3005(c); or
(ii) The owner or operator demonstrates that the monofill is located, designed and operated so as to assure that there will be no migration of any hazardous constituent into ground water or surface water at any future time.
(f) The owner or operator of any replacement surface impoundment unit is exempt from paragraph (c) of this section if:
(1) The existing unit was constructed in compliance with the design standards of sections 3004 (o)(1)(A)(i) and (o)(5) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and
(2) There is no reason to believe that the liner is not functioning as designed.
(g) A surface impoundment must be designed, constructed, maintained, and operated to prevent overtopping resulting from normal or abnormal operations; overfilling; wind and wave action; rainfall; run-on; malfunctions of level controllers, alarms, and other equipment; and human error.
(h) A surface impoundment must have dikes that are designed, constructed, and maintained with sufficient structural integrity to prevent massive failure of the dikes. In ensuring structural integrity, it must not be presumed that the liner system will function without leakage during the active life of the unit.
(i) The Regional Administrator will specify in the permit all design and operating practices that are necessary to ensure that the requirements of this section are satisfied.
(a) The Regional Administrator shall approve an action leakage rate for surface impoundment units subject to § 264.221 (c) or (d). The action leakage rate is the maximum design flow rate that the leak detection system (LDS) can remove without the fluid head on the bottom liner exceeding 1 foot. The action leakage rate must include an adequate safety margin to allow for uncertainties in the design (e.g., slope, hydraulic conductivity, thickness of drainage material), construction, operation, and location of the LDS, waste and leachate characteristics, likelihood and amounts of other sources of liquids in the LDS, and proposed response actions (e.g., the action leakage rate must consider decreases in the flow capacity of the system over time resulting from siltation and clogging, rib layover and creep of synthetic components of the system, overburden pressures, etc.).
(b) To determine if the action leakage rate has been exceeded, the owner or operator must convert the weekly or monthly flow rate from the monitoring data obtained under § 264.226(d) to an average daily flow rate (gallons per acre per day) for each sump. Unless the Regional Administrator approves a different calculation, the average daily flow rate for each sump must be calculated weekly during the active life and closure period, and if the unit is closed in accordance with § 264.228(b), monthly during the post-closure care period when monthly monitoring is required under § 264.226(d).
[57 FR 3487, Jan. 29, 1992]
(a) The owner or operator of surface impoundment units subject to § 264.221 (c) or (d) must have an approved response action plan before receipt of waste. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section.
(b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate for any sump, the owner or operator must:
(1) Notify the Regional Administrator in writing of the exceedance within 7 days of the determination;
(2) Submit a preliminary written assessment to the Regional Administrator within 14 days of the determination, as to the amount of liquids, likely sources of liquids, possible location, size, and cause of any leaks, and short-term actions taken and planned;
(3) Determine to the extent practicable the location, size, and cause of any leak;
(4) Determine whether waste receipt should cease or be curtailed, whether any waste should be removed from the unit for inspection, repairs, or controls, and whether or not the unit should be closed;
(5) Determine any other short-term and longer-term actions to be taken to mitigate or stop any leaks; and
(6) Within 30 days after the notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the results of the analyses specified in paragraphs (b) (3), (4), and (5) of this section, the results of actions taken, and actions planned. Monthly thereafter, as long as the flow rate in the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate, the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator a report summarizing the results of any remedial actions taken and actions planned.
(i) Assess the source of liquids and amounts of liquids by source,
(ii) Conduct a fingerprint, hazardous constituent, or other analyses of the liquids in the leak detection system to identify the source of liquids and possible location of any leaks, and the hazard and mobility of the liquid; and
(iii) Assess the seriousness of any leaks in terms of potential for escaping into the environment; or
(2) Document why such assessments are not needed.
(a) During construction and installation, liners (except in the case of existing portions of surface impoundments exempt from § 264.221(a)) and cover systems (e.g., membranes, sheets, or coatings) must be inspected for uniformity, damage, and imperfections (e.g., holes, cracks, thin spots, or foreign materials). Immediately after construction or installation:
(1) Synthetic liners and covers must be inspected to ensure tight seams and joints and the absence of tears, punctures, or blisters; and
(2) Soil-based and admixed liners and covers must be inspected for imperfections including lenses, cracks, channels, root holes, or other structural non-uniformities that may cause an increase in the permeability of the liner or cover.
(b) While a surface impoundment is in operation, it must be inspected weekly and after storms to detect evidence of any of the following:
(1) Deterioration, malfunctions, or improper operation of overtopping control systems;
(2) Sudden drops in the level of the impoundment's contents; and
(3) Severe erosion or other signs of deterioration in dikes or other containment devices.
(c) Prior to the issuance of a permit, and after any extended period of time (at least six months) during which the impoundment was not in service, the owner or operator must obtain a certification from a qualified engineer that the impoundment's dike, including that portion of any dike which provides freeboard, has structural integrity. The certification must establish, in particular, that the dike:
(1) Will withstand the stress of the pressure exerted by the types and amounts of wastes to be placed in the impoundment; and
(2) Will not fail due to scouring or piping, without dependence on any liner system included in the surface impoundment construction.
(1) An owner or operator required to have a leak detection system under § 264.221 (c) or (d) must record the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump at least once each week during the active life and closure period.
(2) After the final cover is installed, the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump must be recorded at least monthly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least quarterly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive quarters, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least semi-annually. If at any time during the post-closure care period the pump operating level is exceeded at units on quarterly or semi-annual recording schedules, the owner or operator must return to monthly recording of amounts of liquids removed from each sump until the liquid level again stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months.
(3) “Pump operating level” is a liquid level proposed by the owner or operator and approved by the Regional Administrator based on pump activation level, sump dimensions, and level that avoids backup into the drainage layer and minimizes head in the sump.
(a) A surface impoundment must be removed from service in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section when:
(1) The level of liquids in the impoundment suddenly drops and the drop is not known to be caused by changes in the flows into or out of the impoundment; or
(2) The dike leaks.
(b) When a surface impoundment must be removed from service as required by paragraph (a) of this section, the owner or operator must:
(1) Immediately shut off the flow or stop the addition of wastes into the impoundment;
(2) Immediately contain any surface leakage which has occurred or is occurring;
(3) Immediately stop the leak;
(4) Take any other necessary steps to stop or prevent catastrophic failure;
(5) If a leak cannot be stopped by any other means, empty the impoundment; and
(6) Notify the Regional Administrator of the problem in writing within seven days after detecting the problem.
(d) No surface impoundment that has been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of this section may be restored to service unless the portion of the impoundment which was failing is repaired and the following steps are taken:
(1) If the impoundment was removed from service as the result of actual or imminent dike failure, the dike's structural integrity must be recertified in accordance with § 264.226(c).
(2) If the impoundment was removed from service as the result of a sudden drop in the liquid level, then:
(i) For any existing portion of the impoundment, a liner must be installed in compliance with § 264.221(a); and
(ii) For any other portion of the impoundment, the repaired liner system must be certified by a qualified engineer as meeting the design specifications approved in the permit.
(e) A surface impoundment that has been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of this section and that is not being repaired must be closed in accordance with the provisions of § 264.228.
(a) At closure, the owner or operator must:
(1) Remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste and leachate, and manage them as hazardous waste unless § 261.3(d) of this chapter applies; or
(i) Eliminate free liquids by removing liquid wastes or solidifying the remaining wastes and waste residues;
(ii) Stabilize remaining wastes to a bearing capacity sufficient to support final cover; and
(iii) Cover the surface impoundment with a final cover designed and constructed to:
(A) Provide long-term minimization of the migration of liquids through the closed impoundment;
(B) Function with minimum maintenance;
(C) Promote drainage and minimize erosion or abrasion of the final cover;
(D) Accommodate settling and subsidence so that the cover's integrity is maintained; and
(E) Have a permeability less than or equal to the permeability of any bottom liner system or natural subsoils present.
(b) If some waste residues or contaminated materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure requirements contained in §§ 264.117 through 264.120, including maintenance and monitoring throughout the post- closure care period (specified in the permit under § 264.117). The owner or operator must:
(1) Maintain the integrity and effectiveness of the final cover, including making repairs to the cap as necessary to correct the effects of settling, subsidence, erosion, or other events;
(2) Maintain and monitor the leak detection system in accordance with §§ 264.221(c)(2)(iv) and (3) and 264.226(d), and comply with all other applicable leak detection system requirements of this part;
(3) Maintain and monitor the ground-water monitoring system and comply with all other applicable requirements of subpart F of this part; and
(4) Prevent run-on and run-off from eroding or otherwise damaging the final cover.
(1) If an owner or operator plans to close a surface impoundment in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, and the impoundment does not comply with the liner requirements of § 264.221(a) and is not exempt from them in accordance with § 264.221(b), then:
(i) The closure plan for the impoundment under § 264.112 must include both a plan for complying with paragraph (a)(1) of this section and a contingent plan for complying with paragraph (a)(2) of this section in case not all contaminated subsoils can be practicably removed at closure; and
(2) The cost estimates calculated under §§ 264.142 and 264.144 for closure and post-closure care of an impoundment subject to this paragraph must include the cost of complying with the contingent closure plan and the contingent post-closure plan, but are not required to include the cost of expected closure under paragraph (a)(1) of this section.
Ignitable or reactive waste must not be placed in a surface impoundment, unless the waste and impoundment satisfy all applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and:
(a) The waste is treated, rendered, or mixed before or immediately after placement in the impoundment so that:
(2) Section 264.17(b) is complied with; or
(b) The waste is managed in such a way that it is protected from any material or conditions which may cause it to ignite or react; or
(c) The surface impoundment is used solely for emergencies.
(a) Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27 must not be placed in a surface impoundment unless the owner or operator operates the surface impoundment in accordance with a management plan for these wastes that is approved by the Regional Administrator pursuant to the standards set out in this paragraph, and in accord with all other applicable requirements of this part. The factors to be considered are:
(1) The volume, physical, and chemical characteristics of the wastes, including their potential to migrate through soil or to volatilize or escape into the atmosphere;
(2) The attenuative properties of underlying and surrounding soils or other materials;
(3) The mobilizing properties of other materials co-disposed with these wastes; and
(4) The effectiveness of additional treatment, design, or monitoring techniques.
(b) The Regional Administrator may determine that additional design, operating, and monitoring requirements are necessary for surface impoundments managing hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27 in order to reduce the possibility of migration of these wastes to ground water, surface water, or air so as to protect human health and the environment.
[50 FR 2004, Jan. 14, 1985]