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Title 40

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Title 40

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Subpart C - Monitoring and Analytical Requirements
§ 141.21 Coliform sampling.

(a) Routine monitoring.

(1) Public water systems must collect total coliform samples at sites which are representative of water throughout the distribution system according to a written sample siting plan. These plans are subject to State review and revision.

(2) The monitoring frequency for total coliforms for community water systems is based on the population served by the system, as follows:

Total Coliform Monitoring Frequency for Community Water Systems

Population served Minimum number of samples per month
25 to 1,0001 1
1,001 to 2,500 2
2,501 to 3,300 3
3,301 to 4,100 4
4,101 to 4,900 5
4,901 to 5,800 6
5,801 to 6,700 7
6,701 to 7,600 8
7,601 to 8,500 9
8,501 to 12,900 10
12,901 to 17,200 15
17,201 to 21,500 20
21,501 to 25,000 25
25,001 to 33,000 30
33,001 to 41,000 40
41,001 to 50,000 50
50,001 to 59,000 60
59,001 to 70,000 70
70,001 to 83,000 80
83,001 to 96,000 90
96,001 to 130,000 100
130,001 to 220,000 120
220,001 to 320,000 150
320,001 to 450,000 180
450,001 to 600,000 210
600,001 to 780,000 240
780,001 to 970,000 270
970,001 to 1,230,000 300
1,230,001 to 1,520,000 330
1,520,001 to 1,850,000 360
1,850,001 to 2,270,000 390
2,270,001 to 3,020,000 420
3,020,001 to 3,960,000 450
3,960,001 or more 480

If a community water system serving 25 to 1,000 persons has no history of total coliform contamination in its current configuration and a sanitary survey conducted in the past five years shows that the system is supplied solely by a protected groundwater source and is free of sanitary defects, the State may reduce the monitoring frequency specified above, except that in no case may the State reduce the monitoring frequency to less than one sample per quarter. The State must approve the reduced monitoring frequency in writing.

(3) The monitoring frequency for total coliforms for non-community water systems is as follows:

(i) A non-community water system using only ground water (except ground water under the direct influence of surface water, as defined in § 141.2) and serving 1,000 persons or fewer must monitor each calendar quarter that the system provides water to the public, except that the State may reduce this monitoring frequency, in writing, if a sanitary survey shows that the system is free of sanitary defects. Beginning June 29, 1994, the State cannot reduce the monitoring frequency for a non-community water system using only ground water (except ground water under the direct influence of surface water, as defined in § 141.2) and serving 1,000 persons or fewer to less than once/year.

(ii) A non-community water system using only ground water (except ground water under the direct influence of surface water, as defined in § 141.2) and serving more than 1,000 persons during any month must monitor at the same frequency as a like-sized community water system, as specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, except the State may reduce this monitoring frequency, in writing, for any month the system serves 1,000 persons or fewer. The State cannot reduce the monitoring frequency to less than once/year. For systems using ground water under the direct influence of surface water, paragraph (a)(3)(iv) of this section applies.

(iii) A non-community water system using surface water, in total or in part, must monitor at the same frequency as a like-sized community water system, as specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, regardless of the number of persons it serves.

(iv) A non-community water system using ground water under the direct influence of surface water, as defined in § 141.2, must monitor at the same frequency as a like-sized community water system, as specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. The system must begin monitoring at this frequency beginning six months after the State determines that the ground water is under the direct influence of surface water.

(4) The public water system must collect samples at regular time intervals throughout the month, except that a system which uses only ground water (except ground water under the direct influence of surface water, as defined in § 141.2), and serves 4,900 persons or fewer, may collect all required samples on a single day if they are taken from different sites.

(5) A public water system that uses surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water, as defined in § 141.2, and does not practice filtration in compliance with Subpart H must collect at least one sample near the first service connection each day the turbidity level of the source water, measured as specified in § 141.74(b)(2), exceeds 1 NTU. This sample must be analyzed for the presence of total coliforms. When one or more turbidity measurements in any day exceed 1 NTU, the system must collect this coliform sample within 24 hours of the first exceedance, unless the State determines that the system, for logistical reasons outside the system's control, cannot have the sample analyzed within 30 hours of collection. Sample results from this coliform monitoring must be included in determining compliance with the MCL for total coliforms in § 141.63.

(6) Special purpose samples, such as those taken to determine whether disinfection practices are sufficient following pipe placement, replacement, or repair, shall not be used to determine compliance with the MCL for total coliforms in § 141.63. Repeat samples taken pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section are not considered special purpose samples, and must be used to determine compliance with the MCL for total coliforms in § 141.63.

(b) Repeat monitoring.

(1) If a routine sample is total coliform-positive, the public water system must collect a set of repeat samples within 24 hours of being notified of the positive result. A system which collects more than one routine sample/month must collect no fewer than three repeat samples for each total coliform-positive sample found. A system which collects one routine sample/month or fewer must collect no fewer than four repeat samples for each total coliform-positive sample found. The State may extend the 24-hour limit on a case-by-case basis if the system has a logistical problem in collecting the repeat samples within 24 hours that is beyond its control. In the case of an extension, the State must specify how much time the system has to collect the repeat samples.

(2) The system must collect at least one repeat sample from the sampling tap where the original total coliform-positive sample was taken, and at least one repeat sample at a tap within five service connections upstream and at least one repeat sample at a tap within five service connections downstream of the original sampling site. If a total coliform-positive sample is at the end of the distribution system, or one away from the end of the distribution system, the State may waive the requirement to collect at least one repeat sample upstream or downstream of the original sampling site.

(3) The system must collect all repeat samples on the same day, except that the State may allow a system with a single service connection to collect the required set of repeat samples over a four-day period or to collect a larger volume repeat sample(s) in one or more sample containers of any size, as long as the total volume collected is at least 400 ml (300 ml for systems which collect more than one routine sample/month).

(4) If one or more repeat samples in the set is total coliform-positive, the public water system must collect an additional set of repeat samples in the manner specified in paragraphs (b) (1)-(3) of this section. The additional samples must be collected within 24 hours of being notified of the positive result, unless the State extends the limit as provided in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. The system must repeat this process until either total coliforms are not detected in one complete set of repeat samples or the system determines that the MCL for total coliforms in § 141.63 has been exceeded and notifies the State.

(5) If a system collecting fewer than five routine samples/month has one or more total coliform-positive samples and the State does not invalidate the sample(s) under paragraph (c) of this section, it must collect at least five routine samples during the next month the system provides water to the public, except that the State may waive this requirement if the conditions of paragraph (b)(5) (i) or (ii) of this section are met. The State cannot waive the requirement for a system to collect repeat samples in paragraphs (b) (1)-(4) of this section.

(i) The State may waive the requirement to collect five routine samples the next month the system provides water to the public if the State, or an agent approved by the State, performs a site visit before the end of the next month the system provides water to the public. Although a sanitary survey need not be performed, the site visit must be sufficiently detailed to allow the State to determine whether additional monitoring and/or any corrective action is needed. The State cannot approve an employee of the system to perform this site visit, even if the employee is an agent approved by the State to perform sanitary surveys.

(ii) The State may waive the requirement to collect five routine samples the next month the system provides water to the public if the State has determined why the sample was total coliform-positive and establishes that the system has corrected the problem or will correct the problem before the end of the next month the system serves water to the public. In this case, the State must document this decision to waive the following month's additional monitoring requirement in writing, have it approved and signed by the supervisor of the State official who recommends such a decision, and make this document available to the EPA and public. The written documentation must describe the specific cause of the total coliform-positive sample and what action the system has taken and/or will take to correct this problem. The State cannot waive the requirement to collect five routine samples the next month the system provides water to the public solely on the grounds that all repeat samples are total coliform-negative. Under this paragraph, a system must still take at least one routine sample before the end of the next month it serves water to the public and use it to determine compliance with the MCL for total coliforms in § 141.63, unless the State has determined that the system has corrected the contamination problem before the system took the set of repeat samples required in paragraphs (b) (1)-(4) of this section, and all repeat samples were total coliform-negative.

(6) After a system collects a routine sample and before it learns the results of the analysis of that sample, if it collects another routine sample(s) from within five adjacent service connections of the initial sample, and the initial sample, after analysis, is found to contain total coliforms, then the system may count the subsequent sample(s) as a repeat sample instead of as a routine sample.

(7) Results of all routine and repeat samples not invalidated by the State must be included in determining compliance with the MCL for total coliforms in § 141.63.

(c) Invalidation of total coliform samples. A total coliform-positive sample invalidated under this paragraph (c) does not count towards meeting the minimum monitoring requirements of this section.

(1) The State may invalidate a total coliform-positive sample only if the conditions of paragraph (c)(1) (i), (ii), or (iii) of this section are met.

(i) The laboratory establishes that improper sample analysis caused the total coliform-positive result.

(ii) The State, on the basis of the results of repeat samples collected as required by paragraphs (b) (1) through (4) of this section, determines that the total coliform-positive sample resulted from a domestic or other non-distribution system plumbing problem. The State cannot invalidate a sample on the basis of repeat sample results unless all repeat sample(s) collected at the same tap as the original total coliform-positive sample are also total coliform-positive, and all repeat samples collected within five service connections of the original tap are total coliform-negative (e.g., a State cannot invalidate a total coliform-positive sample on the basis of repeat samples if all the repeat samples are total coliform-negative, or if the public water system has only one service connection).

(iii) The State has substantial grounds to believe that a total coliform-positive result is due to a circumstance or condition which does not reflect water quality in the distribution system. In this case, the system must still collect all repeat samples required under paragraphs (b) (1)-(4) of this section, and use them to determine compliance with the MCL for total coliforms in § 141.63. To invalidate a total coliform-positive sample under this paragraph, the decision with the rationale for the decision must be documented in writing, and approved and signed by the supervisor of the State official who recommended the decision. The State must make this document available to EPA and the public. The written documentation must state the specific cause of the total coliform-positive sample, and what action the system has taken, or will take, to correct this problem. The State may not invalidate a total coliform-positive sample solely on the grounds that all repeat samples are total coliform-negative.

(2) A laboratory must invalidate a total coliform sample (unless total coliforms are detected) if the sample produces a turbid culture in the absence of gas production using an analytical method where gas formation is examined (e.g., the Multiple-Tube Fermentation Technique), produces a turbid culture in the absence of an acid reaction in the Presence-Absence (P-A) Coliform Test, or exhibits confluent growth or produces colonies too numerous to count with an analytical method using a membrane filter (e.g., Membrane Filter Technique). If a laboratory invalidates a sample because of such interference, the system must collect another sample from the same location as the original sample within 24 hours of being notified of the interference problem, and have it analyzed for the presence of total coliforms. The system must continue to re-sample within 24 hours and have the samples analyzed until it obtains a valid result. The State may waive the 24-hour time limit on a case-by-case basis.

(d) Sanitary surveys.

(1)

(i) Public water systems which do not collect five or more routine samples/month must undergo an initial sanitary survey by June 29, 1994, for community public water systems and June 29, 1999, for non-community water systems. Thereafter, systems must undergo another sanitary survey every five years, except that non-community water systems using only protected and disinfected ground water, as defined by the State, must undergo subsequent sanitary surveys at least every ten years after the initial sanitary survey. The State must review the results of each sanitary survey to determine whether the existing monitoring frequency is adequate and what additional measures, if any, the system needs to undertake to improve drinking water quality.

(ii) In conducting a sanitary survey of a system using ground water in a State having an EPA-approved wellhead protection program under section 1428 of the Safe Drinking Water Act, information on sources of contamination within the delineated wellhead protection area that was collected in the course of developing and implementing the program should be considered instead of collecting new information, if the information was collected since the last time the system was subject to a sanitary survey.

(2) Sanitary surveys must be performed by the State or an agent approved by the State. The system is responsible for ensuring the survey takes place.

(3) Sanitary surveys conducted by the State under the provisions of § 142.16(o)(2) of this chapter may be used to meet the sanitary survey requirements of this section.

(e) Fecal coliforms/Escherichia coli (E. coli) testing.

(1) If any routine or repeat sample is total coliform-positive, the system must analyze that total coliform-positive culture medium to determine if fecal coliforms are present, except that the system may test for E. coli in lieu of fecal coliforms. If fecal coliforms or E. coli are present, the system must notify the State by the end of the day when the system is notified of the test result, unless the system is notified of the result after the State office is closed, in which case the system must notify the State before the end of the next business day.

(2) The State has the discretion to allow a public water system, on a case-by-case basis, to forgo fecal coliform or E. coli testing on a total coliform-positive sample if that system assumes that the total coliform-positive sample is fecal coliform-positive or E. coli-positive. Accordingly, the system must notify the State as specified in paragraph (e)(1) of this section and the provisions of § 141.63(b) apply.

(f) Analytical methodology.

(1) The standard sample volume required for total coliform analysis, regardless of analytical method used, is 100 ml.

(2) Public water systems need only determine the presence or absence of total coliforms; a determination of total coliform density is not required.

(3) Public water systems must conduct total coliform analyses in accordance with one of the analytical methods in the following table or one of the alternative methods listed in appendix A to subpart C of this part.

Organism Methodology12 Citation1
Total Coliforms2 Total Coliform Fermentation Technique3 4 5 9221A, B.
Total Coliform Membrane Filter Technique6 9222A, B, C.
Presence-Absence (P-A) Coliform Test5 7 9221D.
ONPG-MUG Test8 9223.
Colisure Test.9
E*Colite ® Test.10
m-ColiBlue24 ® Test.11
Readycult ® Coliforms 100 Presence/Absence Test.13
Membrane Filter Technique using Chromocult ® Coliform Agar.14
Colitag ® Test.15

(4) [Reserved]

(5) Public water systems must conduct fecal coliform analysis in accordance with the following procedure. When the MTF Technique or Presence-Absence (PA) Coliform Test is used to test for total coliforms, shake the lactose-positive presumptive tube or P-A vigorously and transfer the growth with a sterile 3-mm loop or sterile applicator stick into brilliant green lactose bile broth and EC medium to determine the presence of total and fecal coliforms, respectively. For EPA-approved analytical methods which use a membrane filter, transfer the total coliform-positive culture by one of the following methods: remove the membrane containing the total coliform colonies from the substrate with a sterile forceps and carefully curl and insert the membrane into a tube of EC medium (the laboratory may first remove a small portion of selected colonies for verification), swab the entire membrane filter surface with a sterile cotton swab and transfer the inoculum to EC medium (do not leave the cotton swab in the EC medium), or inoculate individual total coliform-positive colonies into EC Medium. Gently shake the inoculated tubes of EC medium to insure adequate mixing and incubate in a waterbath at 44.5 ±0.2 °C for 24 ±2 hours. Gas production of any amount in the inner fermentation tube of the EC medium indicates a positive fecal coliform test. The preparation of EC medium is described in Method 9221E (paragraph 1a) in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th edition (1992), 19th edition (1995), and 20th edition (1998); the cited method in any one of these three editions may be used. Public water systems need only determine the presence or absence of fecal coliforms; a determination of fecal coliform density is not required.

(6) Public water systems must conduct analysis of Escherichia coli in accordance with one of the following analytical methods or one of the alternative methods listed in appendix A to subpart C of this part.

(i) EC medium supplemented with 50 µg/mL of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) (final concentration), as described in Method 9222G in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 19th edition (1995) and 20th edition (1998). Either edition may be used. Alternatively, the 18th edition (1992) may be used if at least 10 mL of EC medium, as described in paragraph (f)(5) of this section, is supplemented with 50 µg/mL of MUG before autoclaving. The inner inverted fermentation tube may be omitted. If the 18th edition is used, apply the procedure in paragraph (f)(5) of this section for transferring a total coliform-positive culture to EC medium supplemented with MUG, incubate the tube at 44.5 ±0.2 °C for 24 ±2 hours, and then observe fluorescence with an ultraviolet light (366 nm) in the dark. If fluorescence is visible, E. coli are present.

(ii) Nutrient agar supplemented with 100 µg/mL of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) (final concentration), as described in Method 9222G in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 19th edition (1995) and 20th edition (1998). Either edition may be used for determining if a total coliform-positive sample, as determined by a membrane filter technique, contains E. coli. Alternatively, the 18th edition (1992) may be used if the membrane filter containing a total coliform-positive colony(ies) is transferred to nutrient agar, as described in Method 9221B (paragraph 3) of Standard Methods (18th edition), supplemented with 100 µg/mL of MUG. If the 18th edition is used, incubate the agar plate at 35 °C for 4 hours and then observe the colony(ies) under ultraviolet light (366 nm) in the dark for fluorescence. If fluorescence is visible, E. coli are present.

(iii) Minimal Medium ONPG-MUG (MMO-MUG) Test, as set forth in the article “National Field Evaluation of a Defined Substrate Method for the Simultaneous Detection of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli from Drinking Water: Comparison with Presence-Absence Techniques” (Edberg et al.), Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 55, pp. 1003-1008, April 1989. (Note: The Autoanalysis Colilert System is an MMO-MUG test). If the MMO-MUG test is total coliform-positive after a 24-hour incubation, test the medium for fluorescence with a 366-nm ultraviolet light (preferably with a 6-watt lamp) in the dark. If fluorescence is observed, the sample is E. coli-positive. If fluorescence is questionable (cannot be definitively read) after 24 hours incubation, incubate the culture for an additional four hours (but not to exceed 28 hours total), and again test the medium for fluorescence. The MMO-MUG Test with hepes buffer in lieu of phosphate buffer is the only approved formulation for the detection of E. coli.

(iv) The Colisure Test. A description of the Colisure Test may be obtained from the Millipore Corporation, Technical Services Department, 80 Ashby Road, Bedford, MA 01730.

(v) The membrane filter method with MI agar, a description of which is cited in footnote 6 to the table in paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(vi) E*Colite ® Test, a description of which is cited in footnote 10 to the table at paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(vii) m-ColiBlue24 ® Test, a description of which is cited in footnote 11 to the table in paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(viii) Readycult ® Coliforms 100 Presence/Absence Test, a description of which is cited in footnote 13 to the table at paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(ix) Membrane Filter Technique using Chromocult ® Coliform Agar, a description of which is cited in footnote 14 to the table at paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(x) Colitag ®, a description of which is cited in footnote 15 to the table at paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(7) As an option to paragraph (f)(6)(iii) of this section, a system with a total coliform-positive, MUG-negative, MMO-MUG test may further analyze the culture for the presence of E. coli by transferring a 0.1 ml, 28-hour MMO-MUG culture to EC Medium + MUG with a pipet. The formulation and incubation conditions of EC Medium + MUG, and observation of the results are described in paragraph (f)(6)(i) of this section.

(8) The following materials are incorporated by reference in this section with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the analytical methods cited in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (18th, 19th, and 20th editions) may be obtained from the American Public Health Association et al.; 1015 Fifteenth Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005-2605. Copies of the MMO-MUG Test, as set forth in the article “National Field Evaluation of a Defined Substrate Method for the Simultaneous Enumeration of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli from Drinking Water: Comparison with the Standard Multiple Tube Fermentation Method” (Edberg et al.) may be obtained from the American Water Works Association Research Foundation, 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, CO 80235. Copies of the MMO-MUG Test as set forth in the article “National Field Evaluation of a Defined Substrate Method for the Simultaneous Enumeration of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli from Drinking Water: Comparison with the Standard Multiple Tube Fermentation Method” (Edberg et al.) may be obtained from the American Water Works Association Research Foundation, 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, CO 80235. A description of the Colisure Test may be obtained from the Millipore Corp., Technical Services Department, 80 Ashby Road, Bedford, MA 01730. Copies may be inspected at EPA's Drinking Water Docket; 401 M St., SW.; Washington, DC 20460, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(g) Response to violation.

(1) A public water system which has exceeded the MCL for total coliforms in § 141.63 must report the violation to the State no later than the end of the next business day after it learns of the violation, and notify the public in accordance with subpart Q.

(2) A public water system which has failed to comply with a coliform monitoring requirement, including the sanitary survey requirement, must report the monitoring violation to the State within ten days after the system discovers the violation, and notify the public in accordance with subpart Q.

(h) The provisions of paragraphs (a) and (d) of this section are applicable until March 31, 2016. The provisions of paragraphs (b), (c), (e), (f), and (g) of this section are applicable until all required repeat monitoring under paragraph (b) of this section and fecal coliform or E. coli testing under paragraph (e) of this section that was initiated by a total coliform-positive sample taken before April 1, 2016 is completed, as well as analytical method, reporting, recordkeeping, public notification, and consumer confidence report requirements associated with that monitoring and testing. Beginning April 1, 2016, the provisions of subpart Y of this part are applicable, with systems required to begin regular monitoring at the same frequency as the system-specific frequency required on March 31, 2016.

[54 FR 27562, June 29, 1989]

§ 141.22 Turbidity sampling and analytical requirements.

The requirements in this section apply to unfiltered systems until December 30, 1991, unless the State has determined prior to that date, in writing pursuant to section 1412(b)(7)(iii), that filtration is required. The requirements in this section apply to filtered systems until June 29, 1993. The requirements in this section apply to unfiltered systems that the State has determined, in writing pursuant to section 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), must install filtration, until June 29, 1993, or until filtration is installed, whichever is later.

(a) Samples shall be taken by suppliers of water for both community and non-community water systems at a representative entry point(s) to the water distribution system at least once per day, for the purposes of making turbidity measurements to determine compliance with § 141.13. If the State determines that a reduced sampling frequency in a non-community will not pose a risk to public health, it can reduce the required sampling frequency. The option of reducing the turbidity frequency shall be permitted only in those public water systems that practice disinfection and which maintain an active residual disinfectant in the distribution system, and in those cases where the State has indicated in writing that no unreasonable risk to health existed under the circumstances of this option. Turbidity measurements shall be made as directed in § 141.74(a)(1).

(b) If the result of a turbidity analysis indicates that the maximum allowable limit has been exceeded, the sampling and measurement shall be confirmed by resampling as soon as practicable and preferably within one hour. If the repeat sample confirms that the maximum allowable limit has been exceeded, the supplier of water shall report to the State within 48 hours. The repeat sample shall be the sample used for the purpose of calculating the monthly average. If the monthly average of the daily samples exceeds the maximum allowable limit, or if the average of two samples taken on consecutive days exceeds 5 TU, the supplier of water shall report to the State and notify the public as directed in § 141.31 and subpart Q.

(c) Sampling for non-community water systems shall begin within two years after the effective date of this part.

(d) The requirements of this § 141.22 shall apply only to public water systems which use water obtained in whole or in part from surface sources.

(e) The State has the authority to determine compliance or initiate enforcement action based upon analytical results or other information compiled by their sanctioned representatives and agencies.

[40 FR 59570, Dec. 24, 1975, as amended at 45 FR 57344, Aug. 27, 1980; 47 FR 8998, Mar. 3, 1982; 47 FR 10998, Mar. 12, 1982; 54 FR 27527, June 29, 1989; 59 FR 62466, Dec. 5, 1994; 65 FR 26022, May 4, 2000]

§ 141.23 Inorganic chemical sampling and analytical requirements.

Community water systems shall conduct monitoring to determine compliance with the maximum contaminant levels specified in § 141.62 in accordance with this section. Non-transient, non-community water systems shall conduct monitoring to determine compliance with the maximum contaminant levels specified in § 141.62 in accordance with this section. Transient, non-community water systems shall conduct monitoring to determine compliance with the nitrate and nitrite maximum contaminant levels in §§ 141.11 and 141.62 (as appropriate) in accordance with this section.

(a) Monitoring shall be conducted as follows:

(1) Groundwater systems shall take a minimum of one sample at every entry point to the distribution system which is representative of each well after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point) beginning in the initial compliance period. The system shall take each sample at the same sampling point unless conditions make another sampling point more representative of each source or treatment plant.

(2) Surface water systems shall take a minimum of one sample at every entry point to the distribution system after any application of treatment or in the distribution system at a point which is representative of each source after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point) beginning in the initial compliance period. The system shall take each sample at the same sampling point unless conditions make another sampling point more representative of each source or treatment plant.

Note:

For purposes of this paragraph, surface water systems include systems with a combination of surface and ground sources.

(3) If a system draws water from more than one source and the sources are combined before distribution, the system must sample at an entry point to the distribution system during periods of normal operating conditions (i.e., when water is representative of all sources being used).

(4) The State may reduce the total number of samples which must be analyzed by allowing the use of compositing. Composite samples from a maximum of five samples are allowed, provided that the detection limit of the method used for analysis is less than one-fifth of the MCL. Compositing of samples must be done in the laboratory.

(i) If the concentration in the composite sample is greater than or equal to one-fifth of the MCL of any inorganic chemical, then a follow-up sample must be taken within 14 days at each sampling point included in the composite. These samples must be analyzed for the contaminants which exceeded one-fifth of the MCL in the composite sample. Detection limits for each analytical method and MCLs for each inorganic contaminant are the following:

Detection Limits for Inorganic Contaminants

Contaminant MCL (mg/l) Methodology Detection limit (mg/l)
Antimony 0.006 Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.003
Atomic Absorption; Platform 0.00085
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 0.0004
Hydride-Atomic Absorption 0.001
Arsenic 0.0106 Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.001
Atomic Absorption; Platform - Stabilized Temperature 0.00057
Atomic Absorption; Gaseous Hydride 0.001
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 0.00148
Asbestos 7 MFL1 Transmission Electron Microscopy 0.01 MFL
Barium 2 Atomic Absorption; furnace technique 0.002
Atomic Absorption; direct aspiration 0.1
Inductively Coupled Plasma 0.002 (0.001)
Beryllium 0.004 Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.0002
Atomic Absorption; Platform 0.000025
Inductively Coupled Plasma2 0.0003
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 0.0003
Cadmium 0.005 Atomic Absorption; furnace technique 0.0001
Inductively Coupled Plasma 0.001
Chromium 0.1 Atomic Absorption; furnace technique 0.001
Inductively Coupled Plasma 0.007 (0.001)
Cyanide 0.2 Distillation, Spectrophotometric3 0.02
Distillation, Automated, Spectrophotometric3 0.005
Distillation, Amenable, Spectrophotometric4 0.02
Distillation, Selective Electrode3 4 0.05
UV, Distillation, Spectrophotometric9 0.0005
Micro Distillation, Flow Injection, Spectrophotometric3 0.0006
Ligand Exchange with Amperometry4 0.0005
Mercury 0.002 Manual Cold Vapor Technique 0.0002
Automated Cold Vapor Technique 0.0002
Nickel xl Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.001
Atomic Absorption; Platform 0.00065
Inductively Coupled Plasma2 0.005
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 0.0005
Nitrate 10 (as N) Manual Cadmium Reduction 0.01
Automated Hydrazine Reduction 0.01
Automated Cadmium Reduction 0.05
Ion Selective Electrode 1
Ion Chromatography 0.01
Capillary Ion Electrophoresis 0.076
Nitrite 1 (as N) Spectrophotometric 0.01
Automated Cadmium Reduction 0.05
Manual Cadmium Reduction 0.01
Ion Chromatography 0.004
Capillary Ion Electrophoresis 0.103
Selenium 0.05 Atomic Absorption; furnace 0.002
Atomic Absorption; gaseous hydride 0.002
Thallium 0.002 Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.001
Atomic Absorption; Platform 0.00075
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 0.0003

(ii) If the population served by the system is >3,300 persons, then compositing may only be permitted by the State at sampling points within a single system. In systems serving ≤3,300 persons, the State may permit compositing among different systems provided the 5-sample limit is maintained.

(iii) If duplicates of the original sample taken from each sampling point used in the composite sample are available, the system may use these instead of resampling. The duplicates must be analyzed and the results reported to the State within 14 days after completing analysis of the composite sample, provided the holding time of the sample is not exceeded.

(5) The frequency of monitoring for asbestos shall be in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section: the frequency of monitoring for antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium and thallium shall be in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section; the frequency of monitoring for nitrate shall be in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section; and the frequency of monitoring for nitrite shall be in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section.

(b) The frequency of monitoring conducted to determine compliance with the maximum contaminant level for asbestos specified in § 141.62(b) shall be conducted as follows:

(1) Each community and non-transient, non-community water system is required to monitor for asbestos during the first three-year compliance period of each nine-year compliance cycle beginning in the compliance period starting January 1, 1993.

(2) If the system believes it is not vulnerable to either asbestos contamination in its source water or due to corrosion of asbestos-cement pipe, or both, it may apply to the State for a waiver of the monitoring requirement in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. If the State grants the waiver, the system is not required to monitor.

(3) The State may grant a waiver based on a consideration of the following factors:

(i) Potential asbestos contamination of the water source, and

(ii) The use of asbestos-cement pipe for finished water distribution and the corrosive nature of the water.

(4) A waiver remains in effect until the completion of the three-year compliance period. Systems not receiving a waiver must monitor in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(5) A system vulnerable to asbestos contamination due solely to corrosion of asbestos-cement pipe shall take one sample at a tap served by asbestos-cement pipe and under conditions where asbestos contamination is most likely to occur.

(6) A system vulnerable to asbestos contamination due solely to source water shall monitor in accordance with the provision of paragraph (a) of this section.

(7) A system vulnerable to asbestos contamination due both to its source water supply and corrosion of asbestos-cement pipe shall take one sample at a tap served by asbestos-cement pipe and under conditions where asbestos contamination is most likely to occur.

(8) A system which exceeds the maximum contaminant levels as determined in § 141.23(i) of this section shall monitor quarterly beginning in the next quarter after the violation occurred.

(9) The State may decrease the quarterly monitoring requirement to the frequency specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section provided the State has determined that the system is reliably and consistently below the maximum contaminant level. In no case can a State make this determination unless a groundwater system takes a minimum of two quarterly samples and a surface (or combined surface/ground) water system takes a minimum of four quarterly samples.

(10) If monitoring data collected after January 1, 1990 are generally consistent with the requirements of § 141.23(b), then the State may allow systems to use that data to satisfy the monitoring requirement for the initial compliance period beginning January 1, 1993.

(c) The frequency of monitoring conducted to determine compliance with the maximum contaminant levels in § 141.62 for antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium and thallium shall be as follows:

(1) Groundwater systems shall take one sample at each sampling point during each compliance period. Surface water systems (or combined surface/ground) shall take one sample annually at each sampling point.

(2) The system may apply to the State for a waiver from the monitoring frequencies specified in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. States may grant a public water system a waiver for monitoring of cyanide, provided that the State determines that the system is not vulnerable due to lack of any industrial source of cyanide.

(3) A condition of the waiver shall require that a system shall take a minimum of one sample while the waiver is effective. The term during which the waiver is effective shall not exceed one compliance cycle (i.e., nine years).

(4) The State may grant a waiver provided surface water systems have monitored annually for at least three years and groundwater systems have conducted a minimum of three rounds of monitoring. (At least one sample shall have been taken since January 1, 1990). Both surface and groundwater systems shall demonstrate that all previous analytical results were less than the maximum contaminant level. Systems that use a new water source are not eligible for a waiver until three rounds of monitoring from the new source have been completed.

(5) In determining the appropriate reduced monitoring frequency, the State shall consider:

(i) Reported concentrations from all previous monitoring;

(ii) The degree of variation in reported concentrations; and

(iii) Other factors which may affect contaminant concentrations such as changes in groundwater pumping rates, changes in the system's configuration, changes in the system's operating procedures, or changes in stream flows or characteristics.

(6) A decision by the State to grant a waiver shall be made in writing and shall set forth the basis for the determination. The determination may be initiated by the State or upon an application by the public water system. The public water system shall specify the basis for its request. The State shall review and, where appropriate, revise its determination of the appropriate monitoring frequency when the system submits new monitoring data or when other data relevant to the system's appropriate monitoring frequency become available.

(7) Systems which exceed the maximum contaminant levels as calculated in § 141.23(i) of this section shall monitor quarterly beginning in the next quarter after the violation occurred.

(8) The State may decrease the quarterly monitoring requirement to the frequencies specified in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section provided it has determined that the system is reliably and consistently below the maximum contaminant level. In no case can a State make this determination unless a groundwater system takes a minimum of two quarterly samples and a surface water system takes a minimum of four quarterly samples.

(9) All new systems or systems that use a new source of water that begin operation after January 22, 2004 must demonstrate compliance with the MCL within a period of time specified by the State. The system must also comply with the initial sampling frequencies specified by the State to ensure a system can demonstrate compliance with the MCL. Routine and increased monitoring frequencies shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements in this section.

(d) All public water systems (community; non-transient, non-community; and transient, non-community systems) shall monitor to determine compliance with the maximum contaminant level for nitrate in § 141.62.

(1) Community and non-transient, non-community water systems served by groundwater systems shall monitor annually beginning January 1, 1993; systems served by surface water shall monitor quarterly beginning January 1, 1993.

(2) For community and non-transient, non-community water systems, the repeat monitoring frequency for groundwater systems shall be quarterly for at least one year following any one sample in which the concentration is ≥50 percent of the MCL. The State may allow a groundwater system to reduce the sampling frequency to annually after four consecutive quarterly samples are reliably and consistently less than the MCL.

(3) For community and non-transient, non-community water systems, the State may allow a surface water system to reduce the sampling frequency to annually if all analytical results from four consecutive quarters are <50 percent of the MCL. A surface water system shall return to quarterly monitoring if any one sample is ≥50 percent of the MCL.

(4) Each transient non-community water system shall monitor annually beginning January 1, 1993.

(5) After the initial round of quarterly sampling is completed, each community and non-transient non-community system which is monitoring annually shall take subsequent samples during the quarter(s) which previously resulted in the highest analytical result.

(e) All public water systems (community; non-transient, non-community; and transient, non-community systems) shall monitor to determine compliance with the maximum contaminant level for nitrite in § 141.62(b).

(1) All public water systems shall take one sample at each sampling point in the compliance period beginning January 1, 1993 and ending December 31, 1995.

(2) After the initial sample, systems where an analytical result for nitrite is <50 percent of the MCL shall monitor at the frequency specified by the State.

(3) For community, non-transient, non-community, and transient non-community water systems, the repeat monitoring frequency for any water system shall be quarterly for at least one year following any one sample in which the concentration is ≥50 percent of the MCL. The State may allow a system to reduce the sampling frequency to annually after determining the system is reliably and consistently less than the MCL.

(4) Systems which are monitoring annually shall take each subsequent sample during the quarter(s) which previously resulted in the highest analytical result.

(f) Confirmation samples:

(1) Where the results of sampling for antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium or thallium indicate an exceedance of the maximum contaminant level, the State may require that one additional sample be collected as soon as possible after the initial sample was taken (but not to exceed two weeks) at the same sampling point.

(2) Where nitrate or nitrite sampling results indicate an exceedance of the maximum contaminant level, the system shall take a confirmation sample within 24 hours of the system's receipt of notification of the analytical results of the first sample. Systems unable to comply with the 24-hour sampling requirement must immediately notify persons served by the public water system in accordance with § 141.202 and meet other Tier 1 public notification requirements under subpart Q of this part. Systems exercising this option must take and analyze a confirmation sample within two weeks of notification of the analytical results of the first sample.

(3) If a State-required confirmation sample is taken for any contaminant, then the results of the initial and confirmation sample shall be averaged. The resulting average shall be used to determine the system's compliance in accordance with paragraph (i) of this section. States have the discretion to delete results of obvious sampling errors.

(g) The State may require more frequent monitoring than specified in paragraphs (b), (c), (d) and (e) of this section or may require confirmation samples for positive and negative results at its discretion.

(h) Systems may apply to the State to conduct more frequent monitoring than the minimum monitoring frequencies specified in this section.

(i) Compliance with § 141.11 or § 141.62(b) (as appropriate) shall be determined based on the analytical result(s) obtained at each sampling point.

(1) For systems which are conducting monitoring at a frequency greater than annual, compliance with the maximum contaminant levels for antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium or thallium is determined by a running annual average at any sampling point. If the average at any sampling point is greater than the MCL, then the system is out of compliance. If any one sample would cause the annual average to be exceeded, then the system is out of compliance immediately. Any sample below the method detection limit shall be calculated at zero for the purpose of determining the annual average. If a system fails to collect the required number of samples, compliance (average concentration) will be based on the total number of samples collected.

(2) For systems which are monitoring annually, or less frequently, the system is out of compliance with the maximum contaminant levels for antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium or thallium if the level of a contaminant is greater than the MCL. If confirmation samples are required by the State, the determination of compliance will be based on the annual average of the initial MCL exceedance and any State-required confirmation samples. If a system fails to collect the required number of samples, compliance (average concentration) will be based on the total number of samples collected.

(3) Compliance with the maximum contaminant levels for nitrate and nitrate is determined based on one sample if the levels of these contaminants are below the MCLs. If the levels of nitrate and/or nitrite exceed the MCLs in the initial sample, a confirmation sample is required in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section, and compliance shall be determined based on the average of the initial and confirmation samples.

(4) Arsenic sampling results will be reported to the nearest 0.001 mg/L.

(j) Each public water system shall monitor at the time designated by the State during each compliance period.

(k) Inorganic analysis:

(1) Analysis for the following contaminants shall be conducted in accordance with the methods in the following table, or the alternative methods listed in appendix A to subpart C of this part, or their equivalent as determined by EPA. Criteria for analyzing arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, calcium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, selenium, sodium, and thallium with digestion or directly without digestion, and other analytical test procedures are contained in Technical Notes on Drinking Water Methods, EPA-600/R-94-173, October 1994. This document is available from the National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP), P.O. Box 42419, Cincinnati, OH 45242-0419 or http://www.epa.gov/nscep/.

Contaminant Methodology13 EPA ASTM3 SM4 (18th, 19th ed.) SM4 (20th ed.) SM Online22 Other
1. Alkalinity Titrimetric D1067-92, 02 B 2320 B 2320 B 2320 B-97
Electrometric titration I-1030-855
2. Antimony Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) - Mass Spectrometry 200.82
Hydride-Atomic Absorption D3697-92, 02
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.92
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B-99
3. Arsenic14 ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.82
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.92
Atomic Absorption; Furnace D2972-97, 03 C 3113 B 3113 B-99
Hydride Atomic Absorption D1972-97, 03 B 3114 B 3114 B-97
4. Asbestos Transmission Electron Microscopy 100.19
Transmission Electron Microscopy 100.210
5. Barium Inductively Coupled Plasma 200.72 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B-99
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.82
Atomic Absorption; Direct 3111D 3111 D-99
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B-99
6. Beryllium Inductively Coupled Plasma 200.72 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B-99
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.82
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.92
Atomic Absorption; Furnace D3645-97, 03 B 3113 B 3113 B-99
7. Cadmium Inductively Coupled Plasma 200.72
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.82
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.92
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B-99
8. Calcium EDTA titrimetric D511-93, 03 A 3500-Ca D 3500-Ca B 3500-Ca B-97
Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration D511-93, 03 B 3111 B 3111 B-99
Inductively Coupled Plasma 200.72 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B-99
Ion Chromatography D6919-03
9. Chromium Inductively Coupled Plasma 200.72 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B-99
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.82
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.92
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B-99
10. Copper Atomic Absorption; Furnace D1688-95, 02 C 3113 B 3113 B-99
Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration D1688-95, 02 A 3111 B 3111 B-99
Inductively Coupled Plasma 200.72 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B-99
ICP-Mass spectrometry 200.82
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.92
11. Conductivity Conductance D1125-95 (Reapproved 1999) A 2510 B 2510 B 2510 B-97
12. Cyanide Manual Distillation followed by D2036-98 A 4500-CN C 4500-CN C
Spectrophotometric, Amenable D2036-98 B 4500-CN G 4500-CN G 4500-CN G-99
Spectro-photometric Manual D2036-98 A 4500-CN E 4500-CN E 4500-CN E-99 I-3300-855
Spectro-photometric Semi-automated 335.46
Selective Electrode 4500-CN F 4500-CN F 4500-CN F-99
UV, Distillation, Spectrophotometric Kelada-0117
Micro Distillation, Flow Injection, Spectrophotometric QuikChem 10-204-00-1-X18
Ligand Exchange and Amperometry21 D6888-04 OIA-1677, DW20
13. Fluoride Ion Chromatography 300.06, 300.119 D4327-97, 03 4110 B 4110 B 4110 B-00
Manual Distill.; Color. SPADNS 4500-F B, D 4500-F B, D 4500-F B, D-97
Manual Electrode D1179-93, 99 B 4500-F C 4500-F C 4500-F C-97
Automated Electrode 380-75WE11
Automated Alizarin 4500-F E 4500-F E 4500-F E-97 129-71W11
Capillary Ion Electrophoresis D6508, Rev. 223
14. Lead Atomic Absorption; Furnace D3559-96, 03 D 3113 B 3113 B-99
ICP-Mass spectrometry 200.82
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.92
Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametry Method 100116
15. Magnesium Atomic Absorption D511-93, 03 B 3111 B 3111 B-99
ICP 200.72 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B-99
Complexation Titrimetric Methods D511-93, 03 A 3500-Mg E 3500-Mg B 3500-Mg B-97
Ion Chromatography D6919-03
16. Mercury Manual, Cold Vapor 245.12 D3223-97, 02 3112 B 3112 B-99
Automated, Cold Vapor 245.21
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.82
17. Nickel Inductively Coupled Plasma 200.72 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B-99
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.82
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.92
Atomic Absorption; Direct 3111 B 3111 B-99
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B-99
18. Nitrate Ion Chromatography 300.06, 300.119 D4327-97, 03 4110 B 4110 B 4110 B-00 B-10118
Automated Cadmium Reduction 353.26 D3867-90 A 4500-NO3 F 4500-NO3 F 4500-NO3 F-00
Ion Selective Electrode 4500-NO3 D 4500-NO3 D 4500-NO3 D-00 6017
Manual Cadmium Reduction D3867-90 B 4500-NO3 E 4500-NO3 E 4500-NO3 E-00
Capillary Ion Electrophoresis D6508-00.
19. Nitrite Ion Chromatography 300.06, 300.119 D4327-97, 03 4110 B 4110 B 4110 B-00 B-10118
Automated Cadmium Reduction 353.26 D3867-90 A 4500-NO3 F 4500-NO3 F 4500-NO3 F-00
Manual Cadmium Reduction D3867-90 B 4500-NO3 E 4500-NO3 E 4500-NO3 E-00
Spectrophotometric 4500-NO2 B 4500-NO2 B 4500-NO2 B-00
Capillary Ion Electrophoresis D6508-00
20. Ortho-phosphate Colorimetric, Automated, Ascorbic Acid 365.16 4500-P F 4500-P F
Colorimetric, ascorbic acid, single reagent D515-88 A 4500-P E 4500-P E
Colorimetric Phosphomolybdate; Automated-segmented flow; Automated Discrete I-1601-855
I-2601-905
I-2598-855
Ion Chromatography 300.06, 300.119 D4327-97, 03 4110 B 4110 B 4110 B-00
Capillary Ion Electrophoresis D6508-00
21. pH Electrometric 150.1, 150.21 D1293-95, 99 4500-H+ B 4500-H+ B 4500-H+ B-00
22. Selenium Hydride-Atomic Absorption D3859-98, 03 A 3114 B 3114 B-97
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.82
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.92
Atomic Absorption; Furnace D3859-98, 03 B 3113 B 3113 B-99
23. Silica Colorimetric, Molybdate Blue I-1700-855
Automated-segmented Flow I-2700-855
Colorimetric D859-94, 00
Molybdosilicate 4500-Si D 4500-SiO2 C 4500-SiO2 C-97
Heteropoly blue 4500-Si E 4500-SiO2 D 4500-SiO2 D-97
Automated for Molybdate-reactive Silica 4500-Si F 4500-SiO2 E 4500-SiO2 E-97
Inductively Coupled Plasma 200.72 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B-99
24. Sodium Inductively Coupled Plasma 200.72
Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration 3111 B 3111 B-99
Ion Chromatography D6919-03
25. Temperature Thermometric 2550 2550 2550-00
26. Thallium ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.82
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.92

(2) Sample collection for antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, nitrate, nitrite, selenium, and thallium under this section shall be conducted using the sample preservation, container, and maximum holding time procedures specified in the table below:

Contaminant Preservative1 Container2 Time3
Antimony HNO3 P or G 6 months
Arsenic Conc HNO3 to pH <2 P or G 6 months
Asbestos 4 °C P or G 48 hours4
Barium HNO3 P or G 6 months
Beryllium HNO3 P or G 6 months
Cadmium HNO3 P or G 6 months
Chromium HNO3 P or G 6 months
Cyanide 4 °C, NaOH P or G 14 days
Fluoride None P or G 1 month
Mercury HNO3 P or G 28 days
Nickel HNO3 P or G 6 months
Nitrate 4 °C P or G 48 hours5
Nitrate-Nitrite6 H2SO4 P or G 28 days
Nitrite 4 °C P or G 48 hours
Selenium HNO3 P or G 6 months
Thallium HNO3 P or G 6 months

(3) Analysis under this section shall only be conducted by laboratories that have been certified by EPA or the State. Laboratories may conduct sample analysis under provisional certification until January 1, 1996. To receive certification to conduct analyses for antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, nitrate, nitrite and selenium and thallium, the laboratory must:

(i) Analyze Performance Evaluation (PE) samples provided by EPA, the State or by a third party (with the approval of the State or EPA) at least once a year.

(ii) For each contaminant that has been included in the PE sample and for each method for which the laboratory desires certification achieve quantitative results on the analyses that are within the following acceptance limits:

Contaminant Acceptance limit
Antimony ±30 at ≥0.006 mg/1
Arsenic ±30 at ≥0.003 mg/L
Asbestos 2 standard deviations based on study statistics.
Barium ±15% at ≥0.15 mg/1
Beryllium ±15% at ≥0.001 mg/1
Cadmium ±20% at ≥0.002 mg/1
Chromium ±15% at ≥0.01 mg/1
Cyanide ±25% at ≥0.1 mg/1
Fluoride ±10% at ≥1 to 10 mg/1
Mercury ±30% at ≥0.0005 mg/1
Nickel ±15% at ≥0.01 mg/1
Nitrate ±10% at ≥0.4 mg/1
Nitrite ±15% at ≥0.4 mg/1
Selenium ±20% at ≥0.01 mg/1
Thallium ±30% at ≥0.002 mg/1

(l) Analyses for the purpose of determining compliance with § 141.11 shall be conducted using the requirements specified in paragraphs (l) through (q) of this section.

(1) Analyses for all community water systems utilizing surface water sources shall be completed by June 24, 1978. These analyses shall be repeated at yearly intervals.

(2) Analyses for all community water systems utilizing only ground water sources shall be completed by June 24, 1979. These analyses shall be repeated at three-year intervals.

(3) For non-community water systems, whether supplied by surface or ground sources, analyses for nitrate shall be completed by December 24, 1980. These analyses shall be repeated at intervals determined by the State.

(4) The State has the authority to determine compliance or initiate enforcement action based upon analytical results and other information compiled by their sanctioned representatives and agencies.

(m) If the result of an analysis made under paragraph (l) of this section indicates that the level of any contaminant listed in § 141.11 exceeds the maximum contaminant level, the supplier of the water shall report to the State within 7 days and initiate three additional analyses at the same sampling point within one month.

(n) When the average of four analyses made pursuant to paragraph (m) of this section, rounded to the same number of significant figures as the maximum contaminant level for the substance in question, exceeds the maximum contaminant level, the supplier of water shall notify the State pursuant to § 141.31 and give notice to the public pursuant to subpart Q. Monitoring after public notification shall be at a frequency designated by the State and shall continue until the maximum contaminant level has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule as a condition to a variance, exemption or enforcement action shall become effective.

(o) The provisions of paragraphs (m) and (n) of this section notwithstanding, compliance with the maximum contaminant level for nitrate shall be determined on the basis of the mean of two analyses. When a level exceeding the maximum contaminant level for nitrate is found, a second analysis shall be initiated within 24 hours, and if the mean of the two analyses exceeds the maximum contaminant level, the supplier of water shall report his findings to the State pursuant to § 141.31 and shall notify the public pursuant to subpart Q.

(p) For the initial analyses required by paragraph (l) (1), (2) or (3) of this section, data for surface waters acquired within one year prior to the effective date and data for ground waters acquired within 3 years prior to the effective date of this part may be substituted at the discretion of the State.

(q) [Reserved]

[56 FR 3579, Jan. 30, 1991]

§ 141.24 Organic chemicals, sampling and analytical requirements.

(a-d) [Reserved]

(e) Analyses for the contaminants in this section shall be conducted using the methods listed in the following table, or the alternative methods listed in appendix A to subpart C of this part, or their equivalent as determined by EPA.

(1) The following documents are incorporated by reference. This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at EPA's Drinking Water Docket, 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW., EPA West, Room 3334, Washington, DC 20460 (Telephone: 202-566-2426); or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Method 508A and 515.1 are in Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water, EPA/600/4-88-039, December 1988, Revised, July 1991. Methods 547, 550 and 550.1 are in Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water - Supplement I, EPA/600-4-90-020, July 1990. Methods 548.1, 549.1, 552.1 and 555 are in Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water - Supplement II, EPA/600/R-92-129, August 1992. Methods 502.2, 504.1, 505, 506, 507, 508, 508.1, 515.2, 524.2 525.2, 531.1, 551.1 and 552.2 are in Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water--Supplement III, EPA/600/R-95-131, August 1995. Method 1613 is titled “Tetra-through Octa-Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans by Isotope-Dilution HRGC/HRMS,” EPA/821-B-94-005, October 1994. These documents are available from the National Technical Information Service, NTIS PB91-231480, PB91-146027, PB92-207703, PB95-261616 and PB95-104774, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161. The toll free number is: 800-553-6847. Method 6651 shall be followed in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th edition (1992), 19th edition (1995), or 20th edition (1998), American Public Health Association (APHA); any of these three editions may be used. Method 6610 shall be followed in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, (18th Edition Supplement) (1994), or with the 19th edition (1995) or 20th edition (1998) of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater; any of these publications may be used. The APHA documents are available from APHA, 1015 Fifteenth Street NW., Washington, DC 20005. Other required analytical test procedures germane to the conduct of these analyses are contained in Technical Notes on Drinking Water Methods, EPA/600/R-94-173, October 1994, NTIS PB95-104766. EPA Methods 515.3 and 549.2 are available from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL)-Cincinnati, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268. ASTM Method D 5317-93, 98 (Reapproved 2003) is available in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, (1999), Vol. 11.02, ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428, any edition containing the cited version of the method may be used. EPA Method 515.4, “Determination of Chlorinated Acids in Drinking Water by Liquid-Liquid Microextraction, Derivatization and Fast Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection,” Revision 1.0, April 2000, EPA/815/B-00/001 and EPA Method 552.3, “Determination of Haloacetic Acids and Dalapon in Drinking Water by Liquid-Liquid Microextraction, Derivatization, and Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection,” Revision 1.0, July 2003, EPA 815-B-03-002, can be accessed and downloaded directly online at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/methods/sourcalt.html. Syngenta Method AG-625, “Atrazine in Drinking Water by Immunoassay,” February 2001, is available from Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc., 410 Swing Road, P.O. Box 18300, Greensboro, NC 27419. Telephone: 336-632-6000. Method 531.2 “Measurement of N-methylcarbamoyloximes and N-methylcarbamates in Water by Direct Aqueous Injection HPLC with Postcolumn Derivatization,” Revision 1.0, September 2001, EPA 815-B-01-002, can be accessed and downloaded directly online at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/methods/sourcalt.html.

Contaminant EPA method Standard methods ASTM Other
1. Benzene 502.2, 524.2
2. Carbon tetrachloride 502.2, 524.2, 551.1
3. Chlorobenzene 502.2, 524.2
4. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene 502.2, 524.2
5. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 502.2, 524.2
6. 1,2-Dichloroethane 502.2, 524.2
7. cis-Dichloroethylene 502.2, 524.2
8. trans-Dichloroethylene 502.2, 524.2
9. Dichloromethane 502.2, 524.2
10. 1,2-Dichloropropane 502.2, 524.2
11. Ethylbenzene 502.2, 524.2
12. Styrene 502.2, 524.2
13. Tetrachloroethylene 502.2, 524.2, 551.1
14. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 502.2, 524.2, 551.1
15. Trichloroethylene 502.2, 524.2, 551.1
16. Toluene 502.2, 524.2
17. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 502.2, 524.2
18. 1,1-Dichloroethylene 502.2, 524.2
19. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane 502.2, 524.2, 551.1
20. Vinyl chloride 502.2, 524.2
21. Xylenes (total) 502.2, 524.2
22. 2,3,7,8-TCDD (dioxin) 1613
23. 2,4-D4 (as acids, salts, and esters) 515.2, 555, 515.1, 515.3, 515.4 D5317-93, 98 (Reapproved 2003)
24. 2,4,5-TP4 (Silvex) 515.2, 555, 515.1, 515.3, 515.4 D5317-93, 98 (Reapproved 2003)
25. Alachlor2 507, 525.2, 508.1, 505, 551.1
26. Atrazine2 507, 525.2, 508.1, 505, 551.1 Syngenta5 AG-625
27. Benzo(a)pyrene 525.2, 550, 550.1
28. Carbofuran 531.1, 531.2 6610
29. Chlordane 508, 525.2, 508.1, 505
30. Dalapon 552.1 515.1, 552.2, 515.3, 515.4, 552.3
31. Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate 506, 525.2
32. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 506, 525.2
33. Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) 504.1, 551.1
34. Dinoseb4 515.2, 555, 515.1, 515.3, 515.4
35. Diquat 549.2
36. Endothall 548.1
37. Endrin 508, 525.2, 508.1, 505, 551.1
38. Ethylene dibromide (EDB) 504.1, 551.1
39. Glyphosate 547 6651
40. Heptachlor 508, 525.2, 508.1, 505, 551.1
41. Heptachlor Epoxide 508, 525.2, 508.1, 505, 551.1
42. Hexachlorobenzene 508, 525.2, 508.1, 505, 551.1
43. Hexachlorocyclopentadiene 508, 525.2, 508.1, 505, 551.1
44. Lindane 508, 525.2, 508.1, 505, 551.1
45. Methoxychlor 508, 525.2, 508.1, 505, 551.1
46. Oxamyl 531.1, 531.2 6610
47. PCBs3 (as decachlorobiphenyl) 508A
48. PCBs3 (as Aroclors) 508.1, 508, 525.2, 505
49. Pentachlorophenol 515.2, 525.2, 555, 515.1, 515.3, 515.4 D5317-93, 98 (Reapproved 2003)
50. Picloram4 515.2, 555, 515.1, 515.3, 515.4 D5317-93, 98 (Reapproved 2003)
51. Simazine2 507, 525.2, 508.1, 505, 551.1
52. Toxaphene 508, 508.1, 525.2, 505
53. Total Trihalomethanes 502.2, 524.2, 551.1

(2) [Reserved]

(f) Beginning with the initial compliance period, analysis of the contaminants listed in § 141.61(a) (1) through (21) for the purpose of determining compliance with the maximum contaminant level shall be conducted as follows:

(1) Groundwater systems shall take a minimum of one sample at every entry point to the distribution system which is representative of each well after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point). Each sample must be taken at the same sampling point unless conditions make another sampling point more representative of each source, treatment plant, or within the distribution system.

(2) Surface water systems (or combined surface/ground) shall take a minimum of one sample at points in the distribution system that are representative of each source or at each entry point to the distribution system after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point). Each sample must be taken at the same sampling point unless conditions make another sampling point more representative of each source, treatment plant, or within the distribution system.

(3) If the system draws water from more than one source and the sources are combined before distribution, the system must sample at an entry point to the distribution system during periods of normal operating conditions (i.e., when water representative of all sources is being used).

(4) Each community and non-transient non-community water system shall take four consecutive quarterly samples for each contaminant listed in § 141.61(a) (2) through (21) during each compliance period, beginning in the initial compliance period.

(5) If the initial monitoring for contaminants listed in § 141.61(a) (1) through (8) and the monitoring for the contaminants listed in § 141.61(a) (9) through (21) as allowed in paragraph (f)(18) has been completed by December 31, 1992, and the system did not detect any contaminant listed in § 141.61(a) (1) through (21), then each ground and surface water system shall take one sample annually beginning with the initial compliance period.

(6) After a minimum of three years of annual sampling, the State may allow groundwater systems with no previous detection of any contaiminant listed in § 141.61(a) to take one sample during each compliance period.

(7) Each community and non-transient non-community ground water system which does not detect a contaminant listed in § 141.61(a) (1) through (21) may apply to the State for a waiver from the requirements of paragraphs (f)(5) and (f)(6) of this section after completing the initial monitoring. (For purposes of this section, detection is defined as ≥0.0005 mg/l.) A waiver shall be effective for no more than six years (two compliance periods). States may also issue waivers to small systems for the initial round of monitoring for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene.

(8) A State may grant a waiver after evaluating the following factor(s):

(i) Knowledge of previous use (including transport, storage, or disposal) of the contaminant within the watershed or zone of influence of the system. If a determination by the State reveals no previous use of the contaminant within the watershed or zone of influence, a waiver may be granted.

(ii) If previous use of the contaminant is unknown or it has been used previously, then the following factors shall be used to determine whether a waiver is granted.

(A) Previous analytical results.

(B) The proximity of the system to a potential point or non-point source of contamination. Point sources include spills and leaks of chemicals at or near a water treatment facility or at manufacturing, distribution, or storage facilities, or from hazardous and municipal waste landfills and other waste handling or treatment facilities.

(C) The environmental persistence and transport of the contaminants.

(D) The number of persons served by the public water system and the proximity of a smaller system to a larger system.

(E) How well the water source is protected against contamination, such as whether it is a surface or groundwater system. Groundwater systems must consider factors such as depth of the well, the type of soil, and wellhead protection. Surface water systems must consider watershed protection.

(9) As a condition of the waiver a groundwater system must take one sample at each sampling point during the time the waiver is effective (i.e., one sample during two compliance periods or six years) and update its vulnerability assessment considering the factors listed in paragraph (f)(8) of this section. Based on this vulnerability assessment the State must reconfirm that the system is non-vulnerable. If the State does not make this reconfirmation within three years of the initial determination, then the waiver is invalidated and the system is required to sample annually as specified in paragraph (5) of this section.

(10) Each community and non-transient non-community surface water system which does not detect a contaminant listed in § 141.61(a) (1) through (21) may apply to the State for a waiver from the requirements of (f)(5) of this section after completing the initial monitoring. Composite samples from a maximum of five sampling points are allowed, provided that the detection limit of the method used for analysis is less than one-fifth of the MCL. Systems meeting this criterion must be determined by the State to be non-vulnerable based on a vulnerability assessment during each compliance period. Each system receiving a waiver shall sample at the frequency specified by the State (if any).

(11) If a contaminant listed in § 141.61(a) (2) through (21) is detected at a level exceeding 0.0005 mg/l in any sample, then:

(i) The system must monitor quarterly at each sampling point which resulted in a detection.

(ii) The State may decrease the quarterly monitoring requirement speci fied in paragraph (f)(11)(i) of this section provided it has determined that the system is reliably and consistently below the maximum contaminant level. In no case shall the State make this determination unless a groundwater system takes a minimum of two quarterly samples and a surface water system takes a minimum of four quarterly samples.

(iii) If the State determines that the system is reliably and consistently below the MCL, the State may allow the system to monitor annually. Systems which monitor annually must monitor during the quarter(s) which previously yielded the highest analytical result.

(iv) Systems which have three consecutive annual samples with no detection of a contaminant may apply to the State for a waiver as specified in paragraph (f)(7) of this section.

(v) Groundwater systems which have detected one or more of the following two-carbon organic compounds: trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, or 1,1-dichloroethylene shall monitor quarterly for vinyl chloride. A vinyl chloride sample shall be taken at each sampling point at which one or more of the two-carbon organic compounds was detected. If the results of the first analysis do not detect vinyl chloride, the State may reduce the quarterly monitoring frequency of vinyl chloride monitoring to one sample during each compliance period. Surface water systems are required to monitor for vinyl chloride as specified by the State.

(12) Systems which violate the requirements of § 141.61(a) (1) through (21), as determined by paragraph (f)(15) of this section, must monitor quarterly. After a minimum of four consecutive quarterly samples which show the system is in compliance as specified in paragraph (f)(15) of this section the system and the State determines that the system is reliably and consistently below the maximum contaminant level, the system may monitor at the frequency and times specified in paragraph (f)(11)(iii) of this section.

(13) The State may require a confirmation sample for positive or negative results. If a confirmation sample is required by the State, the result must be averaged with the first sampling result and the average is used for the compliance determination as specified by paragraph (f)(15). States have discretion to delete results of obvious sampling errors from this calculation.

(14) The State may reduce the total number of samples a system must analyze by allowing the use of compositing. Composite samples from a maximum of five sampling points are allowed, provided that the detection limit of the method used for analysis is less than one-fifth of the MCL. Compositing of samples must be done in the laboratory and analyzed within 14 days of sample collection.

(i) If the concentration in the composite sample is greater than or equal to 0.0005 mg/l for any contaminant listed in § 141.61(a), then a follow-up sample must be taken within 14 days at each sampling point included in the composite, and be analyzed for that contaminant.

(ii) If duplicates of the original sample taken from each sampling point used in the composite sample are available, the system may use these instead of resampling. The duplicates must be analyzed and the results reported to the State within 14 days after completing analysis of the composite sample, provided the holding time of the sample is not exceeded.

(iii) If the population served by the system is >3,300 persons, then compositing may only be permitted by the State at sampling points within a single system. In systems serving ≤3,300 persons, the State may permit compositing among different systems provided the 5-sample limit is maintained.

(iv) Compositing samples prior to GC analysis.

(A) Add 5 ml or equal larger amounts of each sample (up to 5 samples are allowed) to a 25 ml glass syringe. Special precautions must be made to maintain zero headspace in the syringe.

(B) The samples must be cooled at 4 °C during this step to minimize volatilization losses.

(C) Mix well and draw out a 5-ml aliquot for analysis.

(D) Follow sample introduction, purging, and desorption steps described in the method.

(E) If less than five samples are used for compositing, a proportionately small syringe may be used.

(v) Compositing samples prior to GC/MS analysis.

(A) Inject 5-ml or equal larger amounts of each aqueous sample (up to 5 samples are allowed) into a 25-ml purging device using the sample introduction technique described in the method.

(B) The total volume of the sample in the purging device must be 25 ml.

(C) Purge and desorb as described in the method.

(15) Compliance with § 141.61(a) (1) through (21) shall be determined based on the analytical results obtained at each sampling point. If one sampling point is in violation of an MCL, the system is in violation of the MCL.

(i) For systems monitoring more than once per year, compliance with the MCL is determined by a running annual average at each sampling point.

(ii) Systems monitoring annually or less frequently whose sample result exceeds the MCL must begin quarterly sampling. The system will not be considered in violation of the MCL until it has completed one year of quarterly sampling.

(iii) If any sample result will cause the running annual average to exceed the MCL at any sampling point, the system is out of compliance with the MCL immediately.

(iv) If a system fails to collect the required number of samples, compliance will be based on the total number of samples collected.

(v) If a sample result is less than the detection limit, zero will be used to calculate the annual average.

(16) [Reserved]

(17) Analysis under this section shall only be conducted by laboratories that are certified by EPA or the State according to the following conditions (laboratories may conduct sample analysis under provisional certification until January 1, 1996):

(i) To receive certification to conduct analyses for the contaminants in § 141.61(a) (2) through (21) the laboratory must:

(A) Analyze Performance Evaluation (PE) samples provided by EPA, the State, or by a third party (with the approval of the State or EPA) at least once a year by each method for which the laboratory desires certification.

(B) Achieve the quantitative acceptance limits under paragraphs (f)(17)(i)(C) and (D) of this section for at least 80 percent of the regulated organic contaminants included in the PE sample.

(C) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses performed under paragraph (f)(17)(i)(A) of this section that are within ±20% of the actual amount of the substances in the Performance Evaluation sample when the actual amount is greater than or equal to 0.010 mg/l.

(D) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses performed under paragraph (f)(17)(i)(A) of this section that are within ±40 percent of the actual amount of the substances in the Performance Evaluation sample when the actual amount is less than 0.010 mg/l.

(E) Achieve a method detection limit of 0.0005 mg/l, according to the procedures in appendix B of part 136.

(ii) To receive certification to conduct analyses for vinyl chloride, the laboratory must:

(A) Analyze Performance Evaluation (PE) samples provided by EPA, the State, or by a third party (with the approval of the State or EPA) at least once a year by each method for which the laboratory desires certification.

(B) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses performed under paragraph (f)(17)(ii)(A) of this section that are within ±40 percent of the actual amount of vinyl chloride in the Performance Evaluation sample.

(C) Achieve a method detection limit of 0.0005 mg/l, according to the procedures in appendix B of part 136.

(D) Obtain certification for the contaminants listed in § 141.61(a)(2) through (21).

(18) States may allow the use of monitoring data collected after January 1, 1988, required under section 1445 of the Act for purposes of initial monitoring compliance. If the data are generally consistent with the other requirements of this section, the State may use these data (i.e., a single sample rather than four quarterly samples) to satisfy the initial monitoring requirement of paragraph (f)(4) of this section. Systems which use grandfathered samples and did not detect any contaminant listed § 141.61(a)(2) through (21) shall begin monitoring annually in accordance with paragraph (f)(5) of this section beginning with the initial compliance period.

(19) States may increase required monitoring where necessary to detect variations within the system.

(20) Each certified laboratory must determine the method detection limit (MDL), as defined in appendix B to part 136, at which it is capable of detecting VOCs. The acceptable MDL is 0.0005 mg/l. This concentration is the detection concentration for purposes of this section.

(21) Each public water system shall monitor at the time designated by the State within each compliance period.

(22) All new systems or systems that use a new source of water that begin operation after January 22, 2004 must demonstrate compliance with the MCL within a period of time specified by the State. The system must also comply with the initial sampling frequencies specified by the State to ensure a system can demonstrate compliance with the MCL. Routine and increased monitoring frequencies shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements in this section.

(g) [Reserved]

(h) Analysis of the contaminants listed in § 141.61(c) for the purposes of determining compliance with the maximum contaminant level shall be conducted as follows, with the exception that no monitoring is required for aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide or aldicarb sulfone:

(1) Groundwater systems shall take a minimum of one sample at every entry point to the distribution system which is representative of each well after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point). Each sample must be taken at the same sampling point unless conditions make another sampling point more representative of each source or treatment plant.

(2) Surface water systems shall take a minimum of one sample at points in the distribution system that are representative of each source or at each entry point to the distribution system after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point). Each sample must be taken at the same sampling point unless conditions make another sampling point more representative of each source or treatment plant.

Note:

For purposes of this paragraph, surface water systems include systems with a combination of surface and ground sources.

(3) If the system draws water from more than one source and the sources are combined before distribution, the system must sample at an entry point to the distribution system during periods of normal operating conditions (i.e., when water representative of all sources is being used).

(4) Monitoring frequency:

(i) Each community and non-transient non-community water system shall take four consecutive quarterly samples for each contaminant listed in § 141.61(c) during each compliance period beginning with the initial compliance period.

(ii) Systems serving more than 3,300 persons which do not detect a contaminant in the initial compliance period may reduce the sampling frequency to a minimum of two quarterly samples in one year during each repeat compliance period.

(iii) Systems serving less than or equal to 3,300 persons which do not detect a contaminant in the initial compliance period may reduce the sampling frequency to a minimum of one sample during each repeat compliance period.

(5) Each community and non-transient water system may apply to the State for a waiver from the requirement of paragraph (h)(4) of this section. A system must reapply for a waiver for each compliance period.

(6) A State may grant a waiver after evaluating the following factor(s): Knowledge of previous use (including transport, storage, or disposal) of the contaminant within the watershed or zone of influence of the system. If a determination by the State reveals no previous use of the contaminant within the watershed or zone of influence, a waiver may be granted. If previous use of the contaminant is unknown or it has been used previously, then the following factors shall be used to determine whether a waiver is granted.

(i) Previous analytical results.

(ii) The proximity of the system to a potential point or non-point source of contamination. Point sources include spills and leaks of chemicals at or near a water treatment facility or at manufacturing, distribution, or storage facilities, or from hazardous and municipal waste landfills and other waste handling or treatment facilities. Non-point sources include the use of pesticides to control insect and weed pests on agricultural areas, forest lands, home and gardens, and other land application uses.

(iii) The environmental persistence and transport of the pesticide or PCBs.

(iv) How well the water source is protected against contamination due to such factors as depth of the well and the type of soil and the integrity of the well casing.

(v) Elevated nitrate levels at the water supply source.

(vi) Use of PCBs in equipment used in the production, storage, or distribution of water (i.e., PCBs used in pumps, transformers, etc.).

(7) If an organic contaminant listed in § 141.61(c) is detected (as defined by paragraph (h)(18) of this section) in any sample, then:

(i) Each system must monitor quarterly at each sampling point which resulted in a detection.

(ii) The State may decrease the quarterly monitoring requirement specified in paragraph (h)(7)(i) of this section provided it has determined that the system is reliably and consistently below the maximum contaminant level. In no case shall the State make this determination unless a groundwater system takes a minimum of two quarterly samples and a surface water system takes a minimum of four quarterly samples.

(iii) After the State determines the system is reliably and consistently below the maximum contaminant level the State may allow the system to monitor annually. Systems which monitor annually must monitor during the quarter that previously yielded the highest analytical result.

(iv) Systems which have 3 consecutive annual samples with no detection of a contaminant may apply to the State for a waiver as specified in paragraph (h)(6) of this section.

(v) If the monitoring results in detection of one or more of certain related contaminants (heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide), then subsequent monitoring shall analyze for all related contaminants.

(8) Systems which violate the requirements of § 141.61(c) as determined by paragraph (h)(11) of this section must monitor quarterly. After a minimum of four quarterly samples show the system is in compliance and the State determines the system is reliably and consistently below the MCL, as specified in paragraph (h)(11) of this section, the system shall monitor at the frequency specified in paragraph (h)(7)(iii) of this section.

(9) The State may require a confirmation sample for positive or negative results. If a confirmation sample is required by the State, the result must be averaged with the first sampling result and the average used for the compliance determination as specified by paragraph (h)(11) of this section. States have discretion to delete results of obvious sampling errors from this calculation.

(10) The State may reduce the total number of samples a system must analyze by allowing the use of compositing. Composite samples from a maximum of five sampling points are allowed, provided that the detection limit of the method used for analysis is less than one-fifth of the MCL. Compositing of samples must be done in the laboratory and analyzed within 14 days of sample collection.

(i) If the concentration in the composite sample detects one or more contaminants listed in § 141.61(c), then a follow-up sample must be taken within 14 days at each sampling point included in the composite, and be analyzed for that contaminant.

(ii) If duplicates of the original sample taken from each sampling point used in the composite sample are available, the system may use these instead of resampling. The duplicates must be analyzed and the results reported to the State within 14 days after completion of the composite analysis or before the holding time for the initial sample is exceeded whichever is sooner.

(iii) If the population served by the system is >3,300 persons, then compositing may only be permitted by the State at sampling points within a single system. In systems serving ≤3,300 persons, the State may permit compositing among different systems provided the 5-sample limit is maintained.

(11) Compliance with § 141.61(c) shall be determined based on the analytical results obtained at each sampling point. If one sampling point is in violation of an MCL, the system is in violation of the MCL.

(i) For systems monitoring more than once per year, compliance with the MCL is determined by a running annual average at each sampling point.

(ii) Systems monitoring annually or less frequently whose sample result exceeds the regulatory detection level as defined by paragraph (h)(18) of this section must begin quarterly sampling. The system will not be considered in violation of the MCL until it has completed one year of quarterly sampling.

(iii) If any sample result will cause the running annual average to exceed the MCL at any sampling point, the system is out of compliance with the MCL immediately.

(iv) If a system fails to collect the required number of samples, compliance will be based on the total number of samples collected.

(v) If a sample result is less than the detection limit, zero will be used to calculate the annual average.

(12) [Reserved]

(13) Analysis for PCBs shall be conducted as follows using the methods in paragraph (e) of this section:

(i) Each system which monitors for PCBs shall analyze each sample using either Method 508.1, 525.2, 508 or 505. Users of Method 505 may have more difficulty in achieving the required Aroclor detection limits than users of Methods 508.1, 525.2 or 508.

(ii) If PCBs (as one of seven Aroclors) are detected (as designated in this paragraph) in any sample analyzed using Method 505 or 508, the system shall reanalyze the sample using Method 508A to quantitate PCBs (as decachlorobiphenyl).

Aroclor Detection limit (mg/l)
1016 0.00008
1221 0.02
1232 0.0005
1242 0.0003
1248 0.0001
1254 0.0001
1260 0.0002

(iii) Compliance with the PCB MCL shall be determined based upon the quantitative results of analyses using Method 508A.

(14) If monitoring data collected after January 1, 1990, are generally consistent with the requirements of § 141.24(h), then the State may allow systems to use that data to satisfy the monitoring requirement for the initial compliance period beginning January 1, 1993.

(15) The State may increase the required monitoring frequency, where necessary, to detect variations within the system (e.g., fluctuations in concentration due to seasonal use, changes in water source).

(16) The State has the authority to determine compliance or initiate enforcement action based upon analytical results and other information compiled by their sanctioned representatives and agencies.

(17) Each public water system shall monitor at the time designated by the State within each compliance period.

(18) Detection as used in this paragraph shall be defined as greater than or equal to the following concentrations for each contaminant.

Contaminant Detection limit (mg/l)
Alachlor .0002
Aldicarb .0005
Aldicarb sulfoxide .0005
Aldicarb sulfone .0008
Atrazine .0001
Benzo[a]pyrene .00002
Carbofuran .0009
Chlordane .0002
Dalapon .001
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) .00002
Di (2-ethylhexyl) adipate .0006
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate .0006
Dinoseb .0002
Diquat .0004
2,4-D .0001
Endothall .009
Endrin .00001
Ethylene dibromide (EDB) .00001
Glyphosate .006
Heptachlor .00004
Heptachlor epoxide .00002
Hexachlorobenzene .0001
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene .0001
Lindane .00002
Methoxychlor .0001
Oxamyl .002
Picloram .0001
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (as decachlorobiphenyl) .0001
Pentachlorophenol .00004
Simazine .00007
Toxaphene .001
2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) .000000005
2,4,5-TP (Silvex) .0002

(19) Anaylsis under this section shall only be conducted by laboratories that have received certification by EPA or the State and have met the following conditions:

(i) To receive certification to conduct analyses for the contaminants in § 141.61(c) the laboratory must:

(A) Analyze Performance Evaluation (PE) samples provided by EPA, the State, or by a third party (with the approval of the State or EPA) at least once a year by each method for which the laboratory desires certification.

(B) For each contaminant that has been included in the PE sample achieve quantitative results on the analyses that are within the following acceptance limits:

Contaminant Acceptance limits (percent)
DBCP ±40
EDB ±40.
Alachlor ±45.
Atrazine ±45.
Benzo[a]pyrene 2 standard deviations.
Carbofuran ±45.
Chlordane ±45.
Dalapon 2 standard deviations.
Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate 2 standard deviations.
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 2 standard deviations.
Dinoseb 2 standard deviations.
Diquat 2 standard deviations.
Endothall 2 standard deviations.
Endrin ±30.
Glyphosate 2 standard deviations.
Heptachlor ±45.
Heptachlor epoxide ±45.
Hexachlorobenzene 2 standard deviations.
Hexachloro- cyclopentadiene 2 standard deviations.
Lindane ±45.
Methoxychlor ±45.
Oxamyl 2 standard deviations.
PCBs (as Decachlorobiphenyl) 0-200.
Picloram 2 standard deviations.
Simazine 2 standard deviations.
Toxaphene ±45.
Aldicarb 2 standard deviations.
Aldicarb sulfoxide 2 standard deviations.
Aldicarb sulfone 2 standard deviations.
Pentachlorophenol ±50.
2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) 2 standard deviations.
2,4-D ±50.
2,4,5-TP (Silvex) ±50.

(ii) [Reserved]

(20) All new systems or systems that use a new source of water that begin operation after January 22, 2004 must demonstrate compliance with the MCL within a period of time specified by the State. The system must also comply with the initial sampling frequencies specified by the State to ensure a system can demonstrate compliance with the MCL. Routine and increased monitoring frequencies shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements in this section.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2040-0090)

[40 FR 59570, Dec. 24, 1975]

§ 141.25 Analytical methods for radioactivity.

(a) Analysis for the following contaminants shall be conducted to determine compliance with § 141.66 (radioactivity) in accordance with the methods in the following table, or the alternative methods listed in appendix A to subpart C this part, or their equivalent determined by EPA in accordance with § 141.27.

Contaminant Methodology Reference (Method of Page Number)
EPA1 EPA2 EPA3 EPA4 SM5 ASTM6 USGS7 DOE8 Other
Naturally Occurring:
Gross alpha11 and beta Evaporation 900.0 p. 1 00-01 p. 1 302, 7110 B, 7110 B-00 R-1120-76
Gross alpha11 Coprecipitation 00-02 7110 C, 7110 C-00
Radium 226 Radon emanation 903.1 p. 16 Ra-04 p. 19 305, 7500-Ra C, 7500-Ra C-01 D3454-97 R-1141-76 Ra-04 NY9,
Radiochemical 903.0 p. 13 Ra-03 304, 7500-Ra B, 7500-Ra B-01 D2460-97 R-1140-76 GA14
Radium 228 Radiochemical 904.0 p. 24 Ra-05 p. 19 7500-Ra D, 7500-Ra D-01 R-1142-76 NY9,
NJ10,
GA14
Uranium12 Radiochemical 908.0 7500-U B, 7500-U B-00
Fluorometric 908.1 7500-U C (17th Ed.) D2907-97 R-1180-76, R-1181-76 U-04
ICP-MS 200.813 3125 D5673-03
Alpha Spectrometry 00-07 p. 33 7500-U C (18th, 19th, or 20th Ed.), 7500-U C-00 D3972-97, 02 R-1182-76 U-02
Laser Phosphorimetry D5174-97, 02
Man-Made:
Radioactive Cesium Radiochemical 901.0 p. 4 7500-Cs B, 7500-Cs B-00 D2459-72 R-1111-76
Gamma Ray Spectrometry 901.1 p. 92 7120, 7120-97 D3649-91, 98a R-1110-76 4.5.2.3
Radioactive Iodine Radiochemical 902.0 p. 6 7500-I B, 7500-I B-00
p. 9 7500-I C, 7500-I C-00
7500-I D, 7500-I D-00 D3649-91, 98a
Gamma Ray Spectrometry 901.1 p. 92 7120, 7120-97 D4785-93, 00a 4.5.2.3
Radioactive Strontium 89, 90 Radiochemical 905.0 p. 29 Sr-04 p. 65 303, 7500-Sr B, 7500-Sr B-01 R-1160-76 Sr-01, Sr-02
Tritium Liquid Scintillation 906.0 p. 34 H-02 p. 87 306, 7500-3 H B, 7500-3 H B-00 D4107-91, 98 (Reapproved 2002) R-1171-76
Gamma Emitters Gamma Ray Spectrometry 901.1 p. 92 7120, 7120-97 D3649-91, 98a R-1110-76 Ga-01-R
902.0 7500-Cs B, 7500-Cs B-00 D4785-93, 00a
901.0 7500-I B, 7500-I B-00

(b) When the identification and measurement of radionuclides other than those listed in paragraph (a) of this section is required, the following references are to be used, except in cases where alternative methods have been approved in accordance with § 141.27.

(1) Procedures for Radiochemical Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Aqueous Solutions, H. L. Krieger and S. Gold, EPA-R4-73-014. USEPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, May 1973.

(2) HASL Procedure Manual, Edited by John H. Harley. HASL 300, ERDA Health and Safety Laboratory, New York, NY., 1973.

(c) For the purpose of monitoring radioactivity concentrations in drinking water, the required sensitivity of the radioanalysis is defined in terms of a detection limit. The detection limit shall be that concentration which can be counted with a precision of plus or minus 100 percent at the 95 percent confidence level (1.96σ where σ is the standard deviation of the net counting rate of the sample).

(1) To determine compliance with § 141.66(b), (c), and (e) the detection limit shall not exceed the concentrations in Table B to this paragraph.

Table B - Detection Limits for Gross Alpha Particle Activity, Radium 226, Radium 228, and Uranium

Contaminant Detection
limit
Gross alpha particle activity 3 pCi/L.
Radium 226 1 pCi/L.
Radium 228 1 pCi/L.
Uranium 1 µg/L

(2) To determine compliance with § 141.66(d) the detection limits shall not exceed the concentrations listed in Table C to this paragraph.

Table C - Detection Limits for Man-made Beta Particle and Photon Emitters

Radionuclide Detection limit
Tritium 1,000 pCi/1.
Strontium-89 10 pCi/1.
Strontium-90 2 pCi/1.
Iodine-131 1 pCi/1.
Cesium-134 10 pCi/1.
Gross beta 4 pCi/1.
Other radionuclides 1/10 of the applicable limit.

(d) To judge compliance with the maximum contaminant levels listed in § 141.66, averages of data shall be used and shall be rounded to the same number of significant figures as the maximum contaminant level for the substance in question.

(e) The State has the authority to determine compliance or initiate enforcement action based upon analytical results or other information compiled by their sanctioned representatives and agencies.

[41 FR 28404, July 9, 1976, as amended at 45 FR 57345, Aug. 27, 1980; 62 FR 10173, Mar. 5, 1997; 65 FR 76745, Dec. 7, 2000; 67 FR 65250, Oct. 23, 2002; 69 FR 38855, June 29, 2004; 69 FR 52180, Aug. 25, 2004; 72 FR 11245, Mar. 12, 2007; 74 FR 30958, June 29, 2009]

§ 141.26 Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

(a) Monitoring and compliance requirements for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium.

(1) Community water systems (CWSs) must conduct initial monitoring to determine compliance with § 141.66(b), (c), and (e) by December 31, 2007. For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and beta particle and photon radioactivity in drinking water, “detection limit” is defined as in § 141.25(c).

(i) Applicability and sampling location for existing community water systems or sources. All existing CWSs using ground water, surface water or systems using both ground and surface water (for the purpose of this section hereafter referred to as systems) must sample at every entry point to the distribution system that is representative of all sources being used (hereafter called a sampling point) under normal operating conditions. The system must take each sample at the same sampling point unless conditions make another sampling point more representative of each source or the State has designated a distribution system location, in accordance with paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(C) of this section.

(ii) Applicability and sampling location for new community water systems or sources. All new CWSs or CWSs that use a new source of water must begin to conduct initial monitoring for the new source within the first quarter after initiating use of the source. CWSs must conduct more frequent monitoring when ordered by the State in the event of possible contamination or when changes in the distribution system or treatment processes occur which may increase the concentration of radioactivity in finished water.

(2) Initial monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium as follows:

(i) Systems without acceptable historical data, as defined below, must collect four consecutive quarterly samples at all sampling points before December 31, 2007.

(ii) Grandfathering of data: States may allow historical monitoring data collected at a sampling point to satisfy the initial monitoring requirements for that sampling point, for the following situations.

(A) To satisfy initial monitoring requirements, a community water system having only one entry point to the distribution system may use the monitoring data from the last compliance monitoring period that began between June 2000 and December 8, 2003.

(B) To satisfy initial monitoring requirements, a community water system with multiple entry points and having appropriate historical monitoring data for each entry point to the distribution system may use the monitoring data from the last compliance monitoring period that began between June 2000 and December 8, 2003.

(C) To satisfy initial monitoring requirements, a community water system with appropriate historical data for a representative point in the distribution system may use the monitoring data from the last compliance monitoring period that began between June 2000 and December 8, 2003, provided that the State finds that the historical data satisfactorily demonstrate that each entry point to the distribution system is expected to be in compliance based upon the historical data and reasonable assumptions about the variability of contaminant levels between entry points. The State must make a written finding indicating how the data conforms to the these requirements.

(iii) For gross alpha particle activity, uranium, radium-226, and radium-228 monitoring, the State may waive the final two quarters of initial monitoring for a sampling point if the results of the samples from the previous two quarters are below the detection limit.

(iv) If the average of the initial monitoring results for a sampling point is above the MCL, the system must collect and analyze quarterly samples at that sampling point until the system has results from four consecutive quarters that are at or below the MCL, unless the system enters into another schedule as part of a formal compliance agreement with the State.

(3) Reduced monitoring: States may allow community water systems to reduce the future frequency of monitoring from once every three years to once every six or nine years at each sampling point, based on the following criteria.

(i) If the average of the initial monitoring results for each contaminant (i.e., gross alpha particle activity, uranium, radium-226, or radium-228) is below the detection limit specified in Table B, in § 141.25(c)(1), the system must collect and analyze for that contaminant using at least one sample at that sampling point every nine years.

(ii) For gross alpha particle activity and uranium, if the average of the initial monitoring results for each contaminant is at or above the detection limit but at or below1/2 the MCL, the system must collect and analyze for that contaminant using at least one sample at that sampling point every six years. For combined radium-226 and radium-228, the analytical results must be combined. If the average of the combined initial monitoring results for radium-226 and radium-228 is at or above the detection limit but at or below1/2 the MCL, the system must collect and analyze for that contaminant using at least one sample at that sampling point every six years.

(iii) For gross alpha particle activity and uranium, if the average of the initial monitoring results for each contaminant is above1/2 the MCL but at or below the MCL, the system must collect and analyze at least one sample at that sampling point every three years. For combined radium-226 and radium-228, the analytical results must be combined. If the average of the combined initial monitoring results for radium-226 and radium-228 is above1/2 the MCL but at or below the MCL, the system must collect and analyze at least one sample at that sampling point every three years.

(iv) Systems must use the samples collected during the reduced monitoring period to determine the monitoring frequency for subsequent monitoring periods (e.g., if a system's sampling point is on a nine year monitoring period, and the sample result is above1/2 MCL, then the next monitoring period for that sampling point is three years).

(v) If a system has a monitoring result that exceeds the MCL while on reduced monitoring, the system must collect and analyze quarterly samples at that sampling point until the system has results from four consecutive quarters that are below the MCL, unless the system enters into another schedule as part of a formal compliance agreement with the State.

(4) Compositing: To fulfill quarterly monitoring requirements for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, or uranium, a system may composite up to four consecutive quarterly samples from a single entry point if analysis is done within a year of the first sample. States will treat analytical results from the composited as the average analytical result to determine compliance with the MCLs and the future monitoring frequency. If the analytical result from the composited sample is greater than1/2 MCL, the State may direct the system to take additional quarterly samples before allowing the system to sample under a reduced monitoring schedule.

(5) A gross alpha particle activity measurement may be substituted for the required radium-226 measurement provided that the measured gross alpha particle activity does not exceed 5 pCi/l. A gross alpha particle activity measurement may be substituted for the required uranium measurement provided that the measured gross alpha particle activity does not exceed 15 pCi/l. The gross alpha measurement shall have a confidence interval of 95% (1.65σ, where σ is the standard deviation of the net counting rate of the sample) for radium-226 and uranium. When a system uses a gross alpha particle activity measurement in lieu of a radium-226 and/or uranium measurement, the gross alpha particle activity analytical result will be used to determine the future monitoring frequency for radium-226 and/or uranium. If the gross alpha particle activity result is less than detection,1/2 the detection limit will be used to determine compliance and the future monitoring frequency.

(b) Monitoring and compliance requirements for beta particle and photon radioactivity. To determine compliance with the maximum contaminant levels in § 141.66(d) for beta particle and photon radioactivity, a system must monitor at a frequency as follows:

(1) Community water systems (both surface and ground water) designated by the State as vulnerable must sample for beta particle and photon radioactivity. Systems must collect quarterly samples for beta emitters and annual samples for tritium and strontium-90 at each entry point to the distribution system (hereafter called a sampling point), beginning within one quarter after being notified by the State. Systems already designated by the State must continue to sample until the State reviews and either reaffirms or removes the designation.

(i) If the gross beta particle activity minus the naturally occurring potassium-40 beta particle activity at a sampling point has a running annual average (computed quarterly) less than or equal to 50 pCi/L (screening level), the State may reduce the frequency of monitoring at that sampling point to once every 3 years. Systems must collect all samples required in paragraph (b)(1) of this section during the reduced monitoring period.

(ii) For systems in the vicinity of a nuclear facility, the State may allow the CWS to utilize environmental surveillance data collected by the nuclear facility in lieu of monitoring at the system's entry point(s), where the State determines if such data is applicable to a particular water system. In the event that there is a release from a nuclear facility, systems which are using surveillance data must begin monitoring at the community water system's entry point(s) in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(2) Community water systems (both surface and ground water) designated by the State as utilizing waters contaminated by effluents from nuclear facilities must sample for beta particle and photon radioactivity. Systems must collect quarterly samples for beta emitters and iodine-131 and annual samples for tritium and strontium-90 at each entry point to the distribution system (hereafter called a sampling point), beginning within one quarter after being notified by the State. Systems already designated by the State as systems using waters contaminated by effluents from nuclear facilities must continue to sample until the State reviews and either reaffirms or removes the designation.

(i) Quarterly monitoring for gross beta particle activity shall be based on the analysis of monthly samples or the analysis of a composite of three monthly samples. The former is recommended.

(ii) For iodine-131, a composite of five consecutive daily samples shall be analyzed once each quarter. As ordered by the State, more frequent monitoring shall be conducted when iodine-131 is identified in the finished water.

(iii) Annual monitoring for strontium-90 and tritium shall be conducted by means of the analysis of a composite of four consecutive quarterly samples or analysis of four quarterly samples. The latter procedure is recommended.

(iv) If the gross beta particle activity minus the naturally occurring potassium-40 beta particle activity at a sampling point has a running annual average (computed quarterly) less than or equal to 15 pCi/L (screening level), the State may reduce the frequency of monitoring at that sampling point to every 3 years. Systems must collect the same type of samples required in paragraph (b)(2) of this section during the reduced monitoring period.

(v) For systems in the vicinity of a nuclear facility, the State may allow the CWS to utilize environmental surveillance data collected by the nuclear facility in lieu of monitoring at the system's entry point(s), where the State determines if such data is applicable to a particular water system. In the event that there is a release from a nuclear facility, systems which are using surveillance data must begin monitoring at the community water system's entry point(s) in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(3) Community water systems designated by the State to monitor for beta particle and photon radioactivity can not apply to the State for a waiver from the monitoring frequencies specified in paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section.

(4) Community water systems may analyze for naturally occurring potassium-40 beta particle activity from the same or equivalent sample used for the gross beta particle activity analysis. Systems are allowed to subtract the potassium-40 beta particle activity value from the total gross beta particle activity value to determine if the screening level is exceeded. The potassium-40 beta particle activity must be calculated by multiplying elemental potassium concentrations (in mg/L) by a factor of 0.82.

(5) If the gross beta particle activity minus the naturally occurring potassium-40 beta particle activity exceeds the appropriate screening level, an analysis of the sample must be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present in the sample and the appropriate doses must be calculated and summed to determine compliance with § 141.66(d)(1), using the formula in § 141.66(d)(2). Doses must also be calculated and combined for measured levels of tritium and strontium to determine compliance.

(6) Systems must monitor monthly at the sampling point(s) which exceed the maximum contaminant level in § 141.66(d) beginning the month after the exceedance occurs. Systems must continue monthly monitoring until the system has established, by a rolling average of 3 monthly samples, that the MCL is being met. Systems who establish that the MCL is being met must return to quarterly monitoring until they meet the requirements set forth in paragraph (b)(1)(i) or (b)(2)(iv) of this section.

(c) General monitoring and compliance requirements for radionuclides.

(1) The State may require more frequent monitoring than specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, or may require confirmation samples at its discretion. The results of the initial and confirmation samples will be averaged for use in compliance determinations.

(2) Each public water systems shall monitor at the time designated by the State during each compliance period.

(3) Compliance: Compliance with § 141.66 (b) through (e) will be determined based on the analytical result(s) obtained at each sampling point. If one sampling point is in violation of an MCL, the system is in violation of the MCL.

(i) For systems monitoring more than once per year, compliance with the MCL is determined by a running annual average at each sampling point. If the average of any sampling point is greater than the MCL, then the system is out of compliance with the MCL.

(ii) For systems monitoring more than once per year, if any sample result will cause the running average to exceed the MCL at any sample point, the system is out of compliance with the MCL immediately.

(iii) Systems must include all samples taken and analyzed under the provisions of this section in determining compliance, even if that number is greater than the minimum required.

(iv) If a system does not collect all required samples when compliance is based on a running annual average of quarterly samples, compliance will be based on the running average of the samples collected.

(v) If a sample result is less than the detection limit, zero will be used to calculate the annual average, unless a gross alpha particle activity is being used in lieu of radium-226 and/or uranium. If the gross alpha particle activity result is less than detection,1/2 the detection limit will be used to calculate the annual average.

(4) States have the discretion to delete results of obvious sampling or analytic errors.

(5) If the MCL for radioactivity set forth in § 141.66 (b) through (e) is exceeded, the operator of a community water system must give notice to the State pursuant to § 141.31 and to the public as required by subpart Q of this part.

[65 FR 76745, Dec. 7, 2000, as amended at 69 FR 38855, June 29, 2004]

§ 141.27 Alternate analytical techniques.

(a) With the written permission of the State, concurred in by the Administrator of the U.S. EPA, an alternate analytical technique may be employed. An alternate technique shall be accepted only if it is substantially equivalent to the prescribed test in both precision and accuracy as it relates to the determination of compliance with any MCL. The use of the alternate analytical technique shall not decrease the frequency of monitoring required by this part.

[45 FR 57345, Aug. 27, 1980]

§ 141.28 Certified laboratories.

(a) For the purpose of determining compliance with § 141.21 through 141.27, 141.30, 141.40, 141.74, 141.89 and 141.402, samples may be considered only if they have been analyzed by a laboratory certified by the State except that measurements of alkalinity, calcium, conductivity, disinfectant residual, orthophosphate, pH, silica, temperature and turbidity may be performed by any person acceptable to the State.

(b) Nothing in this part shall be construed to preclude the State or any duly designated representative of the State from taking samples or from using the results from such samples to determine compliance by a supplier of water with the applicable requirements of this part.

[45 FR 57345, Aug. 27, 1980; 47 FR 10999, Mar. 12, 1982, as amended at 59 FR 34323, July 1, 1994; 64 FR 67465, Dec. 1, 1999; 71 FR 65651, Nov. 8, 2006]

§ 141.29 Monitoring of consecutive public water systems.

When a public water system supplies water to one or more other public water systems, the State may modify the monitoring requirements imposed by this part to the extent that the interconnection of the systems justifies treating them as a single system for monitoring purposes. Any modified monitoring shall be conducted pursuant to a schedule specified by the State and concurred in by the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 141 - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

Only the editions stated in the following table are approved.

Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(3)

Organism Methodology SM 21st Edition1 SM 22nd Edition28 SM Online3 Other
Total Coliforms Total Coliform Fermentation Technique 9221 A, B 9221 A, B 9221 A,B-06
Total Coliform Membrane Filter Technique 9222 A, B, C
Presence-Absence (P-A) Coliform Test 9221 D
ONPG-MUG Test 9223 9223 B 9223 B-04
ColitagTM Modified ColitagTM13
Tecta EC/TC33

Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(5)

Organism Methodology SM 22nd Edition28 SM Online3
Fecal Coliforms Fecal Coliform Procedure 9221 E 9221 E-06

Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(6)

Organism Methodology SM 20th
Edition6
SM 21st
Edition1
SM 22nd
Edition28
SM Online3 Other
E.coli ONPG-MUG Test 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B-97, B-04
ColitagTM Modified ColitagTM13
Tecta EC/TC33

Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.23(k)(1)

Contaminant Methodology EPA method SM 21st
edition1
SM 22nd
edition28
SM 23rd
edition49
SM Online3 ASTM4 Other
Alkalinity Titrimetric 2320 B 2320 B 2320 B D1067-06 B, 11 B, 16 B
Antimony Hydride - Atomic Absorption D 3697-07, -12, -17
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B-04, B-10
Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.22
Arsenic Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B-04, B-10 D 2972-08 C, -15 C
Hydride Atomic Absorption 3114 B 3114 B 3114 B 3114 B-09 D 2972-08 B, -15 B
Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.22
Barium Inductively Coupled Plasma 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B
Atomic Absorption; Direct 3111 D 3111 D 3111 D
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B-04, B-10
Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.22
Beryllium Inductively Coupled Plasma 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B-04, B-10 D 3645-08 B, -15 B
Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.22
Cadmium Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B-04, B-10
Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.22
Calcium EDTA titrimetric 3500-Ca B 3500-Ca B 3500-Ca B D 511-09, -14 A
Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration 3111 B 3111 B 3111 B D 511-09, -14 B
Inductively Coupled Plasma 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B
Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.22
Ion Chromatography D 6919-09, -17
Chromium Inductively Coupled Plasma 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B-04, B-10
Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.22
Copper Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B-04, B-10 D 1688-07, -12 C, -17 C
Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration 3111 B 3111 B 3111 B D 1688-07, -12 A, -17 A
Inductively Coupled Plasma 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B
Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.22
Colorimetry Hach Method 8026.35
Hach Method 1027236
Cyanide Manual Distillation with MgCl2 followed by: 4500-CN− C 4500-CN− C 4500-CN− C 4500-CN− C-99 D 2036-06 A
Spectrophotometric, Amenable 4500-CN− G 4500-CN− G 4500-CN− G D 2036-06 B
Spectrophotometric Manual 4500-CN− E 4500-CN− E 4500-CN− E D2036-06 A
Selective Electrode 4500-CN− F 4500-CN− F 4500-CN− F
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Headspace ME355.01.7
Fluoride Ion Chromatography 4110 B 4110 B 4110 B D 4327-11, -17
Manual Distillation; Colorimetric SPADNS 4500-F− B, D 4500-F− B, D 4500-F− B, D
Manual Electrode 4500-F− C 4500-F− C 4500-F− C D 1179-04, 10 B, 16 B
Automated Alizarin 4500-F− E 4500-F− E 4500-F− E
Arsenite-Free Colorimetric SPADNS Hach SPADNS. 2 Method 10225.22
Lead Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B-04, B-10 D 3559-08 D, -15 D
Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.22
Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametry Method 1001, Rev. 1.157
Magnesium Atomic Absorption 3111 B 3111 B 3111 B D 511-09, -14 B
Inductively Coupled Plasma 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B
Complexation Titrimetric Methods 3500-Mg B 3500-Mg B 3500-Mg B D 511-09, -14 A
Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.22
Ion Chromatography D 6919-09, -17
Mercury Manual, Cold Vapor 3112 B 3112 B 3112 B 3112 B-09 D 3223-12, -17
Nickel Inductively Coupled Plasma 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B
Atomic Absorption; Direct 3111 B 3111 B 3111 B
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B-04, B-10
Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.22
Nitrate Ion Chromatography 4110 B 4110 B 4110 B D 4327-11, -17
Automated Cadmium Reduction 4500-NO3− F 4500-NO3− F 4500-NO3− F
Manual Cadmium Reduction 4500-NO3− E 4500-NO3− E 4500-NO3− E
Ion Selective Electrode 4500-NO3− D 4500-NO3− D 4500-NO3− D
Reduction/Colorimetric Systea Easy (1-Reagent).8
NECi Nitrate-Reductase.40
Colorimetric; Direct Hach TNTplusTM 835/836 Method 10206.23
Capillary Ion Electrophoresis D 6508-15
Nitrite Ion Chromatography 4110 B 4110 B 4110 B D 4327-11, -17
Automated Cadmium Reduction 4500-NO3− F 4500-NO3− F 4500-NO3− F
Manual Cadmium Reduction 4500-NO3− E 4500-NO3− E 4500-NO3− E
Spectrophotometric 4500-NO2− B 4500-NO2− B 4500-NO2− B
Reduction/Colorimetric Systea Easy (1-Reagent).8
NECi Nitrate-Reductase.40
Capillary Ion Electrophoresis D 6508-15
Ortho-phosphate Ion Chromatography 4110 B 4110 B 4110 B D 4327-11, -17
Colorimetric, ascorbic acid, single reagent 4500-P E 4500-P E 4500-P E 4500-P E-99
Colorimetric, Automated, Ascorbic Acid 4500-P F 4500-P F 4500-P F 4500-P F-99 Thermo Fisher Discrete Analyzer.41
Capillary Ion Electrophoresis D 6508-15
pH Electrometric 150.348 4500-H + B 4500-H + B 4500-H + B D 1293-12, -18
Selenium Hydride-Atomic Absorption 3114 B 3114 B 3114 B 3114 B-09 D 3859-08 A, -15 A
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B-04, B-10 D 3859-08 B, -15 B
Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.22
Silica Colorimetric D859-05, 10, 16
Molybdosilicate 4500-SiO2 C 4500-SiO2 C 4500-SiO2 C
Heteropoly blue 4500-SiO2 D 4500-SiO2 D 4500-SiO2 D
Automated for Molybdate-reactive Silica 4500-SiO2 E 4500-SiO2 E 4500-SiO2 E
Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.22
Inductively Coupled Plasma 3120 B 3120 B 3120 B
Sodium Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration 3111 B 3111 B 3111 B
Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.22
Ion Chromatography D 6919-09, -17

Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.24(e)(1)

Contaminant Methodology EPA method SM 21st edition1 SM 22nd edition28, SM 23rd edition49 SM online3 Other
Benzene Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
Carbon tetrachloride Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
Chlorobenzene Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
1,2-Dichlorobenzene Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
1,4-Dichlorobenzene Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
1,2-Dichloroethane Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
cis-Dichloroethylene Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
trans-Dichloroethylene Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
Dichloromethane Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
1,2-Dichloropropane Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
Ethylbenzene Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
Styrene Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
Tetrachloroethylene Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
1,1,1-Trichloroethane Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
Trichloroethylene Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
Toluene Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
1,1-Dichloroethylene Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
1,1,2-Trichlorethane Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
Vinyl chloride Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
Xylenes (total) Purge & Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29
2,4-D Gas Chromatography/Electron Capture Detection (GC/ECD) 6640 B 6640 B 6640 B-01, B-06
2,4,5-TP (Silvex) Gas Chromatography/Electron Capture Detection (GC/ECD) 6640 B 6640 B 6640 B-01, B-06
Alachlor Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.324
Atrazine Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) 536.25
Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.324, 523.26
Benzo(a)pyrene Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.3.24
Carbofuran High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection 6610 B 6610 B 6610 B-04
Chlordane Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry ME 531.58
Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.3.24
Dalapon Ion Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS/MS) 557.14
Gas Chromatography/Electron Capture Detection (GC/ECD) 6640 B 6640 B 6640 B-01, B-06
Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.3.24
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.3.24
Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) Purge &Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.3.9
Dinoseb Gas Chromatography/Electron Capture Detection (GC/ECD) 6640 B 6640 B 6640 B-01, B-06
Endrin Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.3.24
Ethyl dibromide (EDB) Purge &Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.3.9
Glyphosate High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Post-Column Derivatization and Fluorescence Detection 6651 B 6651 B 6651 B-00, B-05
Heptachlor Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.3.24
Heptachlor Epoxide Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.3.24
Hexachlorobenzene Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.3.24
Hexachlorocyclo-pentadiene Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.3.24
Lindane Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.3.24
Methoxychlor Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.3.24
Oxamyl High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection 6610 B 6610 B 6610 B-04
Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry ME 531.58
PCBs (as Aroclors) Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.3.24
Pentachlorophenol Gas Chromatography/Electron Capture Detection (GC/ECD) 6640 B 6640 B 6640 B-01, B-06
Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.3.24
Picloram Gas Chromatography/Electron Capture Detection (GC/ECD) 6640 B 6640 B 6640 B-01, B-06
Simazine Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) 536.25
Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.324, 523.26
Toxaphene Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 525.3.24
Total Trihalomethanes Purge &Trap/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 524.39, 524.4.29

Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.25(a)

Contaminant Methodology EPA
method
SM 21st
edition1
SM 22nd
edition,28
SM 23rd
edition49
ASTM4 SM Online3
Naturally Occurring:
Gross alpha and beta Evaporation 900.0, Rev. 1.050 7110 B 7110 B
Liquid Scintillation D 7283-17 7110 D-17.
Gross alpha Coprecipitation 7110 C 7110 C
Radium 226 Radon emanation 903.1, Rev. 1.053 7500-Ra C 7500-Ra C D 3454-05, -18
Radiochemical 903.0, Rev. 1.054 7500-Ra B 7500-Ra B D 2460-07
Gamma Spectrometry 7500-Ra E 7500-Ra E-07.
Radium 228 Radiochemical 7500-Ra D 7500-Ra D
Gamma Spectrometry 7500Ra-E 7500-Ra E-07.
Uranium Radiochemical 7500-U B 7500-U B
ICP-MS 3125 D 5673-05, 10, 16
Alpha spectrometry 7500-U C 7500-U C D 3972-09
Laser Phosphorimetry D 5174-07
Alpha Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry D 6239-09
Man-Made:
Radioactive Cesium Radiochemical 7500-Cs B 7500-Cs B
Gamma Ray Spectrometry 7120 7120 D 3649-06
Radioactive Iodine Radiochemical 7500-I B 7500-I B D 3649-06
7500-I C 7500-I C
7500-I D 7500-I D
Gamma Ray Spectrometry 7120 7120 D 4785-08
Radioactive Strontium 89, 90 Radiochemical 7500-Sr B 7500-Sr B
Tritium Liquid Scintillation 7500-3H B 7500-3H B D 4107-08
Gamma Emitters Gamma Ray 7120 7120 D 3649-06
Spectrometry 7500-Cs B 7500-Cs B D 4785-08
7500-I B 7500-I B

Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.74(a)(1)

Organism Methodology SM 21st
edition1
SM 22nd
edition28
SM 23rd
edition49
SM Online3 Other
Total Coliform Total Coliform Fermentation Technique 9221 A, B, C 9221 A, B, C 9221 A, B, C 9221 A,B,C-06
Total Coliform Membrane Filter Technique 9222 A, B, C 9222 A, B, C.
ONPG-MUG Test 9223 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B-04.
Fecal Coliforms Fecal Coliform Procedure 9221 E 9221 E 9221 E 9221 E-06.
Fecal Coliform Filter Procedure 9222 D 9222 D 9222 D 9222 D-06.
Heterotrophic bacteria Pour Plate Method 9215 B 9215 B 9215 B 9215 B-04.
Turbidity Nephelometric Method 2130 B 2130 B 2130 B Hach Method 8195, Rev. 3.0.52
Laser Nephelometry (on-line) Mitchell M5271,10 Mitchell M5331, Rev. 1.2,42 Lovibond PTV 6000.46
LED Nephelometry (on-line) Mitchell M5331,11
Mitchell M5331, Rev. 1.2,42 Lovibond PTV 2000.45
LED Nephelometry (on-line) AMI Turbiwell,15 Lovibond PTV 1000.44
LED Nephelometry (portable) Orion AQ4500.12
360° Nephelometry Hach Method 10258 Rev. 1.0,39 Hach Method 10258, Rev. 2.0.51

Alternative Testing Methods for Disinfectant Residuals Listed at 40 CFR 141.74(a)(2)

Residual Methodology EPA methods SM 21st
edition1
SM 22nd
edition28, SM 23rd edition49
ASTM4 Other
Free Chlorine Amperometric Titration 4500-Cl D 4500-Cl D D 1253-08, -14
DPD Ferrous Titrimetric 4500-Cl F 4500-Cl F
DPD Colorimetric 4500-Cl G 4500-Cl G Hach Method 10260.31
Indophenol Colorimetric Hach Method 10241.34
Syringaldazine (FACTS) 4500-Cl H 4500-Cl H
On-line Chlorine Analyzer 334.016
Amperometric Sensor ChloroSense17, ChloroSense Rev. 1.1.59
Total Chlorine Amperometric Titration 4500-Cl D 4500-Cl D D 1253-08, -14
Amperometric Titration (Low level measurement) 4500-Cl E 4500-Cl E
DPD Ferrous Titrimetric 4500-Cl F 4500-Cl F
DPD Colorimetric 4500-Cl G 4500-Cl G Hach Method 10260.31
Iodometric Electrode 4500-Cl I 4500-Cl I
On-line Chlorine Analyzer 334.016
Amperometric Sensor ChloroSense17, ChloroSense, Rev. 1.1.59
Indophenol Colorimetric 127.55
Chlorine Dioxide Amperometric Titration 4500-ClO2 C 4500-ClO2 C
Amperometric Titration 4500-ClO2 E 4500-ClO2 E
Amperometric Sensor ChlordioX Plus32, ChlordioX Plus, Rev. 1.1.60
Ozone Indigo Method 4500-O3 B 4500-O3 B

Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.131(b)(1)

Contaminant Methodology EPA method ASTM4 SM online3 SM 21st edition1 SM 22nd edition,28
SM 23rd edition49
Other
TTHM P&T/GC/MS 524.3,9 524.4.29
HAA5 LLE (diazomethane)/GC/ECD 6251 B-07 6251 B 6251 B.
Ion Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS/MS) 557.14
Two-Dimensional Ion Chromatography (IC) with Suppressed Conductivity Detection Thermo Fisher 557.1.47
Bromate Two-Dimensional Ion Chromatography (IC) 302.0.18
Ion Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS/MS) 557.14
Chemically Suppressed Ion Chromatography D 6581-08 A.
Electrolytically Suppressed Ion Chromatography D 6581-08 B.
Chlorite Chemically Suppressed Ion Chromatography D 6581-08 A.
Electrolytically Suppressed Ion Chromatography D 6581-08 B.
Chlorite - daily monitoring as prescribed in 40 CFR 141.132(b)(2)(i)(A) Amperometric Titration
Amperometric Sensor


4500-ClO2 E
4500-ClO2 E

ChlordioX Plus32, ChlordioX Plus, Rev. 1.1.60

Alternative Testing Methods for Disinfectant Residuals Listed at 40 CFR 141.131(c)(1)

Residual Methodology SM 21st
edition1
SM 22nd
edition,28
SM 23rd
edition49
ASTM4 Other
Free Chlorine Amperometric Titration 4500-Cl D 4500-Cl D D 1253-08, -14
DPD Ferrous Titrimetric 4500-Cl F 4500-Cl F
DPD Colorimetric 4500-Cl G 4500-Cl G Hach Method 10260.31
Indophenol Colorimetric Hach Method 10241.34
Syringaldazine (FACTS) 4500-Cl H 4500-Cl H
Amperometric Sensor ChloroSense17, ChloroSense, Rev. 1.1.59
On-line Chlorine Analyzer EPA 334.0.16
Combined Chlorine Amperometric Titration 4500-Cl D 4500-Cl D D 1253-08, -14.
DPD Ferrous Titrimetric 4500-Cl F 4500-Cl F
DPD Colorimetric 4500-Cl G 4500-Cl G Hach Method 10260.31
Total Chlorine Amperometric Titration 4500-Cl D 4500-Cl D D 1253-08, -14
Low level Amperometric Titration 4500-Cl E 4500-Cl E
DPD Ferrous Titrimetric 4500-Cl F 4500-Cl F
DPD Colorimetric 4500-Cl G 4500-Cl G Hach Method 10260.31
Iodometric Electrode 4500-Cl I 4500-Cl I
Amperometric Sensor ChloroSense,17 ChloroSense, Rev. 1.1.59
On-line Chlorine Analyzer EPA 334.0.16
Chlorine Dioxide Amperometric Method II 4500-ClO2 E 4500-ClO2 E
Amperometric Sensor ChlordioX Plus,32 ChlordioX Plus, Rev. 1.1.60

Alternative Testing Methods for Disinfectant Residuals Listed at 40 CFR 141.131(c)(2), If Approved by the State

Residual Methodology Method
Free Chlorine Test Strips Method D99-0035

Alternative Testing Methods for Parameters Listed at 40 CFR 141.131(d)

Parameter Methodology SM 21st edition1 SM 22nd edition28 SM 23rd edition49 SM online3 EPA Other
Total Organic Carbon (TOC) High Temperature Combustion 5310 B 5310 B 5310 B 415.3, Rev 1.2.19
Persulfate-Ultraviolet or Heated Persulfate Oxidation 5310 C 5310 C 5310 C 415.3, Rev 1.2.19 Hach Method 10267.38
Wet Oxidation 5310 D 5310 D 415.3, Rev 1.2.19
Ozone Oxidation Hach Method 10261.37
Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance (SUVA) Calculation using DOC and UV254 data 415.3, Rev 1.2.19
Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) High Temperature Combustion 5310 B 5310 B 5310 B 415.3, Rev 1.2.19
Persulfate-Ultraviolet or Heated Persulfate Oxidation 5310 C 5310 C 5310 C 415.3, Rev 1.2.19
Wet Oxidation 5310 D 5310 D 415.3, Rev 1.2.19
Ultraviolet absorption at 254 nm (UV254) Spectrophotometry 5910 B 5910 B 5910 B 5910 B-11 415.3, Rev 1.2.19

Alternative Testing Methods With MRL ≤0.0010 mg/L for Monitoring Listed at 40 CFR 141.132(b)(3)(ii)(B)

Contaminant Methodology EPA method
Bromate Two-Dimensional Ion Chromatography (IC) 302.018
Ion Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS/MS) 55714

Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.402(c)(2)

Organism Methodology SM 20th
edition6
SM 21st
edition1
SM 22nd
edition28
SM 23rd
edition49
SM online3 Other
E. coli Colilert 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B-97, B-04
Colisure 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B-97, B-04
Colilert-18 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B-97, B-04
Readycult® Readycult®.20
Colitag Modified ColitagTM13, Modified ColitagTM, Version 2.0.61
Chromocult® Chromocult®.21
EC-MUG 9221 F 9221 F 9221 F-06
NA-MUG 9222 I
m-ColiBlue24 Test 9222 J
Tecta EC/TC33 43
RAPID'E.coli 256
Enterococci Multiple-Tube Technique 9230 B-04.
Membrane Filter Techniques 9230 C.
Fluorogenic Substrate Enterococcus Test (using Enterolert) 9230 D.
Coliphage Two-Step Enrichment Presence-Absence Procedure Fast Phage.30

Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.704(a)

Organism Methodology EPA Method
Cryptosporidium Filtration/Immunomagnetic Separation/Immunofluorescence Assay Microscopy 1623.127

Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.704(b)

Organism Methodology SM 20th edition6
E. coli Membrane Filtration, Two Step 9222 D/9222 G

Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.852(a)(5)

Organism Methodology
category
Method SM 20th, 21st editions1 6 SM 22nd
edition28
SM 23rd
edition49
SM online3
Total Coliforms Lactose Fermentation Methods Standard Total Coliform Fermentation Technique 9221 B.1, B.2 9221 B.1, B.2, B.3, B.4 9221 B.1, B.2-06.
Presence-Absence (P-A) Coliform Test 9221 D.1, D.2, D.3
Membrane Filtration Methods Standard Total Coliform Membrane Filter Procedure using Endo Media 9222 B, C.
Simultaneous Detection of Total Coliforms and E. coli by Dual Chromogen Membrane Filter Procedure (using mColiBlue24 medium) 9222 J.
Simultaneous Detection of Total Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia coli Using RAPID'E.coli (REC2) in Drinking Water.56
Enzyme Substrate Methods Colilert® 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B-04
Colisure® 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B-04.
Colilert-18 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B-04.
Tecta EC/TC.33 43
Modified ColitagTM, Version 2.0.61
Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Procedure (following Lactose Fermentation Methods) EC-MUG medium 9221 F.1 9221 F.1 9221 F.1-06.
Escherichia coli Partitioning Methods (following Membrane Filtration Methods) EC broth with MUG (EC-MUG) 9222 H.
NA-MUG medium 9222 I.
Simultaneous Detection of Total Coliforms and E. coli by Dual Chromogen Membrane Filter Procedure mColiBlue24 medium 9222 J.
Membrane Filtration Method Simultaneous Detection of Total Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia coli Using RAPID'E.coli (REC2) in Drinking Water.56
Enzyme Substrate Methods Colilert® 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B-04.
Colisure® 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B-04.
Colilert-18 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B 9223 B-04.
Tecta EC/TC.33 43
Modified ColitagTM, Version 2.0.61

Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 143.4(b)

Contaminant Methodology EPA method ASTM4 SM 21st
edition1
SM 22nd
edition,28
SM 23rd
edition49
SM online3
Aluminum Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.2.2
Atomic Absorption; Direct 3111 D 3111 D.
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B-04, B-10.
Inductively Coupled Plasma 3120 B 3120 B.
Chloride Silver Nitrate Titration D 512-04 B, 12 B 4500-Cl B 4500-Cl B
Ion Chromatography D 4327-11, -17 4110 B 4110 B
Potentiometric Titration 4500-Cl D 4500-Cl D
Color Visual Comparison 2120 B 2120 B.
Foaming Agents Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) 5540 C 5540 C.
Iron Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.2.2
Atomic Absorption; Direct 3111 B 3111 B.
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B-04, B-10.
Inductively Coupled Plasma 3120 B 3120 B.
Manganese Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.2.2
Atomic Absorption; Direct 3111 B 3111 B.
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B-04, B-10.
Inductively Coupled Plasma 3120 B 3120 B.
Odor Threshold Odor Test 2150 B 2150 B.
Silver Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.2.2
Atomic Absorption; Direct 3111 B 3111 B.
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 3113 B 3113 B 3113 B-04, B-10.
Inductively Coupled Plasma 3120 B 3120 B.
Sulfate Ion Chromatography D 4327-11, -17 4110 B 4110 B
Gravimetric with ignition of residue 4500-SO4 2 C 4500-SO4 2 C 4500-SO4 2 C-97.
Gravimetric with drying of residue 4500-SO4 2 D 4500-SO4 2 D 4500-SO4 2 D-97.
Turbidimetric method D 516-07, 11, 16 4500-SO4 2 E 4500-SO4 2 E 4500-SO4 2 E-97.
Automated methylthymol blue method 4500-SO4 2 F 4500-SO4 2 F 4500-SO4 2 F-97.
Total Dissolved Solids Total Dissolved Solids Dried at 180 deg C 2540 C 2540 C.
Zinc Axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (AVICP-AES) 200.5, Revision 4.2.2
Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration 3111 B 3111 B.
Inductively Coupled Plasma 3120 B 3120 B.

[74 FR 38353, Aug. 3, 2009, as amended at 74 FR 57914, Nov. 10, 2009; 74 FR 63069, Dec. 2, 2009; 75 FR 32299, June 8, 2010; 76 FR 37018, June 24, 2011; 77 FR 38527, June 28, 2012; 78 FR 32565, May 31, 2013; 78 FR 37463, June 21, 2013; 79 FR 35086, June 19, 2014; 79 FR 36428, June 27, 2014; 81 FR 46844, July 19, 2016; 82 FR 34867, July 27, 2017; 83 FR 51644, Oct. 12, 2018; 83 FR 54676, Oct. 31, 2018; 86 FR 28284, May 26, 2021; 86 FR 29526, June 2, 2021]