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Title 40

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42 U.S.C. 6912(a) and 6962; E.O. 13423, 72 FR 3919, 3 CFR, 1998 Comp., p. 210.


60 FR 21381, May 1, 1995, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A - General
§ 247.1 Purpose and scope.

(a) The purpose of this guideline is to assist procuring agencies in complying with the requirements of section 6002 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6962, and Executive Order 12873, as they apply to the procurement of the items designated in subpart B of this part.

(b) This guideline designates items that are or can be made with recovered materials and whose procurement by procuring agencies will carry out the objectives of section 6002 of RCRA. EPA's recommended practices with respect to the procurement of specific designated items are found in the companion Recovered Materials Advisory Notice(s).

(c) EPA believes that adherence to the recommendations in the Recovered Materials Advisory Notice(s) constitutes compliance with RCRA section 6002. However, procuring agencies may adopt other types of procurement programs consistent with RCRA section 6002.

§ 247.2 Applicability.


(1) This guideline applies to all procuring agencies and to all procurement actions involving items designated by EPA in this part, where the procuring agency purchases $10,000 or more worth of one of these items during the course of a fiscal year, or where the cost of such items or of functionally equivalent items purchased during the preceding fiscal year was $10,000 or more.

(2) This guideline applies to Federal agencies, to State and local agencies using appropriated Federal funds to procure designated items, and to persons contracting with any such agencies with respect to work performed under such contracts. Federal procuring agencies should note that the requirements of RCRA section 6002 apply to them whether or not appropriated Federal funds are used for procurement of designated items.

(3) The $10,000 threshold applies to procuring agencies as a whole rather than to agency subgroups such as regional offices or subagencies of a larger department or agency.

(b) The term procurement actions includes:

(1) Purchases made directly by a procuring agency and purchases made directly by any person (e.g., a contractor) in support of work being performed for a procuring agency, and

(2) Any purchases of designated items made “indirectly” by a procuring agency, as in the case of procurements resulting from grants, loans, funds, and similar forms of disbursements of monies.


(1) This guideline does not apply to purchases of designated items which are unrelated to or incidental to Federal funding, i.e., not the direct result of a contract or agreement with, or a grant, loan, or funds disbursement to, a procuring agency.

(2) This guideline also does not apply to purchases made by private party recipients (e.g., individuals, non-profit organizations) of Federal funds pursuant to grants, loans, cooperative agreements, and other funds disbursements.

(d) RCRA section 6002(c)(1) requires procuring agencies to procure designated items composed of the highest percentage of recovered materials practicable, consistent with maintaining a satisfactory level of competition, considering such guidelines. Procuring agencies may decide not to procure such items if they are not reasonably available in a reasonable period of time; fail to meet reasonable performance standards; or are only available at an unreasonable price.

[60 FR 21381, May 1, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 60973, Nov. 13, 1997]

§ 247.3 Definitions.

As used in this procurement guideline and the related Recovered Materials Advisory Notice(s):

Act or RCRA means the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C 6901 et seq;

Awards and plaques refers to free-standing statues and boardlike products generally used as wall-hangings.

Bike racks are free-standing or anchored units that provide a method for cyclists to secure their bicycles safely.

Blanket insulation means relatively flat and flexible insulation in coherent sheet form, furnished in units of substantial area. Batt insulation is included in this term;

Blasting grit is a type of industrial abrasive used to shape, cut, sharpen, polish, or finish surfaces and materials.

Board insulation means semi-rigid insulation preformed into rectangular units having a degree of suppleness, particularly related to their geometrical dimensions;

Building insulation means a material, primarily designed to resist heat flow, which is installed between the conditioned volume of a building and adjacent unconditioned volumes or the outside. This term includes but is not limited to insulation products such as blanket, board, spray-in-place, and loose-fill that are used as ceiling, floor, foundation, and wall insulation;

Carpet cushion, also known as carpet underlay, is padding placed beneath carpet to reduce carpet wear caused by foot traffic or furniture indentation, enhance comfort, and prolong appearance.

Cellulose fiber loose-fill means a basic material of recycled wood-based cellulosic fiber made from selected paper, paperboard stock, or ground wood stock, excluding contaminated materials which may reasonably be expected to be retained in the finished product, with suitable chemicals introduced to provide properties such as flame resistance, processing and handling characteristics. The basic cellulosic material may be processed into a form suitable for installation by pneumatic or pouring methods;

Cenospheres, a naturally-occurring waste component of coal fly ash, are very small, inert, lightweight, hollow, “glass” spheres composed of silica and alumina and filled with air or other gases.

Channelizers means highly visible barrels or drums that can be positioned to direct traffic through detours;

Compost is a thermophilic converted product with high humus content. Compost can be used as a soil amendment and can also be used to prevent or remediate pollutants in soil, air, and storm water run-off.

Delineator means a highly visible pavement marker that can be positioned to direct traffic or define boundaries;

Engine lubricating oils means petroleum-based oils used for reducing friction in engine parts;

Federal agency means any department, agency, or other instrumentality of the Federal government; any independent agency or establishment of the Federal government including any government corporation; and the Government Printing Office;

Fertilizer made from recovered organic materials is a single or blended substance, made from organic matter such as plant and animal by-products, manure-based or biosolid products, and rock and mineral powders, that contains one or more recognized plant nutrient(s) and is used primarily for its plant nutrient content and is designed for use or claimed to have value in promoting plant growth.

Fiberglass insulation means insulation which is composed principally of glass fibers, with or without binders;

Flexible delineator means a highly visible marker that can be positioned to direct traffic or define boundaries and that will flex if struck by a vehicle to prevent damage to the vehicle or the delineator;

Flowable fill is a low strength material that is mixed to a wet, flowable slurry and used as an economical fill or backfill material in place of concrete, compacted soils, or sand.

Foam-in-place insulation is rigid cellular foam produced by catalyzed chemical reactions that hardens at the site of the work. The term includes spray-applied and injected applications such as spray-in-place foam and pour-in-place;

Garden hose means a flexible tubing that conducts water to a specific location;

Gear oils means petroleum-based oils used for lubricating machinery gears;

Hydraulic fluids means petroleum-based hydraulic fluids;

Hydraulic mulch means a mulch that is a cellulose-based (paper or wood) protective covering that is mixed with water and applied through mechanical spraying in order to aid the germination of seeds and to prevent soil erosion;

Hydroseeding means the process of spraying seeds mixed with water through a mechanical sprayer (hydroseeder). Hydraulic mulch, fertilizer, a tacking agent, or a wetting agent can also be added to the water/seed mix for enhanced performance;

Industrial drums are cylindrical containers used for shipping and storing liquid or solid materials.

Laminated paperboard means board made from one or more plies of kraft paper bonded together, with or without facers, that is used for decorative, structural, or insulating purposes;

Latex paint means a water-based decorative or protective covering having a latex binder;

Lawn edging means a barrier used between lawns and landscaped areas or garden beds to prevent grass roots or weeds from spreading to the landscaped areas;

Loose-fill insulation means insulation in granular, nodular, fibrous, powdery, or similar form, designed to be installed by pouring, blowing or hand placement;

Manual-grade strapping refers to straps of material used with transport packaging to hold products in place on pallets or in other methods of commercial, bulk shipment. Strapping can also prevent tampering and pilferage during shipping.

Mats are temporary or semipermanent protective floor coverings used for numerous applications, including home and office carpet protection, car and truck floor board protection, traction on slippery surfaces, cushion from floor hardness, and reduction of injury risk during athletic events.

Mineral fiber insulation means insulation (rock wool or fiberglass) which is composed principally of fibers manufactured from rock, slag or glass, with or without binders;

Modular threshold ramps are ramps used to modify existing door thresholds and other small rises to remove access barriers created by differentials in landing levels.

Nonpressure pipe is pipe used to drain waste and wastewater, to vent gases, and to channel cable and conduit in various applications.

Office furniture is furniture typically used in offices, including seating, desks, storage units, file cabinets, tables, and systems furniture (or “cubicles”).

Pallet means a portable platform for storing or moving cargo or freight;

Paper means one of two broad subdivisions of paper products, the other being paperboard. Paper is generally lighter in basis weight, thinner, and more flexible than paperboard. Sheets 0.012 inch or less in thickness are generally classified as paper. Its primary uses are for printing, writing, wrapping, and sanitary purposes. However, in this guideline, the term paper is also used as a generic term that includes both paper and paperboard.

Paper product means any item manufactured from paper or paperboard. The term paper product is used in this guideline to distinguish such items as boxes, doilies, and paper towels from printing and writing papers.

Park benches and picnic tables are recreational furniture found in parks, outdoor recreational facilities, and the grounds of office buildings and other facilities.

Parking stop means a barrier used to mark parking spaces and keep parked vehicles from rolling beyond a designated parking area;

Perlite composite board means insulation board composed of expanded perlite and fibers formed into rigid, flat, rectangular units with a suitable sizing material incorporated in the product. It may have on one or both surfaces a facing or coating to prevent excessive hot bitumen strike-in during roofing installation;

Person means an individual, trust, firm, joint stock company, corporation (including a government corporation), partnership, association, Federal agency, State, municipality, commission, political subdivision of a State, or any interstate body;

Phenolic insulation means insulation made with phenolic plastics which are plastics based on resins made by the condensation of phenols, such as phenol or cresol, with aldehydes;

Plastic fencing means a barrier with an open-weave pattern that can be used to control drifting snow or sand by restricting the force of wind and to provide a warning or barrier in construction and other areas;

Plastic lumber landscaping timbers and posts are used to enhance the appearance of and control erosion in parks, highways, housing developments, urban plazas, zoos, and the exteriors of office buildings, military facilities, schools, and other public use areas.

Playground equipment includes many components, like slides, merry-go-rounds, hand rails, etc., and is found in parks, schools, child care facilities, institutions, multiple family dwellings, restaurants, resort and recreational developments, and other public use areas.

Polyisocyanurate insulation means insulation produced principally by the polymerization of polymeric polyisocyanates, usually in the presence of polyhydroxyl compounds with the addition of cell stabilizers, blowing agents, and appropriate catalyst to produce a polyisocyanurate chemical structure;

Polystyrene insulation means an organic foam composed principally of polymerized styrene resin processed to form a homogenous rigid mass of cells;

Polyurethane insulation means insulation composed principally of the catalyzed reaction product of polyisocyanates and polyhydroxyl compounds, processed usually with a blowing agent to form a rigid foam having a predominantly closed cell structure;

Postconsumer material means a material or finished product that has served its intended use and has been diverted or recovered from waste destined for disposal, having completed its life as a consumer item. Postconsumer material is a part of the broader category of recovered materials.

Postconsumer recovered paper means:

(1) Paper, paperboard and fibrous wastes from retail stores, office buildings, homes and so forth, after they have passed through their end-usage as a consumer item including: Used corrugated boxes; old newspapers; old magazines; mixed waste paper; tabulating cards and used cordage; and

(2) All paper, paperboard and fibrous wastes that enter and are collected from municipal solid waste;

Practicable means capable of being used consistent with: Performance in accordance with applicable specifications, availability at a reasonable price, availability within a reasonable period of time, and maintenance of a satisfactory level of competition;

Printer ribbon means a nylon fabric designed to hold ink and used in dot matrix and other types of impact printers;

Procurement item means any device, good, substance, material, product, or other item, whether real or personal property, which is the subject of any purchase, barter, or other exchange made to procure such item;

Procuring agency means any Federal agency, or any State agency or agency of a political subdivision of a State, which is using appropriated Federal funds for such procurement, or any person contracting with any such agency with respect to work performed under such contract;

Purchasing means the act of and the function of responsibility for the acquisition of equipment, materials, supplies, and services, including: Buying, determining the need, selecting the supplier, arriving at a fair and reasonable price and terms and conditions, preparing the contract or purchase order, and follow-up;

Railroad grade crossing surfaces are materials placed between railroad tracks, and between the track and the road at highway and street railroad crossings, to enhance automobile and pedestrian safety.

Rebuilt vehicular parts are vehicular parts that have been remanufactured, reusing parts in their original form.

Recovered materials means waste materials and byproducts which have been recovered or diverted from solid waste, but such term does not include those materials and byproducts generated from, and commonly reused within, an original manufacturing process;

Recovered materials, for purposes of purchasing paper and paper products, means waste material and byproducts that have been recovered or diverted from solid waste, but such term does not include those materials and byproducts generated from, and commonly reused within, an original manufacturing process. In the case of paper and paper products, the term recovered materials includes:

(1) Postconsumer materials such as -

(i) Paper, paperboard, and fibrous wastes from retail stores, office buildings, homes, and so forth, after they have passed through their end-usage as a consumer item, including: Used corrugated boxes; old newspapers; old magazines; mixed waste paper; tabulating cards; and used cordage; and

(ii) All paper, paperboard, and fibrous wastes that enter and are collected from municipal solid waste, and

(2) Manufacturing, forest residues, and other wastes such as -

(i) Dry paper and paperboard waste generated after completion of the papermaking process (that is, those manufacturing operations up to and including the cutting and trimming of the paper machine reel in smaller rolls of rough sheets) including: Envelope cuttings, bindery trimmings, and other paper and paperboard waste, resulting from printing, cutting, forming, and other converting operations; bag, box, and carton manufacturing wastes; and butt rolls, mill wrappers, and rejected unused stock; and

(ii) Finished paper and paperboard from obsolete inventories of paper and paperboard manufacturers, merchants, wholesalers, dealers, printers, converters, or others;

(iii) Fibrous byproducts of harvesting, manufacturing, extractive, or wood-cutting processes, flax, straw, linters, bagasse, slash, and other forest residues;

(iv) Wastes generated by the conversion of goods made from fibrous material (that is, waste rope from cordage manufacture, textile mill waste, and cuttings); and

(v) Fibers recovered from waste water which otherwise would enter the waste stream.

Re-refined oils means used oils from which the physical and chemical contaminants acquired through previous use have been removed through a refining process;

Restroom divider/partition means a barrier used to provide privacy in public restroom facilities;

Retread tire means a worn automobile, truck, or other motor vehicle tire whose tread has been replaced;

Rock wool insulation means insulation which is composed principally from fibers manufactured from slag or natural rock, with or without binders;

Roofing materials are materials used to construct a protective cover over a structure to shield its interior from the natural elements.

Shower divider/partition means a water-proof barrier used to provide privacy in public shower facilities;

Signage (including sign posts and supports) is used for identification and directional purposes for public roads and highways, and inside and outside office buildings, museums, parks, and other public places.

Silica fume is a waste byproduct of alloyed metal production.

Soaker hose means a perforated flexible tubing that is used to deliver gentle irrigation to plants;

Sorbents (i.e., absorbents and adsorbents) are materials used to retain liquids and gases in a diverse number of environmental, industrial, agricultural, medical, and scientific applications. Absorbents incorporate a substance while adsorbents gather substances on their surfaces.

Specification means a description of the technical requirements for a material, product, or service that includes the criteria for determining whether these requirements are met. In general, specifications are in the form of written commercial designations, industry standards, and other descriptive references;

Spray-in-place insulation means insulation material that is sprayed onto a surface or into cavities and includes cellulose fiber spray-on as well as plastic rigid foam products;

Spray-in-place foam is rigid cellular polyurethane or polyisocyanurate foam produced by catalyzed chemical reactions that hardens at the site of the work. The term includes spray-applied and injected applications;

State means any of the several states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands;

Structural fiberboard means a fibrous-felted, homogenous panel made from lignocellulosic fibers (usually wood, cane, or paper) and having a density of less than 31 lbs/ft3 but more than 10 lbs/ft3. It is characterized by an integral bond which is produced by interfelting of the fibers, but which has not been consolidated under heat or pressure as a separate stage of manufacture;

Tire means the following types of tires: Passenger car tires, light- and heavy-duty truck tires, high-speed industrial tires, bus tires, and special service tires (including military, agricultural, off-the-road, and slow-speed industrial);

[60 FR 21381, May 1, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 60973, Nov. 13, 1997; 65 FR 3080, Jan. 19, 2000; 69 FR 24038, Apr. 30, 2004; 72 FR 52488, Sept. 14, 2007]

§ 247.4 Contracting officer requirements.

Within one year after the effective date of each item designation, contracting officers shall require that vendors:

(a) Certify that the percentage of recovered materials to be used in the performance of the contract will be at least the amount required by applicable specifications or other contractual requirements, and

(b) Estimate the percentage of total material utilized for the performance of the contract which is recovered materials.

§ 247.5 Specifications.

(a) RCRA section 6002(d)(1) required Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or reviewing specifications for procurement items procured by Federal agencies to revise their specifications by May 8, 1986, to eliminate any exclusion of recovered materials and any requirement that items be manufactured from virgin materials.

(b) RCRA section 6002(d)(2) requires that within one year after the publication date of each item designation by the EPA, each procuring agency must assure that its specifications for these items require the use of recovered materials to the maximum extent possible without jeopardizing the intended end use of these items.

§ 247.6 Affirmative procurement programs.

RCRA section 6002(i) provides that each procuring agency which purchases items designated by EPA must establish an affirmative procurement program, containing the four elements listed below, for procuring such items containing recovered materials to the maximum extent practicable:

(a) Preference program for purchasing the designated items;

(b) Promotion program;

(c) Procedures for obtaining estimates and certifications of recovered materials content and for verifying the estimates and certifications; and

(d) Annual review and monitoring of the effectiveness of the program.

§ 247.7 Effective date.

Within one year after the date of publication of any item designation, procuring agencies which purchase that designated item must comply with the following requirements of RCRA: affirmative procurement of the designated item (6002(c)(1) and (i)), specifications revision (6002(d)(2)), vendor certification and estimation of recovered materials content of the item (6002(c)(3) and (i)(2)(C)), and verification of vendor estimates and certifications (6002(i)(2)C)).

Subpart B - Item Designations
§ 247.10 Paper and paper products.

Paper and paper products, excluding building and construction paper grades.

§ 247.11 Vehicular products.

(a) Lubricating oils containing re-refined oil, including engine lubricating oils, hydraulic fluids, and gear oils, excluding marine and aviation oils.

(b) Tires, excluding airplane tires.

(c) Reclaimed engine coolants, excluding coolants used in non-vehicular applications.

(d) Rebuilt vehicular parts.

[60 FR 21381, May 1, 1995, as amended at 69 FR 24038, Apr. 30, 2004]

§ 247.12 Construction products.

(a) Building insulation products, including the following items:

(1) Loose-fill insulation, including but not limited to cellulose fiber, mineral fibers (fiberglass and rock wool), vermiculite, and perlite;

(2) Blanket and batt insulation, including but not limited to mineral fibers (fiberglass and rock wool);

(3) Board (sheathing, roof decking, wall panel) insulation, including but not limited to structural fiberboard and laminated paperboard products, perlite composite board, polyurethane, polyisocyanurate, polystyrene, phenolics, and composites; and

(4) Spray-in-place insulation, including but not limited to foam-in-place polyurethane and polyisocyanurate, and spray-on cellulose.

(b) Structural fiberboard and laminated paperboard products for applications other than building insulation, including building board, sheathing, shingle backer, sound deadening board, roof insulating board, insulating wallboard, acoustical and non-acoustical ceiling tile, acoustical and non-acoustical lay-in panels, floor underlayments, and roof overlay (coverboard).

(c) Cement and concrete, including concrete products such as pipe and block containing:

(1) Coal fly ash;

(2) Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBF);

(3) Cenospheres; or

(4) Silica fume from silicon and ferrosilicon metal production.

(d) Carpet made from polyester fiber made from recovered materials for use in moderate-wear applications such as single-family housing and similar wear applications.

(e) Floor tiles and patio blocks containing recovered rubber or plastic.

(f) Shower and restroom dividers/partitions containing recovered plastic or steel.


(1) Consolidated latex paint used for covering graffiti; and

(2) Reprocessed latex paint used for interior and exterior architectural applications such as wallboard, ceilings, and trim; gutter boards; and concrete, stucco, masonry, wood, and metal surfaces.

(h) Carpet cushion made from bonded polyurethane, jute, synthetic fibers, or rubber containing recovered materials.

(i) Flowable fill containing coal fly ash and/or ferrous foundry sands.

(j) Railroad grade crossing surfaces made from cement and concrete containing fly ash, recovered rubber, recovered steel, recovered wood, or recovered plastic.

(k) Modular threshold ramps containing recovered steel, rubber, or aluminum.

(l) Nonpressure pipe containing recovered steel, plastic, or cement.

(m) Roofing materials containing recovered steel, aluminum, fiber, rubber, plastic or plastic composites, or cement.

[60 FR 21381, May 1, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 60974, Nov. 13, 1997; 65 FR 3081, Jan. 19, 2000; 69 FR 24038, Apr. 30, 2004]

§ 247.13 Transportation products.

(a) Traffic barricades and traffic cones used in controlling or restricting vehicular traffic.

(b) Parking stops made from concrete or containing recovered plastic or rubber.

(c) Channelizers containing recovered plastic or rubber.

(d) Delineators containing recovered plastic, rubber, or steel.

(e) Flexible delineators containing recovered plastic.

[60 FR 21381, May 1, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 60974, Nov. 13, 1997]

§ 247.14 Park and recreation products.

(a) Playground surfaces and running tracks containing recovered rubber or plastic.

(b) Plastic fencing containing recovered plastic for use in controlling snow or sand drifting and as a warning/safety barrier in construction or other applications.

(c) Park benches and picnic tables containing recovered steel, aluminum, plastic, or concrete.

(d) Playground equipment containing recovered plastic, steel, or aluminum.

[60 FR 21381, May 1, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 60974, Nov. 13, 1997; 65 FR 3081, Jan. 19, 2000]

§ 247.15 Landscaping products.

(a) Hydraulic mulch products containing recovered paper or recovered wood used for hydroseeding and as an over-spray for straw mulch in landscaping, erosion control, and soil reclamation.

(b) Compost made from recovered organic materials.

(c) Garden and soaker hoses containing recovered plastic or rubber.

(d) Lawn and garden edging containing recovered plastic or rubber.

(e) Plastic lumber landscaping timbers and posts containing recovered materials.

(f) Fertilizer made from recovered organic materials.

[60 FR 21381, May 1, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 60974, Nov. 13, 1997; 65 FR 3081, Jan. 19, 2000; 72 FR 52488, Sept. 14, 2007]

§ 247.16 Non-paper office products.

(a) Office recycling containers and office waste receptacles.

(b) Plastic desktop accessories.

(c) Toner cartridges.

(d) Plastic-covered binders containing recovered plastic; chipboard and pressboard binders containing recovered paper; and solid plastic binders containing recovered plastic.

(e) Plastic trash bags.

(f) Printer ribbons.

(g) Plastic envelopes.

(h) Plastic clipboards containing recovered plastic.

(i) Plastic file folders containing recovered plastic.

(j) Plastic clip portfolios containing recovered plastic.

(k) Plastic presentation folders containing recovered plastic.

(1) Office furniture containing recovered steel, aluminum, wood, agricultural fiber, or plastic.

[60 FR 21381, May 1, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 60974, Nov. 13, 1997; 65 FR 3081, Jan. 19, 2000; 69 FR 24038, Apr. 30, 2004]

§ 247.17 Miscellaneous products.

(a) Pallets containing recovered wood, plastic, or paperboard.

(b) Sorbents containing recovered materials for use in oil and solvent clean-ups and as animal bedding.

(c) Industrial drums containing recovered steel, plastic, or paper.

(d) Awards and plaques containing recovered glass, wood, paper, or plastic.

(e) Mats containing recovered rubber and/or plastic.


(1) Non-road signs containing recovered plastic or aluminum and road signs containing recovered aluminum.

(2) Sign supports and posts containing recovered plastic or steel.

(g) Manual-grade strapping containing recovered steel or plastic.

(h) Bike racks containing recovered steel or plastic.

(i) Blasting grit containing recovered steel, coal and metal slag, bottom ash, glass, plastic, fused alumina oxide, or walnut shells.

[62 FR 60974, Nov. 13, 1997, as amended at 65 FR 3081, Jan. 19, 2000; 69 FR 24038, Apr. 30, 2004]