Site Feedback

Title 40

Displaying title 40, up to date as of 9/14/2021. Title 40 was last amended 9/14/2021.

Title 40

eCFR Content

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the official legal print publication containing the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR) is a continuously updated online version of the CFR. It is not an official legal edition of the CFR.

Learn more about the eCFR, its status, and the editorial process.

Subpart H - Filtration and Disinfection
Source:

54 FR 27527, June 29, 1989, unless otherwise noted.

§ 141.70 General requirements.

(a) The requirements of this subpart H constitute national primary drinking water regulations. These regulations establish criteria under which filtration is required as a treatment technique for public water systems supplied by a surface water source and public water systems supplied by a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water. In addition, these regulations establish treatment technique requirements in lieu of maximum contaminant levels for the following contaminants: Giardia lamblia, viruses, heterotrophic plate count bacteria, Legionella, and turbidity. Each public water system with a surface water source or a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water must provide treatment of that source water that complies with these treatment technique requirements. The treatment technique requirements consist of installing and properly operating water treatment processes which reliably achieve:

(1) At least 99.9 percent (3-log) removal and/or inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts between a point where the raw water is not subject to recontamination by surface water runoff and a point downstream before or at the first customer; and

(2) At least 99.99 percent (4-log) removal and/or inactivation of viruses between a point where the raw water is not subject to recontamination by surface water runoff and a point downstream before or at the first customer.

(b) A public water system using a surface water source or a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water is considered to be in compliance with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section if:

(1) It meets the requirements for avoiding filtration in § 141.71 and the disinfection requirements in § 141.72(a); or

(2) It meets the filtration requirements in § 141.73 and the disinfection requirements in § 141.72(b).

(c) Each public water system using a surface water source or a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water must be operated by qualified personnel who meet the requirements specified by the State.

(d) Additional requirements for systems serving at least 10,000 people. In addition to complying with requirements in this subpart, systems serving at least 10,000 people must also comply with the requirements in subpart P of this part.

(e) Additional requirements for systems serving fewer than 10,000 people. In addition to complying with requirements in this subpart, systems serving fewer than 10,000 people must also comply with the requirements in subpart T of this part.

[54 FR 27527, June 29, 1989, as amended at 63 FR 69516, Dec. 16, 1998; 67 FR 1836, Jan. 14, 2002]

§ 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration.

A public water system that uses a surface water source must meet all of the conditions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, and is subject to paragraph (c) of this section, beginning December 30, 1991, unless the State has determined, in writing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), that filtration is required. A public water system that uses a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water must meet all of the conditions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section and is subject to paragraph (c) of this section, beginning 18 months after the State determines that it is under the direct influence of surface water, or December 30, 1991, whichever is later, unless the State has determined, in writing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), that filtration is required. If the State determines in writing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii) before December 30, 1991, that filtration is required, the system must have installed filtration and meet the criteria for filtered systems specified in §§ 141.72(b) and 141.73 by June 29, 1993. Within 18 months of the failure of a system using surface water or a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water to meet any one of the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section or after June 29, 1993, whichever is later, the system must have installed filtration and meet the criteria for filtered systems specified in §§ 141.72(b) and 141.73.

(a) Source water quality conditions.

(1) The fecal coliform concentration must be equal to or less than 20/100 ml, or the total coliform concentration must be equal to or less than 100/100 ml (measured as specified in § 141.74 (a) (1) and (2) and (b)(1)), in representative samples of the source water immediately prior to the first or only point of disinfectant application in at least 90 percent of the measurements made for the 6 previous months that the system served water to the public on an ongoing basis. If a system measures both fecal and total coliforms, the fecal coliform criterion, but not the total coliform criterion, in this paragraph must be met.

(2) The turbidity level cannot exceed 5 NTU (measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (b)(2)) in representative samples of the source water immediately prior to the first or only point of disinfectant application unless:

(i) the State determines that any such event was caused by circumstances that were unusual and unpredictable; and

(ii) as a result of any such event, there have not been more than two events in the past 12 months the system served water to the public, or more than five events in the past 120 months the system served water to the public, in which the turbidity level exceeded 5 NTU. An “event” is a series of consecutive days during which at least one turbidity measurement each day exceeds 5 NTU.

(b) Site-specific conditions.

(1)

(i) The public water system must meet the requirements of § 141.72(a)(1) at least 11 of the 12 previous months that the system served water to the public, on an ongoing basis, unless the system fails to meet the requirements during 2 of the 12 previous months that the system served water to the public, and the State determines that at least one of these failures was caused by circumstances that were unusual and unpredictable.

(ii) The public water system must meet the requirements of § 141.72(a)(2) at all times the system serves water to the public.

(iii) The public water system must meet the requirements of § 141.72(a)(3) at all times the system serves water to the public unless the State determines that any such failure was caused by circumstances that were unusual and unpredictable.

(iv) The public water system must meet the requirements of § 141.72(a)(4) on an ongoing basis unless the State determines that failure to meet these requirements was not caused by a deficiency in treatment of the source water.

(2) The public water system must maintain a watershed control program which minimizes the potential for contamination by Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses in the source water. The State must determine whether the watershed control program is adequate to meet this goal. The adequacy of a program to limit potential contamination by Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses must be based on: the comprehensiveness of the watershed review; the effectiveness of the system's program to monitor and control detrimental activities occurring in the watershed; and the extent to which the water system has maximized land ownership and/or controlled land use within the watershed. At a minimum, the watershed control program must:

(i) Characterize the watershed hydrology and land ownership;

(ii) Identify watershed characteristics and activities which may have an adverse effect on source water quality; and

(iii) Monitor the occurrence of activities which may have an adverse effect on source water quality.

The public water system must demonstrate through ownership and/or written agreements with landowners within the watershed that it can control all human activities which may have an adverse impact on the microbiological quality of the source water. The public water system must submit an annual report to the State that identifies any special concerns about the watershed and how they are being handled; describes activities in the watershed that affect water quality; and projects what adverse activities are expected to occur in the future and describes how the public water system expects to address them. For systems using a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water, an approved wellhead protection program developed under section 1428 of the Safe Drinking Water Act may be used, if the State deems it appropriate, to meet these requirements.

(3) The public water system must be subject to an annual on-site inspection to assess the watershed control program and disinfection treatment process. Either the State or a party approved by the State must conduct the on-site inspection. The inspection must be conducted by competent individuals such as sanitary and civil engineers, sanitarians, or technicians who have experience and knowledge about the operation and maintenance of a public water system, and who have a sound understanding of public health principles and waterborne diseases. A report of the on-site inspection summarizing all findings must be prepared every year. The on-site inspection must indicate to the State's satisfaction that the watershed control program and disinfection treatment process are adequately designed and maintained. The on-site inspection must include:

(i) A review of the effectiveness of the watershed control program;

(ii) A review of the physical condition of the source intake and how well it is protected;

(iii) A review of the system's equipment maintenance program to ensure there is low probability for failure of the disinfection process;

(iv) An inspection of the disinfection equipment for physical deterioration;

(v) A review of operating procedures;

(vi) A review of data records to ensure that all required tests are being conducted and recorded and disinfection is effectively practiced; and

(vii) Identification of any improvements which are needed in the equipment, system maintenance and operation, or data collection.

(4) The public water system must not have been identified as a source of a waterborne disease outbreak, or if it has been so identified, the system must have been modified sufficiently to prevent another such occurrence, as determined by the State.

(5) The public water system must comply with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for total coliforms in § 141.63(a) and (b) and the MCL for E. coli in § 141.63(c) at least 11 months of the 12 previous months that the system served water to the public, on an ongoing basis, unless the State determines that failure to meet this requirement was not caused by a deficiency in treatment of the source water.

(6) The public water system must comply with the requirements for trihalomethanes in §§ 141.12 and 141.30 until December 31, 2001. After December 31, 2001, the system must comply with the requirements for total trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids (five), bromate, chlorite, chlorine, chloramines, and chlorine dioxide in subpart L of this part.

(c) Treatment technique violations.

(1) A system that

(i) fails to meet any one of the criteria in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section and/or which the State has determined that filtration is required, in writing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), and

(ii) fails to install filtration by the date specified in the introductory paragraph of this section is in violation of a treatment technique requirement.

(2) A system that has not installed filtration is in violation of a treatment technique requirement if:

(i) The turbidity level (measured as specified in § 141.74(a)(1) and (b)(2)) in a representative sample of the source water immediately prior to the first or only point of disinfection application exceeds 5 NTU; or

(ii) The system is identified as a source of a waterborne disease outbreak.

[54 FR 27527, June 29, 1989, as amended at 63 FR 69516, Dec. 16, 1998; 66 FR 3776, Jan. 16, 2001; 69 FR 38855, June 29, 2004; 78 FR 10347, Feb. 13, 2013]

§ 141.72 Disinfection.

A public water system that uses a surface water source and does not provide filtration treatment must provide the disinfection treatment specified in paragraph (a) of this section beginning December 30, 1991, unless the State determines that filtration is required in writing pursuant to § 1412 (b)(7)(C)(iii). A public water system that uses a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water and does not provide filtration treatment must provide disinfection treatment specified in paragraph (a) of this section beginning December 30, 1991, or 18 months after the State determines that the ground water source is under the influence of surface water, whichever is later, unless the State has determined that filtration is required in writing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii). If the State has determined that filtration is required, the system must comply with any interim disinfection requirements the State deems necessary before filtration is installed. A system that uses a surface water source that provides filtration treatment must provide the disinfection treatment specified in paragraph (b) of this section beginning June 29, 1993, or beginning when filtration is installed, whichever is later. A system that uses a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water and provides filtration treatment must provide disinfection treatment as specified in paragraph (b) of this section by June 29, 1993, or beginning when filtration is installed, whichever is later. Failure to meet any requirement of this section after the applicable date specified in this introductory paragraph is a treatment technique violation.

(a) Disinfection requirements for public water systems that do not provide filtration. Each public water system that does not provide filtration treatment must provide disinfection treatment as follows:

(1) The disinfection treatment must be sufficient to ensure at least 99.9 percent (3-log) inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts and 99.99 percent (4-log) inactivation of viruses, every day the system serves water to the public, except any one day each month. Each day a system serves water to the public, the public water system must calculate the CT value(s) from the system's treatment parameters, using the procedure specified in § 141.74(b)(3), and determine whether this value(s) is sufficient to achieve the specified inactivation rates for Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses. If a system uses a disinfectant other than chlorine, the system may demonstrate to the State, through the use of a State-approved protocol for on-site disinfection challenge studies or other information satisfactory to the State, that CT99.9 values other than those specified in tables 2.1 and 3.1 in § 141.74(b)(3) or other operational parameters are adequate to demonstrate that the system is achieving minimum inactivation rates required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(2) The disinfection system must have either

(i) redundant components, including an auxiliary power supply with automatic start-up and alarm to ensure that disinfectant application is maintained continuously while water is being delivered to the distribution system, or

(ii) automatic shut-off of delivery of water to the distribution system whenever there is less than 0.2 mg/l of residual disinfectant concentration in the water. If the State determines that automatic shut-off would cause unreasonable risk to health or interfere with fire protection, the system must comply with paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section.

(3) The residual disinfectant concentration in the water entering the distribution system, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(2) and (b)(5), cannot be less than 0.2 mg/l for more than 4 hours.

(4)

(i) The residual disinfectant concentration in the distribution system, measured as total chlorine, combined chlorine, or chlorine dioxide, as specified in § 141.74 (a)(2) and (b)(6), cannot be undetectable in more than 5 percent of the samples each month, for any two consecutive months that the system serves water to the public. Water in the distribution system with a heterotrophic bacteria concentration less than or equal to 500/ml, measured as heterotrophic plate count (HPC) as specified in § 141.74(a)(1), is deemed to have a detectable disinfectant residual for purposes of determining compliance with this requirement. Thus, the value “V” in the following formula cannot exceed 5 percent in one month, for any two consecutive months.

where:

a = number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is measured;

b = number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is not measured but heterotrophic bacteria plate count (HPC) is measured;

c = number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is measured but not detected and no HPC is measured;

d = number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is measured but not detected and where the HPC is >500/ml; and

e = number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is not measured and HPC is >500/ml.

(ii) If the State determines, based on site-specific considerations, that a system has no means for having a sample transported and analyzed for HPC by a certified laboratory under the requisite time and temperature conditions specified by § 141.74(a)(1) and that the system is providing adequate disinfection in the distribution system, the requirements of paragraph (a)(4)(i) of this section do not apply to that system.

(b) Disinfection requirements for public water systems which provide filtration. Each public water system that provides filtration treatment must provide disinfection treatment as follows.

(1) The disinfection treatment must be sufficient to ensure that the total treatment processes of that system achieve at least 99.9 percent (3-log) inactivation and/or removal of Giardia lamblia cysts and at least 99.99 percent (4-log) inactivation and/or removal of viruses, as determined by the State.

(2) The residual disinfectant concentration in the water entering the distribution system, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(2) and (c)(2), cannot be less than 0.2 mg/l for more than 4 hours.

(3)

(i) The residual disinfectant concentration in the distribution system, measured as total chlorine, combined chlorine, or chlorine dioxide, as specified in § 141.74 (a)(2) and (c)(3), cannot be undetectable in more than 5 percent of the samples each month, for any two consecutive months that the system serves water to the public. Water in the distribution system with a heterotrophic bacteria concentration less than or equal to 500/ml, measured as heterotrophic plate count (HPC) as specified in § 141.74(a)(1), is deemed to have a detectable disinfectant residual for purposes of determining compliance with this requirement. Thus, the value “V” in the following formula cannot exceed 5 percent in one month, for any two consecutive months.

where:

a = number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is measured;

b = number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is not measured but heterotrophic bacteria plate count (HPC) is measured;

c = number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is measured but not detected and no HPC is measured;

d = number of instances where no residual disinfectant concentration is detected and where the HPC is >500/ml; and

e = number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is not measured and HPC is >500/ml.

(ii) If the State determines, based on site-specific considerations, that a system has no means for having a sample transported and analyzed for HPC by a certified laboratory under the requisite time and temperature conditions specified in § 141.74(a)(1) and that the system is providing adequate disinfection in the distribution system, the requirements of paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section do not apply.

[54 FR 27527, June 29, 1989, as amended at 69 FR 38855, June 29, 2004]

§ 141.73 Filtration.

A public water system that uses a surface water source or a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water, and does not meet all of the criteria in § 141.71 (a) and (b) for avoiding filtration, must provide treatment consisting of both disinfection, as specified in § 141.72(b), and filtration treatment which complies with the requirements of paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e) of this section by June 29, 1993, or within 18 months of the failure to meet any one of the criteria for avoiding filtration in § 141.71 (a) and (b), whichever is later. Failure to meet any requirement of this section after the date specified in this introductory paragraph is a treatment technique violation.

(a) Conventional filtration treatment or direct filtration.

(1) For systems using conventional filtration or direct filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must be less than or equal to 0.5 NTU in at least 95 percent of the measurements taken each month, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1), except that if the State determines that the system is capable of achieving at least 99.9 percent removal and/or inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts at some turbidity level higher than 0.5 NTU in at least 95 percent of the measurements taken each month, the State may substitute this higher turbidity limit for that system. However, in no case may the State approve a turbidity limit that allows more than 1 NTU in more than 5 percent of the samples taken each month, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1).

(2) The turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must at no time exceed 5 NTU, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1).

(3) Beginning January 1, 2002, systems serving at least 10,000 people must meet the turbidity requirements in § 141.173(a).

(4) Beginning January 1, 2005, systems serving fewer than 10,000 people must meet the turbidity requirements in §§ 141.550 through 141.553.

(b) Slow sand filtration.

(1) For systems using slow sand filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must be less than or equal to 1 NTU in at least 95 percent of the measurements taken each month, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1), except that if the State determines there is no significant interference with disinfection at a higher turbidity level, the State may substitute this higher turbidity limit for that system.

(2) The turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must at no time exceed 5 NTU, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1).

(c) Diatomaceous earth filtration.

(1) For systems using diatomaceous earth filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must be less than or equal to 1 NTU in at least 95 percent of the measurements taken each month, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1).

(2) The turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must at no time exceed 5 NTU, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1).

(d) Other filtration technologies. A public water system may use a filtration technology not listed in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section if it demonstrates to the State, using pilot plant studies or other means, that the alternative filtration technology, in combination with disinfection treatment that meets the requirements of § 141.72(b), consistently achieves 99.9 percent removal and/or inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts and 99.99 percent removal and/or inactivation of viruses. For a system that makes this demonstration, the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section apply. Beginning January 1, 2002, systems serving at least 10,000 people must meet the requirements for other filtration technologies in § 141.173(b). Beginning January 14, 2005, systems serving fewer than 10,000 people must meet the requirements for other filtration technologies in § 141.550 through 141.553.

[54 FR 27527, June 29, 1989, as amended at 63 FR 69516, Dec. 16, 1998; 66 FR 3776, Jan. 16, 2001; 67 FR 1836, Jan. 14, 2002; 69 FR 38855, June 29, 2004]

§ 141.74 Analytical and monitoring requirements.

(a) Analytical requirements. Only the analytical method(s) specified in this paragraph, or otherwise approved by EPA, may be used to demonstrate compliance with §§ 141.71, 141.72 and 141.73. Measurements for pH, turbidity, temperature and residual disinfectant concentrations must be conducted by a person approved by the State. Measurement for total coliforms, fecal coliforms and HPC must be conducted by a laboratory certified by the State or EPA to do such analysis. Until laboratory certification criteria are developed for the analysis of fecal coliforms and HPC, any laboratory certified for total coliforms analysis by the State or EPA is deemed certified for fecal coliforms and HPC analysis. The following procedures shall be conducted in accordance with the publications listed in the following section. This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the methods published in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater may be obtained from the American Public Health Association et al., 1015 Fifteenth Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005; copies of the Minimal Medium ONPG-MUG Method as set forth in the article “National Field Evaluation of a Defined Substrate Method for the Simultaneous Enumeration of Total Coliforms and Esherichia coli from Drinking Water: Comparison with the Standard Multiple Tube Fermentation Method” (Edberg et al.), Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 54, pp. 1595-1601, June 1988 (as amended under Erratum, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 54, p. 3197, December, 1988), may be obtained from the American Water Works Association Research Foundation, 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, Colorado, 80235; and copies of the Indigo Method as set forth in the article “Determination of Ozone in Water by the Indigo Method” (Bader and Hoigne), may be obtained from Ozone Science & Engineering, Pergamon Press Ltd., Fairview Park, Elmsford, New York 10523. Copies may be inspected at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Room EB15, 401 M St., SW., Washington, DC 20460 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(1) Public water systems must conduct analysis of pH and temperature in accordance with one of the methods listed at § 141.23(k)(1). Public water systems must conduct analysis of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria, and turbidity in accordance with one of the following analytical methods or one of the alternative methods listed in appendix A to subpart C of this part and by using analytical test procedures contained in Technical Notes on Drinking Water Methods, EPA-600/R-94-173, October 1994. This document is available from the National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP), P.O. Box 42419, Cincinnati, OH 45242-0419 or http://www.epa.gov/nscep/.

Organism Methodology Citation1
Total Coliform2 Total Coliform Fermentation Technique3 4 5 9221 A, B, C
Total Coliform Membrane Filter Technique6 9222 A, B, C
ONPG-MUG Test7 9223
Fecal Coliforms2 Fecal Coliform Procedure8 9221 E
Fecal Coliform Filter Procedure 9222 D
Heterotrophic bacteria2 Pour Plate Method 9215 B
SimPlate11
Turbidity13 Nephelometric Method 2130 B
Nephelometric Method 180.19
Great Lakes Instruments Method 210
Hach FilterTrak 1013312

(2) Public water systems must measure residual disinfectant concentrations with one of the analytical methods in the following table or one of the alternative methods listed in appendix A to subpart C of this part. If approved by the State, residual disinfectant concentrations for free chlorine and combined chlorine also may be measured by using DPD colorimetric test kits. In addition States may approve the use of the ITS free chlorine test strip for the determination of free chlorine. Use of the test strips is described in Method D99-003, “Free Chlorine Species (HOCl and OCl) by Test Strip,” Revision 3.0, November 21, 2003, available from Industrial Test Systems, Inc., 1875 Langston St., Rock Hill, SC 29730. Free and total chlorine residuals may be measured continuously by adapting a specified chlorine residual method for use with a continuous monitoring instrument provided the chemistry, accuracy, and precision remain the same. Instruments used for continuous monitoring must be calibrated with a grab sample measurement at least every five days, or with a protocol approved by the State.

Residual Methodology SM1 SM Online2 Other
Free Chlorine Amperometric Titration 4500-Cl D 4500-Cl D-00 D1253-033
DPD Ferrous Titrimetric 4500-Cl F 4500-Cl F-00
DPD Colorimetric 4500-Cl G 4500-Cl G-00
Syringaldazine (FACTS) 4500-Cl H 4500-Cl H-00
Total Chlorine Amperometric Titration 4500-Cl D 4500-Cl D-00 D1253-033
Amperometric Titration (low level measurement) 4500-Cl E 4500-Cl E-00
DPD Ferrous Titrimetric 4500-Cl F 4500-Cl F-00
DPD Colorimetric 4500-Cl G 4500-Cl G-00
Iodometric Electrode 4500-Cl I 4500-Cl I-00
Chlorine Dioxide Amperometric Titration 4500-ClO2 C 4500-ClO2 C-00
DPD Method 4500-ClO2 D
Amperometric Titration 4500-ClO2 E 4500-ClO2 E-00
Spectrophotometric 327.0, Revision 1.14
Ozone Indigo Method 4500-O3 B 4500-O3 B-97

(b) Monitoring requirements for systems that do not provide filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source and does not provide filtration treatment must begin monitoring, as specified in this paragraph (b), beginning December 31, 1990, unless the State has determined that filtration is required in writing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), in which case the State may specify alternative monitoring requirements, as appropriate, until filtration is in place. A public water system that uses a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water and does not provide filtration treatment must begin monitoring as specified in this paragraph (b) beginning December 31, 1990, or 6 months after the State determines that the ground water source is under the direct influence of surface water, whichever is later, unless the State has determined that filtration is required in writing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), in which case the State may specify alternative monitoring requirements, as appropriate, until filtration is in place.

(1) Fecal coliform or total coliform density measurements as required by § 141.71(a)(1) must be performed on representative source water samples immediately prior to the first or only point of disinfectant application. The system must sample for fecal or total coliforms at the following minimum frequency each week the system serves water to the public:

System size (persons served) Samples/week1
≤500 1
501 to 3,300 2
3,301 to 10,000 3
10,001 to 25,000 4
>25,000 5

Also, one fecal or total coliform density measurement must be made every day the system serves water to the public and the turbidity of the source water exceeds 1 NTU (these samples count towards the weekly coliform sampling requirement) unless the State determines that the system, for logistical reasons outside the system's control, cannot have the sample analyzed within 30 hours of collection.

(2) Turbidity measurements as required by § 141.71(a)(2) must be performed on representative grab samples of source water immediately prior to the first or only point of disinfectant application every four hours (or more frequently) that the system serves water to the public. A public water system may substitute continuous turbidity monitoring for grab sample monitoring if it validates the continuous measurement for accuracy on a regular basis using a protocol approved by the State.

(3) The total inactivation ratio for each day that the system is in operation must be determined based on the CT99.9 values in tables 1.1-1.6, 2.1, and 3.1 of this section, as appropriate. The parameters necessary to determine the total inactivation ratio must be monitored as follows:

(i) The temperature of the disinfected water must be measured at least once per day at each residual disinfectant concentration sampling point.

(ii) If the system uses chlorine, the pH of the disinfected water must be measured at least once per day at each chlorine residual disinfectant concentration sampling point.

(iii) The disinfectant contact time(s) (“T”) must be determined for each day during peak hourly flow.

(iv) The residual disinfectant concentration(s) (“C”) of the water before or at the first customer must be measured each day during peak hourly flow.

(v) If a system uses a disinfectant other than chlorine, the system may demonstrate to the State, through the use of a State-approved protocol for on-site disinfection challenge studies or other information satisfactory to the State, that CT99.9 values other than those specified in tables 2.1 and 3.1 in this section other operational parameters are adequate to demonstrate that the system is achieving the minimum inactivation rates required by § 141.72(a)(1).

Table 1.1 - CT Values (CT99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts by Free Chlorine at 0.5 °C or Lower1

Residual (mg/l) pH
≤6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 ≤9.0
≤0.4 137 163 195 237 277 329 390
0.6 141 168 200 239 286 342 407
0.8 145 172 205 246 295 354 422
1.0 148 176 210 253 304 365 437
1.2 152 180 215 259 313 376 451
1.4 155 184 221 266 321 387 464
1.6 157 189 226 273 329 397 477
1.8 162 193 231 279 338 407 489
2.0 165 197 236 286 346 417 500
2.2 169 201 242 297 353 426 511
2.4 172 205 247 298 361 435 522
2.6 175 209 252 304 368 444 533
2.8 178 213 257 310 375 452 543
3.0 181 217 261 316 382 460 552

Table 1.2 - CT Values (CT99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts by Free Chlorine at 5.0 °C1

Free residual (mg/l) pH
≤6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 ≤9.0
≤0.4 97 117 139 166 198 236 279
0.6 100 120 143 171 204 244 291
0.8 103 122 146 175 210 252 301
1.0 105 125 149 179 216 260 312
1.2 107 127 152 183 221 267 320
1.4 109 130 155 187 227 274 329
1.6 111 132 158 192 232 281 337
1.8 114 135 162 196 238 287 345
2.0 116 138 165 200 243 294 353
2.2 118 140 169 204 248 300 361
2.4 120 143 172 209 253 306 368
2.6 122 146 175 213 258 312 375
2.8 124 148 178 217 263 318 382
3.0 126 151 182 221 268 324 389

Table 1.3 - CT Values (CT99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts by Free Chlorine at 10.0 °C1

Free residual (mg/l) pH
≤6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 ≤9.0
≤0.4 73 88 104 125 149 177 209
0.6 75 90 107 128 153 183 218
0.8 78 92 110 131 158 189 226
1.0 79 94 112 134 162 195 234
1.2 80 95 114 137 166 200 240
1.4 82 98 116 140 170 206 247
1.6 83 99 119 144 174 211 253
1.8 86 101 122 147 179 215 259
2.0 87 104 124 150 182 221 265
2.2 89 105 127 153 186 225 271
2.4 90 107 129 157 190 230 276
2.6 92 110 131 160 194 234 281
2.8 93 111 134 163 197 239 287
3.0 95 113 137 166 201 243 292

Table 1.4 - CT Values (CT99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts by Free Chlorine at 15.0 °C1

Free residual (mg/l) pH
≤6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 ≤9.0
≤0.4 49 59 70 83 99 118 140
0.6 50 60 72 86 102 122 146
0.8 52 61 73 88 105 126 151
1.0 53 63 75 90 108 130 156
1.2 54 64 76 92 111 134 160
1.4 55 65 78 94 114 137 165
1.6 56 66 79 96 116 141 169
1.8 57 68 81 98 119 144 173
2.0 58 69 83 100 122 147 177
2.2 59 70 85 102 124 150 181
2.4 60 72 86 105 127 153 184
2.6 61 73 88 107 129 156 188
2.8 62 74 89 109 132 159 191
3.0 63 76 91 111 134 162 195

Table 1.5 - CT Values (CT99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts by Free Chlorine at 20 °C1

Free residual (mg/l) pH
≤6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 ≤9.0
≤0.4 36 44 52 62 74 89 105
0.6 38 45 54 64 77 92 109
0.8 39 46 55 66 79 95 113
1.0 39 47 56 67 81 98 117
1.2 40 48 57 69 83 100 120
1.4 41 49 58 70 85 103 123
1.6 42 50 59 72 87 105 126
1.8 43 51 61 74 89 108 129
2.0 44 52 62 75 91 110 132
2.2 44 53 63 77 93 113 135
2.4 45 54 65 78 95 115 138
2.6 46 55 66 80 97 117 141
2.8 47 56 67 81 99 119 143
3.0 47 57 68 83 101 122 146

Table 1.6 - CT Values (CT99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts by Free Chlorine at 25 °C1 and Higher

Free residual (mg/l) pH
≤6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 ≤9.0
≤0.4 24 29 35 42 50 59 70
0.6 25 30 36 43 51 61 73
0.8 26 31 37 44 53 63 75
1.0 26 31 37 45 54 65 78
1.2 27 32 38 46 55 67 80
1.4 27 33 39 47 57 69 82
1.6 28 33 40 48 58 70 84
1.8 29 34 41 49 60 72 86
2.0 29 35 41 50 61 74 88
2.2 30 35 42 51 62 75 90
2.4 30 36 43 52 63 77 92
2.6 31 37 44 53 65 78 94
2.8 31 37 45 54 66 80 96
3.0 32 38 46 55 67 81 97

Table 2.1 - CT Values (CT99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts by Chlorine Dioxide and Ozone1

Temperature
<1 °C 5 °C 10 °C 15 °C 20 °C ≥25 °C
Chlorine dioxide 63 26 23 19 15 11
Ozone 2.9 1.9 1.4 0.95 0.72 0.48

Table 3.1 - CT Values (CT99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts By Chloramines1

Temperature
<1 °C 5 °C 10 °C 15 °C 20 °C 25 °C
3,800 2,200 1,850 1,500 1,100 750

(4) The total inactivation ratio must be calculated as follows:

(i) If the system uses only one point of disinfectant application, the system may determine the total inactivation ratio based on either of the following two methods:

(A) One inactivation ratio (CTcalc/CT99.9) is determined before or at the first customer during peak hourly flow and if the CTcalc/CT99.9 ≥1.0, the 99.9 percent Giardia lamblia inactivation requirement has been achieved; or

(B) Successive CTcalc/CT99.9 values, representing sequential inactivation ratios, are determined between the point of disinfectant application and a point before or at the first customer during peak hourly flow. Under this alternative, the following method must be used to calculate the total inactivation ratio:

lamblia inactivation requirement has been achieved.

(ii) If the system uses more than one point of disinfectant application before or at the first customer, the system must determine the CT value of each disinfection sequence immediately prior to the next point of disinfectant application during peak hourly flow. The CTcalc/CT99.9 value of each sequence and

must be calculated using the method in paragraph (b)(4)(i)(B) of this section to determine if the system is in compliance with § 141.72(a).

(iii) Although not required, the total percent inactivation for a system with one or more points of residual disinfectant concentration monitoring may be calculated by solving the following equation:

(5) The residual disinfectant concentration of the water entering the distribution system must be monitored continuously, and the lowest value must be recorded each day, except that if there is a failure in the continuous monitoring equipment, grab sampling every 4 hours may be conducted in lieu of continuous monitoring, but for no more than 5 working days following the failure of the equipment, and systems serving 3,300 or fewer persons may take grab samples in lieu of providing continuous monitoring on an ongoing basis at the frequencies prescribed below:

System size by population Samples/day1
<500 1
501 to 1,000 2
1,001 to 2,500 3
2,501 to 3,300 4

If at any time the residual disinfectant concentration falls below 0.2 mg/l in a system using grab sampling in lieu of continuous monitoring, the system must take a grab sample every 4 hours until the residual concentration is equal to or greater than 0.2 mg/l.

(6)

(i) Until March 31, 2016, the residual disinfectant concentration must be measured at least at the same points in the distribution system and at the same time as total coliforms are sampled, as specified in § 141.21. Beginning April 1, 2016, the residual disinfectant concentration must be measured at least at the same points in the distribution system and at the same time as total coliforms are sampled, as specified in §§ 141.854 through 141.858. The State may allow a public water system which uses both a surface water source or a ground water source under direct influence of surface water, and a ground water source, to take disinfectant residual samples at points other than the total coliform sampling points if the State determines that such points are more representative of treated (disinfected) water quality within the distribution system. Heterotrophic bacteria, measured as heterotrophic plate count (HPC) as specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, may be measured in lieu of residual disinfectant concentration.

(ii) If the State determines, based on site-specific considerations, that a system has no means for having a sample transported and analyzed for HPC by a certified laboratory under the requisite time and temperature conditions specified by paragraph (a)(1) of this section and that the system is providing adequate disinfection in the distribution system, the requirements of paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section do not apply to that system.

(c) Monitoring requirements for systems using filtration treatment. A public water system that uses a surface water source or a ground water source under the influence of surface water and provides filtration treatment must monitor in accordance with this paragraph (c) beginning June 29, 1993, or when filtration is installed, whichever is later.

(1) Turbidity measurements as required by § 141.73 must be performed on representative samples of the system's filtered water every four hours (or more frequently) that the system serves water to the public. A public water system may substitute continuous turbidity monitoring for grab sample monitoring if it validates the continuous measurement for accuracy on a regular basis using a protocol approved by the State. For any systems using slow sand filtration or filtration treatment other than conventional treatment, direct filtration, or diatomaceous earth filtration, the State may reduce the sampling frequency to once per day if it determines that less frequent monitoring is sufficient to indicate effective filtration performance. For systems serving 500 or fewer persons, the State may reduce the turbidity sampling frequency to once per day, regardless of the type of filtration treatment used, if the State determines that less frequent monitoring is sufficient to indicate effective filtration performance.

(2) The residual disinfectant concentration of the water entering the distribution system must be monitored continuously, and the lowest value must be recorded each day, except that if there is a failure in the continuous monitoring equipment, grab sampling every 4 hours may be conducted in lieu of continuous monitoring, but for no more than 5 working days following the failure of the equipment, and systems serving 3,300 or fewer persons may take grab samples in lieu of providing continuous monitoring on an ongoing basis at the frequencies each day prescribed below:

System size by population Samples/day1
±500 1
501 to 1,000 2
1,001 to 2,500 3
2,501 to 3,300 4

If at any time the residual disinfectant concentration falls below 0.2 mg/l in a system using grab sampling in lieu of continuous monitoring, the system must take a grab sample every 4 hours until the residual disinfectant concentration is equal to or greater than 0.2 mg/l.

(3)

(i) Until March 31, 2016, the residual disinfectant concentration must be measured at least at the same points in the distribution system and at the same time as total coliforms are sampled, as specified in § 141.21. Beginning April 1, 2016, the residual disinfectant concentration must be measured at least at the same points in the distribution system and at the same time as total coliforms are sampled, as specified in §§ 141.854 through 141.858. The State may allow a public water system which uses both a surface water source or a ground water source under direct influence of surface water, and a ground water source, to take disinfectant residual samples at points other than the total coliform sampling points if the State determines that such points are more representative of treated (disinfected) water quality within the distribution system. Heterotrophic bacteria, measured as heterotrophic plate count (HPC) as specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, may be measured in lieu of residual disinfectant concentration.

(ii) If the State determines, based on site-specific considerations, that a system has no means for having a sample transported and analyzed for HPC by a certified laboratory under the requisite time and temperature conditions specified by paragraph (a)(1) of this section and that the system is providing adequate disinfection in the distribution system, the requirements of paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section do not apply to that system.

[54 FR 27527, June 29, 1989, as amended at 59 FR 62470, Dec. 5, 1994; 60 FR 34086, June 29, 1995; 64 FR 67465, Dec. 1, 1999; 67 FR 65252, Oct. 23, 2002; 67 FR 65901, Oct. 29, 2002; 69 FR 38856, June 29, 2004; 72 FR 11247, Mar. 12, 2007; 74 FR 30958, June 29, 2009; 78 FR 10347, Feb. 13, 2013]

§ 141.75 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

(a) A public water system that uses a surface water source and does not provide filtration treatment must report monthly to the State the information specified in this paragraph (a) beginning December 31, 1990, unless the State has determined that filtration is required in writing pursuant to section 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), in which case the State may specify alternative reporting requirements, as appropriate, until filtration is in place. A public water system that uses a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water and does not provide filtration treatment must report monthly to the State the information specified in this paragraph (a) beginning December 31, 1990, or 6 months after the State determines that the ground water source is under the direct influence of surface water, whichever is later, unless the State has determined that filtration is required in writing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), in which case the State may specify alternative reporting requirements, as appropriate, until filtration is in place.

(1) Source water quality information must be reported to the State within 10 days after the end of each month the system serves water to the public. Information that must be reported includes:

(i) The cumulative number of months for which results are reported.

(ii) The number of fecal and/or total coliform samples, whichever are analyzed during the month (if a system monitors for both, only fecal coliforms must be reported), the dates of sample collection, and the dates when the turbidity level exceeded 1 NTU.

(iii) The number of samples during the month that had equal to or less than 20/100 ml fecal coliforms and/or equal to or less than 100/100 ml total coliforms, whichever are analyzed.

(iv) The cumulative number of fecal or total coliform samples, whichever are analyzed, during the previous six months the system served water to the public.

(v) The cumulative number of samples that had equal to or less than 20/100 ml fecal coliforms or equal to or less than 100/100 ml total coliforms, whichever are analyzed, during the previous six months the system served water to the public.

(vi) The percentage of samples that had equal to or less than 20/100 ml fecal coliforms or equal to or less than 100/100 ml total coliforms, whichever are analyzed, during the previous six months the system served water to the public.

(vii) The maximum turbidity level measured during the month, the date(s) of occurrence for any measurement(s) which exceeded 5 NTU, and the date(s) the occurrence(s) was reported to the State.

(viii) For the first 12 months of recordkeeping, the dates and cumulative number of events during which the turbidity exceeded 5 NTU, and after one year of recordkeeping for turbidity measurements, the dates and cumulative number of events during which the turbidity exceeded 5 NTU in the previous 12 months the system served water to the public.

(ix) For the first 120 months of recordkeeping, the dates and cumulative number of events during which the turbidity exceeded 5 NTU, and after 10 years of recordkeeping for turbidity measurements, the dates and cumulative number of events during which the turbidity exceeded 5 NTU in the previous 120 months the system served water to the public.

(2) Disinfection information specified in § 141.74(b) must be reported to the State within 10 days after the end of each month the system serves water to the public. Information that must be reported includes:

(i) For each day, the lowest measurement of residual disinfectant concentration in mg/l in water entering the distribution system.

(ii) The date and duration of each period when the residual disinfectant concentration in water entering the distribution system fell below 0.2 mg/l and when the State was notified of the occurrence.

(iii) The daily residual disinfectant concentration(s) (in mg/l) and disinfectant contact time(s) (in minutes) used for calculating the CT value(s).

(iv) If chlorine is used, the daily measurement(s) of pH of disinfected water following each point of chlorine disinfection.

(v) The daily measurement(s) of water temperature in °C following each point of disinfection.

(vi) The daily CTcalc and CTcalc/CT99.9 values for each disinfectant measurement or sequence and the sum of all CTcalc/CT99.9 values ((CTcalc/CT99.9)) before or at the first customer.

(vii) The daily determination of whether disinfection achieves adequate Giardia cyst and virus inactivation, i.e., whether (CTcalc/CT99.9) is at least 1.0 or, where disinfectants other than chlorine are used, other indicator conditions that the State determines are appropriate, are met.

(viii) The following information on the samples taken in the distribution system in conjunction with total coliform monitoring pursuant to § 141.72:

(A) Number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is measured;

(B) Number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is not measured but heterotrophic bacteria plate count (HPC) is measured;

(C) Number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is measured but not detected and no HPC is measured;

(D) Number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is detected and where HPC is >500/ml;

(E) Number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is not measured and HPC is >500/ml;

(F) For the current and previous month the system served water to the public, the value of “V” in the following formula:

where:

a = the value in paragraph (a)(2)(viii)(A) of this section,

b = the value in paragraph (a)(2)(viii)(B) of this section,

c = the value in paragraph (a)(2)(viii)(C) of this section,

d = the value in paragraph (a)(2)(viii)(D) of this section, and

e = the value in paragraph (a)(2)(viii)(E) of this section.

(G) If the State determines, based on site-specific considerations, that a system has no means for having a sample transported and analyzed for HPC by a certified laboratory under the requisite time and temperature conditions specified by § 141.74(a)(1) and that the system is providing adequate disinfection in the distribution system, the requirements of paragraph (a)(2)(viii) (A)-(F) of this section do not apply to that system.

(ix) A system need not report the data listed in paragraphs (a)(2) (i), and (iii)-(vi) of this section if all data listed in paragraphs (a)(2) (i)-(viii) of this section remain on file at the system, and the State determines that:

(A) The system has submitted to the State all the information required by paragraphs (a)(2) (i)-(viii) of this section for at least 12 months; and

(B) The State has determined that the system is not required to provide filtration treatment.

(3) No later than ten days after the end of each Federal fiscal year (September 30), each system must provide to the State a report which summarizes its compliance with all watershed control program requirements specified in § 141.71(b)(2).

(4) No later than ten days after the end of each Federal fiscal year (September 30), each system must provide to the State a report on the on-site inspection conducted during that year pursuant to § 141.71(b)(3), unless the on-site inspection was conducted by the State. If the inspection was conducted by the State, the State must provide a copy of its report to the public water system.

(5)

(i) Each system, upon discovering that a waterborne disease outbreak potentially attributable to that water system has occurred, must report that occurrence to the State as soon as possible, but no later than by the end of the next business day.

(ii) If at any time the turbidity exceeds 5 NTU, the system must consult with the primacy agency as soon as practical, but no later than 24 hours after the exceedance is known, in accordance with the public notification requirements under § 141.203(b)(3).

(iii) If at any time the residual falls below 0.2 mg/l in the water entering the distribution system, the system must notify the State as soon as possible, but no later than by the end of the next business day. The system also must notify the State by the end of the next business day whether or not the residual was restored to at least 0.2 mg/l within 4 hours.

(b) A public water system that uses a surface water source or a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water and provides filtration treatment must report monthly to the State the information specified in this paragraph (b) beginning June 29, 1993, or when filtration is installed, whichever is later.

(1) Turbidity measurements as required by § 141.74(c)(1) must be reported within 10 days after the end of each month the system serves water to the public. Information that must be reported includes:

(i) The total number of filtered water turbidity measurements taken during the month.

(ii) The number and percentage of filtered water turbidity measurements taken during the month which are less than or equal to the turbidity limits specified in § 141.73 for the filtration technology being used.

(iii) The date and value of any turbidity measurements taken during the month which exceed 5 NTU.

(2) Disinfection information specified in § 141.74(c) must be reported to the State within 10 days after the end of each month the system serves water to the public. Information that must be reported includes:

(i) For each day, the lowest measurement of residual disinfectant concentration in mg/l in water entering the distribution system.

(ii) The date and duration of each period when the residual disinfectant concentration in water entering the distribution system fell below 0.2 mg/l and when the State was notified of the occurrence.

(iii) The following information on the samples taken in the distribution system in conjunction with total coliform monitoring pursuant to § 141.72:

(A) Number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is measured;

(B) Number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is not measured but heterotrophic bacteria plate count (HPC) is measured;

(C) Number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is measured but not detected and no HPC is measured;

(D) Number of instances where no residual disinfectant concentration is detected and where HPC is >500/ml;

(E) Number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is not measured and HPC is >500/ml;

(F) For the current and previous month the system serves water to the public, the value of “V” in the following formula:

where:

a = the value in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(A) of this section,

b = the value in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(B) of this section,

c = the value in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(C) of this section,

d = the value in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(D) of this section, and

e = the value in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(E) of this section.

(G) If the State determines, based on site-specific considerations, that a system has no means for having a sample transported and analyzed for HPC by a certified laboratory within the requisite time and temperature conditions specified by § 141.74(a)(1) and that the system is providing adequate disinfection in the distribution system, the requirements of paragraph (b)(2)(iii) (A)-(F) of this section do not apply.

(iv) A system need not report the data listed in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section if all data listed in paragraphs (b)(2) (i)-(iii) of this section remain on file at the system and the State determines that the system has submitted all the information required by paragraphs (b)(2) (i)-(iii) of this section for at least 12 months.

(3)

(i) Each system, upon discovering that a waterborne disease outbreak potentially attributable to that water system has occurred, must report that occurrence to the State as soon as possible, but no later than by the end of the next business day.

(ii) If at any time the turbidity exceeds 5 NTU, the system must consult with the primacy agency as soon as practical, but no later than 24 hours after the exceedance is known, in accordance with the public notification requirements under § 141.203(b)(3).

(iii) If at any time the residual falls below 0.2 mg/l in the water entering the distribution system, the system must notify the State as soon as possible, but no later than by the end of the next business day. The system also must notify the State by the end of the next business day whether or not the residual was restored to at least 0.2 mg/l within 4 hours.

[54 FR 27527, June 29, 1989, as amended at 65 FR 26022, May 4, 2000; 69 FR 38856, June 29, 2004]

§ 141.76 Recycle provisions.

(a) Applicability. All subpart H systems that employ conventional filtration or direct filtration treatment and that recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must meet the requirements in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section.

(b) Reporting. A system must notify the State in writing by Decemeber 8, 2003, if the system recycles spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes. This notification must include, at a minimum, the information specified in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) A plant schematic showing the origin of all flows which are recycled (including, but not limited to, spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, and liquids from dewatering processes), the hydraulic conveyance used to transport them, and the location where they are re-introduced back into the treatment plant.

(2) Typical recycle flow in gallons per minute (gpm), the highest observed plant flow experienced in the previous year (gpm), design flow for the treatment plant (gpm), and State-approved operating capacity for the plant where the State has made such determinations.

(c) Treatment technique requirement. Any system that recycles spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must return these flows through the processes of a system's existing conventional or direct filtration system as defined in § 141.2 or at an alternate location approved by the State by June 8, 2004. If capital improvements are required to modify the recycle location to meet this requirement, all capital improvements must be completed no later than June 8, 2006.

(d) Recordkeeping. The system must collect and retain on file recycle flow information specified in paragraphs (d)(1) through (6) of this section for review and evaluation by the State beginning June 8, 2004.

(1) Copy of the recycle notification and information submitted to the State under paragraph (b) of this section.

(2) List of all recycle flows and the frequency with which they are returned.

(3) Average and maximum backwash flow rate through the filters and the average and maximum duration of the filter backwash process in minutes.

(4) Typical filter run length and a written summary of how filter run length is determined.

(5) The type of treatment provided for the recycle flow.

(6) Data on the physical dimensions of the equalization and/or treatment units, typical and maximum hydraulic loading rates, type of treatment chemicals used and average dose and frequency of use, and frequency at which solids are removed, if applicable.

[66 FR 31103, June 8, 2001]