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Subpart G - Significant New Alternatives Policy Program
Source:

59 FR 13147, Mar. 18, 1994, unless otherwise noted.

§ 82.170 Purpose and scope.

(a) The purpose of these regulations in this subpart is to implement section 612 of the Clean Air Act, as amended, regarding the safe alternatives policy on the acceptability of substitutes for ozone-depleting compounds. This program will henceforth be referred to as the “Significant New Alternatives Policy” (SNAP) program. The objectives of this program are to identify substitutes for ozone-depleting compounds, to evaluate the acceptability of those substitutes, to promote the use of those substitutes believed to present lower overall risks to human health and the environment, relative to the class I and class II compounds being replaced, as well as to other substitutes for the same end-use, and to prohibit the use of those substitutes found, based on the same comparisons, to increase overall risks.

(b) The regulations in this subpart describe persons and substitutes subject to reporting requirements under the SNAP program and explain preparation and submission of notices and petitions on substitutes. The regulations also establish Agency procedures for reviewing and processing EPA's determinations regarding notices and petitions on substitutes. Finally, the regulations prohibit the use of alternatives which EPA has determined may have adverse effects on human health or the environment where EPA has identified alternatives in particular industrial use sectors that on an overall basis, reduce risk to human health and the environment and are currently or potentially available. EPA will only prohibit substitutes where it has identified other substitutes for a specific application that are acceptable and are currently or potentially available.

(c) Notifications, petitions and other materials requested shall be sent to: SNAP Document Control Officer, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (6205-J), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460.

§ 82.172 Definitions.

Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.

Agency means the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Application means a specific use within a major industrial sector end-use.

Class I or class II means the specific ozone-depleting compounds described in section 602 of the Act.

Decision means any final determination made by the Agency under section 612 of the Act on the acceptability or unacceptability of a substitute for a class I or II compound.

EPA means the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

End-use means processes or classes of specific applications within major industrial sectors where a substitute is used to replace an ozone-depleting substance.

Formulator means any person engaged in the preparation or formulation of a substitute, after chemical manufacture of the substitute or its components, for distribution or use in commerce.

Health and safety study or study means any study of any effect of a substitute or its components on health and safety, or the environment or both, including underlying data and epidemiological studies, studies of occupational, ambient, and consumer exposure to a substitute, toxicological, clinical, and ecological, or other studies of a substitute and its components, and any other pertinent test. Chemical identity is always part of a health and safety study. Information which arises as a result of a formal, disciplined study is included in the definition. Also included is information relating to the effects of a substitute or its components on health or the environment. Any available data that bear on the effects of a substitute or its components on health or the environment would be included. Examples include:

(1) Long- and short-term tests of mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, or teratogenicity; data on behavioral disorders; dermatoxicity; pharmacological effects; mammalian absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion; cumulative, additive, and synergistic effects; acute, subchronic, and chronic effects; and structure/activity analyses;

(2) Tests for ecological or other environmental effects on invertebrates, fish, or other animals, and plants, including: Acute toxicity tests, chronic toxicity tests, critical life stage tests, behavioral tests, algal growth tests, seed germination tests, microbial function tests, bioconcentration or bioaccumulation tests, and model ecosystem (microcosm) studies;

(3) Assessments of human and environmental exposure, including workplace exposure, and effects of a particular substitute on the environment, including surveys, tests, and studies of: Biological, photochemical, and chemical degradation; air, water and soil transport; biomagnification and bioconcentration; and chemical and physical properties, e.g., atmospheric lifetime, boiling point, vapor pressure, evaporation rates from soil and water, octanol/water partition coefficient, and water solubility;

(4) Monitoring data, when they have been aggregated and analyzed to measure the exposure of humans or the environment to a substitute; and

(5) Any assessments of risk to health or the environment resulting from the manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, use, or disposal of the substitute or its components.

Importer means any person who imports a chemical substitute into the United States. Importer includes the person primarily liable for the payment of any duties on the merchandise or an authorized agent acting on his or her behalf. The term also includes, as appropriate:

(1) The consignee;

(2) The importer of record;

(3) The actual owner; and

(4) The transferee, if the right to draw merchandise in a bonded warehouse has been transferred.

Major Industrial Use Sector or Sector means an industrial category which EPA has reviewed under the SNAP program with historically high consumption patterns of ozone-depleting substances, including: Refrigeration and air conditioning; foam-blowing; fire suppression and explosion protection; solvents cleaning; aerosols; sterilants; tobacco expansion; pesticides; and adhesives, coatings and inks sectors.

Manufacturer means any person engaged in the direct manufacture of a substitute.

Mixture means any mixture or blend of two or more compounds.

Person includes an individual, corporation, partnership, association, state, municipality, political subdivision of a state, and any agency, department, or instrumentality of the United States and any officer, agent, or employee of such entities.

Pesticide has the meaning contained in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 7 U.S.C. 136 et seq. and the regulations issued under it.

Potentially available is defined as any alternative for which adequate health, safety, and environmental data, as required for the SNAP notification process, exist to make a determination of acceptability, and which the Agency reasonably believes to be technically feasible, even if not all testing has yet been completed and the alternative is not yet produced or sold.

Premanufacture Notice (PMN) Program has the meaning described in 40 CFR part 720, subpart A promulgated under the Toxic Substances Control Act, 15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.

Producer means any person who manufactures, formulates or otherwise creates a substitute in its final form for distribution or use in interstate commerce.

Research and development means quantities of a substitute manufactured, imported, or processed or proposed to be manufactured, imported, or processed solely for research and development.

Residential use means use by a private individual of a chemical substance or any product containing the chemical substance in or around a permanent or temporary household, during recreation, or for any personal use or enjoyment. Use within a household for commercial or medical applications is not included in this definition, nor is use in automobiles, watercraft, or aircraft.

Significant new use means use of a new or existing substitute in a major industrial use sector as a result of the phaseout of ozone-depleting compounds.

Small uses means any use of a substitute in a sector other than a major industrial use sector, or production by any producer for use of a substitute in a major industrial sector of 10,000 lbs. or less per year.

Substitute or alternative means any chemical, product substitute, or alternative manufacturing process, whether existing or new, intended for use as a replacement for a class I or II compound.

Test marketing means the distribution in interstate commerce of a substitute to no more than a limited, defined number of potential customers to explore market viability in a competitive situation. Testing must be restricted to a defined testing period before the broader distribution of that substitute in interstate commerce.

Use means any use of a substitute for a Class I or Class II ozone-depleting compound, including but not limited to use in a manufacturing process or product, in consumption by the end-user, or in intermediate uses, such as formulation or packaging for other subsequent uses.

Use restrictions means restrictions on the use of a substitute imposing either conditions on how the substitute can be used across a sector end-use or limits on the end-uses or specific applications where it can be used within a sector.

§ 82.174 Prohibitions.

(a) No person may introduce a new substitute into interstate commerce before the expiration of 90 days after a notice is initially submitted to EPA under § 82.176(a).

(b) No person may use a substitute which a person knows or has reason to know was manufactured, processed or imported in violation of the regulations in this subpart, or knows or has reason to know was manufactured, processed or imported in violation of any use restriction in the acceptability determination, after the effective date of any rulemaking imposing such restrictions.

(c) No person may use a substitute without adhering to any use restrictions set by the acceptability decision, after the effective date of any rulemaking imposing such restrictions.

(d) No person may use a substitute after the effective date of any rulemaking adding such substitute to the list of unacceptable substitutes.

(e) Rules Stayed for Reconsideration. Notwithstanding any other provision of this subpart, the effectiveness of subpart G is stayed from December 8, 1994, to March 8, 1995, only as applied to use of substitutes for export.

[59 FR 13147, Mar. 18, 1994, as amended at 59 FR 63256, Dec. 8, 1994; 60 FR 3303, Jan. 13, 1995]

§ 82.176 Applicability.

(a) Any producer of a new substitute must submit a notice of intent to introduce a substitute into interstate commerce 90 days prior to such introduction. Any producer of an existing substitute already in interstate commerce must submit a notice as of July 18, 1994, if such substitute has not already been reviewed and approved by the Agency.

(b) With respect to the following substitutes, producers are exempt from notification requirements:

(1) Substitutes already listed as acceptable. Producers need not submit notices on substitutes that are already listed as acceptable under SNAP.

(2) Small sectors. Persons using substitutes in sectors other than the nine principal sectors reviewed under this program are exempt from the notification requirements. This exemption shall not be construed to nullify an unacceptability determination or to allow use of an otherwise unacceptable substitute.

(3) Small volume use within SNAP sectors. Within the nine principal SNAP sectors, persons introducing a substitute whose expected volume of use amounts to less than 10,000 lbs. per year within a SNAP sector are exempt from notification requirements. This exemption shall not be construed to allow use of an otherwise unacceptable substitute in any quantity. Persons taking advantage of this exemption for small uses must maintain documentation for each substitute describing how the substitute meets this small use definition. This documentation must include annual production and sales information by sector.

(4) Research and development. Production of substitutes for the sole purpose of research and development is exempt from reporting requirements.

(5) Test marketing. Use of substitutes for the sole purpose of test marketing is exempt from SNAP notification requirements until 90 days prior to the introduction of such substitutes for full-scale commercial sale in interstate commerce. Persons taking advantage of this exemption are, however, required to notify the Agency in writing that they are conducting test marketing 30 days prior to the commencement of such marketing. Notification shall include the name of the substitute, the volume used in the test marketing, intended sector end-uses, and expected duration of the test marketing period.

(6) Formulation changes. In cases where replacement of class I or II compounds causes formulators to change other components in a product, formulators are exempt from reporting with respect to these auxiliary formulation changes. However, the SNAP submitter is required to notify the Agency if such changes are expected to significantly increase the environmental and human health risk associated with the use of any class I or class II substitute.

(7) Substitutes used as feedstocks. Producers of substitutes used as feedstocks which are largely or entirely consumed, transformed or destroyed in the manufacturing or use process are exempt from reporting requirements concerning such substitutes.

(c) Use of a substitute in the possession of an end-user as of March 18, 1994, listed as unacceptable or acceptable subject to narrowed use limits may continue until the individual end-users' existing supply, as of that date, of the substitute is exhausted. Use of substitutes purchased after March 18, 1994, is not permitted subsequent to April 18, 1994.

§ 82.178 Information required to be submitted.

(a) Persons whose substitutes are subject to reporting requirements pursuant to § 82.176 must provide the following information:

(1) Name and description of the substitute. The substitute should be identified by its: Chemical name; trade name(s); identification numbers; chemical formula; and chemical structure.

(2) Physical and chemical information. The substitute should be characterized by its key properties including but not limited to: Molecular weight; physical state; melting point; boiling point; density; taste and/or odor threshold; solubility; partition coefficients (Log Kow, Log Koc); atmospheric lifetime and vapor pressure.

(3) Substitute applications. Identification of the applications within each sector end-use in which the substitutes are likely to be used.

(4) Process description. For each application identified, descriptive data on processing, including in-place pollution controls.

(5) Ozone depletion potential. The predicted 100-year ozone depletion potential (ODP) of substitute chemicals. The submitter must also provide supporting documentation or references.

(6) Global warming impacts. Data on the total global warming potential of the substitute, including information on the GWP index and the indirect contributions to global warming caused by the production or use of the substitute (e.g., changes in energy efficiency). GWP must be calculated over a 100, 500 and 1000-year integrated time horizon.

(7) Toxicity data. Health and safety studies on the effects of a substitute, its components, its impurities, and its degradation products on any organism (e.g., humans, mammals, fish, wildlife, and plants). For tests on mammals, the Agency requires a minimum submission of the following tests to characterize substitute risks: A range-finding study that considers the appropriate exposure pathway for the specific use (e.g., oral ingestion, inhalation, etc.), and a 90-day subchronic repeated dose study in an appropriate rodent species. For certain substitutes, a cardiotoxicity study is also required. Additional mammalian toxicity tests may be identified based on the substitute and application in question. To sufficiently characterize aquatic toxicity concerns, both acute and chronic toxicity data for a variety of species are required. For this purpose, the Agency requires a minimum data set as described in “Guidelines for Deriving Numerical National Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms and their Uses,” which is available through the National Technical Information Service (#PB 85-227049). Other relevant information and data summaries, such as the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), should also be submitted. To assist in locating any studies previously submitted to EPA and referred to, but not included in a SNAP submission, the submitter must provide citations for the date, type of submission, and EPA Office to which they were submitted, to help EPA locate these quickly.

(8) Environmental fate and transport. Where available, information must be submitted on the environmental fate and transport of substitutes. Such data shall include information on bioaccumulation, biodegradation, adsorption, volatility, transformation, and other data necessary to characterize movement and reaction of substitutes in the environment.

(9) Flammability. Data on the flammability of a substitute chemical or mixture are required. Specifically, the flash point and flammability limits are needed, as well as information on the procedures used for determining the flammability limits. Testing of blends should identify the compositions for which the blend itself is flammable and include fractionation data on changes in the composition of the blend during various leak scenarios. For substitutes that will be used in consumer applications, documentation of testing results conducted by independent laboratories should be submitted, where available. If a substitute is flammable, the submitter must analyze the risk of fire resulting from the use of such a substitute and assess the effectiveness of measures to minimize such risk.

(10) Exposure data. Available modeling or monitoring data on exposures associated with the manufacture, formulation, transport, use and disposal of a substitute. Descriptive process information for each substitute application, as described above, will be used to develop exposure estimates where exposure data are not readily available. Depending on the application, exposure profiles may be needed for workers, consumers, and the general population.

(11) Environmental release data. Data on emissions from the substitute application and equipment, as well as on pollutant releases or discharge to all environmental media. Submitters should provide information on release locations, and data on the quantities, including volume, of anticipated waste associated with the use of the substitute. In addition, information on anticipated waste management practices associated with the use of the substitute. Any available information on any pollution controls used or that could be used in association with the substitute (e.g., emissions reduction technologies, wastewater treatment, treatment of hazardous waste) and the costs of such technology must also be submitted.

(12) Replacement ratio for a chemical substitute. Information on the replacement ratio for a chemical substitute versus the class I or II substances being replaced. The term “replacement ratio” means how much of a substitute must be used to replace a given quantity of the class I or II substance being replaced.

(13) Required changes in use technology. Detail on the changes in technology needed to use the alternative. Such information should include a description of whether the substitute can be used in existing equipment - with or without some retrofit - or only in new equipment. Data on the cost (capital and operating expenditures) and estimated life of any technology modifications should also be submitted.

(14) Cost of substitute. Data on the expected average cost of the alternative. In addition, information is needed on the expected equipment lifetime for an alternative technology. Other critical cost considerations should be identified, as appropriate.

(15) Availability of substitute. If the substitute is not currently available, the timing of availability of a substitute should be provided.

(16) Anticipated market share. Data on the anticipated near-term and long-term nationwide substitute sales.

(17) Applicable regulations under other environmental statutes. Information on whether the substitute is regulated under other statutory authorities, in particular the Clean Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, or other titles under the Clean Air Act.

(18) Information already submitted to the Agency. Information requested in the SNAP program notice that has been previously submitted to the Agency as part of past regulatory and information-gathering activities may be referenced rather than resubmitted. Submitters who cannot provide accurate references to data sent previously to the Agency should include all requested information in the SNAP notice.

(19) Information already available in the literature. If any of the data needed to complete the SNAP program notice are available in the public literature, complete references for such information should be provided.

(b) The Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Information Notice is designed to provide the Agency with the information necessary to reach a decision on the acceptability of a substitute.

(1) Submitters requesting review under the SNAP program should send the completed SNAP notice to: SNAP Document Control Officer, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (6205-J), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460.

(2) Submitters filing jointly under SNAP and the Premanufacture Notice Program (PMN) should send the SNAP addendum along with the PMN form to: PMN Document Control Officer, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (7407), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. Submitters must also send both documents to the SNAP program, with a reference to indicate the notice has been furnished to the Agency under the PMN program. Submitters providing information on new chemicals for joint review under the TSCA and SNAP programs may be required to supply additional toxicity data under TSCA section 5.

(3) Submitters filing jointly under SNAP and under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act should send the SNAP form to the Office of Pesticide Programs, Registration Division, (7505C) 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460, as well as to the SNAP Document Control Officer.

§ 82.180 Agency review of SNAP submissions.

(a) Processing of SNAP notices -

(1) 90-day review process. The 90-day review process will begin once EPA receives a submission and determines that such submission includes data on the substitute that are complete and adequate, as described in § 82.178. The Agency may suspend or extend the review period to allow for submission of additional data needed to complete the review of the notice.

(2) Initial review of notice. The SNAP Document Control Officer will review the notice to ensure that basic information necessary to process the submission is present (i.e., name of company, identification of substitute, etc.). The SNAP Document Control Officer will also review substantiation of any claim of confidentiality.

(3) Determination of data adequacy. Upon receipt of the SNAP submission, the Agency will review the completeness of the information supporting the application. If additional data are needed, the submitter will be contacted following completion of this review. The 90-day review period will not commence until EPA has received data it judges adequate to support analysis of the submission.

(4) Letter of receipt. The SNAP Document Control Officer will send a letter of receipt to the submitter to confirm the date of notification and the beginning of EPA's 90-day review period. The SNAP Document Control Officer will also assign the SNAP notice a tracking number, which will be identified in the letter of receipt.

(5) Availability of new information during review period. If critical new information becomes available during the review period that may influence the Agency's evaluation of a substitute, the submitter must notify the Agency about the existence of such information within 10 days of learning of such data. The submitter must also inform the Agency of new studies underway, even if the results will not be available within the 90-day review period. The Agency may contact the submitter to explore extending or suspending the review period depending on the type of information received and the stage of review.

(6) Completion of detailed review. Once the initial data review, described in paragraphs (a)(2) and (3) of this section, has been completed, the Agency will complete a detailed evaluation of the notice. If during any time the Agency perceives a lack of information necessary to reach a SNAP determination, it will contact the submitter and request the missing data.

(7) Criteria for review. To determine whether a substitute is acceptable or unacceptable as a replacement for class I or II compounds, the Agency will evaluate:

(i) Atmospheric effects and related health and environmental impacts;

(ii) General population risks from ambient exposure to compounds with direct toxicity and to increased ground-level ozone;

(iii) Ecosystem risks;

(iv) Occupational risks;

(v) Consumer risks;

(vi) Flammability; and

(vii) Cost and availability of the substitute.

(8) Communication of decision -

(i) Communication of decision to the submitter. Once the SNAP program review has been completed, the Agency will notify the submitter in writing of the decision. Sale or manufacture of new substitutes may commence after the initial 90-day notification period expires even if the Agency fails to reach a decision within the 90-day review period or fails to communicate that decision or the need for additional data to the submitter. Sale or manufacture of existing substitutes may continue throughout the Agency's 90-day review.

(ii) Communication of decision to the public. The Agency will publish in the Federal Register periodic updates to the list of the acceptable and unacceptable alternatives that have been reviewed to date. In the case of substitutes proposed as acceptable with use restrictions, proposed as unacceptable or proposed for removal from either list, a rulemaking process will ensue. Upon completion of such rulemaking, EPA will publish revised lists of substitutes acceptable subject to use conditions or narrowed use limits and unacceptable substitutes to be incorporated into the Code of Federal Regulations. (See Appendices to this subpart.)

(b) Types of listing decisions. When reviewing substitutes, the Agency will list substitutes in one of five categories:

(1) Acceptable. Where the Agency has reviewed a substitute and found no reason to prohibit its use, it will list the alternative as acceptable for the end-uses listed in the notice.

(2) Acceptable subject to use conditions. After reviewing a notice, the Agency may make a determination that a substitute is acceptable only if conditions of use are met to minimize risks to human health and the environment. Where users intending to adopt a substitute acceptable subject to use conditions must make reasonable efforts to ascertain that other alternatives are not feasible due to safety, performance or technical reasons, documentation of this assessment must be retained on file for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. This documentation shall include descriptions of substitutes examined and rejected, processes or products in which the substitute is needed, reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards. Use of such substitutes in ways that are inconsistent with such use conditions renders them unacceptable.

(3) Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits. Even though the Agency can restrict the use of a substitute based on the potential for adverse effects, it may be necessary to permit a narrowed range of use within a sector end-use because of the lack of alternatives for specialized applications. Users intending to adopt a substitute acceptable with narrowed use limits must ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible. Companies must document the results of their evaluation, and retain the results on file for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. This documentation shall include descriptions of substitutes examined and rejected, processes or products in which the substitute is needed, reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards, and the anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching to other available substitutes. Use of such substitutes in applications and end-uses which are not specified as acceptable in the narrowed use limit renders them unacceptable.

(4) Unacceptable. This designation will apply to substitutes where the Agency's review indicates that the substitute poses risk of adverse effects to human health and the environment and that other alternatives exist that reduce overall risk.

(5) Pending. Submissions for which the Agency has not reached a determination will be described as pending. For all substitutes in this category, the Agency will work with the submitter to obtain any missing information and to determine a schedule for providing the missing information if the Agency wishes to extend the 90-day review period. EPA will use the authority under section 114 of the Clean Air Act to gather this information, if necessary. In some instances, the Agency may also explore using additional statutory provisions (e.g., section 5 of TSCA) to collect the needed data.

(c) Joint processing under SNAP and TSCA. The Agency will coordinate reviews of substitutes submitted for evaluation under both the TSCA PMN program and the CAA.

(d) Joint processing under SNAP and FIFRA. The Agency will coordinate reviews of substitutes submitted for evaluation under both FIFRA and the CAA.

[59 FR 13147, Mar. 18, 1994, as amended at 61 FR 25592, May 22, 1996; 61 FR 54039, Oct. 16, 1996]

§ 82.182 Confidentiality of data.

(a) Clean Air Act provisions. Anyone submitting information must assert a claim of confidentiality at the time of submission for any data they wish to have treated as confidential business information (CBI) under 40 CFR part 2, subpart B. Failure to assert a claim of confidentiality at the time of submission may result in disclosure of the information by the Agency without further notice to the submitter. The submitter should also be aware that under section 114(c), emissions data may not be claimed as confidential.

(b) Substantiation of confidentiality claims. At the time of submission, EPA requires substantiation of any confidentiality claims made. Failure to provide any substantiation may result in disclosure of information without further notice by the Agency. All submissions must include adequate substantiation in order for an acceptability determination on a substitute to be published. Moreover, under 40 CFR part 2, subpart B, there are further instances in which confidentiality assertions may later be reviewed even when confidentiality claims are initially received. The submitter will also be contacted as part of such an evaluation process.

(c) Confidentiality provisions for toxicity data. In the event that toxicity or health and safety studies are listed as confidential, this information cannot be maintained as confidential where such data are also submitted under TSCA or FIFRA, to the extent that confidential treatment is prohibited under those statutes. However, information contained in a toxicity study that is not health and safety data and is not relevant to the effects of a substance on human health and the environment (e.g., discussion of process information, proprietary blends) can be maintained as confidential subject to 40 CFR part 2, subpart B.

(d) Joint submissions under other statutes. Information submitted as part of a joint submission to either SNAP/TSCA or SNAP/FIFRA must adhere to the security provisions of the program offices implementing these statutes. For such submissions, the SNAP handling of such notices will follow the security provisions under these statutes.

§ 82.184 Petitions.

(a) Who may petition. Any person may petition the Agency to amend existing listing decisions under the SNAP program, or to add a new substance to any of the SNAP lists.

(b) Types of petitions. Five types of petitions exist:

(1) Petitions to add a substitute not previously reviewed under the SNAP program to the acceptable list. This type of petition is comparable to the 90-day notifications, except that it would generally be initiated by entities other than the companies that manufacture, formulate, or otherwise use the substitute. Companies that manufacture, formulate, or use substitutes that want to have their substitutes added to the acceptable list should submit information on the substitute under the 90-day review program;

(2) Petitions to add a substitute not previously reviewed under the SNAP program to the unacceptable list;

(3) Petitions to delete a substitute from the acceptable list and add it to the unacceptable list or to delete a substitute from the unacceptable and add it to the acceptable list;

(4) Petitions to add or delete use restrictions on an acceptability listing.

(5) Petitions to grandfather use of a substitute listed as unacceptable or acceptable subject to use restrictions.

(c) Content of the petition. The Agency requires that the petitioner submit information on the type of action requested and the rationale for the petition. Petitions in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section must contain the information described in § 82.178, which lists the items to be submitted in a 90-day notification. For petitions that request the re-examination of a substitute previously reviewed under the SNAP program, the submitter must also reference the prior submittal or existing listing. Petitions to grandfather use of an unacceptable substitute must describe the applicability of the test to judge the appropriateness of Agency grandfathering as established by the United States District Court for the District of Columbia Circuit (see Sierra Club v. EPA, 719 F.2d 436 (D.C. Cir. 1983)). This test includes whether the new rule represents an abrupt departure from previously established practice, the extent to which a party relied on the previous rule, the degree of burden which application of the new rule would impose on the party, and the statutory interest in applying the new rule immediately.

(d) Petition process.

(1) Notification of affected companies. If the petition concerns a substitute previously either approved or restricted under the SNAP program, the Agency will contact the original submitter of that substitute.

(2) Review for data adequacy. The Agency will review the petition for adequacy of data. As with a 90-day notice, the Agency may suspend review until the petitioner submits the information necessary to evaluate the petition. To reach a timely decision on substitutes, EPA may use collection authorities such as those contained in section 114 of the Clean Air Act as amended, as well as information collection provisions of other environmental statutes.

(3) Review procedures. To evaluate the petition, the Agency may submit the petition for review to appropriate experts inside and outside the Agency.

(4) Timing of determinations. If data are adequate, as described in § 82.180, the Agency will respond to the petition within 90 days of receiving a complete petition. If the petition is inadequately supported, the Agency will query the petitioner to fill any data gaps before the 90-day review period begins, or may deny the petition because data are inadequate.

(5) Rulemaking procedures. EPA will initiate rulemaking whenever EPA grants a petition to add a substance to the list of unacceptable substitutes, remove a substance from any list, or change or create an acceptable listing by imposing or deleting use conditions or use limits.

(6) Communication of decision. The Agency will inform petitioners within 90 days of receiving a complete petition whether their request has been granted or denied. If a petition is denied, the Agency will publish in the Federal Register an explanation of the determination. If a petition is granted, the Agency will publish the revised SNAP list incorporating the final petition decision within 6 months of reaching a determination or in the next scheduled update, if sooner, provided any required rulemaking has been completed within the shorter period.

Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes

Refrigerants

Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
CFC-11 centrifugal chillers (retrofit) HCFC-141b Unacceptable Has a high ODP relative to other alternatives.
CFC-12 centrifugal chillers (retrofit) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can used safely in this end-use.
CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, R-500 centrifugal chillers (new equipment/NIKs) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocabon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
HCFC-141b Unacceptable Has a high ODP relative to other alternatives.
CFC-12 reciprocating chillers (retrofit) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12 reciprocating chillers (new equipment/NIKs) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-11, CFC-12, R-502 industrial process refrigeration (retrofit) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
CFC-11, CFC-12, R-502 industrial process refrigeration (new equipment/NIKs) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
CFC-12, R-502 ice skating rinks (retrofit) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-502 ice skating rinks (new equipment/NIKs) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-502 cold storage warehouses (retrofit) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-502 cold storage warehouses (new equipment/NIKs) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-500, R-502 refrigerated transport (retrofit) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-500, R-502 refrigerated transport (new equipment/NIKs) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-502 retail food refrigeration (retrofit) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-502 retail food refrigeration (new equipment/NIKs) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-502 commercial ice machines (retrofit) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-502 commercial ice machines (new equipment/NIKs) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12 vending machines (retrofit) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12 vending machines (new equipment/NIKs) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, water coolers (retrofit) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, water coolers (New equipment/NIKs) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, household refrigerators (retrofit) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, household refrigerators (new equipment/NIKs) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-502 household freezers (retrofit) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, 502 household freezers (new equipment/NIKs) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-500 residential dehumidifiers (retrofit) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-500 residential dehumidifiers (new equipment/NIKs) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, motor vehicle air conditioners (retrofit) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, motor vehicle air conditioners (new equipment/NIKs) HCFC-22/HFC-142b/CFC-12 Unacceptable As a blend of both Class I and Class II substances, it has a higher ODP than use of Class II substances.
Hydrocarbon blend A Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be sued safely in this end-use.

Foams

Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
CFC-11 Polyolefin HCFC-141b (or blends thereof) Unacceptable HCFC-141b has an ODP of 0.11, almost equivalent to that of methyl chloroform, a Class I substance. The Agency believes that non-ODP alternatives are sufficiently available to render the use of HCFC-141b unnecessary in polyolefin foams.

Substitutes Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
Electronics cleaning w/CFC-113, MCF Perfluoro-carbons (C5F12, C6F12, C6F14, C7F16, C8F18, C5F11NO, C6F13NO, C7F15NO, and C8F16) Acceptable for high-performance, precision-engineered applications only where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements The principal environmental characteristic of concern for PFCs is that they have long atmospheric lifetimes and high global warming potentials. Although actual contributions to global warming depend upon the quantities of PFCs emitted, the effects are for practical purposes irreversible.
Users must observe this limitation on PFC acceptability by conducting a reasonable evaluation of other substitutes to determine that PFC use is necessary to meet performance or safety requirements. Documentation of this evaluation must be kept on file.
For additional guidance regarding applications in which PFCs may be appropriate, users should consult the Preamble for this rulemaking.
Precision cleaning w/CFC-113, MCF Perfluoro-carbons (C5F12, C6F12, C6F14, C7F16, C8F18, C5F11NO, C6F13NO, C7F15NO, and C8F16) Acceptable for high-performance, precision-engineered applications only where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements The principal environmental characteristic of concern for PFCs is that they have long atmospheric lifetimes and high global warming potentials. Although actual contributions to global warming depend upon the quantities of PFCs emitted, the effects are for practical purposes irreversible.
Users must observe this limitation on PFC acceptability by conducting a reasonable evaluation of other substitutes to determine that PFC use is necessary to meet performance or safety requirements. Documentation of this evaluation must be kept on file.
For additional guidance regarding applications in which PFCs may be appropriate, users should consult the Preamble for this rulemaking.

Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
Metals cleaning w/CFC-113 HCFC 141b and its blends Unacceptable High ODP; other alternatives exist. Effective date: As of 30 days after final rule for uses in new equipment (including retrofits made after the effective date); as of January 1, 1996, for uses in existing equipment. EPA will grant, if necessary, narrowed use acceptability listings for CFC-113 past the effective date of the prohibition.
Metals cleaning w/MCF HCFC 141b and its blends Unacceptable High ODP; other alternatives exist. Effective date: As of 30 days after final rule for uses in new equipment (including retrofits made after the effective date); as of January 1, 1996, for uses in existing equipment.
Electronics cleaning w/CFC-113 HCFC 141b and its blends Unacceptable High ODP; other alternatives exist. Effective date: As of 30 days after final rule for uses in new equipment (including retrofits made after the effective date); as of January 1, 1996, for uses in existing equipment. EPA will grant, if necessary, narrowed use acceptability listings for CFC-113 past the effective date of the prohibition.
Electronics cleaning w/MCF HCFC 141b and its blends Unacceptable High ODP; other alternatives exist. Effective date: As of 30 days after final rule for uses in new equipment (including retrofits made after the effective date); as of January 1, 1996, for uses in existing equipment.
Precision cleaning w/CFC-113 HCFC 141b and its blends Unacceptable High ODP; other alternatives exist. Effective date: As of 30 days after final rule for uses in new equipment (including retrofits made after the effective date); as of January 1, 1996, for uses in existing equipment. EPA will grant, if necessary, narrowed use acceptability listings for CFC-113 past the effective date of the prohibition.
Precision cleaning w/MCF HCFC 141b and its blends Unacceptable High ODP; other alternatives exist. Effective date: As of 30 days after final rule for uses in new equipment (including retrofits made after the effective date); as of January 1, 1996, for uses in existing equipment.

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection Streaming Agents

Substitutes Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits

End-use Substitute Decision Conditions Comments
Halon 1211 Streaming Agents [CFC Blend] Acceptable in nonresidential uses only Use of CFCs are controlled under CAA section 610 which bans use of CFCs in pressurized dispensers, and therefore are not permitted for use in portable fire extinguishers. EPA will list this agent as proposed unacceptable in the next SNAP proposed rulemaking.
Because CFCs are a Class I substance, production will be phased out by January 1, 1996.
See additional comments 1, 2.
HBFC-22B1 Acceptable in nonresidential uses only Proper procedures regarding the operation of the extinguisher and ventilation following dispensing the extinguishant is recommended. Worker exposure may be a concern in small office areas.
HBFC-22B1 is considered an interim substitute for Halon 1211. Because the HBFC-22B1 has an ODP of .74, production will be phased out (except for essential uses) on January 1, 1996.
This agent was submitted to the Agency as a Premanufacture Notice (PMN) and is presently subject to requirements contained in a Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Consent Order.
See additional comments 1, 2.
C6 F14 Acceptable for nonresidential uses where other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements: Users must observe the limitations on PFC acceptability by making reasonable effort to undertake the following measures:
(i) conduct an evaluation of foreseeable conditions of end use;
(ii) determine that the physical or chemical properties or other technical constraints of the other available agents preclude their use; and
a. due to the physical or chemical properties of the agent, or (iii) determine that human exposure to the other alternative extinguishing agents may approach or result in cardiosensitization or other unacceptable toxicity effects under normal operating conditions;
Documentation of such measures must be available for review upon request.
b. where human exposure to the extinguishing agent may approach cardiosensitization levels or result in other unacceptable health effects under normal operating conditions The principal environmental characteristic of concern for PFCs is that they have high GWPs and long atmospheric lifetimes. Actual contributions to global warming depend upon the quantities of PFCs emitted.
For additional guidance regarding applications in which PFCs may be appropriate, users should consult the description of potential uses which is included in the preamble to this rulemaking.
See additional comments 1, 2.

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection Streaming Agents

Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
Halon 1211 Streaming Agents [CFC-11] Unacceptable This agent has been suggested for use on large outdoor fires for which non-ozone depleting alternatives are currently used.

[59 FR 13147, Mar. 18, 1994, as amended at 67 FR 4200, Jan. 29, 2002]

Appendix B to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes

Refrigerants - Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions

Application Substitute Decision Conditions Comments
CFC-12 Automobile Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning (New Equipment/NIKs only) HFC-134a Acceptable subject to use conditions, for passenger cars and light-duty trucks manufactured for Model Year 2020 or earlier, and for vehicles other than passenger cars or light-duty trucks - must be used with unique fittings
- must be used with detailed labels
EPA is concerned that the existence of several substitutes in this end-use may increase the likelihood of significant refrigerant cross-contamination and potential failure of both air conditioning systems and recovery/recycling equipment.
CFC-12 Automobile Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning (New Equipment/NIKs only) HCFC Blend Beta (R-416A) Acceptable subject to use conditions, for passenger cars and light-duty trucks manufactured for Model Year 2016 or earlier, and for vehicles other than passenger cars or light-duty trucks - must be used with unique fittings
- must be used with detailed labels
EPA is concerned that the existence of several substitutes in this end-use may increase the likelihood of significant refrigerant cross-contamination and potential failure of both air conditioning systems and recovery/recycling equipment.
CFC-12 Automobile Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning (New Equipment/NIKs only) R-401C Acceptable subject to use conditions - must be used with unique fittings
- must be used with detailed labels
EPA is concerned that the existence of several substitutes in this end-use may increase the likelihood of significant refrigerant cross-contamination and potential failure of both air conditioning systems and recovery/recycling equipment.
CFC-12 Automobile Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning (Retrofit Equipment only) HFC-134a, R-401C, HCFC Blend Beta (R-416A) Acceptable subject to use conditions - must be used with unique fittings
- must be used with detailed labels
- all CFC-12 must be removed from the system prior to retrofitting
Refer to the text for a full description
EPA is concerned that the existence of several substitutes in this end-use may increase the likelihood of significant refrigerant cross-contamination and potential failure of both air conditioning systems and recovery/recycling equipment. No distinction is made between “retrofit” and “drop-in” refrigerants; retrofitting a car to use a new refrigerant includes all procedures that result in the air conditioning system using a new refrigerant.
CFC-12 Automobile Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning (New equipment only) R-152a as a substitute for CFC-12 Acceptable subject to use conditions Engineering strategies and/or devices shall be incorporated into the system such that foreseeable leaks into the passenger compartment do not result in R-152a concentrations of 3.7% v/v or above in any part of the free space1inside the passenger compartment for more than 15 seconds when the car ignition is on
Manufacturers must adhere to all the safety requirements listed in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard J639 (adopted 2011), including unique fittings and a flammable refrigerant warning label as well as SAE Standard J2773 (adopted February 2011)
Additional training for service technicians recommended.
Manufacturers should conduct and keep on file failure mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) on the MVAC as stated in SAE J1739.
CFC-12 Automobile Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning (New equipment in passenger cars and light-duty trucks only) HFO-1234yf as a substitute for CFC-12 Acceptable subject to use conditions Manufacturers must adhere to all of the safety requirements listed in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard J639 (adopted 2011), including requirements for: unique fittings, flammable refrigerant warning label, high-pressure compressor cutoff switch and pressure relief devices. For connections with refrigerant containers for use in professional servicing (that is, service for consideration, consistent with subpart B to 40 CFR part 82), use fittings consistent with SAE J2844 (revised October 2011) Additional training for service technicians recommended.
Observe requirements of Significant New Use Rule at 40 CFR 721.10182.
HFO-1234yf is also known as 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-prop-1-ene (CAS No 754-12-1).
Refrigerant containers of HFO-1234yf for use in professional servicing are from 5 lbs (2.3 L) to 50 lbs (23 L) in size.
Requirements for handling, storage, and transportation of compressed gases apply to this refrigerant, such as regulations of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration at 29 CFR 1910.101 and the Department of Transportation's requirements at 49 CFR 171-179.
Manufacturers must conduct Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as provided in SAE J1739 (adopted 2009). Manufacturers must keep the FMEA on file for at least three years from the date of creation Requirements for handling, storage, and transportation of compressed gases apply to this refrigerant, such as regulations of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration at 29 CFR 1910.101 and the Department of Transportation's requirements at 49 CFR 171-179.
CFC-12 Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning (New equipment only) Carbon dioxide (CO2) as a substitute for CFC-12 Acceptable subject to use conditions Engineering strategies and/or mitigation devices shall be incorporated such that in the event of refrigerant leaks, the resulting CO2 concentrations do not exceed: Additional training for service technicians is recommended.
The short term exposure level (STEL) of 3% or 30,000 ppm averaged over 15 minutes in the passenger free space1; and;
The ceiling limit of 4% or 40,000 ppm in the passenger breathing zone.2
In designing risk mitigation strategies and/or devices, manufacturers should factor in background CO2 concentrations in the passenger cabin potentially contributed from normal respiration by the maximum number of vehicle occupants.
Vehicle manufacturers must keep records of the tests performed for a minimum period of three years demonstrating that CO2 refrigerant levels do not exceed the STEL of 3% averaged over 15 minutes in the passenger free space, and the ceiling limit of 4% in the breathing zone Use of the standards SAE J1052, SAE J2772, and SAE J2773 is recommended as additional reference.
The use of CO2 in MVAC systems must adhere to the standard conditions identified in SAE Standard J639 (2011 version) including:
Installation of a high pressure system warning label;
Installation of a compressor cut-off switch; and
Use of unique fittings with:
Outside diameter of 16.6 +0/−0.2 mm (0.6535 +0/−0.0078 inches) for the MVAC low-side;
Outside diameter of 18.1 +0/−0.2 mm (0.7126 +0/−0.0078 inches) for the MVAC high-side; and
Outside diameter of 20.955 +0/−0.127 mm (0.825 +0/−0.005 inches) and right-hand thread direction for CO2 refrigerant service containers.3
Manufacturers should conduct and keep on file Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in Design [Design FMEA], Potential Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in Manufacturing and Assembly Process [Process FMEA] on the MVAC as stated in SAE J1739.
Motor vehicle air conditioning (newly manufactured medium-duty passenger vehicles) HFO-1234yf Acceptable subject to use conditions As of January 3, 2017:
(1) HFO-1234yf MVAC systems must adhere to all of the safety requirements of SAE J639 (adopted 2011), including requirements for a flammable refrigerant warning label, high-pressure compressor cutoff switch and pressure relief devices, and unique fittings. For connections with refrigerant containers for use in professional servicing, use fittings must be consistent with SAE J2844 (revised October 2011)
(2) Manufacturers must conduct Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as provided in SAE J1739 (adopted 2009). Manufacturers must keep the FMEA on file for at least three years from the date of creation
Additional training for service technicians recommended.
HFO-1234yf is also known as 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-prop-1-ene (CAS. Reg. No. 754-12-1).
Motor vehicle air conditioning (newly manufactured heavy-duty pickup trucks) HFO-1234yf Acceptable subject to use conditions As of January 3, 2017:
(1) HFO-1234yf MVAC systems must adhere to all of the safety requirements of SAE J639 (adopted 2011), including requirements for a flammable refrigerant warning label, high-pressure compressor cutoff switch and pressure relief devices, and unique fittings. For connections with refrigerant containers for use in professional servicing, use fittings must be consistent with SAE J2844 (revised October 2011)
(2) Manufacturers must conduct Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as provided in SAE J1739 (adopted 2009). Manufacturers must keep the FMEA on file for at least three years from the date of creation
Additional training for service technicians recommended.
HFO-1234yf is also known as 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-prop-1-ene (CAS No 754-12-1).
Motor vehicle air conditioning (newly manufactured complete heavy-duty vans only) HFO-1234yf Acceptable subject to use conditions As of January 3, 2017:
(1) HFO-1234yf MVAC systems must adhere to all of the safety requirements of SAE J639 (adopted 2011), including requirements for a flammable refrigerant warning label, high-pressure compressor cutoff switch and pressure relief devices, and unique fittings. For connections with refrigerant containers for use in professional servicing, use fittings must be consistent with SAE J2844 (revised October 2011)
(2) Manufacturers must conduct Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as provided in SAE J1739 (adopted 2009). Manufacturers must keep the FMEA on file for at least three years from the date of creation
Additional training for service technicians recommended.
HFO-1234yf is also known as 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-prop-1-ene (CAS No 754-12-1).
HFO-1234yf is acceptable for complete heavy-duty vans. Complete heavy-duty vans are not altered by a secondary or tertiary manufacturer.
Note 1:

The Director of the Federal Register approves the incorporation by reference of the material under “Conditions” in the table “REFRIGERANTS - ACCEPTABLE SUBJECT TO USE CONDITIONS” (5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51). You may obtain a copy from SAE Customer Service, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 USA; email: ; Telephone: 1-877-606-7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or 1-724-776-4970 (outside the U.S. and Canada); Internet address: http://store.sae.org/dlabout.htm. You may inspect a copy at U.S. EPA's Air Docket; EPA West Building, Room 3334; 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For questions regarding access to these standards, the telephone number of EPA's Air Docket is 202-566-1742. For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

Refrigerants - Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115 Non-Mechanical Heat Transfer, New C3 F8, C4 F10, C5 F12, C5 F11 NO, C6 F14, C6 F13 NO, C7 F16, C7 F15 NO, C8 F18, C8 F16 O, and C9 F21 N Acceptable only where no other alternatives are technically feasible due to safety or performance requirements Users must observe the limitations on PFC acceptability by determining that the physical or chemical properties or other technical constraints of the other available agents preclude their use. Documentation of such measures must be available for review upon request.
The principal environmental characteristic of concern for PFCs is that they have high GWPs and long atmospheric lifetimes. EPA strongly recommends recovery and recycling of these substitutes.
Motor vehicle air conditioning (new equipment in passenger cars and light-duty trucks only) HFC-134a Acceptable for use in Model Year (MY) 2021 through MY 2025 passenger cars and light-duty trucks destined for export, where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible because of lack of infrastructure for servicing with alternative refrigerants in the destination country Vehicle manufacturers must document their determination that the infrastructure is not in place for each country to which they plan to export vehicles and must retain the documentation in their files for at least five years after date of its creation for the purpose of demonstrating compliance.
Documentation is to include descriptions of:
• Products in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected for the destination country;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives; and
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected date of transition in the destination country.

Refrigerants - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, R-500 Centrifugal Chillers (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-405A Unacceptable R-405A contains R-c318, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
Hydrocarbon Blend B Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12 Reciprocating Chillers (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-405A Unacceptable R-405A contains R-c318, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
Hydrocarbon Blend B Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-11, CFC-12, R-502 Industrial Process Refrigeration (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-403B Unacceptable R-403B contains R-218, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
R-405A Unacceptable R-405A contains R-c318, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
CFC-12, R-502 Ice Skating Rinks (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-405A Unacceptable R-405A contains R-c318, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
Hydrocarbon Blend B Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-502 Cold Storage Warehouses (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-403B Unacceptable R-403B contains R-218, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
R-405A Unacceptable R-405A contains R-c318, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
Hydrocarbon Blend B Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-500, R-502 Refrigerated Transport (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-403B Unacceptable R-403B contains R-218, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
R-405A Unacceptable R-405A contains R-c318, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
Hydrocarbon Blend B Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-502 Retail Food Refrigeration (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-403B Unacceptable R-403B contains R-218, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
R-405A Unacceptable R-405A contains R-c318, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
Hydrocarbon Blend B Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-502 Commercial Ice Machines (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-403B Unacceptable R-403B contains R-218, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
R-405A Unacceptable R-405A contains R-c318, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
Hydrocarbon Blend B Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12 Vending Machines (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-405A Unacceptable R-405A contains R-c318, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
Hydrocarbon Blend B Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12 Water Coolers (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-405A Unacceptable R-405A contains R-c318, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
Hydrocarbon Blend B Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12 Household Refrigerators (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-405A Unacceptable R-405A contains R-c318, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
Hydrocarbon Blend B Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-502 Household Freezers (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-403B Unacceptable R-403B contains R-218, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
R-405A Unacceptable R-405A contains R-c318, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
Hydrocarbon Blend B Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12, R-500 Residential Dehumidifiers (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-405A Unacceptable R-405A contains R-c318, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
Hydrocarbon Blend B Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
CFC-12 Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-405A Unacceptable R-405A contains R-c318, a PFC, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other Substitutes exist which do not contain PFCs.
Hydrocarbon Blend B Unacceptable Flammability is a serious concern. Data have not been submitted to demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use.
Flammable Substitutes, other than R-152a or HFO-1234yf in new equipment Unacceptable The risks associated with using flammable substitutes (except R-152a and HFO-1234yf) in this end-use have not been addressed by a risk assessment. R-152a and HFO-1234yf may be used in new equipment with the use conditions in appendix B to this subpart.
Motor vehicle air conditioning (new equipment in passenger cars and light-duty trucks only) HFC-134a Unacceptable as of Model Year 2021 except where allowed under narrowed use limit HFC-134a has a Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS Reg. No.) of 811-97-2 and it is also known by the name 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoropropane. HFC-134a has a GWP of 1,430. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
This listing does not prohibit the servicing or replacement of motor vehicle air conditioning systems manufactured to use HFC-134a.
Motor vehicle air conditioning (new equipment in passenger cars and light-duty trucks only) R-406A, R-414A (HCFC Blend Xi, GHG-X4), R-414B (HCFC Blend Omicron), HCFC Blend Delta (Free Zone), Freeze 12, GHG-X5, HCFC Blend Lambda (GHG-HP), R-416A (FRIGC FR-12, HCFC Blend Beta) Unacceptable as of Model Year 2017 These refrigerants all contain HCFCs. They have GWPs ranging from 1,080 to 2,340 and ODPs ranging from 0.008 to 0.056. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Motor vehicle air conditioning (new equipment in passenger cars and light-duty trucks only) SP34E, R-426A (RS-24, new formulation) Unacceptable as of Model Year 2017 These blends have GWPs ranging from approximately 1,410 to 1,510. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.

Solvent Cleaning Sector - Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions Substitutes

Application Substitute Decision Conditions Comments
Electronics Cleaning w/CFC-113, MCF HCFC-225 ca/cb Acceptable Subject to the company set exposure limit of 25 ppm of the -ca isomer HCFC-225 ca/cb blend is offered as a 45%-ca/55%-cb blend. The company set exposure limit of the -ca isomer is 25 ppm. The company set exposure limit of the -cb isomer is 250 ppm. It is the Agency's opinion that with the low emission cold cleaning and vapor degreasing equipment designed for this use, the 25 ppm limit of the HCFC-225 ca isomer can be met. The company is submitting further exposure monitoring data.
Precision Cleaning w/CFC-113, MCF HCFC-225 ca/cb Acceptable Subject to the company set exposure limit of 25 ppm of the -ca isomer HCFC-225 ca/cb blend is offered as a 45%-ca/55%-cb blend. The company set exposure limit of the -ca isomer is 25 ppm. The company set exposure limit of the -cb isomer is 250 ppm. It is the Agency's opinion that with the low emission cold cleaning and vapor degreasing equipment designed for this use, the 25 ppm limit of the HCFC-225 ca isomer can be met. The company is submitting further exposure monitoring data.

Solvent Cleaning Sector - Unacceptable Substitutes

End use Substitute Decision Comments
Metals cleaning w/CFC-113 Dibromomethane Unacceptable High ODP; other alternatives exist.
Metals cleaning w/MCF Dibromomethane Unacceptable High ODP; other alternatives exist.
Electronics cleaning w/CFC-113 Dibromomethane Unacceptable High ODP; other alternatives exist.
Electronics cleaning w/MCF Dibromomethane Unacceptable High ODP; other alternatives exist.
Precision cleaning w/CFC-113 Dibromomethane Unacceptable High ODP; other alternatives exist.
Precision cleaning w/MCF Dibromomethane Unacceptable High ODP; other alternatives exist.

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection - Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions: Total Flooding Agents

Application Substitute Decision Conditions Comments
Halon 1301 Total Flooding Agents Inert Gas/Powdered Aerosol Blend Acceptable as a Halon 1301 substitute in normally unoccupied areas In areas where personnel could possibly be present, as in a cargo area, EPA requires that the employer shall provide a pre-discharge employee alarm capable of being perceived above ambient light or noise levels for alerting employees before system discharge. The pre-discharge alarm shall provide employees time to safely exit the discharge area prior to system discharge The manufacturer's SNAP application requested listing for use in unoccupied areas only.
See additional comment 2.

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection - Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits: Total Flooding Agents

End-use Substitute Decision Conditions Further information
Total flooding Sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) Acceptable subject to narrowed use in limits May be used as a discharge test agent in military uses and in civilian aircraft uses only This agent has an atmospheric lifetime greater than 1,000 years, with an estimated 100-year, 500-year, and 1,000-year GWP of 16,100, 26,110 and 32,803 respectively. Users should limit testing only to that which is essential to meet safety or performance requirements.
This agent is only used to test new Halon 1301 systems.
See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Total flooding CF3I Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits Use only in normally unoccupied areas Use of this agent should be in accordance with the safety guidelines in the latest edition of the NFPA 2001 Standard for Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems.
Manufacturer has not applied for listing for use in normally occupied areas. Preliminary cardiosensitization data indicates that this agent would not be suitable for use in normally occupied areas.
See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection - Unacceptable Substitutes

Application Substitute Decision Comments
Halon 1301 Total Flooding Agents HFC-32 Unacceptable Data indicate that HFC-32 is flammable and therefore is not suitable as a halon substitute.

[60 FR 31103, June 13, 1995, as amended at 67 FR 4200, Jan. 29, 2002; 73 FR 33310, June 12, 2008; 76 FR 17519, Mar. 29, 2011; 77 FR 17350, Mar. 26, 2012; 77 FR 33330, June 6, 2012; 80 FR 42952, July 20, 2015; 81 FR 86881, Dec. 1, 2016]

Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the May 22, 1996 Final Rule, Effective June 21, 1996

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Sector - Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions

HCFC Blend Delta and Blend Zeta are acceptable subject to the following conditions when used to retrofit a CFC-12 motor vehicle air conditioning system:

1. Each refrigerant may only be used with a set of fittings that is unique to that refrigerant. These fittings (male or female, as appropriate) must be used with all containers of the refrigerant, on can taps, on recovery, recycling, and charging equipment, and on all air conditioning system service ports. These fittings must be designed to mechanically prevent cross-charging with another refrigerant. A refrigerant may only be used with the fittings and can taps specifically intended for that refrigerant. Using an adapter or deliberately modifying a fitting to use a different refrigerant will be a violation of this use condition. In addition, fittings shall meet the following criteria, derived from Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standards and recommended practices:

a. When existing CFC-12 service ports are to be retrofitted, conversion assemblies shall attach to the CFC-12 fitting with a thread lock adhesive and/or a separate mechanical latching mechanism in a manner that permanently prevents the assembly from being removed.

b. All conversion assemblies and new service ports must satisfy the vibration testing requirements of sections 3.2.1 or 3.2.2 of SAE J1660, as applicable, excluding references to SAE J639 and SAE J2064, which are specific to HFC-134a.

c. In order to prevent discharge of refrigerant to the atmosphere, systems shall have a device to limit compressor operation before the pressure relief device will vent refrigerant. This requirement is waived for systems that do not feature such a pressure relief device.

d. All CFC-12 service ports not retrofitted with conversion assemblies shall be rendered permanently incompatible for use with CFC-12 related service equipment by fitting with a device attached with a thread lock adhesive and/or a separate mechanical latching mechanism in a manner that prevents the device from being removed.

2. When a retrofit is performed, a label must be used as follows:

a. The person conducting the retrofit must apply a label to the air conditioning system in the engine compartment that contains the following information:

i. The name and address of the technician and the company performing the retrofit.

ii. The date of the retrofit.

iii. The trade name, charge amount, and, when applicable, the ASHRAE refrigerant numerical designation of the refrigerant.

iv. The type, manufacturer, and amount of lubricant used.

v. If the refrigerant is or contains an ozone-depleting substance, the phrase “ozone depleter.”

vi. If the refrigerant displays flammability limits as measured according to ASTM E681, the statement “This refrigerant is FLAMMABLE. Take appropriate precautions.”

b. This label must be large enough to be easily read and must be permanent.

c. The background color must be unique to the refrigerant.

d. The label must be affixed to the system over information related to the previous refrigerant, in a location not normally replaced during vehicle repair.

e. Information on the previous refrigerant that cannot be covered by the new label must be permanently rendered unreadable.

3. No substitute refrigerant may be used to “top-off” a system that uses another refrigerant. The original refrigerant must be recovered in accordance with regulations issued under section 609 of the CAA prior to charging with a substitute.

Solvent Cleaning Sector - Proposed Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions Substitutes

Application Substitute Decision Conditions Comments
Metals Cleaning with CFC-113, MCF and HCFC-141b Monochlorotoluenes and benzotrifluorides Acceptable Subject to a 50 ppm workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes and a 25 ppm standard for benzotrifluorides The workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes is based on an OSHA PEL of 50 ppm for orthochlorotoluene. The workplace standard for benzotrifluorides is based on a recent toxicology study.
Electronics Cleaning w/ CFC-113, MCF and HCFC-141b Monochlorotoluenes and benzotrifluorides Acceptable Subject to a 50 ppm workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes and a 25 ppm standard for benzotrifluorides The workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes is based on an OSHA PEL of 50 ppm for orthochlorotoluene. The workplace standard for benzotrifluorides is based on a recent toxicology study.
Precision Cleaning w/ CFC-113, MCF and HCFC-141b Monochlorotoluenes and benzotrifluorides Acceptable Subject to a 50 ppm workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes and a 25 ppm standard for benzotrifluorides The workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes is based on an OSHA PEL of 50 ppm for orthochlorotoluene. The workplace standard for benzotrifluorides is based on a recent toxicology study.

Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits: Streaming Agents

Application Substitute Decision Comments
Halon 1211 CF3 I Acceptable in non-residential uses only
Streaming Agents

Aerosols - Proposed Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions Substitutes

Application Substitute Decision Conditions Comments
CFC-113, MCF and HCFC-141b as solvent Monochlorotoluenes and benzotrifluo-rides Acceptable Subject to a 50 ppm workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes and a 25 ppm standard for benzotrifluorides The workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes is based on an OSHA PEL of 50 ppm for orthochlorotoluene. The workplace standard for benzotrifluorides is based on a recent toxicology study.

Adhesives, Coatings and Inks - Proposed Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions Substitutes

Application Substitute Decision Conditions Comments
CFC-113, MCF and HCFC-141b Monochlorotoluenes and benzotrifluo-rides Acceptable Subject to a 50 ppm workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes and a 25 ppm standard for benzotrifluorides The workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes is based on an OSHA PEL of 50 ppm for orthochlorotoluene. The workplace standard for benzotrifluorides is based on a recent toxicology study.

[61 FR 25592, May 22, 1996, as amended at 67 FR 4201, Jan. 29, 2002]

Appendix D to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes

Summary of Decisions

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Sector Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions

R-406A/“GHG”/“McCool”, “GHG-HP”, “GHG-X4”/“Autofrost”/“Chill-It”, and “Hot Shot”/“Kar Kool” are acceptable substitutes for CFC-12 in retrofitted motor vehicle air conditioning systems (MVACs) subject to the use condition that a retrofit to these refrigerants must include replacing non-barrier hoses with barrier hoses.

For all refrigerants submitted for use in motor vehicle air conditioning systems, subsequent to the effective date of this FRM, in addition to the information previously required in the March 18, 1994 final SNAP rule (58 FR 13044), SNAP submissions must include specifications for the fittings similar to those found in SAE J639, samples of all fittings, and the detailed label described below at the same time as the initial SNAP submission, or the submission will be considered incomplete. Under section 612 of the Clean Air Act, substitutes for which submissions are incomplete may not be sold or used, regardless of other acceptability determinations, and the prohibition against sale of a new refrigerant will not end until 90 days after EPA determines the submission is complete.

In addition, the use of a) R-406A/“GHG”/“McCool”, “HCFC Blend Lambda”/“GHG-HP”, R-414A/“HCFC Blend Xi”/“GHG-X4/“Autofrost”/“Chill-It”, R-414B/“Hot Shot”/“Kar Kool”, and R-416A/“HCFC Blend Beta”/“FREEZE 12” as CFC-12 substitutes in retrofitted MVACs, and b) all refrigerants submitted for, and listed in, subsequent Notices of Acceptability as substitutes for CFC-12 in MVACs, must meet the following conditions.

1. Each refrigerant may only be used with a set of fittings that is unique to that refrigerant. These fittings (male or female, as appropriate) must be designed by the manufacturer of the refrigerant. The manufacturer is responsible to ensure that the fittings meet all of the requirements listed below, including testing according to SAE standards. These fittings must be designed to mechanically prevent cross-charging with another refrigerant, including CFC-12.

The fittings must be used on all containers of the refrigerant, on can taps, on recovery, recycling, and charging equipment, and on all air conditioning system service ports. A refrigerant may only be used with the fittings and can taps specifically intended for that refrigerant and designed by the manufacturer of the refrigerant. Using a refrigerant with a fitting designed by anyone else, even if it is different from fittings used with other refrigerants, is a violation of this use condition. Using an adapter or deliberately modifying a fitting to use a different refrigerant is a violation of this use condition.

Fittings shall meet the following criteria, derived from Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standards and recommended practices:

a. When existing CFC-12 service ports are retrofitted, conversion assemblies shall attach to the CFC-12 fitting with a thread lock adhesive and/or a separate mechanical latching mechanism in a manner that permanently prevents the assembly from being removed.

b. All conversion assemblies and new service ports must satisfy the vibration testing requirements of section 3.2.1 or 3.2.2 of SAE J1660, as applicable, excluding references to SAE J639 and SAE J2064, which are specific to HFC-134a.

c. In order to prevent discharge of refrigerant to the atmosphere, systems shall have a device to limit compressor operation before the pressure relief device will vent refrigerant.

d. All CFC-12 service ports not retrofitted with conversion assemblies shall be rendered permanently incompatible for use with CFC-12 related service equipment by fitting with a device attached with a thread lock adhesive and/or a separate mechanical latching mechanism in a manner that prevents the device from being removed.

2. When a retrofit is performed, a label must be used as follows:

a. The person conducting the retrofit must apply a label to the air conditioning system in the engine compartment that contains the following information:

i. The name and address of the technician and the company performing the retrofit.

ii. The date of the retrofit.

iii. The trade name, charge amount, and, when applicable, the ASHRAE refrigerant numerical designation of the refrigerant.

iv. The type, manufacturer, and amount of lubricant used.

v. If the refrigerant is or contains an ozone-depleting substance, the phrase “ozone depleter”.

vi. If the refrigerant displays flammability limits as measured according to ASTM E681, the statement “This refrigerant is FLAMMABLE. Take appropriate precautions.”

b. The label must be large enough to be easily read and must be permanent.

c. The background color must be unique to the refrigerant.

d. The label must be affixed to the system over information related to the previous refrigerant, in a location not normally replaced during vehicle repair.

e. In accordance with SAE J639, testing of labels must meet ANSI/UL 969-1991.

f. Information on the previous refrigerant that cannot be covered by the new label must be rendered permanently unreadable.

3. No substitute refrigerant may be used to “top-off” a system that uses another refrigerant. The original refrigerant must be recovered in accordance with regulations issued under section 609 of the CAA prior to charging with a substitute.

Solvent Cleaning Sector

[Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions Substitutes]

Application Substitute Decision Conditions Comments
Electronics Cleaning w/CFC-113 and MCF HFC-4310mee Acceptable Subject to a 200 ppm time-weighted average workplace exposure standard and a 400 ppm workplace exposure ceiling
Precision Cleaning w/CFC-113 and MCF HFC-4310mee Acceptable Subject to a 200 ppm time-weighted average workplace exposure standard and a 400 ppm workplace exposure ceiling

Solvent Sector

[Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits]

Application Substitute Decision Comments
Electronics Cleaning w/CFC-113 and MCF Perfluoropolyethers Perfluoropolyethers are acceptable substitutes for CFC-113 and MCF in the precision cleaning sector for high performance, precision-engineered applications only where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements PFPEs have similar global warming profile to the PFCs, and the SNAP decision on PFPEs parallels that for PFCs.
Precision Cleaning w/CFC-113 and MCF Perfluoropolyethers Perfluoropolyethers are acceptable substitutes for CFC-113 and MCF in the precision cleaning sector for high performance, precision-engineered applications only where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements PFPEs have similar global warming profile to the PFCs, and the SNAP decision on PFPEs parallels that for PFCs.

Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
Electronics Cleaning w/CFC-113 and MCF HCFC-141b Extension of existing unacceptability determination to grant existing uses in high-performance electronics permission to continue until January 1, 1997 This determination extends the use date for HCFC-141b in solvent cleaning, but only for existing users in high-performance electronics and only for one year.
Precision Cleaning w/CFC-113 and MCF HCFC-141b Extension of existing unacceptability determination to grant existing uses in precision cleaning permission to continue until January 1, 1997 This determination extends the use date for HCFC-141b in solvent cleaning, but only for existing users in precision cleaning and only for one year.

Aerosols Sector

Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits

Application Substitute Decision Comments
CFC-113, MCF, and HCFC-141b as aerosol solvents Perfluorocarbons Perfluorocarbons are acceptable substitutes for aerosol applications only where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements PFCs have extremely long atmospheric lifetimes and high Global Warming Potentials. This decision reflects these concerns and is patterned after the SNAP decision on PFCs in the solvent cleaning sector.
Perfluoropolyethers Perfluorocarbons are acceptable substitutes for aerosol applications only where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements PFPEs have similar global warming profile to the PFCs, and the SNAP decision on PFPEs parallels that for PFCs in the solvent cleaning sector.

Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
CFC-11, CFC-12, HCFC-22, and HCFC-142b as aerosol propellants SF6 Unacceptable SF6 has the highest GWP of all industrial gases, and other compressed gases meet user needs in this application equally well.

[61 FR 54040, Oct. 16, 1996, as amended at 80 FR 42953, July 20, 2015]

Appendix E to Subpart G of Part 82 - Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the January 26, 1999 Final Rule, Effective January 26, 1999

Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Sector Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
All refrigeration and air-conditioning end uses MT-31 Unacceptable Chemical contained in this blend presents unacceptable toxicity risk.

[64 FR 3865, Jan. 26, 1999]

Appendix F to Subpart G of Part 82 - Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the January 26, 1999 Final Rule, Effective January 26, 1999

Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Sector UnacceptabLe Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
All refrigeration and air-conditioning end uses Hexafluoropropylene (HFP) and all HFP-containing blends Unacceptable Presents unacceptable toxicity risk.

[64 FR 3868, Jan. 26, 1999]

Appendix G to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the March 3, 1999, Final rule, Effective April 2, 1999.

Refrigerants Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
CFC-12, R-502, and HCFC-22 Household Refrigeration, Transport Refrigeration, Vending Machines, Cold Storage Warehouses, and Retail Food Refrigeration, Retrofit and New Self-Chilling Cans-Using HFC-134a or HFC-152a Unacceptable Unacceptably high greenhouse gas emissions from direct release of refrigerant to the atmosphere.

[64 FR 10378, Mar. 3, 1999]

Appendix H to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes, Effective May 28, 1999

CFC-12 Automobile and Non-automobile Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners, Retrofit and New

Criteria for Uniqueness of Fittings

(a) All fittings for alternative motor vehicle refrigerants must meet the following requirements:

(1) High-side screw-on fittings for each refrigerant must differ from high-side screw-on fittings for all other refrigerants, including CFC-12, and from low-side screw-on fittings for CFC-12;

(2) Low-side screw-on fittings for each refrigerant must differ from low-side screw-on fittings for all other refrigerants, including CFC-12;

(3) High-side screw-on fittings for a given refrigerant must differ from low-side screw-on fittings for that refrigerant, to protect against connecting a low-pressure system to a high-pressure one;

(4) High-side quick-connect fittings for each refrigerant must differ from high-side quick-connect fittings for all other refrigerants, including CFC-12 (if they exist);

(5) Low-side quick-connect fittings for each refrigerant must differ from low-side quick-connect fittings for all other refrigerants, including CFC-12 (if they exist);

(6) High-side quick-connect fittings for a given refrigerant must differ from low-side quick-connect fittings for that refrigerant, to protect against connecting a low-pressure system to a high-pressure one;

(7) For each type of container, the fitting for each refrigerant must differ from the fitting for that type of container for all other refrigerants, including CFC-12.

(b) For screw-on fittings, “differ” means that either the diameter must differ by at least1/16 inch or the thread direction must be reversed (i.e. right-handed vs. left-handed). Simply changing the thread pitch is not sufficient. For quick-connect fittings, “differ” means that a person using normal force and normal tools (including wrenches) must not be able to cross-connect fittings.

(c) The sole exception to the1/16 inch difference requirement is the difference between the small can fittings for GHG-X4 and R-406A. The GHG-X4 small can fitting uses a metric measurement, and is slightly less than1/16 inch larger than the small can fitting for R-406A. EPA has concluded that these fittings will not cross-connect, and therefore they may be used.

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
All HCFC-22 end-uses, retrofit and new NARM-22 Unacceptable This blend contains HCFC-22, and it is inappropriate to use such a blend as a substitute for HCFC-22. In addition, this blend contains HFC-23, which has an extremely high GWP and lifetime. Other substitutes for HCFC-22 exist that do not contain either HCFC-22 or HFC-23.

Solvents Cleaning - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
Metals, Electronic, and Precision cleaning with CFC-113, methyl chloroform, and HCFC-141b Chlorobromo-methane Unacceptable Other alternatives exist with zero or much lower ODP.

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection - Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits: Total Flooding Agents

End-use Substitute Decision Conditions Further information
Total flooding HFC-236fa Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits. Acceptable when manufactured using any process that does not convert perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) directly to HFC-236fa in a single step:
for use in explosion suppression and explosion inertion applications, and
for use in fire suppression applications where other non-PFC agents or alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements:
(a) because of their physical or chemical properties, or
(b) where human exposure to the extinguishing agents may result in failure to meet safety guidelines in the latest edition of the NFPA 2001 Standard for Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems.
Use of this agent should be in accordance with the safety guidelines in the latest edition of the NFPA 2001 Standard for Clean Agent Fire Systems.
Users should observe the limitations on HFC-236fa acceptability by taking the following measures:
(i) conduct an evaluation of foreseeable conditions of end-use;
(ii) determine that the physical or chemical properties, or other technical constraints of the other available agents preclude their use; and
(iii) determine that human exposure to the other alternative extinguishing agents may result in failure to meet safety guidelines in the latest edition of the NFPA 2001 Standard for Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems.
Documentation of such measures should be available for review upon request.
The principal environmental characteristic of concern for HFC-236fa is its high GWP of 9400 and long atmospheric lifetime of 226 years. Actual contributions to global warming depend upon the quantities emitted.
See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Total flooding C3F8 Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits. Acceptable for nonresidential uses where other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements:
(a) because of their physical or chemical properties, or
(b) where human exposure to the extinguishing agents may result in failure to meet safety guidelines in the latest edition of the NFPA 2001 Standard for Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems.
Use of this agent should be in accordance with the safety guidelines in the latest edition of the NFPA 2001 Standard for Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems.
Users should observe the limitations on PFC acceptability by taking the following measures:
(i) conduct an evaluation of foreseeable conditions of end-use;
(ii) determine that the physical or chemical properties or other technical constraints of the other available agents preclude their use; and
(iii) determine that human exposure to the other alternative extinguishing agents may result in failure to meet safety guidelines in the latest edition of the NFPA 2001 Standard for Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems.
Documentation of such measures should be available for review upon request.
The principal environmental characteristic of concern for PFCs is that they have high GWPs and long atmospheric lifetimes. Actual contributions to global warming depend upon the quantities of PFCs emitted.
See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Total flooding C4F10 Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits Acceptable for nonresidential uses where other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements:
(a) because of their physical or chemical properties, or
(b) where human exposure to the extinguishing agents may result in failure to meet safety guidelinesin the latest edition of the NFPA 2001 Standard for Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems
Use of this agent should be in accordance with the safety guidelines in the latest edition of the NFPA 2001 Standard for Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems.
Users should observe the limitations on PFC acceptability by taking the following measures:
(i) conduct an evaluation of foreseeable conditions of end-use;
(ii) determine that the physical or chemical properties or other technical constraints of the other available agents preclude their use; and
(iii) determine that human exposure to the other alternative extinguishing agents may result in failure to meet safety guidelines in the latest edition of the NFPA 2001 Standard for Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems
Documentation of such measures should be available for review upon request.
The principal environmental characteristic of concern for PFCs is that they have high GWPs and long atmospheric lifetimes. Actual contributions to global warming depend upon the quantities of PFCs emitted.
See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection - Streaming Agents - Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits

End-use Substitute Decision Conditions Comments
Halon 1211
replacement
C6F14 Acceptable for nonresidential uses where other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements: (a) because of their physical or chemical properties, or (b) where human exposure to the extinguishing agents may result in failure to meet applicable use conditions. Users should observe the limitations on PFC acceptability by taking the following measures: (i) conduct an evaluation of foreseeable conditions of end-use; (ii) determine that the physical or chemical properties or other technical constraints of the other available agents preclude their use; and (iii) determine that human exposure to the other alternative extinguishing agents may result in failure to meet applicable use conditions Documentation of such measures should be available for review upon request. The principal environmental characteristic of concern for PFCs is that they have high GWPs and long atmospheric lifetimes. Actual contributions to global warming depend upon the quantities of PFCs emitted. For additional guidance regarding applications in which PFCs may be appropriate, users should consult the description of potential uses which is included in the March 18, 1994 Final Rule (59 FR 13044.) See comments 1, 2.
Halon 1211 replacement HFC-236fa Acceptable in nonresidential uses when manufactured using any process that does not convert perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) directly to HFC-236fa in a single step See comments 1, 2, 3.
Halon 1211 replacement HFC-227ea Acceptable in nonresidential uses only See comments 1, 2.
Additional comments:

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection - Total Flooding Agents - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
Halon 1301 replacement Chlorobromo-methane Unacceptable Other alternatives exist with zero or lower ODP; OSHA regulations prohibit its use as extinguishing agent in fixed extinguishing systems where employees may be exposed. See 29 CFR 1910.160(b)(11).

Aerosols - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
Solvent in aerosols with CFC-113, MCF, or HCFC-141b Chlorobromo-methane Unacceptable Other alternatives exist with zero or much lower ODP.

Adhesives, Coatings, and Inks - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
Solvent in adhesives, coatings, and inks with CFC-113 Chlorobromo-methane Unacceptable Other alternatives exist with zero or much lower ODP.
Solvent in adhesives, coatings, and inks with MCF Chlorobromo-methane Unacceptable Other alternatives exist with zero or much lower ODP.
Solvent in adhesives, coatings and inks with HCFC-141b Chlorobromo-methane Unacceptable Other alternatives exist with zero or much lower ODP.

[64 FR 22996, Apr. 28, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 4201, Jan. 29, 2002]

Appendix I to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions, Listed in the April 26, 2000, Final Rule, Effective May 26, 2000

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection - Streaming Agents

[Substitutes Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits]

End Use Substitute Decision Limitations Comments
Halon 1211 Streaming Agents HCFC Blend E Acceptable Nonresidential uses only As with other streaming agents, EPA recommends that potential risks of combustion byproducts be labeled on the extinguisher (see UL 2129).
See additional comments 1, 2.

[65 FR 24392, Apr. 26, 2000, as amended at 67 FR 4202, Jan. 29, 2002]

Appendix J to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes listed in the January 29, 2002 Final Rule, effective April 1, 2002

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection Section - Total Flooding Substitutes - Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits

End-use Substitute Decision Conditions Further information
Total flooding HFC Blend B (Halotron II ®) Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits Acceptable in areas that are not normally occupied only See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection Sector - Total Flooding Substitutes - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-Use Substitute Decision Further Information
Halon 1301 HBFC-22B1 Unacceptable HBFC-22B1 is a Class I ozone depleting substance with an ozone depletion potential of 0.74.
Total Flooding Agents The manufacturer of this agent terminated production of this agent January 1, 1996, except for critical uses, and removed it from the market because it is a fetal toxin.

[67 FR 4202, Jan. 29, 2002, as amended at 71 FR 56367, Sept. 27, 2006]

Appendix K to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the July 22, 2002, Final Rule Effective August 21, 2002

Foam Blowing - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
Replacements for HCFC-141b in the following rigid polyurethane/polyisocyanurate applications:
- Boardstock
- Appliance
- Spray
HCFC-22, HCFC-142b and blends thereof Unacceptable Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before December 1, 2017 may be used after that date Alternatives exist with lower or zero-ODP.
All foam end-uses HCFC-124 Unacceptable Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with this substitute on or before December 1, 2017 may be used after that date Alternatives exist with lower or zero-ODP.

[81 FR 86883, Dec. 1, 2016]

Appendix L to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Listed in the January 27, 2003, Final Rule, Effective March 28, 2003

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection Sector - Total Flooding Substitutes - Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions

End-use Substitute Decision Conditions Comments
Total flooding HFC227-BC Acceptable subject to use conditions Sodium bicarbonate release in all settings should be targeted so that increased pH level would not adversely affect exposed individuals. Users should provide special training to individuals required to be in environments protected by HFC227-BC extinguishing systems
Each HFC227-BC extinguisher should be clearly labelled with the potential hazards from use and safe handling procedures.
Use of the agent, HFC-227ea, should be in accordance with the safety guidelines in the latest edition of the NFPA 2001 Standard for Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems.
See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection Sector - Streaming Agents - Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits

End-use Substitute Decision Conditions Comments
Streaming C6-perfluoroketone (FK-5-1-12MYY2) Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits For use only in nonresidential areas For operations that fill canisters to be used in streaming applications, EPA recommends the following:
- Adequate ventilation should be in place;
- All spills should be cleaned up immediately in accordance with good industrial hygiene practices; and
- Training for safe handling procedures should be provided to all employees that would be likely to handle containers of the agent or extinguishing units filled with the agent.
See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4.
Streaming H Galden HFPEs Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits For use only in nonresidential areas For operations that fill canisters to be used in streaming applications, EPA recommends the following:
- Adequate ventialtion should be in place;
- All spills should be cleaned up immediately in accordance with good industrial hygiene practices; and
- Training for safe handling procedures should be provided to all employees that would be likely to handle containers of the agent or extinguishing units filled with the agent.
See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4.

[68 FR 4010, Jan. 27, 2003]

Appendix M to Subpart G of Part 82 - Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the September 30, 2004 Final Rule, Effective November 29, 2004

Foam Blowing - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Comments
All foam end-uses:
- rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock
- rigid polyurethane appliance
- rigid polyurethane spray and commercial refrigeration, and sandwich panels
HCFC-141b Unacceptable Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with this substitute on or before December 1, 2017 may be used after that date Alternatives exist with lower or zero-ODP.
- rigid polyurethane slabstock and other foams
- polystyrene extruded insulation boardstock and billet
- phenolic insulation board and bunstock
- flexible polyurethane
- polystyrene extruded sheet
- Except for:1
- space vehicle
- nuclear
- defense
- research and development for foreign customers

[81 FR 86883, Dec. 1, 2016]

Appendix N to Subpart G of Part 82 [Reserved]
Appendix O to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Listed in the September 27, 2006 Final Rule, Effective November 27, 2006

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection Sector - Total Flooding Substitutes - Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions

End-use Substitute Decision Conditions Further information
Total flooding Gelled Halocarbon/Dry Chemical Suspension (Envirogel) with sodium bicarbonate additive Acceptable subject to use conditions Use of whichever hydrofluorocarbon gas (HFC-125, HFC-227ea, or HFC-236fa) is employed in the formulation must be in accordance with all requirements for acceptability (i.e., narrowed use limits) of that HFC under EPA's SNAP program Use of this agent should be in accordance with the safety guidelines in the latest edition of the NFPA 2001 Standard for Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems, for whichever hydrofluorocarbon gas is employed, and the latest edition of the NFPA 2010 standard for Aerosol Extinguishing Systems.
Sodium bicarbonate release in all settings should be targeted so that increased blood pH level would not adversely affect exposed individuals.
Users should provide special training, including the potential hazards associated with the use of the HFC agent and sodium bicarbonate, to individuals required to be in environments protected by Envirogel with sodium bicarbonate additive extinguishing systems.
Each extinguisher should be clearly labeled with the potential hazards from use and safe handling procedures.
See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Total flooding Phosphorous Tribromide (PBr3) Acceptable subject to use conditions For use only in aircraft engine nacelles For establishments manufacturing the agent or filling, installing, or servicing containers or systems, EPA recommends the following:
- adequate ventilation should be in place and/or positive pressure, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) should be worn;
- training for safe handling procedures should be provided to all employees that would be likely to handle containers of the agent or extinguishing units filled with the agent; and
- all spills should be cleaned up immediately in accordance with good industrial hygiene practices.
See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

[71 FR 56367, Sept. 27, 2006, as amended at 81 FR 86883, Dec. 1, 2016; 86 FR 24471, May 6, 2021]

Appendix P to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Listed in the September 27, 2006 Final Rule, Effective November 27, 2006

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection Sector - Total Flooding Agents - Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits

End-use Substitute Decision Conditions Further information
Total flooding Gelled Halocarbon/Dry Chemical Suspension with any agent other than ammonium polyphosphate or sodium bicarbonate additive (Envirogel with sodium bicarbonate additive) Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits For use only in normally unoccupied areas Use of this agent should be in accordance with the safety guidelines in the latest edition of the NFPA 2001 Standard for Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems, for whichever hydrofluorocarbon gas is employed.
Envirogel is listed as a streaming substitute under the generic name Gelled Halocarbon/Dry Chemical Suspension. Envirogel was also previously listed as a total flooding substitute under the same generic name.
EPA has found Envirogel with the ammonium polyphosphate additive and Envirogel with the sodium bicarbonate additive to be acceptable as total flooding agents in both occupied and unoccupied areas.
See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

[71 FR 56367, Sept. 27, 2006]

Appendix Q to Subpart G of Part 82 - Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the March 28, 2007 Final Rule, Effective May 29, 2007

Foam Blowing Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Further information
- Rigid polyurethane commercial refrigeration
- Rigid polyurethane sandwich panels
- Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other foams
HCFC-22, HCFC-142b as substitutes for HCFC-141b Unacceptable1
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before December 1, 2017 may be used after that date
Alternatives exist with lower or zero-ODP.
- Rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock
- Rigid polyurethane appliance
- Rigid polyurethane spray and commercial refrigeration, and sandwich panels
- Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other foams
- Polystyrene extruded insulation boardstock and billet
- Phenolic insulation board and bunstock
- Flexible polyurethane
- Polystyrene extruded sheet
HCFC-22, HCFC-142b as substitutes for CFCs Unacceptable2
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before December 1, 2017 may be used after that date
Alternatives exist with lower or zero-ODP.

[81 FR 86885, Dec. 1, 2016]

Appendix R to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions Listed in the December 20, 2011, Final Rule, Effective February 21, 2012, in the April 10, 2015 Final Rule, Effective May 11, 2015, and in the August 8, 2018 Final Rule, Effective September 7, 2018

Substitutes That Are Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions

End-use Substitute Decision Use conditions Further information
Household refrigerators, freezers, and combination refrigerators and freezers (New equipment only) Isobutane (R-600a)
Propane (R-290)
R-441A
Acceptable subject to use conditions As of September 7, 2018:
These refrigerants may be used only in new equipment designed specifically and clearly identified for the refrigerant (i.e., none of these substitutes may be used as a conversion or “retrofit” refrigerant for existing equipment designed for a different refrigerant)
These refrigerants may be used only in a refrigerator or freezer, or combination refrigerator and freezer, that meets all requirements listed in the 2nd edition of the Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard for Safety: Household and Similar Electrical Appliances - Safety - Part 2-24: Particular Requirements for Refrigerating Appliances, Ice-Cream Appliances and Ice-Makers, UL 60335-2-24, dated April 28, 2017
Applicable OSHA requirements at 29 CFR part 1910 must be followed, including those at 29 CFR 1910.106 (flammable and combustible liquids), 1910.110 (storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases), 1910.157 (portable fire extinguishers), and 1910.1000 (toxic and hazardous substances).
Proper ventilation should be maintained at all times during the manufacture and storage of equipment containing hydrocarbon refrigerants through adherence to good manufacturing practices as per 29 CFR 1910.106. If refrigerant levels in the air surrounding the equipment rise above one-fourth of the lower flammability limit, the space should be evacuated and re-entry should occur only after the space has been properly ventilated.
Technicians and equipment manufacturers should wear appropriate personal protective equipment, including chemical goggles and protective gloves, when handling these refrigerants. Special care should be taken to avoid contact with the skin since these refrigerants, like many refrigerants, can cause freeze burns on the skin.
A Class B dry powder type fire extinguisher should be kept nearby.
Technicians should only use spark-proof tools when working on refrigerators and freezers with these refrigerants.
Any recovery equipment used should be designed for flammable refrigerants.
Any refrigerant releases should be in a well-ventilated area, such as outside of a building.
Only technicians specifically trained in handling flammable refrigerants should service refrigerators and freezers containing these refrigerants. Technicians should gain an understanding of minimizing the risk of fire and the steps to use flammable refrigerants safely.
Retail food refrigerators and freezers (stand-alone units only)
(New equipment only)
Isobutane (R-600a)
Propane (R-290)
R-441A
Acceptable subject to use conditions As provided in clauses SB6.1.2 to SB6.1.5 of UL Standard 471, 10th edition, the following markings must be attached at the locations provided and must be permanent:
(a) On or near any evaporators that can be contacted by the consumer: “DANGER - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Do Not Use Mechanical Devices To Defrost Refrigerator. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.”
(b) Near the machine compartment: “DANGER - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired Only By Trained Service Personnel. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.”
(c) Near the machine compartment: “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Consult Repair Manual/Owner's Guide Before Attempting To Service This Product. All Safety Precautions Must be Followed.”
(d) On the exterior of the refrigerator: “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Dispose of Properly In Accordance With Federal Or Local Regulations. Flammable Refrigerant Used.”
(e) Near any and all exposed refrigerant tubing: “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion Due To Puncture Of Refrigerant Tubing; Follow Handling Instructions Carefully. Flammable Refrigerant Used.”
All of these markings must be in letters no less than 6.4 mm (1/4 inch) high
The refrigerator or freezer must have red, Pantone® Matching System (PMS) #185 marked pipes, hoses, and other devices through which the refrigerant is serviced, typically known as the service port, to indicate the use of a flammable refrigerant. This color must be present at all service ports and where service puncturing or otherwise creating an opening from the refrigerant circuit to the atmosphere might be expected (e.g., process tubes). The color mark must extend at least 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) from the compressor and must be replaced if removed
Room occupants should evacuate the space immediately following the accidental release of this refrigerant.
If a service port is added then retail food refrigerators and freezers using these refrigerants should have service aperture fittings that differ from fittings used in equipment or containers using non-flammable refrigerant. “Differ” means that either the diameter differs by at least 1/16 inch or the thread direction is reversed (i.e., right-handed vs. left-handed). These different fittings should be permanently affixed to the unit at the point of service and maintained until the end-of-life of the unit, and should not be accessed with an adaptor.
Very low temperature refrigeration
Non-mechanical heat transfer
(New equipment only)
Ethane (R-170) Acceptable subject to use conditions This refrigerant may be used only in new equipment specifically designed and clearly identified for the refrigerant (i.e., the substitute may not be used as a conversion or “retrofit” refrigerant for existing equipment designed for other refrigerants)
This refrigerant may only be used in equipment that meets all requirements in Supplement SB to the 10th edition of the Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers, UL 471, dated November 24, 2010. In cases where the final rule includes requirements more stringent than those of the 10th edition of UL 471, the appliance must meet the requirements of the final rule in place of the requirements in the UL Standard
The charge size for the equipment must not exceed 150 g (5.29 oz) in each circuit
Applicable OSHA requirements at 29 CFR part 1910 must be followed, including those at 29 CFR 1910.94 (ventilation) and 1910.106 (flammable and combustible liquids), 1910.110 (storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases), 1910.157 (portable fire extinguishers), and 1910.1000 (toxic and hazardous substances).
Proper ventilation should be maintained at all times during the manufacture and storage of equipment containing hydrocarbon refrigerants through adherence to good manufacturing practices as per 29 CFR 1910.106. If refrigerant levels in the air surrounding the equipment rise above one-fourth of the lower flammability limit, the space should be evacuated and re-entry should occur only after the space has been properly ventilated.
Technicians and equipment manufacturers should wear appropriate personal protective equipment, including chemical goggles and protective gloves, when handling ethane. Special care should be taken to avoid contact with the skin since ethane, like many refrigerants, can cause freeze burns on the skin.
A Class B dry powder type fire extinguisher should be kept nearby.
Technicians should only use spark-proof tools when working on equipment with flammable refrigerants.
Any recovery equipment used should be designed for flammable refrigerants.
Any refrigerant releases should be in a well-ventilated area, such as outside of a building.
Only technicians specifically trained in handling flammable refrigerants should service equipment containing ethane. Technicians should gain an understanding of minimizing the risk of fire and the steps to use flammable refrigerants safely.
Very low temperature refrigeration
Non-mechanical heat transfer
(New equipment only)
Ethane (R-170) Acceptable subject to use conditions As provided in clauses SB6.1.2 to SB6.1.5 of UL Standard 471, 10th edition, the following markings must be attached at the locations provided and must be permanent:
(a) On or near any evaporators that can be contacted by the consumer: “DANGER - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Do Not Use Mechanical Devices To Defrost Refrigerator. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.”
(b) Near the machine compartment: “DANGER - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired Only By Trained Service Personnel. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.”
(c) Near the machine compartment: “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Consult Repair Manual/Owner's Guide Before Attempting To Service This Product. All Safety Precautions Must be Followed.”
(d) On the exterior of the refrigerator: “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Dispose of Properly In Accordance With Federal Or Local Regulations. Flammable Refrigerant Used.”
(e) Near any and all exposed refrigerant tubing: “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion Due To Puncture Of Refrigerant Tubing; Follow Handling Instructions Carefully. Flammable Refrigerant Used.”
All of these markings must be in letters no less than 6.4 mm (1/4 inch) high
The refrigeration equipment must have red, Pantone® Matching System (PMS) #185 marked pipes, hoses, and other devices through which the refrigerant is serviced, typically known as the service port, to indicate the use of a flammable refrigerant. This color must be present at all service ports and where service puncturing or otherwise creating an opening from the refrigerant circuit to the atmosphere might be expected (e.g., process tubes). The color mark must extend at least 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) from the compressor and must be replaced if removed
Room occupants should evacuate the space immediately following the accidental release of this refrigerant.
If a service port is added then refrigeration equipment using this refrigerant should have service aperture fittings that differ from fittings used in equipment or containers using non-flammable refrigerant. “Differ” means that either the diameter differs by at least 1/16 inch or the thread direction is reversed (i.e., right-handed vs. left-handed). These different fittings should be permanently affixed to the unit at the point of service and maintained until the end-of-life of the unit, and should not be accessed with an adaptor.
Example of non-mechanical heat transfer using this refrigerant would be use in a secondary loop of a thermosiphon.
Vending Machines
(New equipment only)
Isobutane (R-600a)
Propane (R-290)
R-441A
Acceptable subject to use conditions These refrigerants may be used only in new equipment specifically designed and clearly identified for the refrigerants (i.e., none of these substitutes may be used as a conversion or “retrofit” refrigerant for existing equipment designed for other refrigerants).
Detaching and replacing the old refrigeration circuit from the outer casing of the equipment with a new one containing a new evaporator, condenser, and refrigerant tubing within the old casing is considered “new” equipment and not a retrofit of the old, existing equipment
These substitutes may only be used in equipment that meets all requirements in Supplement SA to the 7th edition of the Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard for Refrigerated Vending Machines, UL 541, dated December, 2011. In cases where the final rule includes requirements more stringent than those of the 7th edition of UL 541, the appliance must meet the requirements of the final rule in place of the requirements in the UL Standard
The charge size for vending machines must not exceed 150 g (5.29 oz) in each circuit
Applicable OSHA requirements at 29 part 1910 must be followed, including those at 29 CFR 1910.94 (ventilation) and 1910.106 (flammable and combustible liquids), 1910.110 (storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases), 1910.157 (portable fire extinguishers), and 1910.1000 (toxic and hazardous substances).
Proper ventilation should be maintained at all times during the manufacture and storage of equipment containing hydrocarbon refrigerants through adherence to good manufacturing practices as per 29 CFR 1910.106. If refrigerant levels in the air surrounding the equipment rise above one-fourth of the lower flammability limit, the space should be evacuated and re-entry should occur only after the space has been properly ventilated.
Technicians and equipment manufacturers should wear appropriate personal protective equipment, including chemical goggles and protective gloves, when handling these refrigerants. Special care should be taken to avoid contact with the skin since these refrigerants, like many refrigerants, can cause freeze burns on the skin.
A Class B dry powder type fire extinguisher should be kept nearby.
Technicians should only use spark-proof tools when working on refrigeration equipment with flammable refrigerants.
Any recovery equipment used should be designed for flammable refrigerants.
Any refrigerant releases should be in a well-ventilated area, such as outside of a building.
Only technicians specifically trained in handling flammable refrigerants should service refrigeration equipment containing these refrigerants. Technicians should gain an understanding of minimizing the risk of fire and the steps to use flammable refrigerants safely.
Vending Machines
(New equipment only)
Isobutane (R-600a)
Propane (R-290)
R-441A
Acceptable subject to use conditions As provided in clauses SA6.1.2 to SA6.1.5 of UL Standard 541, 7th edition, the following markings must be attached at the locations provided and must be permanent:
(a) On or near any evaporators that can be contacted by the consumer: “DANGER - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Do Not Use Mechanical Devices To Defrost Refrigerator. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.”
(b) Near the machine compartment: “DANGER - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired Only By Trained Service Personnel. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.”
(c) Near the machine compartment: “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Consult Repair Manual/Owner's Guide Before Attempting To Service This Product. All Safety Precautions Must be Followed.”
(d) On the exterior of the refrigerator: “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Dispose of Properly In Accordance With Federal Or Local Regulations. Flammable Refrigerant Used.”
(e) Near any and all exposed refrigerant tubing: “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion Due To Puncture Of Refrigerant Tubing; Follow Handling Instructions Carefully. Flammable Refrigerant Used.”
All of these markings must be in letters no less than 6.4 mm (1/4 inch) high
The refrigeration equipment must have red, Pantone® Matching System (PMS) #185 marked pipes, hoses, and other devices through which the refrigerant is serviced, typically known as the service port, to indicate the use of a flammable refrigerant. This color must be present at all service ports and where service puncturing or otherwise creating an opening from the refrigerant circuit to the atmosphere might be expected (e.g., process tubes). The color mark must extend at least 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) from the compressor and must be replaced if removed
Room occupants should evacuate the space immediately following the accidental release of this refrigerant.
If a service port is added then refrigeration equipment using this refrigerant should have service aperture fittings that differ from fittings used in equipment or containers using non-flammable refrigerant. “Differ” means that either the diameter differs by at least 1/16 inch or the thread direction is reversed (i.e., right-handed vs. left-handed). These different fittings should be permanently affixed to the unit at the point of service and maintained until the end-of-life of the unit, and should not be accessed with an adaptor.
Residential and light-commercial air conditioning and heat pumps - self-contained room air conditioners only
(New equipment only)
HFC-32
Propane (R-290)
R-441A
Acceptable subject to use conditions These refrigerants may be used only in new equipment specifically designed and clearly identified for the refrigerants (i.e., none of these substitutes may be used as a conversion or “retrofit” refrigerant for existing equipment designed for other refrigerants)
These refrigerants may only be used in equipment that meets all requirements in Supplement SA and Appendices B through F of the 8th edition of the Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard for Room Air Conditioners, UL 484, dated August 3, 2012. In cases where the final rule includes requirements more stringent than those of the 8th edition of UL 484, the appliance must meet the requirements of the final rule in place of the requirements in the UL Standard
The charge size for the entire air conditioner must not exceed the maximum refrigerant mass determined according to Appendix F of UL 484, 8th edition for the room size where the air conditioner is used. The charge size for these three refrigerants must in no case exceed 7,960 g (280.8 oz or 17.55 lb) of HFC-32; 1,000 g (35.3 oz or 2.21 lbs) of propane; or 1,000 g (35.3 oz or 2.21 lb) of R-441A. For portable air conditioners, the charge size must in no case exceed 2,450 g (80.0 oz or 5.0 lb) of HFC-32; 300 g (10.6 oz or 0.66 lbs) of propane; or 330 g (11.6 oz or 0.72 lb) of R-441A. The manufacturer must design a charge size for the entire air conditioner that does not exceed the amount specified for the unit's cooling capacity, as specified in Table A, B, C, D, or E of this Appendix
Applicable OSHA requirements at 29 CFR part 1910 must be followed, including those at 29 CFR 1910.94 (ventilation) and 1910.106 (flammable and combustible liquids), 1910.110 (storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases), 1910.157 (portable fire extinguishers), and 1910.1000 (toxic and hazardous substances).
Proper ventilation should be maintained at all times during the manufacture and storage of equipment containing hydrocarbon refrigerants through adherence to good manufacturing practices as per 29 CFR 1910.106. If refrigerant levels in the air surrounding the equipment rise above one-fourth of the lower flammability limit, the space should be evacuated and re-entry should occur only after the space has been properly ventilated.
Technicians and equipment manufacturers should wear appropriate personal protective equipment, including chemical goggles and protective gloves, when handling these refrigerants. Special care should be taken to avoid contact with the skin since these refrigerants, like many refrigerants, can cause freeze burns on the skin.
A Class B dry powder type fire extinguisher should be kept nearby.
Technicians should only use spark-proof tools when working on air conditioning equipment with flammable refrigerants.
Any recovery equipment used should be designed for flammable refrigerants.
Any refrigerant releases should be in a well-ventilated area, such as outside of a building.
Only technicians specifically trained in handling flammable refrigerants should service refrigeration equipment containing these refrigerants. Technicians should gain an understanding of minimizing the risk of fire and the steps to use flammable refrigerants safely.
Residential and light-commercial air conditioning and heat pumps - self-contained room air conditioners only
(New equipment only)
HFC-32
Propane (R-290)
R-441A
Acceptable subject to use conditions As provided in clauses SA6.1.2 to SA6.1.5 of UL 484, 8th edition, the following markings must be attached at the locations provided and must be permanent:
(a) On the outside of the air conditioner: “DANGER - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired Only By Trained Service Personnel. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.”
(b) On the outside of the air conditioner: “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Dispose of Properly In Accordance With Federal Or Local Regulations. Flammable Refrigerant Used.”
(c) On the inside of the air conditioner near the compressor: “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Consult Repair Manual/Owner's Guide Before Attempting To Service This Product. All Safety Precautions Must be Followed.”
(d) On the outside of each portable air conditioner: “WARNING: Appliance hall be installed, operated and stored in a room with a floor area larger the “X” m2 (Y ft2).” The value “X” on the label must be determined using the minimum room size in m2 calculated using Appendix F of UL 484, 8th edition. For R-441A, use a lower flammability limit of 0.041 kg/m3 in calculations in Appendix F of UL 484, 8th edition
All of these markings must be in letters no less than 6.4 mm (1/4 inch) high
The air conditioning equipment must have red, Pantone® Matching System (PMS) #185 marked pipes, hoses, and other devices through which the refrigerant is serviced, typically known as the service port, to indicate the use of a flammable refrigerant. This color must be present at all service ports and where service puncturing or otherwise creating an opening from the refrigerant circuit to the atmosphere might be expected (e.g., process tubes). The color mark must extend at least 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) from the compressor and must be replaced if removed
Room occupants should evacuate the space immediately following the accidental release of this refrigerant.
If a service port is added then air conditioning equipment using this refrigerant should have service aperture fittings that differ from fittings used in equipment or containers using non-flammable refrigerant. “Differ” means that either the diameter differs by at least 1/16 inch or the thread direction is reversed (i.e., right-handed vs. left-handed). These different fittings should be permanently affixed to the unit at the point of service and maintained until the end-of-life of the unit, and should not be accessed with an adaptor.
Air conditioning equipment in this category includes:
Window air conditioning units.
Portable room air conditioners.
Packaged terminal air conditioners and heat pumps.

The Director of the Federal Register approves the incorporation by reference of the material under “Use Conditions” in the table “SUBSTITUTES THAT ARE ACCEPTABLE SUBJECT TO USE CONDITIONS” (5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51). Copies of UL Standards 471, 484, 541, and 60335-2-24, may be purchased by mail at: COMM 2000, 151 Eastern Avenue, Bensenville, IL 60106; Email: ; Telephone: 1-888-853-3503 in the U.S. or Canada (other countries dial 1-415-352-2178); internet address: http://www.shopulstandards.com/Catalog.aspx.

You may inspect a copy at U.S. EPA's Air Docket; EPA West Building, Room 3334; 1301 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, DC or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For questions regarding access to these standards, the telephone number of EPA'S Air Docket is 202-566-1742. For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html.

[80 FR 19491, Apr. 10, 2015, as amended at 83 FR 38975, Aug. 8, 2018]

Appendix S to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Listed in the September 19, 2012 Final Rule, Effective December 18, 2012.

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection Sector - Acceptable Subject To Use Conditions

End-Use Substitute Decision Conditions Further information
Total Flooding Powdered Aerosol F (KSA®) as a substitute for Halon 1301 Acceptable subject to use conditions For use only in normally unoccupied areas Use of this agent should be in accordance with the safety guidelines in the latest edition of the NFPA 2010 standard for Aerosol Extinguishing Systems.
For establishments filling, installing, servicing, using, or disposing of containers or systems to be used in total flooding applications, EPA recommends the following:
- appropriate protective clothing (e.g., goggles, particulate removing respirators, and gloves) should be worn during the installation and maintenance of the extinguishing units filled with the agent or during clean up and disposal of this agent;
- training should be provided to all employees that would be likely to handle containers of the agent or extinguishing units filled with the agent, required to clean up after discharge or required to work near spaces protected by Powdered Aerosol F.
Releases in all settings should be limited to an appropriate design concentration for the protected space so that increased blood pH level would not adversely affect exposed individuals.
Exposed individuals should be given an electrolyte solution to drink afterwards to restore the pH within the appropriate range.
Each extinguisher should be clearly labeled with the potential hazards from use and safe handling procedures.
In the case of an accidental spill, the area should be well-ventilated, and workers should wear protective equipment while following good industrial hygiene practices for clean-up and disposal.
See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4.
Total Flooding Powdered Aerosol G (Dry Sprinkler Powdered Aerosol (DSPA) Fixed Generators) as a substitute for Halon 1301 Acceptable subject to use conditions For use only in normally unoccupied areas Use of this agent should be in accordance with the safety guidelines in the latest edition of the NFPA 2010 standard for Aerosol Extinguishing Systems.
For establishments filling, installing, servicing, using or disposing of generator units or systems in total flooding applications, EPA recommends the appropriate protective clothing (e.g., goggles, particulate removing respirators, and gloves) should be worn during the installation and maintenance of the extinguishing units filled with the agent or during clean up and disposal of this agent.
Powdered Aerosol G should be collected by hand (e.g., with a dustpan and duster or a vacuum cleaner); waste should be collected in suitable drums for disposal and the area should be washed clean with sufficient quantities of water; and training should be provided to all employees that would be likely to handle the agent or generator units filled containing the agent, required to clean up after discharge or required to work near spaces protected by Powdered Aerosol G fixed generator total flooding systems.
In accordance with Department of Health and Human Services regulations (42 CFR Part 84), safety glasses and a NIOSH/CDC-approved N99 respirator are required for individuals installing Powdered Aerosol G fixed systems.
Each generator unit should be clearly labeled with the potential hazards from use and safe handling procedures.
In the case of an accidental discharge, the area should be well-ventilated, and workers should wear protective equipment while following good industrial hygiene practices for clean-up and disposal.
See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4.

[77 FR 58043, Sept. 19, 2012;

Appendix T to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes listed in the April 29, 2013 Final Rule, effective May 29, 2013.

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection Sector - Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits

End-use Substitute Decision Conditions Further Information
Streaming C7 Fluoro-ketone as a substitute for Halon 1211 Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits For use only in non-residential applications Use of this agent should be in accordance with the latest edition of NFPA Standard 10 for Portable Fire Extinguishers.
For operations that fill canisters to be used in streaming applications, EPA recommends the following:
- Adequate ventilation should be in place;
- All spills should be cleaned up immediately in accordance with good industrial hygiene practices; and
- Training for safe handling procedures should be provided to all employees that would be likely to handle containers of the agent or extinguishing units filled with the agent.
See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4.

[78 FR 25002, Apr. 29, 2013]

Appendix U to Subpart G of Part 82 - Unacceptable Substitutes and Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions Listed in the July 20, 2015 Final Rule, Effective August 19, 2015

Aerosols - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Further information
Propellants HFC-125 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2016 HFC-125 has a Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS Reg. No.) of 354-33-6 and it is also known by the name 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane. HFC-125 has a GWP of 3,500. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Products using this propellant that are manufactured prior to January 1, 2016 may be sold, imported, exported, distributed and used after that date.
Propellants HFC-134a Unacceptable as of July 20, 2016, except uses listed as acceptable, subject to use conditions HFC-134a has a Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS Reg. No.) of 811-97-2 and it is also known by the name 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoropropane. HFC-134a has a GWP of 1,430. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Products using this propellant that are manufactured prior to July 20, 2016 may be sold, imported, exported, distributed and used after that date.
Propellants HFC-227ea and blends of HFC-134a and HFC-227ea Unacceptable as of July 20, 2016, except uses listed as acceptable, subject to use conditions HFC-227ea has a Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS Reg. No.) of 431-89-0 and it is also known by the name 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane. HFC-134a has a Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS Reg. No.) of 811-97-2 and it is also known by the name 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoropropane.
HFC-227ea and HFC-134a have GWPs of 3,220 and 1,430, respectively. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Products using these propellants that are manufactured prior to July 20, 2016 may be sold, imported, exported, distributed and used after that date.
Propellants HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b Unacceptable effective September 18, 2015 Use or introduction into interstate commerce of virgin HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b for aerosols is prohibited as of January 1, 2010 under EPA's regulations at 40 CFR part 82 subpart A. These propellants have ozone depletion potentials of 0.055 and 0.065, respectively.
Solvents HCFC-141b and blends thereof Unacceptable effective September 18, 2015 Use or introduction into interstate commerce of virgin HCFC-141b for aerosols is prohibited as of January 1, 2015 under EPA's regulations at 40 CFR part 82 subpart A. HCFC-141b has an ozone depletion potential of 0.11.

Substitutes Acceptable Subject To Use Conditions

End-use Substitute Decision Use conditions Further information
Propellants HFC-134a Acceptable subject to use conditions The classes of products listed below are acceptable for use from July 20, 2016 through December 31, 2017 and are unacceptable thereafter
• products for functional testing of smoke detectors
• products for which new formulations require governmental review, including: EPA pesticide registration, approval for conformance with military or space agency specifications, or FDA approval (other than MDIs)
The classes of products listed below are acceptable for use and other uses are unacceptable as of July 20, 2016:
• metered dose inhalers approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for medical purposes
• cleaning products for removal of grease, flux and other soils from electrical equipment or electronics
• refrigerant flushes
• products for sensitivity testing of smoke detectors
• lubricants and freeze sprays for electrical equipment or electronics
HFC-134a has a Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS Reg. No.) of 811-97-2 and it is also known by the name 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoropropane. HFC-134a has a GWP of 1,430. Use is allowed for the specified uses because of the technical and safety demands in these applications.
Aerosol products using this propellant that are manufactured prior to July 20, 2016, may be sold, imported, exported, distributed and used after that date.
• sprays for aircraft maintenance.
• sprays containing corrosion preventive compounds used in the maintenance of aircraft, electrical equipment or electronics, or military equipment.
• pesticides for use near electrical wires or in aircraft, in total release insecticide foggers, or in certified organic use pesticides for which EPA has specifically disallowed all other lower-GWP propellants.
• mold release agents and mold cleaners.
• lubricants and cleaners for spinnerettes for synthetic fabrics.
• duster sprays specifically for removal of dust from photographic negatives, semiconductor chips, specimens under electron microscopes, and energized electrical equipment.
• adhesives and sealants in large canisters.
• document preservation sprays.
• wound care sprays.
• topical coolant sprays for pain relief.
• products for removing bandage adhesives from skin.
Propellants HFC-227ea and blends of HFC-227ea and HFC-134a Acceptable subject to use conditions Acceptable for use in metered dose inhalers approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for medical purposes and unacceptable for all other uses as of July 20, 2016 HFC-227ea has a Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS Reg. No.) of 431-89-0 and it is also known by the name 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane. HFC-227ea has a GWP of 3,220.
Aerosol products using this propellant that are manufactured prior to July 20, 2016 may be sold, imported, exported, distributed and used after that date.

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Further information
Retail food refrigeration (supermarket systems) (new) HFC-227ea, R-404A, R-407B, R-421B, R-422A, R-422C, R-422D, R-428A, R-434A, R-507A Unacceptable as of January 1, 2017 These refrigerants have GWPs ranging from 2,729 to 3,985. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Retail food refrigeration (supermarket systems) (retrofit) R-404A, R-407B, R-421B, R-422A, R-422C, R-422D, R-428A, R-434A, R-507A Unacceptable as of July 20, 2016 These refrigerants have GWPs ranging from 2,729 to 3,985. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Retail food refrigeration (remote condensing units) (new) HFC-227ea, R-404A, R-407B, R-421B, R-422A, R-422C, R-422D, R-428A, R-434A, R-507A Unacceptable as of January 1, 2018 These refrigerants have GWPs ranging from 2,729 to 3,985. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Retail food refrigeration (remote condensing units) (retrofit) R-404A, R-407B, R-421B, R-422A, R-422C, R-422D, R-428A, R-434A, R-507A Unacceptable as of July 20, 2016 These refrigerants have GWPs ranging from 2,729 to 3,985. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Retail food refrigeration (stand-alone medium-temperature units with a compressor capacity below 2,200 Btu/hr and not containing a flooded evaporator) (new) FOR12A, FOR12B, HFC-134a, HFC-227ea, KDD6, R-125/290/134a/600a (55.0/1.0/42.5/1.5), R-404A, R-407A, R-407B, R-407C, R-407F, R-410A, R-410B, R-417A, R-421A, R-421B, R-422A, R-422B, R-422C, R-422D, R-424A, R-426A, R-428A, R-434A, R-437A, R-438A, R-507A, RS-24 (2002 formulation), RS-44 (2003 formulation), SP34E, THR-03 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2019 These refrigerants have GWPs ranging from approximately 900 to 3,985. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date. “Medium-temperature” refers to equipment that maintains food or beverages at temperatures above 32 °F (0 °C).
Retail food refrigeration (stand-alone medium-temperature units with a compressor capacity below 2,200 Btu/hr and containing a flooded evaporator) (new) FOR12A, FOR12B, HFC-134a, HFC-227ea, KDD6, R-125/290/134a/600a (55.0/1.0/42.5/1.5), R-404A, R-407A, R-407B, R-407C, R-407F, R-410A, R-410B, R-417A, R-421A, R-421B, R-422A, R-422B, R-422C, R-422D, R-424A, R-426A, R-428A, R-434A, R-437A, R-438A, R-507A, RS-24 (2002 formulation), RS-44 (2003 formulation), SP34E, THR-03 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2020 These refrigerants have GWPs ranging from approximately 900 to 3,985. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date. “Medium-temperature” refers to equipment that maintains food or beverages at temperatures above 32 °F (0 °C).
Retail food refrigeration (stand-alone medium-temperature units with a compressor capacity equal to or greater than 2,200 Btu/hr) (new) FOR12A, FOR12B, HFC-134a, HFC-227ea, KDD6, R-125/290/134a/600a (55.0/1.0/42.5/1.5), R-404A, R-407A, R-407B, R-407C, R-407F, R-410A, R-410B, R-417A, R-421A, R-421B, R-422A, R-422B, R-422C, R-422D, R-424A, R-426A, R-428A, R-434A, R-437A, R-438A, R-507A, RS-24 (2002 formulation), RS-44 (2003 formulation), SP34E, THR-03 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2020 These refrigerants have GWPs ranging from approximately 900 to 3,985. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date. “Medium-temperature” refers to equipment that maintains food or beverages at temperatures above 32 °F (0 °C).
Retail food refrigeration (stand-alone low-temperature units) (new) HFC-227ea, KDD6, R-125/290/134a/600a (55.0/1.0/42.5/1.5), R-404A, R-407A, R-407B, R-407C, R-407F, R-410A, R-410B, R-417A, R-421A, R-421B, R-422A, R-422B, R-422C, R-422D, R-424A, R-428A, R-434A, R-437A, R-438A, R-507A, RS-44 (2003 formulation) Unacceptable as of January 1, 2020 These refrigerants have GWPs ranging from approximately 1,800 to 3,985. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date. “Low-temperature” refers to equipment that maintains food or beverages at temperatures at or below 32 °F (0 °C).
Retail food refrigeration (stand-alone units only) (retrofit) R-404A, R-507A Unacceptable as of July 20, 2016 These refrigerants have GWPs of approximately 3,922 and 3,985. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Vending machines (new only) FOR12A, FOR12B, HFC-134a, KDD6, R-125/290/134a/600a (55.0/1.0/42.5/1.5), R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, R-410B, R-417A, R-421A, R-422B, R-422C, R-422D, R-426A, R-437A, R-438A, R-507A, RS-24 (2002 formulation), SP34E Unacceptable as of January 1, 2019 These refrigerants have GWPs ranging from approximately 1,100 to 3,985. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Vending machines (retrofit only) R-404A, R-507A. Unacceptable as of July 20, 2016 These refrigerants have GWPs of approximately 3,922 and 3,985. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.

Foam Blowing Agents - Substitutes Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits

End-use Substitute Decision Narrowed use limits Further information
Rigid Polyurethane: Appliance HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc and blends thereof; Formacel TI, and Formacel Z-6 Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits Acceptable from January 1, 2020, until January 1, 2022, in military applications and until January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2022, for military applications or on and before January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications, may be used after those dates
Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Process or product in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching.
Rigid Polyurethane: Commercial Refrigeration and Sandwich Panels HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc, and blends thereof; Formacel TI, and Formacel Z-6 Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits Acceptable from January 1, 2020, until January 1, 2022, in military applications and until January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2022, for military applications or on and before January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications, may be used after those dates
Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Process or product in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching.
Flexible Polyurethane HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc, and blends thereof Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits Acceptable from January 1, 2017, until January 1, 2022, in military applications and until January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Process or product in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching.
Rigid Polyurethane: Slabstock and Other HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc and blends thereof; Formacel TI, and Formacel Z-6 Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits Acceptable from January 1, 2019, until January 1, 2022, in military applications and until January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2022, for military applications or on and before January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications, may be used after those dates
Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Process or product in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching.
Rigid Polyurethane and Polyisocyanurate Laminated Boardstock HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc and blends thereof Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits Acceptable from January 1, 2017, until January 1, 2022, in military applications and until January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2022, for military applications or on and before January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications, may be used after those dates
Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Process or product in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching.
Rigid Polyurethane: Marine Flotation Foam HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc and blends thereof; Formacel TI, and Formacel Z-6 Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits Acceptable from January 1, 2020, until January 1, 2022, in military applications and until January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2022, for military applications or on and before January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications, may be used after those dates
Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Process or product in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching.
Polystyrene: Extruded Sheet HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc, and blends thereof; Formacel TI, and Formacel Z-6 Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits Acceptable from January 1, 2017, until January 1, 2022, in military applications and until January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2022, for military applications or on and before January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications, may be used after those dates
Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Process or product in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching.
Polystyrene: Extruded Boardstock and Billet HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc, and blends thereof; Formacel TI, Formacel B, and Formacel Z-6 Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits Acceptable from January 1, 2021, until January 1, 2022, in military applications and until January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2022, for military applications or on and before January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications, may be used after those dates
Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Process or product in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching.
Integral Skin Polyurethane HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc, and blends thereof; Formacel TI, and Formacel Z-6 Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits Acceptable from January 1, 2017, until January 1, 2022, in military applications and until January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Process or product in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching.
Polyolefin HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc, and blends thereof; Formacel TI, and Formacel Z-6 Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits Acceptable from January 1, 2020, until January 1, 2022, in military applications and until January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2022, for military applications or on and before January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications, may be used after those dates
Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Process or product in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching.
Phenolic Insulation Board and Bunstock HFC-143a, HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc, and blends thereof Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits Acceptable from January 1, 2017, until January 1, 2022, in military applications and until January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2022, for military applications or on and before January 1, 2025, in space- and aeronautics-related applications, may be used after those dates
Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Process or product in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching.

Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Further information
All Foam Blowing End-uses HCFC-141b and blends thereof Unacceptable effective September 18, 2015. Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before December 1, 2017 may be used after that date HCFC-141b has an ozone depletion potential of 0.11 under the Montreal Protocol. EPA previously found HCFC-141b unacceptable in all foam blowing end-uses (appendix M to subpart G of 40 CFR part 82). HCFC-141b has an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 0.11.
All Foam Blowing end-uses HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, and blends thereof Unacceptable effective September 18, 2015. Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before December 1, 2017 may be used after that date Use or introduction into interstate commerce of virgin HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b for foam blowing is prohibited after January 1, 2010 under EPA's regulations at 40 CFR part 82 subpart A unless used, recovered, and recycled. These compounds have ODPs of 0.055 and 0.065, respectively.
Flexible Polyurethane HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc, and blends thereof Unacceptable as of January 1, 2017, except where allowed under a narrowed use limit These foam blowing agents have global warming potentials (GWPs) ranging from 725 to 1,430. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Polystyrene: Extruded Sheet HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc, and blends thereof; Formacel TI, and Formacel Z-6 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2017, except where allowed under a narrowed use limit
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before December 1, 2017 may be used after that date
These foam blowing agents have GWPs ranging from higher than 370 to approximately 1,500. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Phenolic Insulation Board and Bunstock HFC-143a, HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc, and blends thereof Unacceptable as of January 1, 2017, except where allowed under a narrowed use limit
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before December 1, 2017 may be used after that date
These foam blowing agents have GWPs ranging from 725 to 4,470. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Integral Skin Polyurethane HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc, and blends thereof; Formacel TI, and Formacel Z-6 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2017, except where allowed under a narrowed use limit These foam blowing agents have GWPs ranging from higher than 370 to approximately 1,500. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Rigid Polyurethane: Slabstock and Other HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc and blends thereof; Formacel TI, and Formacel Z-6 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2019, except where allowed under a narrowed use limit
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2019, may be used after that date
These foam blowing agents have GWPs ranging from higher than 370 to approximately 1,500. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Rigid Polyurethane and Polyisocyanurate Laminated Boardstock HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc and blends thereof Unacceptable as of January 1, 2017, except where allowed under a narrowed use limit
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before December 1, 2017 may be used after that date
These foam blowing agents have GWPs ranging from 725 to 1,430. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Rigid Polyurethane: Marine Flotation Foam HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc and blends thereof; Formacel TI, and Formacel Z-6 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2020 except where allowed under a narrowed use limit
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2020, may be used after that date
These foam blowing agents have GWPs ranging from higher than 370 to approximately 1,500. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Rigid Polyurethane: Commercial Refrigeration and Sandwich Panels HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc, and blends thereof; Formacel TI, and Formacel Z-6 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2020 except where allowed under a narrowed use limit
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2020, may be used after that date
These foam blowing agents have GWPs ranging from higher than 370 to approximately 1,500. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Rigid Polyurethane: Appliance HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc and blends thereof; Formacel TI, and Formacel Z-6 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2020, except where allowed under a narrowed use limit
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2020, may be used after that date
These foam blowing agents have GWPs ranging from higher than 370 to approximately 1,500. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Polystyrene: Extruded Boardstock and Billet HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc, and blends thereof; Formacel TI, Formacel B, and Formacel Z-6 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2021, except where allowed under a narrowed use limit
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2021, may be used after that date
These foam blowing agents have GWPs ranging from higher than 140 to approximately 1,500. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Polyolefin HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc, and blends thereof; Formacel TI, and Formacel Z-6 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2020, except where allowed under a narrowed use limit
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2020, may be used after that date
These foam blowing agents have GWPs ranging from higher than 370 to approximately 1,500. Other substitutes will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection Agents - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Further information
Total Flooding HCFC-22 Unacceptable effective September 18, 2015 Use or introduction into interstate commerce of virgin HCFC-22 for total flooding fire suppression and explosion protection is prohibited as of January 1, 2010 under EPA's regulations at 40 CFR part 82 subpart A. This chemical has an ozone depletion potential of 0.055.

Sterilants - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Further information
Sterilants Blends containing HCFC-22 Unacceptable effective September 18, 2015 Use or introduction into interstate commerce of virgin HCFC-22 for sterilants is prohibited as of January 1, 2010 under EPA's regulations at 40 CFR part 82 subpart A. This chemical has an ozone depletion potential of 0.055.

Adhesives, Coatings and Inks - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitute Decision Further information
Adhesives, coatings and inks HCFC-141b and blends thereof Unacceptable effective September 18, 2015 Use or introduction into interstate commerce of virgin HCFC-141b for adhesives, coatings and inks is prohibited as of January 1, 2015 under EPA's regulations at 40 CFR part 82 subpart A. This chemical has an ozone depletion potential of 0.11.

[80 FR 42953, July 20, 2015, as amended at 81 FR 86885, Dec. 1, 2016]

Appendix V to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the December 1, 2016 Final Rule

Refrigerants - Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions

End-use Substitute Decision Use conditions Further information
Commercial ice machines (self-contained) (new only) Propane (R-290) Acceptable, subject to use conditions As of January 3, 2017:
This refrigerant may be used only in new equipment designed specifically and clearly identified for the refrigerant - i.e., this refrigerant may not be used as a conversion or “retrofit” refrigerant for existing equipment
Applicable OSHA requirements at 29 CFR part 1910 must be followed, including those at 29 CFR 1910.106 (flammable and combustible liquids), 1910.110 (storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases), 1910.157 (portable fire extinguishers), and 1910.1000 (toxic and hazardous substances).

This refrigerant may be used only in self-contained commercial ice machines that meet all requirements listed in Supplement SA to UL 563.1 2 5 In cases where this rule includes requirements more stringent than those in UL 563, the equipment must meet the requirements of the final rule in place of the requirements in the UL Standard

The charge size must not exceed 150g (5.29 oz) in each refrigerant circuit of a commercial ice machine

Proper ventilation should be maintained at all times during

As provided in clauses SA6.1.1 and SA6.1.2 of UL 563, the following markings must be attached at the locations provided and must be permanent:

the manufacture and storage of equipment containing hydrocarbon refrigerants through

(a) “DANGER - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Do Not Use Mechanical Devices To Defrost Refrigerator. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.” This marking must be provided on or near any evaporators that can be contacted by the consumer

adherence to good manufacturing practices as per 29 CFR 1910.106. If refrigerant levels in the air surrounding the equipment rise above one-

(b) “DANGER - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired Only By Trained Service Personnel. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.” This marking must be located near the machine compartment

fourth of the lower flammability limit, the space should be evacuated and re-entry should occur only after the space has been properly ventilated.

(c) “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Consult Repair Manual/Owner's Guide Before Attempting To Service This Product. All Safety Precautions Must be Followed.” This marking must be located near the machine compartment


Technicians and equipment manufacturers should wear appropriate personal protec- tive equipment, including

(d) “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Dispose of Properly In Accordance With Federal Or Local Regulations. Flammable Refrigerant Used.” This marking must be provided on the exterior of the refrigeration equipment

chemical goggles and protective gloves, when handling propane. Special care should be taken to avoid contact with

(e) “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion Due To Puncture Of Refrigerant Tubing; Follow Handling Instructions Carefully. Flammable Refrigerant Used.” This marking must be provided near all exposed refrigerant tubing

the skin since propane, like many refrigerants, can cause freeze burns on the skin.

All of these markings must be in letters no less than 6.4 mm ( 1/4 inch) high
The equipment must have red Pantone Matching System

A Class B dry powder type fire extinguisher should be kept nearby.

(PMS) #185 marked pipes, hoses, or other devices through which the refrigerant passes, to indicate the use of a flammable refrigerant. This color must be applied at all service ports and other parts of the system where service puncturing or other actions creating an opening from the refrigerant circuit to the atmosphere might be expected and must extend a minimum of one (1) inch in both directions from such locations

Technicians should only use spark-proof tools when working on equipment with propane.
Any recovery equipment used should be designed for flammable refrigerants.
Any refrigerant releases should be in a well-ventilated area, such as outside of a building.
Only technicians specifically trained in handling flammable refrigerants should service equipment containing propane. Technicians should gain an understanding of minimizing the risk of fire and the steps to use flammable refrigerants safely.
Room occupants should evacuate the space immediately following the accidental release of this refrigerant.
If a service port is added then, commercial ice machines or equipment using propane should have service aperture fittings that differ from fittings used in equipment or containers using non-flammable refrigerant. “Differ” means that either the diameter differs by at least 1/16 inch or the thread direction is reversed (i.e., right-handed vs. left-handed).
These different fittings should be permanently affixed to the unit at the point of service and maintained until the end-of-life of the unit, and should not be accessed with an adaptor.
Very low temperature refrigeration equipment (new only) Propane (R-290) Acceptable, subject to use conditions As of January 3, 2017:
This refrigerant may be used only in new equipment designed specifically and clearly identified for the refrigerant - i.e., this refrigerant may not be used as a conversion or “retrofit” refrigerant for existing equipment
Applicable OSHA requirements at 29 CFR part 1910 must be followed, including those at 29 CFR 1910.106 (flammable and combustible liquids), 1910.110 (storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases), 1910.157 (portable fire extinguishers), and 1910.1000 (toxic and hazardous substances).

This refrigerant may be used only in self-contained commercial ice machines that meet all requirements listed in Supplement SA to UL 563.1 2 5 In cases where this rule includes requirements more stringent than those in UL 563, the equipment must meet the requirements of the final rule in place of the requirements in the UL Standard

The charge size for the equipment must not exceed 150 grams (5.29 ounces) in each refrigerant circuit of the very low temperature refrigeration equipment

Proper ventilation should be maintained at all times during the manufacture and storage

As provided in clauses SA6.1.1 and SA6.1.2 of UL 563, the following markings must be attached at the locations provided and must be permanent:

of equipment containing hydrocarbon refrigerants through adherence to good manufac-

(a) “DANGER - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Do Not Use Mechanical Devices To Defrost Refrigerator. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.” This marking must be provided on or near any evaporators that can be contacted by the consumer

turing practices as per 29 CFR 1910.106. If refrigerant levels in the air surrounding the equipment rise above one-fourth of the lower flammability

(b) “DANGER - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired Only By Trained Service Personnel. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.” This marking must be located near the machine compartment

limit, the space should be evacuated and re-entry should occur only after the space has been properly ventilated.

(c) “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Consult Repair Manual/Owner's Guide Before Attempting To Service This Product. All Safety Precautions Must be Followed.” This marking must be located near the machine compartment

Technicians and equipment manufacturers should wear appropriate personal protective equipment, including chemical goggles and protec-

(d) “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Dispose of Properly In Accordance With Federal Or Local Regulations. Flammable Refrigerant Used.” This marking must be provided on the exterior of the refrigeration equipment

tive gloves, when handling propane. Special care should be taken to avoid contact with the skin since propane, like many refrigerants, can cause freeze burns on the skin.

(e) “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion Due To Puncture Of Refrigerant Tubing; Follow Handling Instructions Carefully. Flammable Refrigerant Used.” This marking must be provided near all exposed refrigerant tubing

A Class B dry powder type fire extinguisher should be kept nearby.
Technicians should only use

All of these markings must be in letters no less than 6.4 mm ( 1/4 inch) high

spark-proof tools when work- ing on equipment with pro-

The equipment must have red Pantone Matching System (PMS) #185 marked pipes, hoses, or other devices through which the refrigerant passes, to indicate the use of a flammable refrigerant. This color must be applied at all service ports and other parts of the system where service puncturing or other actions creating an opening from the refrigerant circuit to the atmosphere might be expected and must extend a minimum of one (1) inch in both directions from such locations

pane.
Any recovery equipment used should be designed for flammable refrigerants.
Any refrigerant releases should be in a well-ventilated area, such as outside of a building.
Only technicians specifically trained in handling flammable refrigerants should service equipment containing propane. Technicians should gain an understanding of minimizing the risk of fire and the steps to use flammable refrigerants safely.
Room occupants should evacuate the space immediately following the accidental release of this refrigerant.

If a service port is added then, commercial ice machines or equipment using propane should have service aperture fittings that differ from fittings used in equipment or containers using non-flammable refrigerant. “Differ” means that either the diameter differs by at least 1/16 inch or the thread direction is reversed (i.e., right-handed vs. left-handed).
These different fittings should be permanently affixed to the unit at the point of service and maintained until the end-of-life of the unit, and should not be accessed with an adaptor.
Water coolers (new only) Propane (R-290) Acceptable, subject to use conditions As of January 3, 2017:
This refrigerant may be used only in new equipment designed specifically and clearly identified for the refrigerant - i.e., this refrigerant may not be used as a conversion or “retrofit” refrigerant for existing equipment
This refrigerant may be used only in water coolers that meet all requirements listed in Supplement SB to UL 399123 In cases where the rule includes requirements more stringent than those of the UL 399, the appliance must meet the requirements of the final rule in place of the requirements in the UL Standard
Applicable OSHA requirements at 29 CFR part 1910 must be followed, including those at 29 CFR 1910.94 (ventilation) and 1910.106 (flammable and combustible liquids), 1910.110 (storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases), 1910.157 (portable fire extin- guishers), and 1910.1000 (toxic and hazardous substances).

The charge size must not exceed 60 grams (2.12 ounces) per refrigerant circuit in the water cooler
The equipment must have red PMS #185 marked pipes, hoses, or other devices through which the refrigerant passes, to indicate the use of a flammable refrigerant. This color must be applied at all service ports and other parts of the system where service puncturing or other actions creating an opening from the refrigerant circuit to the atmosphere might be expected and must extend a minimum of one (1) inch in both directions from such locations
As provided in clauses SB6.1.2 to SB6.1.5 of UL 399, the following markings must be attached at the locations provided and must be permanent:
(a) “DANGER - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Do Not Use Mechanical Devices To Defrost Refrigerator. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.” This

Proper ventilation should be maintained at all times during the manufacture and storage of equipment containing hydrocarbon refrigerants through adherence to good manufacturing practices as per 29 CFR 1910.106. If refrigerant levels in the air surrounding the equipment rise above one-fourth of the lower flammability limit, the space should be evacuated and re-entry should occur only after the space has been properly ventilated.

marking must be provided on or near any evaporators that can be contacted by the consumer
(b) “DANGER - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired Only By Trained Service Personnel. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.” This marking must be located near the machine compartment
Technicians and equipment manufacturers should wear appropriate personal protective equipment, including chemical goggles and protective gloves, when handling propane. Special care should be taken to avoid contact with the skin since propane, like many refrigerants, can cause freeze burns on the skin.

(c) “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Consult Repair Manual/Owner's Guide Before Attempting To Service This Product. All Safety Precautions Must be Followed.” This marking must be located near the machine compartment

A Class B dry powder type fire extinguisher should be kept nearby.
Technicians should only use spark-proof tools when work-

(d) “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion. Dispose of Properly In Accordance With Federal Or Local Regulations. Flammable Refrigerant Used.” This marking must be provided on the exterior of the refrigeration equipment

ing on equipment with flammable refrigerants.
Any recovery equipment used should be designed for flam-

(e) “CAUTION - Risk of Fire or Explosion Due To Puncture Of Refrigerant Tubing; Follow Handling Instructions Carefully. Flammable Refrigerant Used.” This marking must be provided near all exposed refrigerant tubing

mable refrigerants.
Any refrigerant releases should be in a well-ventilated area, such as outside of a building.
Only technicians specifically trained in handling flammable refrigerants should service equipment containing propane. Technicians should gain an understanding of minimizing the risk of fire and the steps to use flammable refrigerants safely.


Room occupants should evacuate the space immediately following the accidental release of this refrigerant.
If a service port is added, then water coolers or equipment using propane should have service aperture fittings that differ from fittings used in equipment or containers using non-flammable refrigerant.
“Differ” means that either the diameter differs by at least 1/16 inch or the thread direction is reversed (i.e., right-handed vs. left-handed). These different fittings should be permanently affixed to the unit at the point of service and maintained until the end-of-life of the unit, and should not be accessed with an adaptor.

Refrigerants - Substitutes Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits

End-use Substitutes Decision Narrowed use limits Further information
Centrifugal chillers (new only) HFC-134a Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits Acceptable after January 1, 2024, only in military marine vessels where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Application in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and qualified and projected time for switching.
Centrifugal chillers (new only) HFC-134a and R-404A Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits Acceptable after January 1, 2024, only in human-rated spacecraft and related support equipment where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Application in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and qualified and projected time for switching.
Positive displacement chillers (new only) HFC-134a Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits Acceptable after January 1, 2024, only in military marine vessels where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Application in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and qualified and projected time for switching.
Positive displacement chillers (new only) HFC-134a and R-404A Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits Acceptable after January 1, 2024, only in human-rated spacecraft and related support equipment where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Application in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and qualified and projected time for switching.

Refrigerants - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitutes Decision Further information
Centrifugal chillers (new only) FOR12A, FOR12B, HFC-134a, HFC-227ea, HFC-236fa, HFC-245fa, R-125/134a/600a (28.1/70/1.9), R-125/290/134a/600a (55.0/1.0/42.5/1.5), R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, R-410B, R-417A, R-421A, R-422B, R-422C, R-422D, R-423A, R-424A, R-434A, R-438A, R-507A, RS-44 (2003 composition), and THR-03 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2024 except where allowed under a narrowed use limit These refrigerants have GWPs ranging from approximately 900 to 9,810. Other alternatives will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Centrifugal chillers (new only) Propylene (R-1270) and R-443A Unacceptable as of January 3, 2017 These refrigerants are highly photochemically reactive in the lower atmosphere and may deteriorate local air quality (that is, may increase ground level ozone). Other alternatives are available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment.
Cold storage warehouses (new only) HFC-227ea, R-125/290/134a/600a (55.0/1.0/42.5/1.5), R-404A, R-407A, R-407B, R-410A, R-410B, R-417A, R-421A, R-421B, R-422A, R-422B, R-422C, R-422D, R-423A, R-424A, R-428A, R-434A, R-438A, R-507A, and RS-44 (2003 composition) Unacceptable as of January 1, 2023 These refrigerants have GWPs ranging from approximately 2,090 to 3,990. Other alternatives will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Cold storage warehouses (new only) Propylene (R-1270) and R-443A Unacceptable as of January 3, 2017 These refrigerants are highly photochemically reactive in the lower atmosphere and may deteriorate local air quality (that is, may increase ground level ozone). Other alternatives are available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment.
Household refrigerators and freezers (new only) FOR12A, FOR12B, HFC-134a, KDD6, R-125/290/134a/600a (55.0/1.0/42.5/1.5), R-404A, R-407C, R-407F, R-410A, R-410B, R-417A, R-421A, R-421B, R-422A, R-422B, R-422C, R-422D, R-424A, R-426A, R-428A, R-434A, R-437A, R-438A, R-507A, RS-24 (2002 formulation), RS-44 (2003 formulation), SP34E, and THR-03 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2021 These refrigerants have GWPs ranging from approximately 900 to 3,985. Other alternatives will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Positive displacement chillers (new only) FOR12A, FOR12B, HFC-134a, HFC-227ea, KDD6, R-125/134a/600a (28.1/70/1.9), R-125/290/134a/600a (55.0/1.0/42.5/1.5), R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, R-410B, R-417A, R-421A, R-422B, R-422C, R-422D, R-424A, R-434A, R-437A, R-438A, R-507A, RS-44 (2003 composition), SP34E, and THR-03 Unacceptable as of January 1, 2024 except where allowed under a narrowed use limit These refrigerants have GWPs ranging from approximately 900 to 3,985. Other alternatives will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Positive displacement chillers (new only) Propylene (R-1270) and R-443A Unacceptable as of January 3, 2017 These refrigerants are highly photochemically reactive in the lower atmosphere and may deteriorate local air quality (that is, may increase ground level ozone). Other alternatives are available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment.
Residential and light commercial air conditioning and heat pumps (new only) Propylene (R-1270) and R-443A Unacceptable as of January 3, 2017 These refrigerants are highly photochemically reactive in the lower atmosphere and may deteriorate local air quality (that is, may increase ground level ozone). Other alternatives are available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment.
Residential and light commercial air conditioning - unitary split AC systems and heat pumps (retrofit only) All refrigerants identified as flammability Class 3 in ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-20131 2 3
All refrigerants meeting the criteria for flammability Class 3 in ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. This includes, but is not limited to, refrigerant products sold under the names R-22a, 22a, Blue Sky 22a refrigerant, Coolant Express 22a, DURACOOL-22a, EC-22, Ecofreeez EF-22a, Envirosafe 22a, ES-22a, Frost 22a, HC-22a, Maxi-Fridge, MX-22a, Oz-Chill 22a, Priority Cool, and RED TEK 22a
Unacceptable as of January 3, 2017 These refrigerants are highly flammable and present a flammability risk when used in equipment designed for nonflammable refrigerants. Other alternatives are available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment.
Retail food refrigeration (refrigerated food processing and dispensing equipment) (new only) HFC-227ea, KDD6, R-125/290/134a/600a (55.0/1.0/42.5/1.5), R-404A, R-407A, R-407B, R-407C, R-407F, R-410A, R-410B, R-417A, R-421A, R-421B, R-422A, R-422B, R-422C, R-422D, R-424A, R-428A, R-434A, R-437A, R-438A, R-507A, RS-44 (2003 formulation) Unacceptable as of January 1, 2021 These refrigerants have GWPs ranging from approximately 1,770 to 3,990. Other alternatives will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.

Foam Blowing Agents - Substitutes Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits

End-use Substitutes Decision Narrowed use limits Further information
Rigid PU: Spray foam - high-pressure two-component HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and blends thereof; blends of HFC-365mfc with at least four percent HFC-245fa, and commercial blends of HFC-365mfc with seven to 13 percent HFC-227ea and the remainder HFC-365mfc; and Formacel TI Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits Acceptable from January 1, 2020, until January 1, 2025, only in military or space- and aeronautics-related applications where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements
Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2025, may be used after that date
Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Process or product in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching.
Rigid PU: Spray foam - low-pressure two-component HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and blends thereof; blends of HFC-365mfc with at least four percent HFC-245fa, and commercial blends of HFC-365mfc with seven to 13 percent HFC-227ea and the remainder HFC-365mfc; and Formacel TI Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits Acceptable from January 1, 2021, until January 1, 2025, only in military or space- and aeronautics-related applications where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements
Low pressure two-component spray foam kits manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2025, for military or space- and aeronautics-related applications may be used after that date
Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance. Information should include descriptions of:
• Process or product in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and/or
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching.

Foam Blowing Agents - Unacceptable Substitutes

End-use Substitutes Decision Further information
Flexible PU Methylene chloride Unacceptable as of January 3, 2017 Methylene chloride is a carcinogen and may present a toxicity risk. Other alternatives are available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment.
Rigid PU: Spray foam - one component foam sealants HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and blends thereof; blends of HFC-365mfc with at least four percent HFC-245fa, and commercial blends of HFC-365mfc with seven to 13 percent HFC-227ea and the remainder HFC-365mfc; and Formacel TI Unacceptable as of January 1, 2020
One-component foam sealant cans manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2020, may be used after that date
These foam blowing agents have GWPs ranging from higher than 730 to approximately 1,500. Other alternatives will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Rigid PU: Spray foam - high-pressure two-component HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and blends thereof; blends of HFC-365mfc with at least four percent HFC-245fa, and commercial blends of HFC-365mfc with seven to 13 percent HFC-227ea and the remainder HFC-365mfc; and Formacel TI Unacceptable as of January 1, 2020, except where allowed under a narrowed use limit. Closed cell foam products and products containing closed cell foams manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2020, may be used after that date These foam blowing agents have GWPs ranging from higher than 730 to approximately 1,500. Other alternatives will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.
Rigid PU: Spray foam - low-pressure two-component HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and blends thereof; blends of HFC-365mfc with at least four percent HFC-245fa, and commercial blends of HFC-365mfc with seven to 13 percent HFC-227ea and the remainder HFC-365mfc; and Formacel TI Unacceptable as of January 1, 2021, except where allowed under a narrowed use limit
Low pressure two-component spray foam kits manufactured with these substitutes on or before January 1, 2025, may be used after that date
These foam blowing agents have GWPs ranging from higher than 730 to approximately 1,500. Other alternatives will be available for this end-use with lower overall risk to human health and the environment by the status change date.

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection Agents - Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions

End-use Substitute Decision Use conditions Further information
Streaming 2-BTP Acceptable, subject to use conditions As of January 3, 2017, acceptable only for use in handheld extinguishers in aircraft This fire suppressant has a relatively low GWP of 0.23-0.26 and a short atmospheric lifetime of approximately seven days.
This agent is subject to requirements contained in a Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) section 5(e) Consent Order and any subsequent TSCA section 5(a)(2) Significant New Use Rule (SNUR).
For establishments manufacturing, installing and maintaining handheld extinguishers using this agent:
(1) Use of this agent should be used in accordance with the latest edition of NFPA Standard 10 for Portable Fire Extinguishers;
(2) In the case that 2-BTP is inhaled, person(s) should be immediately removed and exposed to fresh air; if breathing is difficult, person(s) should seek medical attention;
(3) Eye wash and quick drench facilities should be available. In case of ocular exposure, person(s) should immediately flush the eyes, including under the eyelids, with fresh water and move to a non-contaminated area;
(4) Exposed person(s) should remove all contaminated clothing and footwear to avoid irritation, and medical attention should be sought if irritation develops or persists;
(5) Although unlikely, in case of ingestion of 2-BTP, the person(s) should consult a physician immediately;
(6) Manufacturing space should be equipped with specialized engineering controls and well ventilated with a local exhaust system and low-lying source ventilation to effectively mitigate potential occupational exposure; regular testing and monitoring of the workplace atmosphere should be conducted;
(7) Employees responsible for chemical processing should wear the appropriate PPE, such as protective gloves, tightly sealed goggles, protective work clothing, and suitable respiratory protection in case of accidental release or insufficient ventilation;
(8) All spills should be cleaned up immediately in accordance with good industrial hygiene practices; and
(9) Training for safe handling procedures should be provided to all employees that would be likely to handle containers of the agent or extinguishing units filled with the agent.
Total flooding 2-BTP Acceptable, subject to use conditions As of January 3, 2017, acceptable only for use in engine nacelles and auxiliary power units on aircraft This fire suppressant has a relatively low GWP of 0.23-0.26 and a short atmospheric lifetime of approximately seven days.
This agent is subject to requirements contained in a TSCA section 5(e) Consent Order and any subsequent TSCA section 5(a)(2) SNUR.
For establishments manufacturing, installing, and servicing engine nacelles and auxiliary power units on aircraft using this agent:
(1) This agent should be used in accordance with the safety guidelines in the latest edition of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 2001 Standard for Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems;
(2) In the case that 2-BTP is inhaled, person(s) should be immediately removed and exposed to fresh air; if breathing is difficult, person(s) should seek medical attention;
(3) Eye wash and quick drench facilities should be available. In case of ocular exposure, person(s) should immediately flush the eyes, including under the eyelids, with fresh water and move to a non-contaminated area.
(4) Exposed person(s) should remove all contaminated clothing and footwear to avoid irritation, and medical attention should be sought if irritation develops or persists;
(5) Although unlikely, in case of ingestion of 2-BTP, the person(s) should consult a physician immediately;
(6) Manufacturing space should be equipped with specialized engineering controls and well ventilated with a local exhaust system and low-lying source ventilation to effectively mitigate potential occupational exposure; regular testing and monitoring of the workplace atmosphere should be conducted;
(7) Employees responsible for chemical processing should wear the appropriate PPE, such as protective gloves, tightly sealed goggles, protective work clothing, and suitable respiratory protection in case of accidental release or insufficient ventilation;
(8) All spills should be cleaned up immediately in accordance with good industrial hygiene practices;
(9) Training for safe handling procedures should be provided to all employees that would be likely to handle containers of the agent or extinguishing units filled with the agent;
(10) Safety features that are typical of total flooding systems such as pre-discharge alarms, time delays, and system abort switches should be provided, as directed by applicable OSHA regulations and NFPA standards; use of this agent should also conform to relevant OSHA requirements, including 29 CFR 1910, subpart L, sections 1910.160 and 1910.162.

[81 FR 86889, Dec. 1, 2016]

Appendix W to Subpart G of Part 82 - Substitutes Listed in the May 6, 2021 Final Rule - Effective June 7, 2021

Refrigerants - Substitutes Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits

End-use Substitute Decision Narrowed use limits Further information
Retail food refrigeration - medium-temperature stand-alone units (new only) R-448A, R-449A, R-449B Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits Acceptable only for use in new medium-temperature stand-alone units where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible.
Users are required to document and retain the results of their technical investigation of alternatives for the purpose of demonstrating compliance.
A possible reason for rejection of one or more other alternative(s) could be based on ADA requirements.
Information shall include descriptions of:
• Process or product in which the substitute is needed;
• Substitutes examined and rejected;
• Reason for rejection of other alternatives, e.g., performance, technical or safety standards; and
• Anticipated date other substitutes will be available and projected time for switching.

Refrigerants - Substitutes Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions

End-use Substitute Decision Use conditions Further information
Residential and light commercial air conditioning and heat pumps (new only) R-452B, R-454A, R-454B, R-454C and R-457A Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions These refrigerants may be used only in new equipment specifically designed and clearly identified for the refrigerants (i.e., none of these substitutes may be used as a conversion or “retrofit” refrigerant for existing equipment designed for other refrigerants).
These substitutes may only be used in air conditioning equipment that meets all requirements in the 3rd edition of UL 60335-2-40. 1 2 3 In cases where this appendix includes requirements more stringent than those of UL 60335-2-40, the appliance must meet the requirements of this appendix in place of the requirements in the UL Standard.
The charge size for the equipment must not exceed the maximum refrigerant mass determined according to UL 60335-2-40 for the room size where the air conditioner is used.
Applicable OSHA requirements at 29 CFR part 1910 must be followed, including those at 29 CFR 1910.94 (ventilation) and 1910.106 (flammable and combustible liquids), 1910.110 (storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases), and 1910.1000 (toxic and hazardous substances).
Proper ventilation should be maintained at all times during the manufacture and storage of equipment containing flammable refrigerants through adherence to good manufacturing practices as per 29 CFR 1910.106. If refrigerant levels in the air surrounding the equipment rise above one-fourth of the lower flammability limit, the space should be evacuated and reentry should occur only after the space has been properly ventilated.
The following markings must be attached at the locations provided and must be permanent:
(a) On the outside of the air conditioning equipment: “WARNING - Risk of Fire. Flammable Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired Only By Trained Service Personnel. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.”
(b) On the outside of the air conditioning equipment: “WARNING - Risk of Fire. Dispose of Properly In Accordance With Federal Or Local Regulations. Flammable Refrigerant Used.”
(c) On the inside of the air conditioning equipment near the compressor: “WARNING - Risk of Fire. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Consult Repair Manual/Owner's Guide Before Attempting To Service This Product. All Safety Precautions Must be Followed.”
(d) For any equipment pre-charged at the factory, on the equipment packaging: “WARNING - Risk of Fire due to Flammable Refrigerant Used. Follow Handling Instructions Carefully in Compliance with National Regulations.”
(e) On the indoor unit near the nameplate:
a. At the top of the marking: “Minimum Installation height, X m (W ft)”. This marking is only required if required by UL 60335-2-40. The terms “X” and “W” shall be replaced by the numeric height as calculated per the UL Standard. Note that the formatting here is slightly different than the UL Standard; specifically, the height in Inch-Pound units is placed in parentheses and the word “and” has been replaced by the opening parenthesis.
b. Immediately below (a) above or at the top of the marking if (a) is not required: “Minimum room area (operating or storage), Y m2 (Z ft2)”. The terms “Y” and “Z” shall be replaced by the numeric area as calculated per the UL Standard. Note that the formatting here is slightly different than the UL Standard; specifically, the area in Inch-Pound units is placed in parentheses and the word “and” has been replaced by the opening parenthesis.
Technicians and equipment manufacturers should wear appropriate personal protective equipment, including chemical goggles and protective gloves, when handling flammable refrigerants. Special care should be taken to avoid contact with the skin which, like many refrigerants, can cause freeze burns on the skin.
A class B dry powder type fire extinguisher should be kept nearby.
Technicians should only use spark-proof tools when working on air conditioning equipment with flammable refrigerants.
Any recovery equipment used should be designed for flammable refrigerants. Only technicians specifically trained in handling flammable refrigerants should service refrigeration equipment containing these refrigerants. Technicians should gain an understanding of minimizing the risk of fire and the steps to use flammable refrigerants safely.
Room occupants should evacuate the space immediately following the accidental release of this refrigerant.
Personnel commissioning, maintaining, repairing, decommissioning and disposing of appliances with these refrigerants should obtain training and follow practices consistent with Annex HH of UL 60335-2-40, 3rd edition.1 2 3
CAA section 608(c)(2) prohibits knowingly venting or otherwise knowingly releasing or disposing of substitute refrigerants in the course of maintaining, servicing, repairing or disposing of an appliance or industrial process refrigeration.
Department of Transportation requirements for transport of flammable gases must be followed.
Flammable refrigerants being recovered or otherwise disposed of from residential and light commercial air conditioning appliances are likely to be hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (see 40 CFR parts 260-270).
(f) For non-fixed equipment, including portable air conditioners, window air conditioners, packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, on the outside of the product: “WARNING - Risk of Fire or Explosion - Store in a well ventilated room without continuously operating flames or other potential ignition.”
(g) For fixed equipment, including rooftop units and split air conditioners, “WARNING - Risk of Fire - Auxiliary devices which may be ignition sources shall not be installed in the ductwork, other than auxiliary devices listed for use with the specific appliance. See instructions.”
(h) All of these markings must be in letters no less than 6.4 mm ( 1/4 inch) high.
The equipment must have red Pantone Matching System (PMS) #185 or RAL 3020 marked service ports, pipes, hoses, or other devices through which the refrigerant passes, to indicate the use of a flammable refrigerant. This color must be applied at all service ports and other parts of the system where service puncturing or other actions creating an opening from the refrigerant circuit to the atmosphere might be expected and must extend a minimum of one (1) inch (25mm) in both directions from such locations and shall be replaced if removed.
Residential and light commercial air conditioning and heat pumps (new only), excluding self-contained room air conditioners R-32 Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions These refrigerants may be used only in new equipment specifically designed and clearly identified for the refrigerants (i.e., none of these substitutes may be used as a conversion or “retrofit” refrigerant for existing equipment designed for other refrigerants).
These substitutes may only be used in air conditioning equipment that meets all requirements in the 3rd edition of UL 60335-2-40.1 2 3 In cases where this appendix includes requirements more stringent than those of UL 60335-2-40, the appliance must meet the requirements of this appendix in place of the requirements in the UL Standard.
The charge size for the equipment must not exceed the maximum refrigerant mass determined according to UL 60335-2-40 for the room size where the air conditioner is used.
Applicable OSHA requirements at 29 CFR part 1910 must be followed, including those at 29 CFR 1910.94 (ventilation) and 1910.106 (flammable and combustible liquids), 1910.110 (storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases), and 1910.1000 (toxic and hazardous substances).
Proper ventilation should be maintained at all times during the manufacture and storage of equipment containing flammable refrigerants through adherence to good manufacturing practices as per 29 CFR 1910.106. If refrigerant levels in the air surrounding the equipment rise above one-fourth of the lower flammability limit, the space should be evacuated and reentry should occur only after the space has been properly ventilated.
The following markings must be attached at the locations provided and must be permanent:
(a) On the outside of the air conditioning equipment: “WARNING - Risk of Fire. Flammable Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired Only By Trained Service Personnel. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.”
(b) On the outside of the air conditioning equipment: “WARNING - Risk of Fire. Dispose of Properly In Accordance With Federal Or Local Regulations. Flammable Refrigerant Used.”
(c) On the inside of the air conditioning equipment near the compressor: “WARNING - Risk of Fire. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Consult Repair Manual/Owner's Guide Before Attempting To Service This Product. All Safety Precautions Must be Followed.”
(d) For any equipment pre-charged at the factory, on the equipment packaging: “WARNING - Risk of Fire due to Flammable Refrigerant Used. Follow Handling Instructions Carefully in Compliance with National Regulations”
(e) On the indoor unit near the nameplate:
a. At the top of the marking: “Minimum Installation height, X m (W ft)”. This marking is only required if required by UL 60335-2-40. The terms “X” and “W” shall be replaced by the numeric height as calculated per the UL Standard. Note that the formatting here is slightly different than the UL Standard; specifically, the height in Inch-Pound units is placed in parentheses and the word “and” has been replaced by the opening parenthesis.
b. Immediately below (a) above or at the top of the marking if (a) is not required: “Minimum room area (operating or storage), Y m2 (Z ft2)”. The terms “Y” and “Z” shall be replaced by the numeric area as calculated per the UL Standard. Note that the formatting here is slightly different than the UL Standard; specifically, the area in Inch-Pound units is placed in parentheses and the word “and” has been replaced by the opening parenthesis.
Technicians and equipment manufacturers should wear appropriate personal protective equipment, including chemical goggles and protective gloves, when handling flammable refrigerants. Special care should be taken to avoid contact with the skin which, like many refrigerants, can cause freeze burns on the skin.
A class B dry powder type fire extinguisher should be kept nearby.
Technicians should only use spark-proof tools when working on air conditioning equipment with flammable refrigerants.
Any recovery equipment used should be designed for flammable refrigerants. Only technicians specifically trained in handling flammable refrigerants should service refrigeration equipment containing this refrigerant. Technicians should gain an understanding of minimizing the risk of fire and the steps to use flammable refrigerants safely.
Room occupants should evacuate the space immediately following the accidental release of this refrigerant.
Personnel commissioning, maintaining, repairing, decommissioning and disposing of appliances with this refrigerant should obtain training and follow practices consistent with Annex HH of UL 60335-2-40, 3rd edition.123
CAA section 608(c)(2) prohibits knowingly venting or otherwise knowingly releasing or disposing of substitute refrigerants in the course of maintaining, servicing, repairing or disposing of an appliance or industrial process refrigeration.
Department of Transportation requirements for transport of flammable gases must be followed.
Flammable refrigerants being recovered or otherwise disposed of from residential and light commercial air conditioning appliances are likely to be hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (see 40 CFR parts 260-270).
(f) For fixed equipment, including rooftop units and split air conditioners, “WARNING - Risk of Fire - Auxiliary devices which may be ignition sources shall not be installed in the ductwork, other than auxiliary devices listed for use with the specific appliance. See instructions.”
(g) All of these markings must be in letters no less than 6.4 mm ( 1/4 inch) high.
The equipment must have red Pantone Matching System (PMS) #185 or RAL 3020 marked service ports, pipes, hoses, or other devices through which the refrigerant passes, to indicate the use of a flammable refrigerant. This color must be applied at all service ports and other parts of the system where service puncturing or other actions creating an opening from the refrigerant circuit to the atmosphere might be expected and must extend a minimum of one (1) inch (25mm) in both directions from such locations and shall be replaced if removed.

[86 FR 24471, May 6, 2021]