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Title 40

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PART 51 - REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS
Source:

36 FR 22398, Nov. 25, 1971, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A - Air Emissions Reporting Requirements
Source:

73 FR 76552, Dec. 17, 2008, unless otherwise noted.

General Information for Inventory Preparers
§ 51.1 Who is responsible for actions described in this subpart?

States must inventory emission sources located on nontribal lands and report this information to EPA.

§ 51.5 What tools are available to help prepare and report emissions data?

(a) We urge your state to use estimation procedures described in documents from the Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP), available at the following Internet address: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/eiip. These procedures are standardized and ranked according to relative uncertainty for each emission estimating technique. Using this guidance will enable others to use your state's data and evaluate its quality and consistency with other data.

(b) Where current EIIP guidance materials have been supplanted by state-of-the-art emission estimation approaches or are not applicable to sources or source categories, states are urged to use applicable, state-of-the-art techniques for estimating emissions.

§ 51.10 [Reserved]
Specific Reporting Requirements
§ 51.15 What data does my state need to report to EPA?

(a) Pollutants. Report actual emissions of the following (see § 51.50 for precise definitions as required):

(1) Required pollutants for triennial reports of annual (12-month) emissions for all sources and every-year reports of annual emissions from Type A sources:

(i) Sulfur dioxide (SO2).

(ii) Volatile organic compounds (VOC).

(iii) Nitrogen oxides (NOX).

(iv) Carbon monoxide (CO).

(v) Lead and lead compounds.

(vi) Primary PM2.5. As applicable, also report filterable and condensable components.

(vii) Primary PM10. As applicable, also report filterable and condensable components.

(viii) Ammonia (NH3).

(2) A state may, at its option, choose to report NOX and VOC summer day emissions (or any other emissions) as required under the Ozone Implementation Rule or report CO winter work weekday emissions for CO nonattainment areas or CO attainment areas with maintenance plans to the Emission Inventory System (EIS) using the data elements described in this subpart.

(3) A state may, at its option, choose to report ozone season day emissions of NOX as required under the NOX SIP Call and summer day emissions of NOX that may be required under the NOX SIP Call for controlled sources to the EIS using the data elements described in this subpart.

(4) A state may, at its option, include estimates of emissions for additional pollutants (such as hazardous air pollutants) in its emission inventory reports.

(b) Sources. Emissions should be reported from the following sources in all parts of the state, excluding sources located on tribal lands:

(1) Point.

(2) Nonpoint. States may choose to meet the requirements for some of their nonpoint sources by accepting the EPA's estimates for the sources for which the EPA makes calculations. In such instances, states are encouraged to review and update the activity values or other calculational inputs used by the EPA for these sources.

(3) Onroad and Nonroad mobile.

(i) Emissions for onroad and nonroad mobile sources must be reported as inputs to the latest EPA-developed mobile emissions models, such as the Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES) for onroad sources or the NMIM for nonroad sources. States using these models may report, at their discretion, emissions values computed from these models in addition to the model inputs.

(ii) In lieu of submitting model inputs for onroad and nonroad mobile sources, California must submit emissions values.

(iii) In lieu of submitting any data, states may accept existing EPA emission estimates.

(4) Emissions for wild and prescribed fires are not required to be reported by states. If states wish to optionally report these sources, they must be reported to the events data category. The events data category is a day-specific accounting of these large-scale but usually short duration emissions. Submissions must include both daily emissions estimates as well as daily acres burned values. In lieu of submitting this information, states may accept the EPA estimates or they may submit inputs (e.g., acres burned, fuel loads) for us to use in the EPA's estimation approach.

(c) Supporting information. You must report the data elements in Tables 2a and 2b in Appendix A of this subpart. We may ask you for other data on a voluntary basis to meet special purposes.

(d) Confidential data. We do not consider the data in Tables 2a and 2b in Appendix A of this subpart confidential, but some states limit release of these types of data. Any data that you submit to EPA under this subpart will be considered in the public domain and cannot be treated as confidential. If Federal and state requirements are inconsistent, consult your EPA Regional Office for a final reconciliation.

[73 FR 76552, Dec. 17, 2008, as amended at 80 FR 8795, Feb. 19, 2015]

§ 51.20 What are the emission thresholds that separate point and nonpoint sources?

(a) All anthropogenic stationary sources must be included in your inventory as either point or nonpoint sources.

(b) Sources that meet the definition of point source in this subpart must be reported as point sources. All pollutants specified in § 51.15(a) must be reported for point sources, not just the pollutant(s) that qualify the source as a point source.

(c) If your state has lower emission reporting thresholds for point sources than paragraph (b) of this section, then you may use these in reporting your emissions to EPA.

(d) All stationary source emissions that are not reported as point sources must be reported as nonpoint sources. Episodic wind-generated particulate matter (PM) emissions from sources that are not major sources may be excluded, for example dust lifted by high winds from natural or tilled soil. Emissions of nonpoint sources should be aggregated to the resolution required by the EIS as described in the current National Emission Inventory (NEI) inventory year plan posted at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/eiinformation.html. In most cases, this is county level and must be separated and identified by source classification code (SCC). Nonpoint source categories or emission events reasonably estimated by the state to represent a de minimis percentage of total county and state emissions of a given pollutant may be omitted.

(1) The reporting of wild and prescribed fires is encouraged but not required and should be done via only the “Events” data category.

(2) Agricultural fires (also referred to as crop residue burning) must be reported to the nonpoint data category.

[73 FR 76552, Dec. 17, 2008, as amended at 80 FR 8795, Feb. 19, 2015]

§ 51.25 What geographic area must my state's inventory cover?

Because of the regional nature of these pollutants, your state's inventory must be statewide, regardless of any area's attainment status.

§ 51.30 When does my state report which emissions data to EPA?

All states are required to report two basic types of emission inventories to the EPA: An every-year inventory; and a triennial inventory.

(a) Every-year inventory. See Tables 2a and 2b of Appendix A of this subpart for the specific data elements to report every year.

(1) All states are required to report every year the annual (12-month) emissions data described in § 51.15 from Type A (large) point sources, as defined in Table 1 of Appendix A of this subpart. The first every-year cycle inventory will be for the 2009 inventory year and must be submitted to the EPA within 12 months, i.e., by December 31, 2010.

(2) In inventory years that fall under the triennial inventory requirements, the reporting required by the triennial inventory satisfies the every-year reporting requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.

(b) Triennial inventory. See Tables 2a and 2b to Appendix A of subpart A for the specific data elements that must be reported for the triennial inventories.

(1) All states are required to report for every third inventory year the annual (12-month) emissions data as described in § 51.15. The first triennial inventory will be for the 2011 inventory and must be submitted to the EPA within 12 months, i.e., by December 31, 2012. Subsequent triennial inventories (2014, 2017, etc.) will be due 12 months after the end of the inventory year, i.e., by December 31 of the following year.

(2) [Reserved]

[80 FR 8796, Feb. 19, 2015]

§ 51.35 How can my state equalize the emission inventory effort from year to year?

(a) Compiling a triennial inventory means more effort every 3 years. As an option, your state may ease this workload spike by using the following approach:

(1) Each year, collect and report data for all Type A (large) point sources (this is required for all Type A point sources).

(2) Each year, collect data for one-third of your sources that are not Type A point sources. Collect data for a different third of these sources each year so that data has been collected for all of the sources that are not Type A point sources by the end of each 3-year cycle. You must save 3 years of data and then report all emissions from the sources that are not Type A point sources on the triennial inventory due date.

(3) Each year, collect data for one-third of the nonpoint, nonroad mobile, and onroad mobile sources. You must save 3 years of data for each such source and then report all of these data on the triennial inventory due date.

(b) For the sources described in paragraph (a) of this section, your state will have data from 3 successive years at any given time, rather than from the single year in which it is compiled.

(c) If your state chooses the method of inventorying one-third of your sources that are not Type A point sources and triennial inventory nonpoint, nonroad mobile, and onroad mobile sources each year, your state must compile each year of the 3-year period identically. For example, if a process has not changed for a source category or individual plant, your state must use the same emission factors to calculate emissions for each year of the 3-year period. If your state has revised emission factors during the 3 years for a process that has not changed, you must compute previous years' data using the revised factor. If your state uses models to estimate emissions, you must make sure that the model is the same for all 3 years.

[80 FR 8796, Feb. 19, 2015]

§ 51.40 In what form and format should my state report the data to EPA?

You must report your emission inventory data to us in electronic form. We support specific electronic data reporting formats, and you are required to report your data in a format consistent with these. The term “format” encompasses the definition of one or more specific data fields for each of the data elements listed in Tables 2a and 2b in Appendix A of this subpart; allowed code values for certain data fields; transmittal information; and data table relational structure. Because electronic reporting technology may change, contact the EPA Emission Inventory and Analysis Group (EIAG) for the latest specific formats. You can find information on the current formats at the following Internet address: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/eis/2011nei/xml_data_eis.pdf. You may also call the air emissions contact in your EPA Regional Office or our Info CHIEF help desk at (919) 541-1000 or send email to .

[80 FR 8796, Feb. 19, 2015]

§ 51.45 Where should my state report the data?

(a) Your state submits or reports data by providing it directly to EPA.

(b) The latest information on data reporting procedures is available at the following Internet address: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief. You may also call our Info CHIEF help desk at (919) 541-1000 or e-mail to .

§ 51.50 What definitions apply to this subpart?

Aircraft engine type means a code defining a unique combination of aircraft and engine used as an input parameter for calculating emissions from aircraft.

Annual emissions means actual emissions for a plant, point, or process that are measured or calculated to represent a calendar year.

Control measure means a unique code for the type of control device or operational measure (e.g., wet scrubber, flaring, process change, ban) used to reduce emissions.

Emission calculation method means the code describing how the emissions for a pollutant were calculated, e.g., by stack test, continuous emissions monitor, EPA emission factor, etc.

Emission factor means the ratio relating emissions of a specific pollutant to an activity throughput level.

Emission operating type means the operational status of an emissions unit for the time period for which emissions are being reported, i.e., Routine, Startup, Shutdown, or Upset.

Emission process identifier means a unique code for the process generating the emissions.

Emission type means the type of emissions produced for onroad and nonroad sources or the mode of operation for marine vessels.

Emissions year means the calendar year for which the emissions estimates are reported.

Facility site identifier means the unique code for a plant or facility treated as a point source, containing one or more pollutant-emitting units. The EPA's reporting format allows for state submittals to use either the state's data system identifiers or the EPA's Emission Inventory System identifiers.

Facility site name means the name of the facility.

Lead (Pb) means lead as defined in 40 CFR 50.12. Emissions of Pb which occur either as elemental Pb or as a chemical compound containing Pb should be reported as the mass of the Pb atoms only.

Mobile source means a motor vehicle, nonroad engine or nonroad vehicle, where:

(1) A motor vehicle is any self-propelled vehicle used to carry people or property on a street or highway;

(2) A nonroad engine is an internal combustion engine (including fuel system) that is not used in a motor vehicle or a vehicle used solely for competition, or that is not affected by sections 111 or 202 of the CAA; and

(3) A nonroad vehicle is a vehicle that is run by a nonroad engine and that is not a motor vehicle or a vehicle used solely for competition.

NAICS means North American Industry Classification System code. The NAICS codes are U.S. Department of Commerce's codes for categorizing businesses by products or services and have replaced Standard Industrial Classification codes.

Nitrogen oxides(NOX) means nitrogen oxides (NOX) as defined in 40 CFR 60.2 as all oxides of nitrogen except N2O. Nitrogen oxides should be reported on an equivalent molecular weight basis as nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

Nonpoint sources collectively represent individual sources that have not been inventoried as specific point or mobile sources. These individual sources treated collectively as nonpoint sources are typically too small, numerous, or difficult to inventory using the methods for the other classes of sources.

Particulate matter (PM) is a criteria air pollutant. For the purpose of this subpart, the following definitions apply:

(1) Filterable PM2.5 or Filterable PM10: Particles that are directly emitted by a source as a solid or liquid at stack or release conditions and captured on the filter of a stack test train. Filterable PM2.5 is particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 2.5 micrometers. Filterable PM10 is particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 10 micrometers.

(2) Condensable PM: Material that is vapor phase at stack conditions, but which condenses and/or reacts upon cooling and dilution in the ambient air to form solid or liquid PM immediately after discharge from the stack. Note that all condensable PM, if present from a source, is typically in the PM2.5 size fraction and, therefore, all of it is a component of both primary PM2.5 and primary PM10.

(3) Primary PM2.5: The sum of filterable PM2.5 and condensable PM.

(4) Primary PM10: The sum of filterable PM10 and condensable PM.

(5) Secondary PM: Particles that form or grow in mass through chemical reactions in the ambient air well after dilution and condensation have occurred. Secondary PM is usually formed at some distance downwind from the source. Secondary PM should not be reported in the emission inventory and is not covered by this subpart.

Percent control approach capture efficiency means the percentage of an exhaust gas stream actually collected for routing to a set of control devices.

Percent control approach effectiveness means the percentage of time or activity throughput that a control approach is operating as designed, including the capture and reduction devices. This percentage accounts for the fact that controls typically are not 100 percent effective because of equipment downtime, upsets and decreases in control efficiencies.

Percent control approach penetration means the percentage of a nonpoint source category activity that is covered by the reported control measures.

Percent control measures reduction efficiency means the net emission reduction efficiency across all emissions control devices. It does not account for capture device efficiencies.

Physical address means the location address (street address or other physical location description), locality name, state, and postal zip code of a facility. This is the physical location where the emissions occur; not the corporate headquarters or a mailing address.

Point source means large, stationary (non-mobile), identifiable sources of emissions that release pollutants into the atmosphere. A point source is a facility that is a major source under 40 CFR part 70 for one or more of the pollutants for which reporting is required by § 51.15 (a)(1). This does not include the emissions of hazardous air pollutants, which are not considered in determining whether a source is a point source under this subpart. The minimum point source reporting thresholds are shown in Table 1 of Appendix A.

Pollutant code means a unique code for each reported pollutant assigned by the reporting format specified by the EPA for each inventory year.

Release point apportionment percent means the average percentage(s) of an emissions exhaust stream directed to a given release point.

Release point exit gas flow rate means the numeric value of the flow rate of a stack gas.

Release point exit gas temperature means the numeric value of the temperature of an exit gas stream in degrees Fahrenheit.

Release point exit gas velocity means the numeric value of the velocity of an exit gas stream.

Release point identifier means a unique code for the point where emissions from one or more processes release into the atmosphere.

Release point stack diameter means the inner physical diameter of a stack.

Release point stack height means physical height of a stack above the surrounding terrain.

Release point type code means the code for physical configuration of the release point.

Reporting period type means the code describing the time period covered by the emissions reported, i.e., Annual, 5-month ozone season, summer day, or winter.

Source classification code (SCC) means a process-level code that describes the equipment and/or operation which is emitting pollutants.

State and county FIPS code means the system of unique identifiers in the Federal Information Placement System (FIPS) used to identify states, counties and parishes for the entire United States, Puerto Rico, and Guam.

Throughput means a measurable factor or parameter that relates directly or indirectly to the emissions of an air pollution source during the period for which emissions are reported. Depending on the type of source category, activity information may refer to the amount of fuel combusted, raw material processed, product manufactured, or material handled or processed. It may also refer to population, employment, or number of units. Activity throughput is typically the value that is multiplied against an emission factor to generate an emissions estimate.

Type A source means large point sources with a potential to emit greater than or equal to any of the thresholds listed in Table 1 of Appendix A of this subpart. If a source is a Type A source for any pollutant listed in Table 1, then the emissions for all pollutants required by § 51.15 must be reported for that source.

Unit design capacity means a measure of the size of a point source, based on the reported maximum continuous throughput or output capacity of the unit.

Unit identifier means a unique code for the unit that generates emissions, typically a physical piece of equipment or a closely related set of equipment.

VOC means volatile organic compounds. The EPA's regulatory definition of VOC is in 40 CFR 51.100.

[80 FR 8796, Feb. 19, 2015]

Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 51 - Tables

Table 1 to Appendix A of Subpart A - Emission Thresholds1 by Pollutant for Treatment as Point Source Under 40 CFR 51.30

Pollutant Every-year Triennial
Type A sources2 Type B sources NAA sources3
(1) SO2 ≥2500 ≥100 ≥100.
PM2.5 (Serious) ≥70.
(2) VOC ≥250 ≥100 ≥100.
within OTR4 ≥50 within OTR ≥50.
O3 (Serious) ≥50.
O3 (Severe) ≥25.
O3 (Extreme) ≥10.
PM2.5 (Serious) ≥70.
(3) NOX ≥2500 ≥100 ≥100.
O3 (Serious) ≥50.
O3 (Severe) ≥25.
O3 (Extreme) ≥10.
PM2.5 (Serious) ≥70.
(4) CO ≥2500 ≥1000 ≥1000.
CO (all areas) ≥100.
(5) Lead ≥0.5 (actual) ≥0.5 (actual).
(6) Primary PM10 ≥250 ≥100 ≥100.
PM10 (Serious) ≥70.
(7) Primary PM2.5 ≥250 ≥100 ≥100.
PM2.5 (Serious) ≥70.
(8) NH3 ≥250 ≥100 ≥100.
PM2.5 (Serious) ≥70.

Table 2a to Appendix A of Subpart A - Facility Inventory1 Data Elements for Reporting Emissions From Point Sources, Where Required by 40 CFR 51.30

Data elements
(1) Emissions Year.
(2) State and County FIPS Code or Tribal Code.
(3) Facility Site Identifier.
(4) Unit Identifier.
(5) Emission Process Identifier.
(6) Release Point Identifier.
(7) Facility Site Name.
(8) Physical Address (Location Address, Locality Name, State and Postal Code).
(9) Latitude and Longitude at facility level.
(10) Source Classification Code.
(11) Aircraft Engine Type (where applicable).
(12) Facility Site Status and Year.
(13) Release Point Stack Height and Unit of Measure.
(14) Release Point Stack Diameter and Unit of Measure.
(15) Release Point Exit Gas Temperature and Unit of Measure.
(16) Release Point Exit Gas Velocity or Release Point Exit Gas Flow Rate and Unit of Measure.
(17) Release Point Status and Year.
(18) NAICS at facility level.
(19) Unit Design Capacity and Unit of Measure (for some unit types).
(20) Unit Type.
(21) Unit Status and Year.
(22) Release Point Apportionment Percent.
(23) Release Point Type.
(24) Control Measure and Control Pollutant (where applicable).
(25) Percent Control Approach Capture Efficiency (where applicable).
(26) Percent Control Measures Reduction Efficiency (where applicable).
(27) Percent Control Approach Effectiveness (where applicable).

Table 2b to Appendix A of Subpart A - Data Elements for Reporting Emissions From Point, Nonpoint, Onroad Mobile and Nonroad Mobile Sources, Where Required by 40 CFR 51.30

Data elements Point Nonpoint Onroad Nonroad
(1) Emissions Year Y Y Y Y
(2) FIPS code Y Y Y Y
(3) Shape Identifiers (where applicable) Y
(4) Source Classification Code Y Y Y
(5) Emission Type (where applicable) Y Y Y
(8) Emission Factor Y Y
(9) Throughput (Value, Material, Unit of Measure, and Type) Y Y Y
(10) Pollutant Code Y Y Y Y
(11) Annual Emissions and Unit of Measure Y Y Y Y
(12) Reporting Period Type (Annual) Y Y Y Y
(13) Emission Operating Type (Routine) Y
(14) Emission Calculation Method Y Y
(15) Control Measure and Control Pollutant (where applicable) Y
(16) Percent Control Measures Reduction Efficiency (where applicable) Y
(17) Percent Control Approach Effectiveness (where applicable) Y
(18) Percent Control Approach Penetration (where applicable) Y

[73 FR 76552, Dec. 17, 2008, as amended at 80 FR 8796, Feb. 19, 2015; 81 FR 58149, Aug. 24, 2016; 83 FR 63031, Dec. 6, 2018]

Subparts B-E [Reserved]
Subpart F - Procedural Requirements
§ 51.100 Definitions.

As used in this part, all terms not defined herein will have the meaning given them in the Act:

(a) Act means the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq., as amended by Pub. L. 91-604, 84 Stat. 1676 Pub. L. 95-95, 91 Stat., 685 and Pub. L. 95-190, 91 Stat., 1399.)

(b) Administrator means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or an authorized representative.

(c) Primary standard means a national primary ambient air quality standard promulgated pursuant to section 109 of the Act.

(d) Secondary standard means a national secondary ambient air quality standard promulgated pursuant to section 109 of the Act.

(e) National standard means either a primary or secondary standard.

(f) Owner or operator means any person who owns, leases, operates, controls, or supervises a facility, building, structure, or installation which directly or indirectly result or may result in emissions of any air pollutant for which a national standard is in effect.

(g) Local agency means any local government agency other than the State agency, which is charged with responsibility for carrying out a portion of the plan.

(h) Regional Office means one of the ten (10) EPA Regional Offices.

(i) State agency means the air pollution control agency primarily responsible for development and implementation of a plan under the Act.

(j) Plan means an implementation plan approved or promulgated under section 110 of 172 of the Act.

(k) Point source means the following:

(1) For particulate matter, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide -

(i) Any stationary source the actual emissions of which are in excess of 90.7 metric tons (100 tons) per year of the pollutant in a region containing an area whose 1980 urban place population, as defined by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, was equal to or greater than 1 million.

(ii) Any stationary source the actual emissions of which are in excess of 22.7 metric tons (25 tons) per year of the pollutant in a region containing an area whose 1980 urban place population, as defined by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, was less than 1 million; or

(2) For lead or lead compounds measured as elemental lead, any stationary source that actually emits a total of 4.5 metric tons (5 tons) per year or more.

(l) Area source means any small residential, governmental, institutional, commercial, or industrial fuel combustion operations; onsite solid waste disposal facility; motor vehicles, aircraft vessels, or other transportation facilities or other miscellaneous sources identified through inventory techniques similar to those described in the “AEROS Manual series, Vol. II AEROS User's Manual,” EPA-450/2-76-029 December 1976.

(m) Region means an area designated as an air quality control region (AQCR) under section 107(c) of the Act.

(n) Control strategy means a combination of measures designated to achieve the aggregate reduction of emissions necessary for attainment and maintenance of national standards including, but not limited to, measures such as:

(1) Emission limitations.

(2) Federal or State emission charges or taxes or other economic incentives or disincentives.

(3) Closing or relocation of residential, commercial, or industrial facilities.

(4) Changes in schedules or methods of operation of commercial or industrial facilities or transportation systems, including, but not limited to, short-term changes made in accordance with standby plans.

(5) Periodic inspection and testing of motor vehicle emission control systems, at such time as the Administrator determines that such programs are feasible and practicable.

(6) Emission control measures applicable to in-use motor vehicles, including, but not limited to, measures such as mandatory maintenance, installation of emission control devices, and conversion to gaseous fuels.

(7) Any transportation control measure including those transportation measures listed in section 108(f) of the Clean Air Act as amended.

(8) Any variation of, or alternative to any measure delineated herein.

(9) Control or prohibition of a fuel or fuel additive used in motor vehicles, if such control or prohibition is necessary to achieve a national primary or secondary air quality standard and is approved by the Administrator under section 211(c)(4)(C) of the Act.

(o) Reasonably available control technology (RACT) means devices, systems, process modifications, or other apparatus or techniques that are reasonably available taking into account:

(1) The necessity of imposing such controls in order to attain and maintain a national ambient air quality standard;

(2) The social, environmental, and economic impact of such controls; and

(3) Alternative means of providing for attainment and maintenance of such standard. (This provision defines RACT for the purposes of § 51.341(b) only.)

(p) Compliance schedule means the date or dates by which a source or category of sources is required to comply with specific emission limitations contained in an implementation plan and with any increments of progress toward such compliance.

(q) Increments of progress means steps toward compliance which will be taken by a specific source, including:

(1) Date of submittal of the source's final control plan to the appropriate air pollution control agency;

(2) Date by which contracts for emission control systems or process modifications will be awarded; or date by which orders will be issued for the purchase of component parts to accomplish emission control or process modification;

(3) Date of initiation of on-site construction or installation of emission control equipment or process change;

(4) Date by which on-site construction or installation of emission control equipment or process modification is to be completed; and

(5) Date by which final compliance is to be achieved.

(r) Transportation control measure means any measure that is directed toward reducing emissions of air pollutants from transportation sources. Such measures include, but are not limited to, those listed in section 108(f) of the Clean Air Act.

(s) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) means any compound of carbon, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, and ammonium carbonate, which participates in atmospheric photochemical reactions.

(1) This includes any such organic compound other than the following, which have been determined to have negligible photochemical reactivity: Methane; ethane; methylene chloride (dichloromethane); 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform); 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113); trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11); dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12); chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22); trifluoromethane (HFC-23); 1,2-dichloro 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114); chloropentafluoroethane (CFC-115); 1,1,1-trifluoro 2,2-dichloroethane (HCFC-123); 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a); 1,1-dichloro 1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b); 1-chloro 1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b); 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124); pentafluoroethane (HFC-125); 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134); 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a); 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a); parachlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF); cyclic, branched, or linear completely methylated siloxanes; acetone; perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene); 3,3-dichloro-1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane (HCFC-225ca); 1,3-dichloro-1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HCFC-225cb); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane (HFC 43-10mee); difluoromethane (HFC-32); ethylfluoride (HFC-161); 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236fa); 1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245ca); 1,1,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245ea); 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245eb); 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245fa); 1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea); 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane (HFC-365mfc); chlorofluoromethane (HCFC-31); 1 chloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-151a); 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123a); 1,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4-nonafluoro-4-methoxy-butane (C4F9OCH3 or HFE-7100); 2-(difluoromethoxymethyl)-1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane ((CF3)2CFCF2OCH3); 1-ethoxy-1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,4-nonafluorobutane (C4F9OC2H5 or HFE-7200); 2-(ethoxydifluoromethyl)-1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane ((CF3)2CFCF2OC2H5); methyl acetate; 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoro-3-methoxy-propane (n-C3F7OCH3, HFE-7000); 3-ethoxy- 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-dodecafluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl) hexane (HFE-7500); 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC 227ea); methyl formate (HCOOCH3); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,5-decafluoro-3-methoxy-4-trifluoromethyl-pentane (HFE-7300); propylene carbonate; dimethyl carbonate; trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene; HCF2OCF2H (HFE-134); HCF2OCF2OCF2H (HFE-236cal2); HCF2OCF2CF2OCF2H (HFE-338pcc13); HCF2OCF2OCF2CF2OCF2H (H-Galden 1040x or H-Galden ZT 130 (or 150 or 180)); trans 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene; 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene; 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol; t-butyl acetate; 1,1,2,2- Tetrafluoro -1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy) ethane; cis-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobut-2-ene (HFO-1336mzz-Z); and perfluorocarbon compounds which fall into these classes:

(i) Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated alkanes;

(ii) Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated ethers with no unsaturations;

(iii) Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated tertiary amines with no unsaturations; and

(iv) Sulfur containing perfluorocarbons with no unsaturations and with sulfur bonds only to carbon and fluorine.

(2) For purposes of determining compliance with emissions limits, VOC will be measured by the test methods in the approved State implementation plan (SIP) or 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as applicable. Where such a method also measures compounds with negligible photochemical reactivity, these negligibility-reactive compounds may be excluded as VOC if the amount of such compounds is accurately quantified, and such exclusion is approved by the enforcement authority.

(3) As a precondition to excluding these compounds as VOC or at any time thereafter, the enforcement authority may require an owner or operator to provide monitoring or testing methods and results demonstrating, to the satisfaction of the enforcement authority, the amount of negligibly-reactive compounds in the source's emissions.

(4) For purposes of Federal enforcement for a specific source, the EPA shall use the test methods specified in the applicable EPA-approved SIP, in a permit issued pursuant to a program approved or promulgated under title V of the Act, or under 40 CFR part 51, subpart I or appendix S, or under 40 CFR parts 52 or 60. The EPA shall not be bound by any State determination as to appropriate methods for testing or monitoring negligibly-reactive compounds if such determination is not reflected in any of the above provisions.

(5) [Reserved]

(6) For the purposes of determining compliance with California's aerosol coatings reactivity-based regulation, (as described in the California Code of Regulations, Title 17, Division 3, Chapter 1, Subchapter 8.5, Article 3), any organic compound in the volatile portion of an aerosol coating is counted towards that product's reactivity-based limit. Therefore, the compounds identified in paragraph (s) of this section as negligibly reactive and excluded from EPA's definition of VOCs are to be counted towards a product's reactivity limit for the purposes of determining compliance with California's aerosol coatings reactivity-based regulation.

(7) For the purposes of determining compliance with EPA's aerosol coatings reactivity based regulation (as described in 40 CFR part 59 - National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer and Commercial Products) any organic compound in the volatile portion of an aerosol coating is counted towards the product's reactivity-based limit, as provided in 40 CFR part 59, subpart E. Therefore, the compounds that are used in aerosol coating products and that are identified in paragraphs (s)(1) or (s)(5) of this section as excluded from EPA's definition of VOC are to be counted towards a product's reactivity limit for the purposes of determining compliance with EPA's aerosol coatings reactivity-based national regulation, as provided in 40 CFR part 59, subpart E.

(t-w) [Reserved]

(x) Time period means any period of time designated by hour, month, season, calendar year, averaging time, or other suitable characteristics, for which ambient air quality is estimated.

(y) Variance means the temporary deferral of a final compliance date for an individual source subject to an approved regulation, or a temporary change to an approved regulation as it applies to an individual source.

(z) Emission limitation and emission standard mean a requirement established by a State, local government, or the Administrator which limits the quantity, rate, or concentration of emissions of air pollutants on a continuous basis, including any requirements which limit the level of opacity, prescribe equipment, set fuel specifications, or prescribe operation or maintenance procedures for a source to assure continuous emission reduction.

(aa) Capacity factor means the ratio of the average load on a machine or equipment for the period of time considered to the capacity rating of the machine or equipment.

(bb) Excess emissions means emissions of an air pollutant in excess of an emission standard.

(cc) Nitric acid plant means any facility producing nitric acid 30 to 70 percent in strength by either the pressure or atmospheric pressure process.

(dd) Sulfuric acid plant means any facility producing sulfuric acid by the contact process by burning elemental sulfur, alkylation acid, hydrogen sulfide, or acid sludge, but does not include facilities where conversion to sulfuric acid is utilized primarily as a means of preventing emissions to the atmosphere of sulfur dioxide or other sulfur compounds.

(ee) Fossil fuel-fired steam generator means a furnance or bioler used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the primary purpose of producing steam by heat transfer.

(ff) Stack means any point in a source designed to emit solids, liquids, or gases into the air, including a pipe or duct but not including flares.

(gg) A stack in existence means that the owner or operator had

(1) begun, or caused to begin, a continuous program of physical on-site construction of the stack or

(2) entered into binding agreements or contractual obligations, which could not be cancelled or modified without substantial loss to the owner or operator, to undertake a program of construction of the stack to be completed within a reasonable time.

(hh)

(1) Dispersion technique means any technique which attempts to affect the concentration of a pollutant in the ambient air by:

(i) Using that portion of a stack which exceeds good engineering practice stack height:

(ii) Varying the rate of emission of a pollutant according to atmospheric conditions or ambient concentrations of that pollutant; or

(iii) Increasing final exhaust gas plume rise by manipulating source process parameters, exhaust gas parameters, stack parameters, or combining exhaust gases from several existing stacks into one stack; or other selective handling of exhaust gas streams so as to increase the exhaust gas plume rise.

(2) The preceding sentence does not include:

(i) The reheating of a gas stream, following use of a pollution control system, for the purpose of returning the gas to the temperature at which it was originally discharged from the facility generating the gas stream;

(ii) The merging of exhaust gas streams where:

(A) The source owner or operator demonstrates that the facility was originally designed and constructed with such merged gas streams;

(B) After July 8, 1985 such merging is part of a change in operation at the facility that includes the installation of pollution controls and is accompanied by a net reduction in the allowable emissions of a pollutant. This exclusion from the definition of dispersion techniques shall apply only to the emission limitation for the pollutant affected by such change in operation; or

(C) Before July 8, 1985, such merging was part of a change in operation at the facility that included the installation of emissions control equipment or was carried out for sound economic or engineering reasons. Where there was an increase in the emission limitation or, in the event that no emission limitation was in existence prior to the merging, an increase in the quantity of pollutants actually emitted prior to the merging, the reviewing agency shall presume that merging was significantly motivated by an intent to gain emissions credit for greater dispersion. Absent a demonstration by the source owner or operator that merging was not significantly motivated by such intent, the reviewing agency shall deny credit for the effects of such merging in calculating the allowable emissions for the source;

(iii) Smoke management in agricultural or silvicultural prescribed burning programs;

(iv) Episodic restrictions on residential woodburning and open burning; or

(v) Techniques under § 51.100(hh)(1)(iii) which increase final exhaust gas plume rise where the resulting allowable emissions of sulfur dioxide from the facility do not exceed 5,000 tons per year.

(ii) Good engineering practice (GEP) stack height means the greater of:

(1) 65 meters, measured from the ground-level elevation at the base of the stack:

(2)

(i) For stacks in existence on January 12, 1979, and for which the owner or operator had obtained all applicable permits or approvals required under 40 CFR parts 51 and 52.

Hg = 2.5H,

provided the owner or operator produces evidence that this equation was actually relied on in establishing an emission limitation:

(ii) For all other stacks,

Hg = H + 1.5L

where:

Hg = good engineering practice stack height, measured from the ground-level elevation at the base of the stack,

H = height of nearby structure(s) measured from the ground-level elevation at the base of the stack.

L = lesser dimension, height or projected width, of nearby structure(s)

provided that the EPA, State or local control agency may require the use of a field study or fluid model to verify GEP stack height for the source; or

(3) The height demonstrated by a fluid model or a field study approved by the EPA State or local control agency, which ensures that the emissions from a stack do not result in excessive concentrations of any air pollutant as a result of atmospheric downwash, wakes, or eddy effects created by the source itself, nearby structures or nearby terrain features.

(jj) Nearby as used in § 51.100(ii) of this part is defined for a specific structure or terrain feature and

(1) For purposes of applying the formulae provided in § 51.100(ii)(2) means that distance up to five times the lesser of the height or the width dimension of a structure, but not greater than 0.8 km (1/2 mile), and

(2) For conducting demonstrations under § 51.100(ii)(3) means not greater than 0.8 km (1/2 mile), except that the portion of a terrain feature may be considered to be nearby which falls within a distance of up to 10 times the maximum height (Ht) of the feature, not to exceed 2 miles if such feature achieves a height (Ht) 0.8 km from the stack that is at least 40 percent of the GEP stack height determined by the formulae provided in § 51.100(ii)(2)(ii) of this part or 26 meters, whichever is greater, as measured from the ground-level elevation at the base of the stack. The height of the structure or terrain feature is measured from the ground-level elevation at the base of the stack.

(kk) Excessive concentration is defined for the purpose of determining good engineering practice stack height under § 51.100(ii)(3) and means:

(1) For sources seeking credit for stack height exceeding that established under § 51.100(ii)(2) a maximum ground-level concentration due to emissions from a stack due in whole or part to downwash, wakes, and eddy effects produced by nearby structures or nearby terrain features which individually is at least 40 percent in excess of the maximum concentration experienced in the absence of such downwash, wakes, or eddy effects and which contributes to a total concentration due to emissions from all sources that is greater than an ambient air quality standard. For sources subject to the prevention of significant deterioration program (40 CFR 51.166 and 52.21), an excessive concentration alternatively means a maximum ground-level concentration due to emissions from a stack due in whole or part to downwash, wakes, or eddy effects produced by nearby structures or nearby terrain features which individually is at least 40 percent in excess of the maximum concentration experienced in the absence of such downwash, wakes, or eddy effects and greater than a prevention of significant deterioration increment. The allowable emission rate to be used in making demonstrations under this part shall be prescribed by the new source performance standard that is applicable to the source category unless the owner or operator demonstrates that this emission rate is infeasible. Where such demonstrations are approved by the authority administering the State implementation plan, an alternative emission rate shall be established in consultation with the source owner or operator.

(2) For sources seeking credit after October 11, 1983, for increases in existing stack heights up to the heights established under § 51.100(ii)(2), either

(i) a maximum ground-level concentration due in whole or part to downwash, wakes or eddy effects as provided in paragraph (kk)(1) of this section, except that the emission rate specified by any applicable State implementation plan (or, in the absence of such a limit, the actual emission rate) shall be used, or

(ii) the actual presence of a local nuisance caused by the existing stack, as determined by the authority administering the State implementation plan; and

(3) For sources seeking credit after January 12, 1979 for a stack height determined under § 51.100(ii)(2) where the authority administering the State implementation plan requires the use of a field study or fluid model to verify GEP stack height, for sources seeking stack height credit after November 9, 1984 based on the aerodynamic influence of cooling towers, and for sources seeking stack height credit after December 31, 1970 based on the aerodynamic influence of structures not adequately represented by the equations in § 51.100(ii)(2), a maximum ground-level concentration due in whole or part to downwash, wakes or eddy effects that is at least 40 percent in excess of the maximum concentration experienced in the absence of such downwash, wakes, or eddy effects.

(ll-mm) [Reserved]

(nn) Intermittent control system (ICS) means a dispersion technique which varies the rate at which pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere according to meteorological conditions and/or ambient concentrations of the pollutant, in order to prevent ground-level concentrations in excess of applicable ambient air quality standards. Such a dispersion technique is an ICS whether used alone, used with other dispersion techniques, or used as a supplement to continuous emission controls (i.e., used as a supplemental control system).

(oo) Particulate matter means any airborne finely divided solid or liquid material with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 100 micrometers.

(pp) Particulate matter emissions means all finely divided solid or liquid material, other than uncombined water, emitted to the ambient air as measured by applicable reference methods, or an equivalent or alternative method, specified in this chapter, or by a test method specified in an approved State implementation plan.

(qq) PM10 means particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers as measured by a reference method based on appendix J of part 50 of this chapter and designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter or by an equivalent method designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter.

(rr) PM10 emissions means finely divided solid or liquid material, with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers emitted to the ambient air as measured by an applicable reference method, or an equivalent or alternative method, specified in this chapter or by a test method specified in an approved State implementation plan.

(ss) Total suspended particulate means particulate matter as measured by the method described in appendix B of part 50 of this chapter.

[51 FR 40661, Nov. 7, 1986]

§ 51.101 Stipulations.

Nothing in this part will be construed in any manner:

(a) To encourage a State to prepare, adopt, or submit a plan which does not provide for the protection and enhancement of air quality so as to promote the public health and welfare and productive capacity.

(b) To encourage a State to adopt any particular control strategy without taking into consideration the cost-effectiveness of such control strategy in relation to that of alternative control strategies.

(c) To preclude a State from employing techniques other than those specified in this part for purposes of estimating air quality or demonstrating the adequacy of a control strategy, provided that such other techniques are shown to be adequate and appropriate for such purposes.

(d) To encourage a State to prepare, adopt, or submit a plan without taking into consideration the social and economic impact of the control strategy set forth in such plan, including, but not limited to, impact on availability of fuels, energy, transportation, and employment.

(e) To preclude a State from preparing, adopting, or submitting a plan which provides for attainment and maintenance of a national standard through the application of a control strategy not specifically identified or described in this part.

(f) To preclude a State or political subdivision thereof from adopting or enforcing any emission limitations or other measures or combinations thereof to attain and maintain air quality better than that required by a national standard.

(g) To encourage a State to adopt a control strategy uniformly applicable throughout a region unless there is no satisfactory alternative way of providing for attainment and maintenance of a national standard throughout such region.

[61 FR 30163, June 14, 1996]

§ 51.102 Public hearings.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c) of this section and within the 30 day notification period as required by paragraph (d) of this section, States must provide notice, provide the opportunity to submit written comments and allow the public the opportunity to request a public hearing. The State must hold a public hearing or provide the public the opportunity to request a public hearing. The notice announcing the 30 day notification period must include the date, place and time of the public hearing. If the State provides the public the opportunity to request a public hearing and a request is received the State must hold the scheduled hearing or schedule a public hearing (as required by paragraph (d) of this section). The State may cancel the public hearing through a method it identifies if no request for a public hearing is received during the 30 day notification period and the original notice announcing the 30 day notification period clearly states: If no request for a public hearing is received the hearing will be cancelled; identifies the method and time for announcing that the hearing has been cancelled; and provides a contact phone number for the public to call to find out if the hearing has been cancelled. These requirements apply for adoption and submission to EPA of:

(1) Any plan or revision of it required by § 51.104(a).

(2) Any individual compliance schedule under (§ 51.260).

(3) Any revision under § 51.104(d).

(b) Separate hearings may be held for plans to implement primary and secondary standards.

(c) No hearing will be required for any change to an increment of progress in an approved individual compliance schedule unless such change is likely to cause the source to be unable to comply with the final compliance date in the schedule. The requirements of §§ 51.104 and 51.105 will be applicable to such schedules, however.

(d) Any hearing required by paragraph (a) of this section will be held only after reasonable notice, which will be considered to include, at least 30 days prior to the date of such hearing(s):

(1) Notice given to the public by prominent advertisement in the area affected announcing the date(s), time(s), and place(s) of such hearing(s);

(2) Availability of each proposed plan or revision for public inspection in at least one location in each region to which it will apply, and the availability of each compliance schedule for public inspection in at least one location in the region in which the affected source is located;

(3) Notification to the Administrator (through the appropriate Regional Office);

(4) Notification to each local air pollution control agency which will be significantly impacted by such plan, schedule or revision;

(5) In the case of an interstate region, notification to any other States included, in whole or in part, in the regions which are significantly impacted by such plan or schedule or revision.

(e) The State must prepare and retain, for inspection by the Administrator upon request, a record of each hearing. The record must contain, as a minimum, a list of witnesses together with the text of each presentation.

(f) The State must submit with the plan, revision, or schedule, a certification that the requirements in paragraph (a) and (d) of this section were met. Such certification will include the date and place of any public hearing(s) held or that no public hearing was requested during the 30 day notification period.

(g) Upon written application by a State agency (through the appropriate Regional Office), the Administrator may approve State procedures for public hearings. The following criteria apply:

(1) Procedures approved under this section shall be deemed to satisfy the requirement of this part regarding public hearings.

(2) Procedures different from this part may be approved if they -

(i) Ensure public participation in matters for which hearings are required; and

(ii) Provide adequate public notification of the opportunity to participate.

(3) The Administrator may impose any conditions on approval he or she deems necessary.

[36 FR 22938, Nov. 25, 1971, as amended at 65 FR 8657, Feb. 22, 2000; 72 FR 38792, July 16, 2007]

§ 51.103 Submission of plans, preliminary review of plans.

(a) The State makes an official plan submission to EPA only when the submission conforms to the requirements of appendix V to this part and the State delivers the submission to EPA through one of the three following methods: An electronic submission through EPA's eSIP submission system; one paper submission to the appropriate Regional Office with an exact duplicate electronic version, preferably in a word searchable format; or three paper submissions. Any State submission under this part, whether through the eSIP submission system or in paper copy form, will serve as the official submission.

(b) Upon request by a State, the Administrator will work with the State to provide preliminary review of a plan or portion thereof submitted in advance of the date such plan is due. Such requests must be made to the appropriate Regional Office, and must indicate changes (such as redline/strikethrough) to the existing approved plan where applicable, and be submitted using a format agreed upon by the State and Regional Office. Requests for preliminary review do not relieve a State of the responsibility of adopting and submitting plans in accordance with prescribed due dates.

(c) In addition to conforming to the requirements of appendix V to this part for complete SIP submissions, the EPA requests that the state consult with the appropriate Regional Office regarding any additional guidance for submitting a plan to EPA.

[80 FR 7340, Feb. 10, 2015]

§ 51.104 Revisions.

(a) States may revise the plan from time to time consistent with the requirements applicable to implementation plans under this part.

(b) The States must submit any revision of any regulation or any compliance schedule under paragraph (c) of this section to the Administrator no later than 60 days after its adoption.

(c) EPA will approve revisions only after applicable hearing requirements of § 51.102 have been satisfied.

(d) In order for a variance to be considered for approval as a revision to the State implementation plan, the State must submit it in accordance with the requirements of this section.

[51 FR 40661, Nov. 7, 1986, as amended at 61 FR 16060, Apr. 11, 1996]

§ 51.105 Approval of plans.

Revisions of a plan, or any portion thereof, will not be considered part of an applicable plan until such revisions have been approved by the Administrator in accordance with this part.

[51 FR 40661, Nov. 7, 1986, as amended at 60 FR 33922, June 29, 1995]

Subpart G - Control Strategy
Source:

51 FR 40665, Nov. 7, 1986, unless otherwise noted.

§ 51.110 Attainment and maintenance of national standards.

(a) Each plan providing for the attainment of a primary or secondary standard must specify the projected attainment date.

(b-f) [Reserved]

(g) During developing of the plan, EPA encourages States to identify alternative control strategies, as well as the costs and benefits of each such alternative for attainment or maintenance of the national standard.

[51 FR 40661 Nov. 7, 1986, as amended at 61 FR 16060, Apr. 11, 1996; 61 FR 30163, June 14, 1996]

§ 51.111 Description of control measures.

Each plan must set forth a control strategy which includes the following:

(a) A description of enforcement methods including, but not limited to:

(1) Procedures for monitoring compliance with each of the selected control measures,

(2) Procedures for handling violations, and

(3) A designation of agency responsibility for enforcement of implementation.

(b) [Reserved]

[51 FR 40665, Nov. 7, 1986, as amended at 60 FR 33922, June 29, 1995]

§ 51.112 Demonstration of adequacy.

(a) Each plan must demonstrate that the measures, rules, and regulations contained in it are adequate to provide for the timely attainment and maintenance of the national standard that it implements.

(1) The adequacy of a control strategy shall be demonstrated by means of applicable air quality models, data bases, and other requirements specified in appendix W of this part (Guideline on Air Quality Models).

(2) Where an air quality model specified in appendix W of this part (Guideline on Air Quality Models) is inappropriate, the model may be modified or another model substituted. Such a modification or substitution of a model may be made on a case-by-case basis or, where appropriate, on a generic basis for a specific State program. Written approval of the Administrator must be obtained for any modification or substitution. In addition, use of a modified or substituted model must be subject to notice and opportunity for public comment under procedures set forth in § 51.102.

(b) The demonstration must include the following:

(1) A summary of the computations, assumptions, and judgments used to determine the degree of reduction of emissions (or reductions in the growth of emissions) that will result from the implementation of the control strategy.

(2) A presentation of emission levels expected to result from implementation of each measure of the control strategy.

(3) A presentation of the air quality levels expected to result from implementation of the overall control strategy presented either in tabular form or as an isopleth map showing expected maximum pollutant concentrations.

(4) A description of the dispersion models used to project air quality and to evaluate control strategies.

(5) For interstate regions, the analysis from each constituent State must, where practicable, be based upon the same regional emission inventory and air quality baseline.

[51 FR 40665, Nov. 7, 1986, as amended at 58 FR 38821, July 20, 1993; 60 FR 40468, Aug. 9, 1995; 61 FR 41840, Aug. 12, 1996]

§ 51.113 [Reserved]
§ 51.114 Emissions data and projections.

(a) Except for lead, each plan must contain a detailed inventory of emissions from point and area sources. Lead requirements are specified in § 51.117. The inventory must be based upon measured emissions or, where measured emissions are not available, documented emission factors.

(b) Each plan must contain a summary of emission levels projected to result from application of the new control strategy.

(c) Each plan must identify the sources of the data used in the projection of emissions.

§ 51.115 Air quality data and projections.

(a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality.

(b) Each plan must:

(1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result from application of the control strategy, and

(2) Identify and describe the dispersion model, other air quality model, or receptor model used.

(c) Actual measurements of air quality must be used where available if made by methods specified in appendix C to part 58 of this chapter. Estimated air quality using appropriate modeling techniques may be used to supplement measurements.

(d) For purposes of developing a control strategy, background concentration shall be taken into consideration with respect to particulate matter. As used in this subpart, background concentration is that portion of the measured ambient levels that cannot be reduced by controlling emissions from man-made sources.

(e) In developing an ozone control strategy for a particular area, background ozone concentrations and ozone transported into an area must be considered. States may assume that the ozone standard will be attained in upwind areas.

§ 51.116 Data availability.

(a) The State must retain all detailed data and calculations used in the preparation of each plan or each plan revision, and make them available for public inspection and submit them to the Administrator at his request.

(b) The detailed data and calculations used in the preparation of plan revisions are not considered a part of the plan.

(c) Each plan must provide for public availability of emission data reported by source owners or operators or otherwise obtained by a State or local agency. Such emission data must be correlated with applicable emission limitations or other measures. As used in this paragraph, correlated means presented in such a manner as to show the relationship between measured or estimated amounts of emissions and the amounts of such emissions allowable under the applicable emission limitations or other measures.

§ 51.117 Additional provisions for lead.

In addition to other requirements in §§ 51.100 through 51.116 the following requirements apply to lead. To the extent they conflict, there requirements are controlling over those of the proceeding sections.

(a) Control strategy demonstration. Each plan must contain a demonstration showing that the plan will attain and maintain the standard in the following areas:

(1) Areas in the vicinity of the following point sources of lead: Primary lead smelters, Secondary lead smelters, Primary copper smelters, Lead gasoline additive plants, Lead-acid storage battery manufacturing plants that produce 2,000 or more batteries per day. Any other stationary source that actually emits 25 or more tons per year of lead or lead compounds measured as elemental lead.

(2) Any other area that has lead air concentrations in excess of the national ambient air quality standard concentration for lead, measured since January 1, 1974.

(b) Time period for demonstration of adequacy. The demonstration of adequacy of the control strategy required under § 51.112 may cover a longer period if allowed by the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator.

(c) Special modeling provisions.

(1) For urbanized areas with measured lead concentrations in excess of 4.0 µg/m3, quarterly mean measured since January 1, 1974, the plan must employ the modified rollback model for the demonstration of attainment as a minimum, but may use an atmospheric dispersion model if desired, consistent with requirements contained in § 51.112(a). If a proportional model is used, the air quality data should be the same year as the emissions inventory required under the paragraph e.

(2) For each point source listed in § 51.117(a), that plan must employ an atmospheric dispersion model for demonstration of attainment, consistent with requirements contained in § 51.112(a).

(3) For each area in the vicinity of an air quality monitor that has recorded lead concentrations in excess of the lead national standard concentration, the plan must employ the modified rollback model as a minimum, but may use an atmospheric dispersion model if desired for the demonstration of attainment, consistent with requirements contained in § 51.112(a).

(d) Air quality data and projections.

(1) Each State must submit to the appropriate EPA Regional Office with the plan, but not part of the plan, all lead air quality data measured since January 1, 1974. This requirement does not apply if the data has already been submitted.

(2) The data must be submitted in accordance with the procedures and data forms specified in Chapter 3.4.0 of the “AEROS User's Manual” concerning storage and retrieval of aerometric data (SAROAD) except where the Regional Administrator waives this requirement.

(3) If additional lead air quality data are desired to determine lead air concentrations in areas suspected of exceeding the lead national ambient air quality standard, the plan may include data from any previously collected filters from particulate matter high volume samplers. In determining the lead content of the filters for control strategy demonstration purposes, a State may use, in addition to the reference method, X-ray fluorescence or any other method approved by the Regional Administrator.

(e) Emissions data.

(1) The point source inventory on which the summary of the baseline for lead emissions inventory is based must contain all sources that emit 0.5 or more tons of lead per year.

(2) Each State must submit lead emissions data to the appropriate EPA Regional Office with the original plan. The submission must be made with the plan, but not as part of the plan, and must include emissions data and information related to point and area source emissions. The emission data and information should include the information identified in the Hazardous and Trace Emissions System (HATREMS) point source coding forms for all point sources and the area source coding forms for all sources that are not point sources, but need not necessarily be in the format of those forms.

[41 FR 18388, May 3, 1976, as amended at 58 FR 38822, July 20, 1993; 73 FR 67057, Nov. 12, 2008]

§ 51.118 Stack height provisions.

(a) The plan must provide that the degree of emission limitation required of any source for control of any air pollutant must not be affected by so much of any source's stack height that exceeds good engineering practice or by any other dispersion technique, except as provided in § 51.118(b). The plan must provide that before a State submits to EPA a new or revised emission limitation that is based on a good engineering practice stack height that exceeds the height allowed by § 51.100(ii) (1) or (2), the State must notify the public of the availabilty of the demonstration study and must provide opportunity for a public hearing on it. This section does not require the plan to restrict, in any manner, the actual stack height of any source.

(b) The provisions of § 51.118(a) shall not apply to

(1) stack heights in existence, or dispersion techniques implemented on or before December 31, 1970, except where pollutants are being emitted from such stacks or using such dispersion techniques by sources, as defined in section 111(a)(3) of the Clean Air Act, which were constructed, or reconstructed, or for which major modifications, as defined in §§ 51.165(a)(1)(v)(A), 51.166(b)(2)(i) and 52.21(b)(2)(i), were carried out after December 31, 1970; or

(2) coal-fired steam electric generating units subject to the provisions of section 118 of the Clean Air Act, which commenced operation before July 1, 1957, and whose stacks were construced under a construction contract awarded before February 8, 1974.

§ 51.119 Intermittent control systems.

(a) The use of an intermittent control system (ICS) may be taken into account in establishing an emission limitation for a pollutant under a State implementation plan, provided:

(1) The ICS was implemented before December 31, 1970, according to the criteria specified in § 51.119(b).

(2) The extent to which the ICS is taken into account is limited to reflect emission levels and associated ambient pollutant concentrations that would result if the ICS was the same as it was before December 31, 1970, and was operated as specified by the operating system of the ICS before December 31, 1970.

(3) The plan allows the ICS to compensate only for emissions from a source for which the ICS was implemented before December 31, 1970, and, in the event the source has been modified, only to the extent the emissions correspond to the maximum capacity of the source before December 31, 1970. For purposes of this paragraph, a source for which the ICS was implemented is any particular structure or equipment the emissions from which were subject to the ICS operating procedures.

(4) The plan requires the continued operation of any constant pollution control system which was in use before December 31, 1970, or the equivalent of that system.

(5) The plan clearly defines the emission limits affected by the ICS and the manner in which the ICS is taken into account in establishing those limits.

(6) The plan contains requirements for the operation and maintenance of the qualifying ICS which, together with the emission limitations and any other necessary requirements, will assure that the national ambient air quality standards and any applicable prevention of significant deterioration increments will be attained and maintained. These requirements shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following:

(i) Requirements that a source owner or operator continuously operate and maintain the components of the ICS specified at § 51.119(b)(3) (ii)-(iv) in a manner which assures that the ICS is at least as effective as it was before December 31, 1970. The air quality monitors and meteorological instrumentation specified at § 51.119(b) may be operated by a local authority or other entity provided the source has ready access to the data from the monitors and instrumentation.

(ii) Requirements which specify the circumstances under which, the extent to which, and the procedures through which, emissions shall be curtailed through the activation of ICS.

(iii) Requirements for recordkeeping which require the owner or operator of the source to keep, for periods of at least 3 years, records of measured ambient air quality data, meteorological information acquired, and production data relating to those processes affected by the ICS.

(iv) Requirements for reporting which require the owner or operator of the source to notify the State and EPA within 30 days of a NAAQS violation pertaining to the pollutant affected by the ICS.

(7) Nothing in this paragraph affects the applicability of any new source review requirements or new source performance standards contained in the Clean Air Act or 40 CFR subchapter C. Nothing in this paragraph precludes a State from taking an ICS into account in establishing emission limitations to any extent less than permitted by this paragraph.

(b) An intermittent control system (ICS) may be considered implemented for a pollutant before December 31, 1970, if the following criteria are met:

(1) The ICS must have been established and operational with respect to that pollutant prior to December 31, 1970, and reductions in emissions of that pollutant must have occurred when warranted by meteorological and ambient monitoring data.

(2) The ICS must have been designed and operated to meet an air quality objective for that pollutant such as an air quality level or standard.

(3) The ICS must, at a minimum, have included the following components prior to December 31, 1970:

(i) Air quality monitors. An array of sampling stations whose location and type were consistent with the air quality objective and operation of the system.

(ii) Meteorological instrumentation. A meteorological data acquisition network (may be limited to a single station) which provided meteorological prediction capabilities sufficient to determine the need for, and degree of, emission curtailments necessary to achieve the air quality design objective.

(iii) Operating system. A system of established procedures for determining the need for curtailments and for accomplishing such curtailments. Documentation of this system, as required by paragraph (n)(4), may consist of a compendium of memoranda or comparable material which define the criteria and procedures for curtailments and which identify the type and number of personnel authorized to initiate curtailments.

(iv) Meteorologist. A person, schooled in meteorology, capable of interpreting data obtained from the meteorological network and qualified to forecast meteorological incidents and their effect on ambient air quality. Sources may have obtained meteorological services through a consultant. Services of such a consultant could include sufficient training of source personnel for certain operational procedures, but not for design, of the ICS.

(4) Documentation sufficient to support the claim that the ICS met the criteria listed in this paragraph must be provided. Such documentation may include affidavits or other documentation.

§ 51.120 Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

(a) The EPA Administrator finds that the State Implementation Plans (SIPs) for the States of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont, the portion of Virginia included (as of November 15, 1990) within the Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area that includes the District of Columbia, are substantially inadequate to comply with the requirements of section 110(a)(2)(D) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7410(a)(2)(D), and to mitigate adequately the interstate pollutant transport described in section 184 of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7511C, to the extent that they do not provide for emission reductions from new motor vehicles in the amount that would be achieved by the Ozone Transport Commission low emission vehicle (OTC LEV) program described in paragraph (c) of this section. This inadequacy will be deemed cured for each of the aforementioned States (including the District of Columbia) in the event that EPA determines through rulemaking that a national LEV-equivalent new motor vehicle emission control program is an acceptable alternative for OTC LEV and finds that such program is in effect. In the event no such finding is made, each of those States must adopt and submit to EPA by February 15, 1996 a SIP revision meeting the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section in order to cure the SIP inadequacy.

(b) If a SIP revision is required under paragraph (a) of this section, it must contain the OTC LEV program described in paragraph (c) of this section unless the State adopts and submits to EPA, as a SIP revision, other emission-reduction measures sufficient to meet the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section. If a State adopts and submits to EPA, as a SIP revision, other emission-reduction measures pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, then for purposes of determining whether such a SIP revision is complete within the meaning of section 110(k)(1) (and hence is eligible at least for consideration to be approved as satisfying paragraph (d) of this section), such a SIP revision must contain other adopted emission-reduction measures that, together with the identified potentially broadly practicable measures, achieve at least the minimum level of emission reductions that could potentially satisfy the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section. All such measures must be fully adopted and enforceable.

(c) The OTC LEV program is a program adopted pursuant to section 177 of the Clean Air Act.

(1) The OTC LEV program shall contain the following elements:

(i) It shall apply to all new 1999 and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750 pounds loaded vehicle weight), as defined in Title 13, California Code of Regulations, section 1900(b)(11) and (b)(8), respectively, that are sold, imported, delivered, purchased, leased, rented, acquired, received, or registered in any area of the State that is in the Northeast Ozone Transport Region as of December 19, 1994.

(ii) All vehicles to which the OTC LEV program is applicable shall be required to have a certificate from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) affirming compliance with California standards.

(iii) All vehicles to which this LEV program is applicable shall be required to meet the mass emission standards for Non-Methane Organic Gases (NMOG), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX), Formaldehyde (HCHO), and particulate matter (PM) as specified in Title 13, California Code of Regulations, section 1960.1(f)(2) (and formaldehyde standards under section 1960.1(e)(2), as applicable) or as specified by California for certification as a TLEV (Transitional Low-Emission Vehicle), LEV (Low-Emission Vehicle), ULEV (Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle), or ZEV (Zero-Emission Vehicle) under section 1960.1(g)(1) (and section 1960.1(e)(3), for formaldehyde standards, as applicable).

(iv) All manufacturers of vehicles subject to the OTC LEV program shall be required to meet the fleet average NMOG exhaust emission values for production and delivery for sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750 pounds loaded vehicle weight, and light-duty trucks 3751-5750 pounds loaded vehicle weight specified in Title 13, California Code of Regulations, section 1960.1(g)(2) for each model year beginning in 1999. A State may determine not to implement the NMOG fleet average in the first model year of the program if the State begins implementation of the program late in a calendar year. However, all States must implement the NMOG fleet average in any full model years of the LEV program.

(v) All manufacturers shall be allowed to average, bank and trade credits in the same manner as allowed under the program specified in Title 13, California Code of Regulations, section 1960.1(g)(2) footnote 7 for each model year beginning in 1999. States may account for credits banked by manufacturers in California or New York in years immediately preceding model year 1999, in a manner consistent with California banking and discounting procedures.

(vi) The provisions for small volume manufacturers and intermediate volume manufacturers, as applied by Title 13, California Code of Regulations to California's LEV program, shall apply. Those manufacturers defined as small volume manufacturers and intermediate volume manufacturers in California under California's regulations shall be considered small volume manufacturers and intermediate volume manufacturers under this program.

(vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined in Title 13 California Code of Regulations, section 1960.1, shall apply for purposes of calculating fleet average NMOG values.

(viii) The provisions for fuel-flexible vehicles and dual-fuel vehicles specified in Title 13, California Code of Regulations, section 1960.1(g)(1) footnote 4 shall apply.

(ix) The provisions for reactivity adjustment factors, as defined by Title 13, California Code of Regulations, shall apply.

(x) The aforementioned State OTC LEV standards shall be identical to the aforementioned California standards as such standards exist on December 19, 1994.

(xi) All States' OTC LEV programs must contain any other provisions of California's LEV program specified in Title 13, California Code of Regulations necessary to comply with section 177 of the Clean Air Act.

(2) States are not required to include the mandate for production of ZEVs specified in Title 13, California Code of Regulations, section 1960.1(g)(2) footnote 9.

(3) Except as specified elsewhere in this section, States may implement the OTC LEV program in any manner consistent with the Act that does not decrease the emissions reductions or jeopardize the effectiveness of the program.

(d) The SIP revision that paragraph (b) of this section describes as an alternative to the OTC LEV program described in paragraph (c) of this section must contain a set of State-adopted measures that provides at least the following amount of emission reductions in time to bring serious ozone nonattainment areas into attainment by their 1999 attainment date:

(1) Reductions at least equal to the difference between:

(i) The nitrogen oxides (NOX) emission reductions from the 1990 statewide emissions inventory achievable through implementation of all of the Clean Air Act-mandated and potentially broadly practicable control measures throughout all portions of the State that are within the Northeast Ozone Transport Region created under section 184(a) of the Clean Air Act as of December 19, 1994; and

(ii) A reduction in NOX emissions from the 1990 statewide inventory in such portions of the State of 50% or whatever greater reduction is necessary to prevent significant contribution to nonattainment in, or interference with maintenance by, any downwind State.

(2) Reductions at least equal to the difference between:

(i) The VOC emission reductions from the 1990 statewide emissions inventory achievable through implementation of all of the Clean Air Act-mandated and potentially broadly practicable control measures in all portions of the State in, or near and upwind of, any of the serious or severe ozone nonattainment areas lying in the series of such areas running northeast from the Washington, DC, ozone nonattainment area to and including the Portsmouth, New Hampshire ozone nonattainment area; and

(ii) A reduction in VOC emissions from the 1990 emissions inventory in all such areas of 50% or whatever greater reduction is necessary to prevent significant contribution to nonattainment in, or interference with maintenance by, any downwind State.

[60 FR 4736, Jan. 24, 1995]

§ 51.121 Findings and requirements for submission of State implementation plan revisions relating to emissions of nitrogen oxides.

(a)

(1) The Administrator finds that the State implementation plan (SIP) for each jurisdiction listed in paragraph (c) of this section is substantially inadequate to comply with the requirements of section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), 42 U.S.C. 7410(a)(2)(D)(i)(I), because the SIP does not include adequate provisions to prohibit sources and other activities from emitting nitrogen oxides (“NOX”) in amounts that will contribute significantly to nonattainment in one or more other States with respect to the 1-hour ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). Each of the jurisdictions listed in paragraph (c) of this section must submit to EPA a SIP revision that cures the inadequacy.

(2) [Reserved]

(3) As used in this section, these terms shall have the following meanings:

Nitrogen oxides or NOX means all oxides of nitrogen except nitrous oxide (N2O), reported on an equivalent molecular weight basis as nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

Ozone season means the period from May 1 to September 30 of a year.

Phase I SIP submission means a SIP revision submitted by a State on or before October 30, 2000 in compliance with paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section to limit projected NOX emissions during the ozone season from sources in the relevant portion or all of the State, as applicable, to no more than the State's Phase I NOX ozone season budget under paragraph (e) of this section.

Phase II SIP submission means a SIP revision submitted by a State in compliance with paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section to limit projected NOX emissions during the ozone season from sources in the relevant portion or all of the State, as applicable, to no more than the State's final NOX ozone season budget under paragraph (e) of this section.

(b)

(1) For each jurisdiction listed in paragraph (c) of this section, each SIP revision required under paragraph (a) of this section will contain adequate provisions, for purposes of complying with section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I) of the CAA, 42 U.S.C. 7410(a)(2)(D)(i)(I), only if the SIP revision:

(i) Contains control measures adequate to prohibit emissions of NOX that would otherwise be projected, in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section, to cause the jurisdiction's overall NOX emissions during the ozone season to be in excess of the applicable NOX ozone season budget for that jurisdiction described in paragraph (e) of this section;

(ii) Requires full implementation of all such control measures by no later than May 31, 2004 for the sources covered by a Phase I SIP submission and May 1, 2007 for the sources covered by a Phase II SIP submission; and

(iii) Meets the other requirements of this section. The SIP revision's compliance with the requirement of paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section shall be considered compliance with the jurisdiction's NOX ozone season budget for purposes of this section.

(2) [Reserved]

(c) The following jurisdictions (hereinafter referred to as “States”) are subject to the requirement of this section:

(1) Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia.

(2) The portions of Alabama, Michigan, and Missouri within the fine grid of the OTAG modeling domain. The fine grid is the area encompassed by a box with the following geographic coordinates: Southwest Corner, 92 degrees West longitude and 32 degrees North latitude; and Northeast Corner, 69.5 degrees West longitude and 44 degrees North latitude.

(d)

(1) [Reserved]

(2) Each SIP submission under this section must comply with § 51.103 (regarding submission of plans).

(e)

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, the NOX ozone season budget for a State listed in paragraph (c) of this section is defined as the total amount of NOX emissions from all sources in that State, as indicated in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section with respect to that State, which the State must demonstrate that it will not exceed in the 2007 ozone season pursuant to paragraph (g)(1) of this section.

(2)

(i) The State-by-State amounts of the Phase I and final NOX ozone season budgets, expressed in tons, are listed in Table 1 to this paragraph (e)(2)(i):

Table 1 to Paragraph (e)(2)(i) - State NOX Ozone Season Budgets

State Phase I NOX ozone season budget
(2004-2006)
Final NOX ozone season budget
(2007 and thereafter)
Alabama 124,795 119,827
Connecticut 42,891 42,850
Delaware 23,522 22,862
District of Columbia 6,658 6,657
Illinois 278,146 271,091
Indiana 234,625 230,381
Kentucky 165,075 162,519
Maryland 82,727 81,947
Massachusetts 85,871 84,848
Michigan 191,941 190,908
Missouri 61,406
New Jersey 95,882 96,876
New York 241,981 240,322
North Carolina 171,332 165,306
Ohio 252,282 249,541
Pennsylvania 268,158 257,928
Rhode Island 9,570 9,378
South Carolina 127,756 123,496
Tennessee 201,163 198,286
Virginia 186,689 180,521
West Virginia 85,045 83,921

(ii)

(A) For purposes of paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, in the case of each State listed in paragraphs (e)(2)(ii)(B) through (E) of this section, the NOX ozone season budget is defined as the total amount of NOX emissions from all sources in the specified counties in that State, as indicated in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section with respect to the State, which the State must demonstrate that it will not exceed in the 2007 ozone season pursuant to paragraph (g)(1) of this section.

(B) In the case of Alabama, the counties are: Autauga, Bibb, Blount, Calhoun, Chambers, Cherokee, Chilton, Clay, Cleburne, Colbert, Coosa, Cullman, Dallas, DeKalb, Elmore, Etowah, Fayette, Franklin, Greene, Hale, Jackson, Jefferson, Lamar, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lee, Limestone, Macon, Madison, Marion, Marshall, Morgan, Perry, Pickens, Randolph, Russell, St. Clair, Shelby, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Tuscaloosa, Walker, and Winston.

(C) [Reserved]

(D) In the case of Michigan, the counties are: Allegan, Barry, Bay, Berrien, Branch, Calhoun, Cass, Clinton, Eaton, Genesee, Gratiot, Hillsdale, Ingham, Ionia, Isabella, Jackson, Kalamazoo, Kent, Lapeer, Lenawee, Livingston, Macomb, Mecosta, Midland, Monroe, Montcalm, Muskegon, Newaygo, Oakland, Oceana, Ottawa, Saginaw, St. Clair, St. Joseph, Sanilac, Shiawassee, Tuscola, Van Buren, Washtenaw, and Wayne.

(E) In the case of Missouri, the counties are: Bollinger, Butler, Cape Girardeau, Carter, Clark, Crawford, Dent, Dunklin, Franklin, Gasconade, Iron, Jefferson, Lewis, Lincoln, Madison, Marion, Mississippi, Montgomery, New Madrid, Oregon, Pemiscot, Perry, Pike, Ralls, Reynolds, Ripley, St. Charles, St. Francois, St. Louis, St. Louis City, Ste. Genevieve, Scott, Shannon, Stoddard, Warren, Washington, and Wayne.

(f) Each SIP revision must set forth control measures to meet the NOX ozone season budget in accordance with paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, which include the following:

(1) A description of enforcement methods including, but not limited to:

(i) Procedures for monitoring compliance with each of the selected control measures;

(ii) Procedures for handling violations; and

(iii) A designation of agency responsibility for enforcement of implementation.

(2) Should a State elect to impose control measures on fossil fuel-fired NOX sources serving electric generators with a nameplate capacity greater than 25 MWe or boilers, combustion turbines or combined cycle units with a maximum design heat input greater than 250 mmBtu/hr as a means of meeting its NOX ozone season budget, then those measures must:

(i)

(A) Impose a NOX mass emissions cap on each source;

(B) Impose a NOX emissions rate limit on each source and assume maximum operating capacity for every such source for purposes of estimating NOX mass emissions; or

(C) Impose any other regulatory requirement which the State has demonstrated to EPA provides equivalent or greater assurance than options in paragraph (f)(2)(i)(A) or (B) of this section that the State will comply with its NOX ozone season budget in the 2007 ozone season; and

(ii) Impose enforceable mechanisms, in accordance with paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section, to assure that collectively all such sources, including new or modified units, will not exceed in the 2007 ozone season the total NOX emissions projected for such sources by the State pursuant to paragraph (g) of this section.

(3) For purposes of paragraph (f)(2) of this section, the term “fossil fuel-fired” means, with regard to a NOX source:

(i) The combustion of fossil fuel, alone or in combination with any other fuel, where fossil fuel actually combusted comprises more than 50 percent of the annual heat input on a Btu basis during any year starting in 1995 or, if a NOX source had no heat input starting in 1995, during the last year of operation of the NOX source prior to 1995; or

(ii) The combustion of fossil fuel, alone or in combination with any other fuel, where fossil fuel is projected to comprise more than 50 percent of the annual heat input on a Btu basis during any year; provided that the NOX source shall be “fossil fuel-fired” as of the date, during such year, on which the NOX source begins combusting fossil fuel.

(g)

(1) Each SIP revision must demonstrate that the control measures contained in it are adequate to provide for the timely compliance with the State's NOX ozone season budget during the 2007 ozone season.

(2) The demonstration must include the following:

(i) Each revision must contain a detailed baseline inventory of NOX mass emissions during the ozone season from the following sources in the year 2007, absent the control measures specified in the SIP submission: electric generating units (EGU), non-electric generating units (non-EGU), area, nonroad and highway sources. The State must use the same baseline emissions inventory that EPA used in calculating the State's NOX ozone season budget, except that EPA may direct the State to use different baseline inventory information if the State fails to certify that it has implemented all of the control measures assumed in developing the baseline inventory.

(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) Each revision must contain a summary of NOX mass emissions during the ozone season in 2007 projected to result from implementation of each of the control measures specified in the SIP submission and from all NOX sources together following implementation of all such control measures, compared to the baseline 2007 NOX emissions inventory for the State described in paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section. The State must provide EPA with a summary of the computations, assumptions, and judgments used to determine the degree of reduction in projected 2007 NOX emissions that will be achieved from the implementation of the new control measures compared to the baseline emissions inventory.

(iv) Each revision must identify the sources of the data used in the projection of emissions.

(h) Each revision must comply with § 51.116 (regarding data availability).

(i) Each revision must provide for monitoring the status of compliance with any control measures adopted to meet the NOX ozone season budget. Specifically, the revision must meet the following requirements:

(1) The revision must provide for legally enforceable procedures for requiring owners or operators of stationary sources to maintain records of and periodically report to the State:

(i) Information on the amount of NOX emissions from the stationary sources; and

(ii) Other information as may be necessary to enable the State to determine whether the sources are in compliance with applicable portions of the control measures;

(2) The revision must comply with § 51.212 (regarding testing, inspection, enforcement, and complaints);

(3) If the revision contains any transportation control measures, then the revision must comply with § 51.213 (regarding transportation control measures);

(4) If the revision contains measures to control fossil fuel-fired NOX sources serving electric generators with a nameplate capacity greater than 25 MWe or boilers, combustion turbines or combined cycle units with a maximum design heat input greater than 250 mmBtu/hr, then the revision may require some or all such sources to comply with the full set of monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting provisions of 40 CFR part 75, subpart H. A State requiring such compliance authorizes the Administrator to assist the State in implementing the revision by carrying out the functions of the Administrator under such part.

(5) For purposes of paragraph (i)(4) of this section, the term “fossil fuel-fired” has the meaning set forth in paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(j) Each revision must show that the State has legal authority to carry out the revision, including authority to:

(1) Adopt emissions standards and limitations and any other measures necessary for attainment and maintenance of the State's NOX ozone season budget specified in paragraph (e) of this section;

(2) Enforce applicable laws, regulations, and standards, and seek injunctive relief;

(3) Obtain information necessary to determine whether air pollution sources are in compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and standards, including authority to require recordkeeping and to make inspections and conduct tests of air pollution sources;

(4) Require owners or operators of stationary sources to install, maintain, and use emissions monitoring devices and to make periodic reports to the State on the nature and amounts of emissions from such stationary sources; also authority for the State to make such data available to the public as reported and as correlated with any applicable emissions standards or limitations.

(k)

(1) The provisions of law or regulation which the State determines provide the authorities required under this section must be specifically identified, and copies of such laws or regulations must be submitted with the SIP revision.

(2) Legal authority adequate to fulfill the requirements of paragraphs (j)(3) and (4) of this section may be delegated to the State under section 114 of the CAA, 42 U.S.C. 7414.

(l)

(1) A revision may assign legal authority to local agencies in accordance with § 51.232.

(2) Each revision must comply with § 51.240 (regarding general plan requirements).

(m) Each revision must comply with § 51.280 (regarding resources).

(n) For purposes of the SIP revisions required by this section, EPA may make a finding as applicable under section 179(a)(1)-(4) of the CAA, 42 U.S.C. 7509(a)(1)-(4), starting the sanctions process set forth in section 179(a) of the CAA. Any such finding will be deemed a finding under 40 CFR 52.31(c) and sanctions will be imposed in accordance with the order of sanctions and the terms for such sanctions established in 40 CFR 52.31.

(o) Each revision must provide for State compliance with the reporting requirements set forth in § 51.122.

(p-q) [Reserved]

(r)

(1) Notwithstanding any provisions of subparts A through I of 40 CFR part 96 and any State's SIP to the contrary, with regard to any ozone season that occurs after September 30, 2008, the Administrator will not carry out any of the functions set forth for the Administrator in subparts A through I of 40 CFR part 96 or in any emissions trading program provisions in a State's SIP approved under this section.

(2) Except as provided in 40 CFR 52.38(b)(13)(ii), a State whose SIP is approved as meeting the requirements of this section and that includes or included an emissions trading program approved under this section must revise the SIP to adopt control measures that satisfy the same portion of the State's NOX emissions reduction requirements under this section as the State projected such emissions trading program would satisfy.

[63 FR 57491, Oct. 27, 1998, as amended at 63 FR 71225, Dec. 24, 1998; 64 FR 26305, May 14, 1999; 65 FR 11230, Mar. 2, 2000; 65 FR 56251, Sept. 18, 2000; 69 FR 21642, Apr. 21, 2004; 70 FR 25317, May 12, 2005; 70 FR 51597, Aug. 31, 2005; 73 FR 21538, Apr. 22, 2008; 76 FR 48353, Aug. 8, 2011; 79 FR 71671, Dec. 3, 2014; 84 FR 8442, Mar. 8, 2019; 86 FR 23164, Apr. 30, 2021]

§ 51.122 Emissions reporting requirements for SIP revisions relating to budgets for NOX emissions.

(a) As used in this section, words and terms shall have the meanings set forth in § 51.50. In addition, the following terms shall apply to this section:

(1) Ozone season emissions means emissions during the period from May 1 through September 30 of a year.

(2) Summer day emissions means an average day's emissions for a typical summer work weekday. The state will select the particular month(s) in summer and the day(s) in the work week to be represented.

(b) For its transport SIP revision under § 51.121, each state must submit to EPA NOX emissions data as described in this section.

(c) Each revision must provide for periodic reporting by the state of NOX emissions data to demonstrate whether the state's emissions are consistent with the projections contained in its approved SIP submission.

(1) For the every-year reporting cycle, each revision must provide for reporting of NOX emissions data every year as follows:

(i) The state must report to EPA emissions data from all NOX sources within the state for which the state specified control measures in its SIP submission under § 51.121(g), including all sources for which the state has adopted measures that differ from the measures incorporated into the baseline inventory for the year 2007 that the state developed in accordance with § 51.121(g).The state must also report to EPA ozone season emissions of NOX and summer day emissions of NOX from any point, nonpoint, onroad mobile, or nonroad mobile source for which the state specified control measures in its SIP submission under § 51.121(g).

(ii) If sources report NOX emissions data to EPA for a given year pursuant to the monitoring and reporting requirements of 40 CFR part 75, then the state need not provide an every-year cycle report to EPA for such sources.

(2) For the 3-year cycle reporting, each plan must provide for triennial (i.e., every third year) reporting of NOX emissions data from all sources within the state. The state must also report to EPA ozone season emissions of NOX and summer day emissions of NOX from all point sources, nonpoint sources, onroad mobile sources, and nonroad mobile sources.

(3) The data availability requirements in § 51.116 must be followed for all data submitted to meet the requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section.

(d) [Reserved]

(e) Each state must submit for EPA approval an example of the calculation procedure used to calculate ozone season emissions along with sufficient information to verify the calculated value of ozone season emissions.

(f) Data collection is to begin during the ozone season 1 year prior to the state's NOX SIP Call compliance date.

(g) The state shall report emissions as point sources according to the point source emissions thresholds of the Air Emissions Reporting Rule (AERR), 40 CFR part 51, subpart A. The detail of the emissions inventory shall be consistent with the data elements required by 40 CFR part 51, subpart A. When submitting a formal NOX Budget Emissions Report and associated data, states shall notify the appropriate EPA Regional Office.

[73 FR 76558, Dec. 17, 2008, as amended at 80 FR 8796, Feb. 19, 2015; 84 FR 8443, Mar. 8, 2019]

§ 51.123 Findings and requirements for submission of State implementation plan revisions relating to emissions of oxides of nitrogen pursuant to the Clean Air Interstate Rule.

(a)

(1) Under section 110(a)(1) of the CAA, 42 U.S.C. 7410(a)(1), the Administrator determines that each State identified in paragraph (c)(1) and (2) of this section must submit a SIP revision to comply with the requirements of section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I) of the CAA, 42 U.S.C. 7410(a)(2)(D)(i)(I), through the adoption of adequate provisions prohibiting sources and other activities from emitting NOX in amounts that will contribute significantly to nonattainment in, or interfere with maintenance by, one or more other States with respect to the fine particles (PM2.5) NAAQS.

(2)

(a) Under section 110(a)(1) of the CAA, 42 U.S.C. 7410(a)(1), the Administrator determines that each State identified in paragraph (c)(1) and (3) of this section must submit a SIP revision to comply with the requirements of section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I) of the CAA, 42 U.S.C. 7410(a)(2)(D)(i)(I), through the adoption of adequate provisions prohibiting sources and other activities from emitting NOX in amounts that will contribute significantly to nonattainment in, or interfere with maintenance by, one or more other States with respect to the 8-hour ozone NAAQS.

(3) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, such provisions are not applicable as they relate to the State of Minnesota as of December 3, 2009.

(b) For each State identified in paragraph (c) of this section, the SIP revision required under paragraph (a) of this section will contain adequate provisions, for purposes of complying with section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I) of the CAA, 42 U.S.C. 7410(a)(2)(D)(i)(I), only if the SIP revision contains control measures that assure compliance with the applicable requirements of this section.

(c) In addition to being subject to the requirements in paragraphs (b) and (d) of this section:

(1) Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and the District of Columbia shall be subject to the requirements contained in paragraphs (e) through (cc) of this section;

(2) Georgia, Minnesota, and Texas shall be subject to the requirements in paragraphs (e) through (o) and (cc) of this section; and

(3) Arkansas, Connecticut, and Massachusetts shall be subject to the requirements contained in paragraphs (q) through (cc) of this section.

(d)

(1) The State's SIP revision under paragraph (a) of this section must be submitted to EPA by no later than September 11, 2006.

(2) The requirements of appendix V to this part shall apply to the SIP revision under paragraph (a) of this section.

(3) The State shall deliver 5 copies of the SIP revision under paragraph (a) of this section to the appropriate Regional Office, with a letter giving notice of such action.

(e) The State's SIP revision shall contain control measures and demonstrate that they will result in compliance with the State's Annual EGU NOX Budget, if applicable, and achieve the State's Annual Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement, if applicable, for the appropriate periods. The amounts of the State's Annual EGU NOX Budget and Annual Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement shall be determined as follows:

(1)

(i) The Annual EGU NOX Budget for the State is defined as the total amount of NOX emissions from all EGUs in that State for a year, if the State meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section by imposing control measures, at least in part, on EGUs. If the State imposes control measures under this section on only EGUs, the Annual EGU NOX Budget for the State shall not exceed the amount, during the indicated periods, specified in paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

(ii) The Annual Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement, if applicable, is defined as the total amount of NOX emission reductions that the State demonstrates, in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section, it will achieve from non-EGUs during the appropriate period. If the State meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section by imposing control measures on only non-EGUs, then the State's Annual Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement shall equal or exceed, during the appropriate periods, the amount determined in accordance with paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

(iii) If a State meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section by imposing control measures on both EGUs and non-EGUs, then:

(A) The Annual Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement shall equal or exceed the difference between the amount specified in paragraph (e)(2) of this section for the appropriate period and the amount of the State's Annual EGU NOX Budget specified in the SIP revision for the appropriate period; and

(B) The Annual EGU NOX Budget shall not exceed, during the indicated periods, the amount specified in paragraph (e)(2) of this section plus the amount of the Annual Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement under paragraph (e)(1)(iii)(A) of this section for the appropriate period.

(2) For a State that complies with the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section by imposing control measures on only EGUs, the amount of the Annual EGU NOX Budget, in tons of NOX per year, shall be as follows, for the indicated State for the indicated period:

State Annual EGU NOX budget for 2009-2014 (tons) Annual EGU NOX budget for 2015 and thereafter (tons)
Alabama 69,020 57,517
Delaware 4,166 3,472
District of Columbia 144 120
Florida 99,445 82,871
Georgia 66,321 55,268
Illinois 76,230 63,525
Indiana 108,935 90,779
Iowa 32,692 27,243
Kentucky 83,205 69,337
Louisiana 35,512 29,593
Maryland 27,724 23,104
Michigan 65,304 54,420
Minnesota 31,443 26,203
Mississippi 17,807 14,839
Missouri 59,871 49,892
New Jersey 12,670 10,558
New York 45,617 38,014
North Carolina 62,183 51,819
Ohio 108,667 90,556
Pennsylvania 99,049 82,541
South Carolina 32,662 27,219
Tennessee 50,973 42,478
Texas 181,014 150,845
Virginia 36,074 30,062
West Virginia 74,220 61,850
Wisconsin 40,759 33,966

(3) For a State that complies with the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section by imposing control measures on only non-EGUs, the amount of the Annual Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement, in tons of NOX per year, shall be determined, for the State for 2009 and thereafter, by subtracting the amount of the State's Annual EGU NOX Budget for the appropriate year, specified in paragraph (e)(2) of this section from the amount of the State's NOX baseline EGU emissions inventory projected for the appropriate year, specified in Table 5 of “Regional and State SO2 and NOX Budgets”, March 2005 (available at http://www.epa.gov/cleanairinterstaterule).

(4)

(i) Notwithstanding the State's obligation to comply with paragraph (e)(2) or (3) of this section, the State's SIP revision may allow sources required by the revision to implement control measures to demonstrate compliance using credit issued from the State's compliance supplement pool, as set forth in paragraph (e)(4)(ii) of this section.

(ii) The State-by-State amounts of the compliance supplement pool are as follows:

State Compliance supplement pool
Alabama 10,166
Delaware 843
District of Columbia 0
Florida 8,335
Georgia 12,397
Illinois 11,299
Indiana 20,155
Iowa 6,978
Kentucky 14,935
Louisiana 2,251
Maryland 4,670
Michigan 8,347
Minnesota 6,528
Mississippi 3,066
Missouri 9,044
New Jersey 660
New York 0
North Carolina 0
Ohio 25,037
Pennsylvania 16,009
South Carolina 2,600
Tennessee 8,944
Texas 772
Virginia 5,134
West Virginia 16,929
Wisconsin 4,898

(iii) The SIP revision may provide for the distribution of credits from the compliance supplement pool to sources that are required to implement control measures using one or both of the following two mechanisms:

(A) The State may issue credit from compliance supplement pool to sources that are required by the SIP revision to implement NOX emission control measures and that implement NOX emission reductions in 2007 and 2008 that are not necessary to comply with any State or federal emissions limitation applicable at any time during such years. Such a source may be issued one credit from the compliance supplement pool for each ton of such emission reductions in 2007 and 2008.

(1) The State shall complete the issuance process by January 1, 2010.

(2) The emissions reductions for which credits are issued must have been demonstrated by the owners and operators of the source to have occurred during 2007 and 2008 and not to be necessary to comply with any applicable State or federal emissions limitation.

(3) The emissions reductions for which credits are issued must have been quantified by the owners and operators of the source:

(i) For EGUs and for fossil-fuel-fired non-EGUs that are boilers or combustion turbines with a maximum design heat input greater than 250 mmBut/hr, using emissions data determined in accordance with subpart H of part 75 of this chapter; and

(ii) For non-EGUs not described in paragraph (e)(4)(iii)(A)(3)(i) of this section, using emissions data determined in accordance with subpart H of part 75 of this chapter or, if the State demonstrates that compliance with subpart H of part 75 of this chapter is not practicable, determined, to the extent practicable, with the same degree of assurance with which emissions data are determined for sources subject to subpart H of part 75.

(4) If the SIP revision contains approved provisions for an emissions trading program, the owners and operators of sources that receive credit according to the requirements of this paragraph may transfer the credit to other sources or persons according to the provisions in the emissions trading program.

(B) The State may issue credit from the compliance supplement pool to sources that are required by the SIP revision to implement NOX emission control measures and whose owners and operators demonstrate a need for an extension, beyond 2009, of the deadline for the source for implementing such emission controls.

(1) The State shall complete the issuance process by January 1, 2010.

(2) The State shall issue credit to a source only if the owners and operators of the source demonstrate that:

(i) For a source used to generate electricity, implementation of the SIP revision's applicable control measures by 2009 would create undue risk for the reliability of the electricity supply. This demonstration must include a showing that it would not be feasible for the owners and operators of the source to obtain a sufficient amount of electricity, to prevent such undue risk, from other electricity generation facilities during the installation of control technology at the source necessary to comply with the SIP revision.

(ii) For a source not used to generate electricity, compliance with the SIP revision's applicable control measures by 2009 would create undue risk for the source or its associated industry to a degree that is comparable to the risk described in paragraph (e)(4)(iii)(B)(2)(i) of this section.

(iii) This demonstration must include a showing that it would not be possible for the source to comply with applicable control measures by obtaining sufficient credits under paragraph (e)(4)(iii)(A) of this section, or by acquiring sufficient credits from other sources or persons, to prevent undue risk.

(f) Each SIP revision must set forth control measures to meet the amounts specified in paragraph (e) of this section, as applicable, including the following:

(1) A description of enforcement methods including, but not limited to:

(i) Procedures for monitoring compliance with each of the selected control measures;

(ii) Procedures for handling violations; and

(iii) A designation of agency responsibility for enforcement of implementation.

(2)

(i) If a State elects to impose control measures on EGUs, then those measures must impose an annual NOX mass emissions cap on all such sources in the State.

(ii) If a State elects to impose control measures on fossil fuel-fired non-EGUs that are boilers or combustion turbines with a maximum design heat input greater than 250 mmBtu/hr, then those measures must impose an annual NOX mass emissions cap on all such sources in the State.

(iii) If a State elects to impose control measures on non-EGUs other than those described in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section, then those measures must impose an annual NOX mass emissions cap on all such sources in the State or the State must demonstrate why such emissions cap is not practicable and adopt alternative requirements that ensure that the State will comply with its requirements under paragraph (e) of this section, as applicable, in 2009 and subsequent years.

(g)

(1) Each SIP revision that contains control measures covering non-EGUs as part or all of a State's obligation in meeting its requirement under paragraph (a)(1) of this section must demonstrate that such control measures are adequate to provide for the timely compliance with the State's Annual Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement under paragraph (e) of this section and are not adopted or implemented by the State, as of May 12, 2005, and are not adopted or implemented by the Federal government, as of the date of submission of the SIP revision by the State to EPA.

(2) The demonstration under paragraph (g)(1) of this section must include the following, with respect to each source category of non-EGUs for which the SIP revision requires control measures:

(i) A detailed historical baseline inventory of NOX mass emissions from the source category in a representative year consisting, at the State's election, of 2002, 2003, 2004, or 2005, or an average of 2 or more of those years, absent the control measures specified in the SIP revision.

(A) This inventory must represent estimates of actual emissions based on monitoring data in accordance with subpart H of part 75 of this chapter, if the source category is subject to monitoring requirements in accordance with subpart H of part 75 of this chapter.

(B) In the absence of monitoring data in accordance with subpart H of part 75 of this chapter, actual emissions must be quantified, to the maximum extent practicable, with the same degree of assurance with which emissions are quantified for sources subject to subpart H of part 75 of this chapter and using source-specific or source-category-specific assumptions that ensure a source's or source category's actual emissions are not overestimated. If a State uses factors to estimate emissions, production or utilization, or effectiveness of controls or rules for a source category, such factors must be chosen to ensure that emissions are not overestimated.

(C) For measures to reduce emissions from motor vehicles, emission estimates must be based on an emissions model that has been approved by EPA for use in SIP development and must be consistent with the planning assumptions regarding vehicle miles traveled and other factors current at the time of the SIP development.

(D) For measures to reduce emissions from nonroad engines or vehicles, emission estimates methodologies must be approved by EPA.

(ii) A detailed baseline inventory of NOX mass emissions from the source category in the years 2009 and 2015, absent the control measures specified in the SIP revision and reflecting changes in these emissions from the historical baseline year to the years 2009 and 2015, based on projected changes in the production input or output, population, vehicle miles traveled, economic activity, or other factors as applicable to this source category.

(A) These inventories must account for implementation of any control measures that are otherwise required by final rules already promulgated, as of May 12, 2005, or adopted or implemented by any federal agency, as of the date of submission of the SIP revision by the State to EPA, and must exclude any control measures specified in the SIP revision to meet the NOX emissions reduction requirements of this section.

(B) Economic and population forecasts must be as specific as possible to the applicable industry, State, and county of the source or source category and must be consistent with both national projections and relevant official planning assumptions, including estimates of population and vehicle miles traveled developed through consultation between State and local transportation and air quality agencies. However, if these official planning assumptions are inconsistent with official U.S. Census projections of population or with energy consumption projections contained in the U.S. Department of Energy's most recent Annual Energy Outlook, then the SIP revision must make adjustments to correct the inconsistency or must demonstrate how the official planning assumptions are more accurate.

(C) These inventories must account for any changes in production method, materials, fuels, or efficiency that are expected to occur between the historical baseline year and 2009 or 2015, as appropriate.

(iii) A projection of NOX mass emissions in 2009 and 2015 from the source category assuming the same projected changes as under paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section and resulting from implementation of each of the control measures specified in the SIP revision.

(A) These inventories must address the possibility that the State's new control measures may cause production or utilization, and emissions, to shift to unregulated or less stringently regulated sources in the source category in the same or another State, and these inventories must include any such amounts of emissions that may shift to such other sources.

(B) The State must provide EPA with a summary of the computations, assumptions, and judgments used to determine the degree of reduction in projected 2009 and 2015 NOX emissions that will be achieved from the implementation of the new control measures compared to the relevant baseline emissions inventory.

(iv) The result of subtracting the amounts in paragraph (g)(2)(iii) of this section for 2009 and 2015, respectively, from the lower of the amounts in paragraph (g)(2)(i) or (g)(2)(ii) of this section for 2009 and 2015, respectively, may be credited towards the State's Annual Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement in paragraph (e)(3) of this section for the appropriate period.

(v) Each SIP revision must identify the sources of the data used in each estimate and each projection of emissions.

(h) Each SIP revision must comply with § 51.116 (regarding data availability).

(i) Each SIP revision must provide for monitoring the status of compliance with any control measures adopted to meet the State's requirements under paragraph (e) of this section as follows:

(1) The SIP revision must provide for legally enforceable procedures for requiring owners or operators of stationary sources to maintain records of, and periodically report to the State:

(i) Information on the amount of NOX emissions from the stationary sources; and

(ii) Other information as may be necessary to enable the State to determine whether the sources are in compliance with applicable portions of the control measures;

(2) The SIP revision must comply with § 51.212 (regarding testing, inspection, enforcement, and complaints);

(3) If the SIP revision contains any transportation control measures, then the SIP revision must comply with § 51.213 (regarding transportation control measures);

(4)

(i) If the SIP revision contains measures to control EGUs, then the SIP revision must require such sources to comply with the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting provisions of subpart H of part 75 of this chapter.

(ii) If the SIP revision contains measures to control fossil fuel-fired non-EGUs that are boilers or combustion turbines with a maximum design heat input greater than 250 mmBtu/hr, then the SIP revision must require such sources to comply with the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting provisions of subpart H of part 75 of this chapter.

(iii) If the SIP revision contains measures to control any other non-EGUs that are not described in paragraph (i)(4)(ii) of this section, then the SIP revision must require such sources to comply with the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting provisions of subpart H of part 75 of this chapter, or the State must demonstrate why such requirements are not practicable and adopt alternative requirements that ensure that the required emissions reductions will be quantified, to the maximum extent practicable, with the same degree of assurance with which emissions are quantified for sources subject to subpart H of part 75 of this chapter.

(j) Each SIP revision must show that the State has legal authority to carry out the SIP revision, including authority to:

(1) Adopt emissions standards and limitations and any other measures necessary for attainment and maintenance of the State's relevant Annual EGU NOX Budget or the Annual Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement, as applicable, under paragraph (e) of this section;

(2) Enforce applicable laws, regulations, and standards and seek injunctive relief;

(3) Obtain information necessary to determine whether air pollution sources are in compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and standards, including authority to require recordkeeping and to make inspections and conduct tests of air pollution sources; and

(4)

(i) Require owners or operators of stationary sources to install, maintain, and use emissions monitoring devices and to make periodic reports to the State on the nature and amounts of emissions from such stationary sources; and

(ii) Make the data described in paragraph (j)(4)(i) of this section available to the public within a reasonable time after being reported and as correlated with any applicable emissions standards or limitations.

(k)

(1) The provisions of law or regulation that the State determines provide the authorities required under this section must be specifically identified, and copies of such laws or regulations must be submitted with the SIP revision.

(2) Legal authority adequate to fulfill the requirements of paragraphs (j)(3) and (4) of this section may be delegated to the State under section 114 of the CAA.

(l)

(1) A SIP revision may assign legal authority to local agencies in accordance with § 51.232.

(2) Each SIP revision must comply with § 51.240 (regarding general plan requirements).

(m) Each SIP revision must comply with § 51.280 (regarding resources).

(n) Each SIP revision must provide for State compliance with the reporting requirements in § 51.125.

(o)

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if a State adopts regulations substantively identical to subparts AA through II of part 96 of this chapter (CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program), incorporates such subparts by reference into its regulations, or adopts regulations that differ substantively from such subparts only as set forth in paragraph (o)(2) of this section, then such emissions trading program in the State's SIP revision is automatically approved as meeting the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section, provided that the State has the legal authority to take such action and to implement its responsibilities under such regulations. Before January 1, 2009, a State's regulations shall be considered to be substantively identical to subparts AA through II of part 96 of this chapter, or differing substantively only as set forth in paragraph (o)(2) of this section, regardless of whether the State's regulations include the definition of “Biomass”, paragraph (3) of the definition of “Cogeneration unit”, and the second sentence of the definition of “Total energy input” in § 96.102 of this chapter promulgated on October 19, 2007, provided that the State timely submits to the Administrator a SIP revision that revises the State's regulations to include such provisions. Submission to the Administrator of a SIP revision that revises the State's regulations to include such provisions shall be considered timely if the submission is made by January 1, 2009.

(2) If a State adopts an emissions trading program that differs substantively from subparts AA through II of part 96 of this chapter only as follows, then the emissions trading program is approved as set forth in paragraph (o)(1) of this section.

(i) The State may decline to adopt the CAIR NOX opt-in provisions of:

(A) Subpart II of this part and the provisions applicable only to CAIR NOX opt-in units in subparts AA through HH of this part;

(B) Section 96.188(b) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart II of this part applicable only to CAIR NOX opt-in units under § 96.188(b); or

(C) Section 96.188(c) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart II of this part applicable only to CAIR NOX opt-in units under § 96.188(c).

(ii) The State may decline to adopt the allocation provisions set forth in subpart EE of part 96 of this chapter and may instead adopt any methodology for allocating CAIR NOX allowances to individual sources, as follows:

(A) The State's methodology must not allow the State to allocate CAIR NOX allowances for a year in excess of the amount in the State's Annual EGU NOX Budget for such year;

(B) The State's methodology must require that, for EGUs commencing operation before January 1, 2001, the State will determine, and notify the Administrator of, each unit's allocation of CAIR NOX allowances by October 31, 2006 for 2009, 2010, and 2011 and by October 31, 2008 and October 31 of each year thereafter for 4th the year after the year of the notification deadline;

(C) The State's methodology must require that, for EGUs commencing operation on or after January 1, 2001, the State will determine, and notify the Administrator of, each unit's allocation of CAIR NOX allowances by October 31 of the year for which the CAIR NOX allowances are allocated; and

(D) The State's methodology for allocating the compliance supplement pool must be substantively identical to § 97.143 (except that the permitting authority makes the allocations and the Administrator records the allocations made by the permitting authority) or otherwise in accordance with paragraph (e)(4) of this section.

(3) A State that adopts an emissions trading program in accordance with paragraph (o)(1) or (2) of this section is not required to adopt an emissions trading program in accordance with paragraph (aa)(1) or (2) of this section or § 96.124(o)(1) or (2).

(4) If a State adopts an emissions trading program that differs substantively from subparts AA through HH of part 96 of this chapter, other than as set forth in paragraph (o)(2) of this section, then such emissions trading program is not automatically approved as set forth in paragraph (o)(1) or (2) of this section and will be reviewed by the Administrator for approvability in accordance with the other provisions of this section, provided that the NOX allowances issued under such emissions trading program shall not, and the SIP revision shall state that such NOX allowances shall not, qualify as CAIR NOX allowances or CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances under any emissions trading program approved under paragraphs (o)(1) or (2) or (aa)(1) or (2) of this section.

(p) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a State may adopt, and include in a SIP revision submitted by March 31, 2007, regulations relating to the Federal CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program under subparts AA through HH of part 97 of this chapter as follows:

(1) The State may adopt, as CAIR NOX allowance allocation provisions replacing the provisions in subpart EE of part 97 of this chapter:

(i) Allocation provisions substantively identical to subpart EE of part 96 of this chapter, under which the permitting authority makes the allocations; or

(ii) Any methodology for allocating CAIR NOX allowances to individual sources under which the permitting authority makes the allocations, provided that:

(A) The State's methodology must not allow the permitting authority to allocate CAIR NOX allowances for a year in excess of the amount in the State's Annual EGU NOX budget for such year.

(B) The State's methodology must require that, for EGUs commencing operation before January 1, 2001, the permitting authority will determine, and notify the Administrator of, each unit's allocation of CAIR NOX allowances by April 30, 2007 for 2009, 2010, and 2011 and by October 31, 2008 and October 31 of each year thereafter for the 4th year after the year of the notification deadline.

(C) The State's methodology must require that, for EGUs commencing operation on or after January 1, 2001, the permitting authority will determine, and notify the Administrator of, each unit's allocation of CAIR NOX allowances by October 31 of the year for which the CAIR NOX allowances are allocated.

(2) The State may adopt, as compliance supplement pool provisions replacing the provisions in § 97.143 of this chapter:

(i) Provisions for allocating the State's compliance supplement pool that are substantively identical to § 97.143 of this chapter, except that the permitting authority makes the allocations and the Administrator records the allocations made by the permitting authority;

(ii) Provisions for allocating the State's compliance supplement pool that are substantively identical to § 96.143 of this chapter; or

(iii) Other provisions for allocating the State's compliance supplement pool that are in accordance with paragraph (e)(4) of this section.

(3) The State may adopt CAIR opt-in unit provisions as follows:

(i) Provisions for CAIR opt-in units, including provisions for applications for CAIR opt-in permits, approval of CAIR opt-in permits, treatment of units as CAIR opt-in units, and allocation and recordation of CAIR NOX allowances for CAIR opt-in units, that are substantively identical to subpart II of part 96 of this chapter and the provisions of subparts AA through HH that are applicable to CAIR opt-in units or units for which a CAIR opt-in permit application is submitted and not withdrawn and a CAIR opt-in permit is not yet issued or denied;

(ii) Provisions for CAIR opt-in units, including provisions for applications for CAIR opt-in permits, approval of CAIR opt-in permits, treatment of units as CAIR opt-in units, and allocation and recordation of CAIR NOX allowances for CAIR opt-in units, that are substantively identical to subpart II of part 96 of this chapter and the provisions of subparts AA through HH that are applicable to CAIR opt-in units or units for which a CAIR opt-in permit application is submitted and not withdrawn and a CAIR opt-in permit is not yet issued or denied, except that the provisions exclude § 96.188(b) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart II of part 96 of this chapter that apply only to units covered by § 96.188(b) of this chapter; or

(iii) Provisions for applications for CAIR opt-in units, including provisions for CAIR opt-in permits, approval of CAIR opt-in permits, treatment of units as CAIR opt-in units, and allocation and recordation of CAIR NOX allowances for CAIR opt-in units, that are substantively identical to subpart II of part 96 of this chapter and the provisions of subparts AA through HH that are applicable to CAIR opt-in units or units for which a CAIR opt-in permit application is submitted and not withdrawn and a CAIR opt-in permit is not yet issued or denied, except that the provisions exclude § 96.188(c) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart II of part 96 of this chapter that apply only to units covered by § 96.188(c) of this chapter.

(q) The State's SIP revision shall contain control measures and demonstrate that they will result in compliance with the State's Ozone Season EGU NOX Budget, if applicable, and achieve the State's Ozone Season Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement, if applicable, for the appropriate periods. The amounts of the State's Ozone Season EGU NOX Budget and Ozone Season Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement shall be determined as follows:

(1)

(i) The Ozone Season EGU NOX Budget for the State is defined as the total amount of NOX emissions from all EGUs in that State for an ozone season, if the State meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section by imposing control measures, at least in part, on EGUs. If the State imposes control measures under this section on only EGUs, the Ozone Season EGU NOX Budget for the State shall not exceed the amount, during the indicated periods, specified in paragraph (q)(2) of this section.

(ii) The Ozone Season Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement, if applicable, is defined as the total amount of NOX emission reductions that the State demonstrates, in accordance with paragraph (s) of this section, it will achieve from non-EGUs during the appropriate period. If the State meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section by imposing control measures on only non-EGUs, then the State's Ozone Season Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement shall equal or exceed, during the appropriate periods, the amount determined in accordance with paragraph (q)(3) of this section.

(iii) If a State meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section by imposing control measures on both EGUs and non-EGUs, then:

(A) The Ozone Season Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement shall equal or exceed the difference between the amount specified in paragraph (q)(2) of this section for the appropriate period and the amount of the State's Ozone Season EGU NOX Budget specified in the SIP revision for the appropriate period; and

(B) The Ozone Season EGU NOX Budget shall not exceed, during the indicated periods, the amount specified in paragraph (q)(2) of this section plus the amount of the Ozone Season Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement under paragraph (q)(1)(iii)(A) of this section for the appropriate period.

(2) For a State that complies with the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section by imposing control measures on only EGUs, the amount of the Ozone Season EGU NOX Budget, in tons of NOX per ozone season, shall be as follows, for the indicated State for the indicated period:

State Ozone season EGU NOX budget for 2009-2014 (tons) Ozone season EGU NOX budget for 2015 and thereafter (tons)
Alabama 32,182 26,818
Arkansas 11,515 9,596
Connecticut 2,559 2,559
Delaware 2,226 1,855
District of Columbia 112 94
Florida 47,912 39,926
Illinois 30,701 28,981
Indiana 45,952 39,273
Iowa 14,263 11,886
Kentucky 36,045 30,587
Louisiana 17,085 14,238
Maryland 12,834 10,695
Massachusetts 7,551 6,293
Michigan 28,971 24,142
Mississippi 8,714 7,262
Missouri 26,678 22,231
New Jersey 6,654 5,545
New York 20,632 17,193
North Carolina 28,392 23,660
Ohio 45,664 39,945
Pennsylvania 42,171 35,143
South Carolina 15,249 12,707
Tennessee 22,842 19,035
Virginia 15,994 13,328
West Virginia 26,859 26,525
Wisconsin 17,987 14,989

(3) For a State that complies with the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section by imposing control measures on only non-EGUs, the amount of the Ozone Season Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement, in tons of NOX per ozone season, shall be determined, for the State for 2009 and thereafter, by subtracting the amount of the State's Ozone Season EGU NOX Budget for the appropriate year, specified in paragraph (q)(2) of this section, from the amount of the State's NOX baseline EGU emissions inventory projected for the ozone season in the appropriate year, specified in Table 7 of “Regional and State SO2 and NOX Budgets”, March 2005 (available at: http://www.epa.gov/cleanairinterstaterule).

(4) Notwithstanding the State's obligation to comply with paragraph (q)(2) or (3) of this section, the State's SIP revision may allow sources required by the revision to implement NOX emission control measures to demonstrate compliance using NOX SIP Call allowances allocated under the NOX Budget Trading Program for any ozone season during 2003 through 2008 that have not been deducted by the Administrator under the NOX Budget Trading Program, if the SIP revision ensures that such allowances will not be available for such deduction under the NOX Budget Trading Program.

(r) Each SIP revision must set forth control measures to meet the amounts specified in paragraph (q) of this section, as applicable, including the following:

(1) A description of enforcement methods including, but not limited to:

(i) Procedures for monitoring compliance with each of the selected control measures;

(ii) Procedures for handling violations; and

(iii) A designation of agency responsibility for enforcement of implementation.

(2)

(i) If a State elects to impose control measures on EGUs, then those measures must impose an ozone season NOX mass emissions cap on all such sources in the State.

(ii) If a State elects to impose control measures on fossil fuel-fired non-EGUs that are boilers or combustion turbines with a maximum design heat input greater than 250 mmBtu/hr, then those measures must impose an ozone season NOX mass emissions cap on all such sources in the State.

(iii) If a State elects to impose control measures on non-EGUs other than those described in paragraph (r)(2)(ii) of this section, then those measures must impose an ozone season NOX mass emissions cap on all such sources in the State or the State must demonstrate why such emissions cap is not practicable and adopt alternative requirements that ensure that the State will comply with its requirements under paragraph (q) of this section, as applicable, in 2009 and subsequent years.

(s)

(1) Each SIP revision that contains control measures covering non-EGUs as part or all of a State's obligation in meeting its requirement under paragraph (a)(2) of this section must demonstrate that such control measures are adequate to provide for the timely compliance with the State's Ozone Season Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement under paragraph (q) of this section and are not adopted or implemented by the State, as of May 12, 2005, and are not adopted or implemented by the federal government, as of the date of submission of the SIP revision by the State to EPA.

(2) The demonstration under paragraph (s)(1) of this section must include the following, with respect to each source category of non-EGUs for which the SIP revision requires control measures:

(i) A detailed historical baseline inventory of NOX mass emissions from the source category in a representative ozone season consisting, at the State's election, of the ozone season in 2002, 2003, 2004, or 2005, or an average of 2 or more of those ozone seasons, absent the control measures specified in the SIP revision.

(A) This inventory must represent estimates of actual emissions based on monitoring data in accordance with subpart H of part 75 of this chapter, if the source category is subject to monitoring requirements in accordance with subpart H of part 75 of this chapter.

(B) In the absence of monitoring data in accordance with subpart H of part 75 of this chapter, actual emissions must be quantified, to the maximum extent practicable, with the same degree of assurance with which emissions are quantified for sources subject to subpart H of part 75 of this chapter and using source-specific or source-category-specific assumptions that ensure a source's or source category's actual emissions are not overestimated. If a State uses factors to estimate emissions, production or utilization, or effectiveness of controls or rules for a source category, such factors must be chosen to ensure that emissions are not overestimated.

(C) For measures to reduce emissions from motor vehicles, emission estimates must be based on an emissions model that has been approved by EPA for use in SIP development and must be consistent with the planning assumptions regarding vehicle miles traveled and other factors current at the time of the SIP development.

(D) For measures to reduce emissions from nonroad engines or vehicles, emission estimates methodologies must be approved by EPA.

(ii) A detailed baseline inventory of NOX mass emissions from the source category in ozone seasons 2009 and 2015, absent the control measures specified in the SIP revision and reflecting changes in these emissions from the historical baseline ozone season to the ozone seasons 2009 and 2015, based on projected changes in the production input or output, population, vehicle miles traveled, economic activity, or other factors as applicable to this source category.

(A) These inventories must account for implementation of any control measures that are adopted or implemented by the State, as of May 12, 2005, or adopted or implemented by the federal government, as of the date of submission of the SIP revision by the State to EPA, and must exclude any control measures specified in the SIP revision to meet the NOX emissions reduction requirements of this section.

(B) Economic and population forecasts must be as specific as possible to the applicable industry, State, and county of the source or source category and must be consistent with both national projections and relevant official planning assumptions including estimates of population and vehicle miles traveled developed through consultation between State and local transportation and air quality agencies. However, if these official planning assumptions are inconsistent with official U.S. Census projections of population or with energy consumption projections contained in the U.S. Department of Energy's most recent Annual Energy Outlook, then the SIP revision must make adjustments to correct the inconsistency or must demonstrate how the official planning assumptions are more accurate.

(C) These inventories must account for any changes in production method, materials, fuels, or efficiency that are expected to occur between the historical baseline ozone season and ozone season 2009 or ozone season 2015, as appropriate.

(iii) A projection of NOX mass emissions in ozone season 2009 and ozone season 2015 from the source category assuming the same projected changes as under paragraph (s)(2)(ii) of this section and resulting from implementation of each of the control measures specified in the SIP revision.

(A) These inventories must address the possibility that the State's new control measures may cause production or utilization, and emissions, to shift to unregulated or less stringently regulated sources in the source category in the same or another State, and these inventories must include any such amounts of emissions that may shift to such other sources.

(B) The State must provide EPA with a summary of the computations, assumptions, and judgments used to determine the degree of reduction in projected ozone season 2009 and ozone season 2015 NOX emissions that will be achieved from the implementation of the new control measures compared to the relevant baseline emissions inventory.

(iv) The result of subtracting the amounts in paragraph (s)(2)(iii) of this section for ozone season 2009 and ozone season 2015, respectively, from the lower of the amounts in paragraph (s)(2)(i) or (s)(2)(ii) of this section for ozone season 2009 and ozone season 2015, respectively, may be credited towards the State's Ozone Season Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement in paragraph (q)(3) of this section for the appropriate period.

(v) Each SIP revision must identify the sources of the data used in each estimate and each projection of emissions.

(t) Each SIP revision must comply with § 51.116 (regarding data availability).

(u) Each SIP revision must provide for monitoring the status of compliance with any control measures adopted to meet the State's requirements under paragraph (q) of this section as follows:

(1) The SIP revision must provide for legally enforceable procedures for requiring owners or operators of stationary sources to maintain records of, and periodically report to the State:

(i) Information on the amount of NOX emissions from the stationary sources; and

(ii) Other information as may be necessary to enable the State to determine whether the sources are in compliance with applicable portions of the control measures;

(2) The SIP revision must comply with § 51.212 (regarding testing, inspection, enforcement, and complaints);

(3) If the SIP revision contains any transportation control measures, then the SIP revision must comply with § 51.213 (regarding transportation control measures);

(4)

(i) If the SIP revision contains measures to control EGUs, then the SIP revision must require such sources to comply with the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting provisions of subpart H of part 75 of this chapter.

(ii) If the SIP revision contains measures to control fossil fuel-fired non-EGUs that are boilers or combustion turbines with a maximum design heat input greater than 250 mmBtu/hr, then the SIP revision must require such sources to comply with the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting provisions of subpart H of part 75 of this chapter.

(iii) If the SIP revision contains measures to control any other non-EGUs that are not described in paragraph (u)(4)(ii) of this section, then the SIP revision must require such sources to comply with the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting provisions of subpart H of part 75 of this chapter, or the State must demonstrate why such requirements are not practicable and adopt alternative requirements that ensure that the required emissions reductions will be quantified, to the maximum extent practicable, with the same degree of assurance with which emissions are quantified for sources subject to subpart H of part 75 of this chapter.

(v) Each SIP revision must show that the State has legal authority to carry out the SIP revision, including authority to:

(1) Adopt emissions standards and limitations and any other measures necessary for attainment and maintenance of the State's relevant Ozone Season EGU NOX Budget or the Ozone Season Non-EGU NOX Reduction Requirement, as applicable, under paragraph (q) of this section;

(2) Enforce applicable laws, regulations, and standards and seek injunctive relief;

(3) Obtain information necessary to determine whether air pollution sources are in compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and standards, including authority to require recordkeeping and to make inspections and conduct tests of air pollution sources; and

(4)

(i) Require owners or operators of stationary sources to install, maintain, and use emissions monitoring devices and to make periodic reports to the State on the nature and amounts of emissions from such stationary sources; and

(ii) Make the data described in paragraph (v)(4)(i) of this section available to the public within a reasonable time after being reported and as correlated with any applicable emissions standards or limitations.

(w)

(1) The provisions of law or regulation that the State determines provide the authorities required under this section must be specifically identified, and copies of such laws or regulations must be submitted with the SIP revision.

(2) Legal authority adequate to fulfill the requirements of paragraphs (v)(3) and (4) of this section may be delegated to the State under section 114 of the CAA.

(x)

(1) A SIP revision may assign legal authority to local agencies in accordance with § 51.232.

(2) Each SIP revision must comply with § 51.240 (regarding general plan requirements).

(y) Each SIP revision must comply with § 51.280 (regarding resources).

(z) Each SIP revision must provide for State compliance with the reporting requirements in § 51.125.

(aa)

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if a State adopts regulations substantively identical to subparts AAAA through IIII of part 96 of this chapter (CAIR Ozone Season NOX Trading Program), incorporates such subparts by reference into its regulations, or adopts regulations that differ substantively from such subparts only as set forth in paragraph (aa)(2) of this section, then such emissions trading program in the State's SIP revision is automatically approved as meeting the requirements of paragraph (q) of this section, provided that the State has the legal authority to take such action and to implement its responsibilities under such regulations. Before January 1, 2009, a State's regulations shall be considered to be substantively identical to subparts AAAA through IIII of part 96 of the chapter, or differing substantively only as set forth in paragraph (o)(2) of this section, regardless of whether the State's regulations include the definition of “Biomass”, paragraph (3) of the definition of “Cogeneration unit”, and the second sentence of the definition of “Total energy input” in § 96.302 of this chapter promulgated on October 19, 2007, provided that the State timely submits to the Administrator a SIP revision that revises the State's regulations to include such provisions. Submission to the Administrator of a SIP revision that revises the State's regulations to include such provisions shall be considered timely if the submission is made by January 1, 2009.

(2) If a State adopts an emissions trading program that differs substantively from subparts AAAA through IIII of part 96 of this chapter only as follows, then the emissions trading program is approved as set forth in paragraph (aa)(1) of this section.

(i) The State may expand the applicability provisions in § 96.304 to include all non-EGUs subject to the State's emissions trading program approved under § 51.121(p).

(ii) The State may decline to adopt the CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in provisions of:

(A) Subpart IIII of this part and the provisions applicable only to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units in subparts AAAA through HHHH of this part;

(B) Section 96.388(b) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart IIII of this part applicable only to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units under § 96.388(b); or

(C) Section 96.388(c) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart IIII of this part applicable only to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units under § 96.388(c).

(iii) The State may decline to adopt the allocation provisions set forth in subpart EEEE of part 96 of this chapter and may instead adopt any methodology for allocating CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances to individual sources, as follows:

(A) The State may provide for issuance of an amount of CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances for an ozone season, in addition to the amount in the State's Ozone Season EGU NOX Budget for such ozone season, not exceeding the amount of NOX SIP Call allowances allocated for the ozone season under the NOX Budget Trading Program to non-EGUs that the applicability provisions in § 96.304 are expanded to include under paragraph (aa)(2)(i) of this section;

(B) The State's methodology must not allow the State to allocate CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances for an ozone season in excess of the amount in the State's Ozone Season EGU NOX Budget for such ozone season plus any additional amount of CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances issued under paragraph (aa)(2)(iii)(A) of this section for such ozone season;

(C) The State's methodology must require that, for EGUs commencing operation before January 1, 2001, the State will determine, and notify the Administrator of, each unit's allocation of CAIR NOX allowances by October 31, 2006 for the ozone seasons 2009, 2010, and 2011 and by October 31, 2008 and October 31 of each year thereafter for the ozone season in the 4th year after the year of the notification deadline; and

(D) The State's methodology must require that, for EGUs commencing operation on or after January 1, 2001, the State will determine, and notify the Administrator of, each unit's allocation of CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances by July 31 of the calendar year of the ozone season for which the CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances are allocated.

(3) A State that adopts an emissions trading program in accordance with paragraph (aa)(1) or (2) of this section is not required to adopt an emissions trading program in accordance with paragraph (o)(1) or (2) of this section or § 51.153(o)(1) or (2).

(4) If a State adopts an emissions trading program that differs substantively from subparts AAAA through IIII of part 96 of this chapter, other than as set forth in paragraph (aa)(2) of this section, then such emissions trading program is not automatically approved as set forth in paragraph (aa)(1) or (2) of this section and will be reviewed by the Administrator for approvability in accordance with the other provisions of this section, provided that the NOX allowances issued under such emissions trading program shall not, and the SIP revision shall state that such NOX allowances shall not, qualify as CAIR NOX allowances or CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances under any emissions trading program approved under paragraphs (o)(1) or (2) or (aa)(1) or (2) of this section.

(bb)

(1)

(i) The State may revise its SIP to provide that, for each ozone season during which a State implements control measures on EGUs or non-EGUs through an emissions trading program approved under paragraph (aa)(1) or (2) of this section, such EGUs and non-EGUs shall not be subject to the requirements of the State's SIP meeting the requirements of § 51.121, if the State meets the requirement in paragraph (bb)(1)(ii) of this section.

(ii) For a State under paragraph (bb)(1)(i) of this section, if the State's amount of tons specified in paragraph (q)(2) of this section exceeds the State's amount of NOX SIP Call allowances allocated for the ozone season in 2009 or in any year thereafter for the same types and sizes of units as those covered by the amount of tons specified in paragraph (q)(2) of this section, then the State must replace the former amount for such ozone season by the latter amount for such ozone season in applying paragraph (q) of this section.

(2) Rhode Island may revise its SIP to provide that, for each ozone season during which Rhode Island implements control measures on EGUs and non-EGUs through an emissions trading program adopted in regulations that differ substantively from subparts AAAA through IIII of part 96 of this chapter as set forth in this paragraph, such EGUs and non-EGUs shall not be subject to the requirements of the State's SIP meeting the requirements of § 51.121.

(i) Rhode Island must expand the applicability provisions in § 96.304 to include all non-EGUs subject to Rhode Island's emissions trading program approved under § 51.121(p).

(ii) Rhode Island may decline to adopt the CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in provisions of:

(A) Subpart IIII of this part and the provisions applicable only to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units in subparts AAAA through HHHH of this part;

(B) Section 96.388(b) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart IIII of this part applicable only to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units under § 96.388(b); or

(C) Section 96.388(c) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart IIII of this part applicable only to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units under § 96.388(c).

(iii) Rhode Island may adopt the allocation provisions set forth in subpart EEEE of part 96 of this chapter, provided that Rhode Island must provide for issuance of an amount of CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances for an ozone season not exceeding 936 tons for 2009 and thereafter;

(iv) Rhode Island may adopt any methodology for allocating CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances to individual sources, as follows:

(A) Rhode Island's methodology must not allow Rhode Island to allocate CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances for an ozone season in excess of 936 tons for 2009 and thereafter;

(B) Rhode Island's methodology must require that, for EGUs commencing operation before January 1, 2001, Rhode Island will determine, and notify the Administrator of, each unit's allocation of CAIR NOX allowances by October 31, 2006 for the ozone seasons 2009, 2010, and 2011 and by October 31, 2008 and October 31 of each year thereafter for the ozone season in the 4th year after the year of the notification deadline; and

(C) Rhode Island's methodology must require that, for EGUs commencing operation on or after January 1, 2001, Rhode Island will determine, and notify the Administrator of, each unit's allocation of CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances by July 31 of the calendar year of the ozone season for which the CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances are allocated.

(3) Notwithstanding a SIP revision by a State authorized under paragraph (bb)(1) of this section or by Rhode Island under paragraph (bb)(2) of this section, if the State's or Rhode Island's SIP that, without such SIP revision, imposes control measures on EGUs or non-EGUs under § 51.121 is determined by the Administrator to meet the requirements of § 51.121, such SIP shall be deemed to continue to meet the requirements of § 51.121.

(cc) The terms used in this section shall have the following meanings:

Administrator means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency or the Administrator's duly authorized representative.

Allocate or allocation means, with regard to allowances, the determination of the amount of allowances to be initially credited to a source or other entity.

Biomass means -

(1) Any organic material grown for the purpose of being converted to energy;

(2) Any organic byproduct of agriculture that can be converted into energy; or

(3) Any material that can be converted into energy and is nonmerchantable for other purposes, that is segregated from other nonmerchantable material, and that is;

(i) A forest-related organic resource, including mill residues, precommercial thinnings, slash, brush, or byproduct from conversion of trees to merchantable material; or

(ii) A wood material, including pallets, crates, dunnage, manufacturing and construction materials (other than pressure-treated, chemically-treated, or painted wood products), and landscape or right-of-way tree trimmings.

Boiler means an enclosed fossil- or other-fuel-fired combustion device used to produce heat and to transfer heat to recirculating water, steam, or other medium.

Bottoming-cycle cogeneration unit means a cogeneration unit in which the energy input to the unit is first used to produce useful thermal energy and at least some of the reject heat from the useful thermal energy application or process is then used for electricity production.

Clean Air Act or CAA means the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401, et seq.

Cogeneration unit means a stationary, fossil-fuel-fired boiler or stationary, fossil-fuel-fired combustion turbine:

(1) Having equipment used to produce electricity and useful thermal energy for industrial, commercial, heating, or cooling purposes through the sequential use of energy; and

(2) Producing during the 12-month period starting on the date the unit first produces electricity and during any calendar year after the calendar year in which the unit first produces electricity -

(i) For a topping-cycle cogeneration unit,

(A) Useful thermal energy not less than 5 percent of total energy output; and

(B) Useful power that, when added to one-half of useful thermal energy produced, is not less then 42.5 percent of total energy input, if useful thermal energy produced is 15 percent or more of total energy output, or not less than 45 percent of total energy input, if useful thermal energy produced is less than 15 percent of total energy output.

(ii) For a bottoming-cycle cogeneration unit, useful power not less than 45 percent of total energy input;

(3) Provided that the total energy input under paragraphs (2)(i)(B) and (2)(ii) of this definition shall equal the unit's total energy input from all fuel except biomass if the unit is a boiler.

Combustion turbine means:

(1) An enclosed device comprising a compressor, a combustor, and a turbine and in which the flue gas resulting from the combustion of fuel in the combustor passes through the turbine, rotating the turbine; and

(2) If the enclosed device under paragraph (1) of this definition is combined cycle, any associated duct burner, heat recovery steam generator, and steam turbine.

Commence operation means to have begun any mechanical, chemical, or electronic process, including, with regard to a unit, start-up of a unit's combustion chamber.

Electric generating unit or EGU means:

(1)

(i) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this definition, a stationary, fossil-fuel-fired boiler or stationary, fossil-fuel-fired combustion turbine serving at any time, since the later of November 15, 1990 or the start-up of the unit's combustion chamber, a generator with nameplate capacity of more than 25 MWe producing electricity for sale.

(ii) If a stationary boiler or stationary combustion turbine that, under paragraph (1)(i) of this section, is not an electric generating unit begins to combust fossil fuel or to serve a generator with nameplate capacity of more than 25 MWe producing electricity for sale, the unit shall become an electric generating unit as provided in paragraph (1)(i) of this section on the first date on which it both combusts fossil fuel and serves such generator.

(2) A unit that meets the requirements set forth in paragraphs (2)(i)(A), (2)(ii)(A), or (2)(ii)(B) of this definition paragraph shall not be an electric generating unit:

(i)

(A) Any unit that is an electric generating unit under paragraph (1)(i) or (ii) of this definition:

(1) Qualifying as a cogeneration unit during the 12-month period starting on the date the unit first produces electricity and continuing to qualify as a cogeneration unit; and

(2) Not serving at any time, since the later of November 15, 1990 or the start-up of the unit's combustion chamber, a generator with nameplate capacity of more than 25 MWe supplying in any calendar year more than one-third of the unit's potential electric output capacity or 219,000 MWh, whichever is greater, to any utility power distribution system for sale.

(B) If a unit qualifies as a cogeneration unit during the 12-month period starting on the date the unit first produces electricity and meets the requirements of paragraphs (2)(i)(A) of this section for at least one calendar year, but subsequently no longer meets all such requirements, the unit shall become an electric generating unit starting on the earlier of January 1 after the first calendar year during which the unit first no longer qualifies as a cogeneration unit or January 1 after the first calendar year during which the unit no longer meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(i)(A)(2) of this section.

(ii)

(A) Any unit that is an electric generating unit under paragraph (1)(i) or (ii) of this definition commencing operation before January 1, 1985:

(1) Qualifying as a solid waste incineration unit; and

(2) With an average annual fuel consumption of non-fossil fuel for 1985-1987 exceeding 80 percent (on a Btu basis) and an average annual fuel consumption of non-fossil fuel for any 3 consecutive calendar years after 1990 exceeding 80 percent (on a Btu basis).

(B) Any unit that is an electric generating unit under paragraph (1)(i) or (ii) of this definition commencing operation on or after January 1, 1985:

(1) Qualifying as a solid waste incineration unit; and

(2) With an average annual fuel consumption of non-fossil fuel for the first 3 calendar years of operation exceeding 80 percent (on a Btu basis) and an average annual fuel consumption of non-fossil fuel for any 3 consecutive calendar years after 1990 exceeding 80 percent (on a Btu basis).

(C) If a unit qualifies as a solid waste incineration unit and meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(ii)(A) or (B) of this section for at least 3 consecutive calendar years, but subsequently no longer meets all such requirements, the unit shall become an electric generating unit starting on the earlier of January 1 after the first calendar year during which the unit first no longer qualifies as a solid waste incineration unit or January 1 after the first 3 consecutive calendar years after 1990 for which the unit has an average annual fuel consumption of fossil fuel of 20 percent or more.

Fossil fuel means natural gas, petroleum, coal, or any form of solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel derived from such material.

Fossil-fuel-fired means, with regard to a unit, combusting any amount of fossil fuel in any calendar year.

Generator means a device that produces electricity.

Maximum design heat input means the maximum amount of fuel per hour (in Btu/hr) that a unit is capable of combusting on a steady state basis as of the initial installation of the unit as specified by the manufacturer of the unit.

NAAQS means National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

Nameplate capacity means, starting from the initial installation of a generator, the maximum electrical generating output (in MWe) that the generator is capable of producing on a steady state basis and during continuous operation (when not restricted by seasonal or other deratings) as of such installation as specified by the manufacturer of the generator or, starting from the completion of any subsequent physical change in the generator resulting in an increase in the maximum electrical generating output (in MWe) that the generator is capable of producing on a steady state basis and during continuous operation (when not restricted by seasonal or other deratings), such increased maximum amount as of such completion as specified by the person conducting the physical change.

Non-EGU means a source of NOX emissions that is not an EGU.

NOXBudget Trading Program means a multi-state nitrogen oxides air pollution control and emission reduction program approved and administered by the Administrator in accordance with subparts A through I of this part and § 51.121, as a means of mitigating interstate transport of ozone and nitrogen oxides.

NOXSIP Call allowance means a limited authorization issued by the Administrator under the NOX Budget Trading Program to emit up to one ton of nitrogen oxides during the ozone season of the specified year or any year thereafter, provided that the provision in § 51.121(b)(2)(ii)(E) shall not be used in applying this definition.

Ozone season means the period, which begins May 1 and ends September 30 of any year.

Potential electrical output capacity means 33 percent of a unit's maximum design heat input, divided by 3,413 Btu/kWh, divided by 1,000 kWh/MWh, and multiplied by 8,760 hr/yr.

Sequential use of energy means:

(1) For a topping-cycle cogeneration unit, the use of reject heat from electricity production in a useful thermal energy application or process; or

(2) For a bottoming-cycle cogeneration unit, the use of reject heat from useful thermal energy application or process in electricity production.

Solid waste incineration unit means a stationary, fossil-fuel-fired boiler or stationary, fossil-fuel-fired combustion turbine that is a “solid waste incineration unit” as defined in section 129(g)(1) of the Clean Air Act.

Topping-cycle cogeneration unit means a cogeneration unit in which the energy input to the unit is first used to produce useful power, including electricity, and at least some of the reject heat from the electricity production is then used to provide useful thermal energy.

Total energy input means, with regard to a cogeneration unit, total energy of all forms supplied to the cogeneration unit, excluding energy produced by the cogeneration unit itself. Each form of energy supplied shall be measured by the lower heating value of that form of energy calculated as follows:

LHV = HHV − 10.55(W + 9H)

Where:

LHV = lower heating value of fuel in Btu/lb,

HHV = higher heating value of fuel in Btu/lb,

W = Weight % of moisture in fuel, and

H = Weight % of hydrogen in fuel.

Total energy output means, with regard to a cogeneration unit, the sum of useful power and useful thermal energy produced by the cogeneration unit.

Unit means a stationary, fossil-fuel-fired boiler or a stationary, fossil-fuel-fired combustion turbine.

Useful power means, with regard to a cogeneration unit, electricity or mechanical energy made available for use, excluding any such energy used in the power production process (which process includes, but is not limited to, any on-site processing or treatment of fuel combusted at the unit and any on-site emission controls).

Useful thermal energy means, with regard to a cogeneration unit, thermal energy that is:

(1) Made available to an industrial or commercial process, excluding any heat contained in condensate return or makeup water;

(2) Used in a heating application (e.g., space heating or domestic hot water heating); or

(3) Used in a space cooling application (i.e., thermal energy used by an absorption chiller).

Utility power distribution system means the portion of an electricity grid owned or operated by a utility and dedicated to delivering electricity to customers.

(dd) New Hampshire may revise its SIP to implements control measures on EGUs and non-EGUs through an emissions trading program adopted in regulations that differ substantively from subparts AAAA through IIII of part 96 of this chapter as set forth in this paragraph.

(1) New Hampshire must expand the applicability provisions in § 96.304 of this chapter to include all non-EGUs subject to New Hampshire's emissions trading program at New Hampshire Code of Administrative Rules, chapter Env-A 3200 (2004).

(2) New Hampshire may decline to adopt the CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in provisions of:

(i) Subpart IIII of this part and the provisions applicable only to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units in subparts AAAA through HHHH of this part;

(ii) Section 96.388(b) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart IIII of this part applicable only to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units under § 96.388(b); or

(iii) Section 96.388(c) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart IIII of this part applicable only to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units under § 96.388(c).

(3) New Hampshire may adopt the allocation provisions set forth in subpart EEEE of part 96 of this chapter, provided that New Hampshire must provide for issuance of an amount of CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances for an ozone season not exceeding 3,000 tons for 2009 and thereafter;

(4) New Hampshire may adopt any methodology for allocating CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances to individual sources, as follows:

(i) New Hampshire's methodology must not allow New Hampshire to allocate CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances for an ozone season in excess of 3,000 tons for 2009 and thereafter;

(ii) New Hampshire's methodology must require that, for EGUs commencing operation before January 1, 2001, New Hampshire will determine, and notify the Administrator of, each unit's allocation of CAIR NOX allowances by October 31, 2006 for the ozone seasons 2009, 2010, and 2011 and by October 31, 2008 and October 31 of each year thereafter for the ozone season in the 4th year after the year of the notification deadline; and

(iii) New Hampshire's methodology must require that, for EGUs commencing operation on or after January 1, 2001, New Hampshire will determine, and notify the Administrator of, each unit's allocation of CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances by July 31 of the calendar year of the ozone season for which the CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances are allocated.

(ee) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a State may adopt, and include in a SIP revision submitted by March 31, 2007, regulations relating to the Federal CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program under subparts AAAA through HHHH of part 97 of this chapter as follows:

(1) The State may adopt, as applicability provisions replacing the provisions in § 97.304 of this chapter, provisions for applicability that are substantively identical to the provisions in § 96.304 of this chapter expanded to include all non-EGUs subject to the State's emissions trading program approved under § 51.121(p). Before January 1, 2009, a State's applicability provisions shall be considered to be substantively identical to § 96.304 of this chapter (with the expansion allowed under this paragraph) regardless of whether the State's regulations include the definition of “Biomass”, paragraph (3) of the definition of “Cogeneration unit”, and the second sentence of the definition of “Total energy input” in § 97.102 of this chapter promulgated on October 19, 2007, provided that the State timely submits to the Administrator a SIP revision that revises the State's regulations to include such provisions. Submission to the Administrator of a SIP revision that revises the State's regulations to include such provisions shall be considered timely if the submission is made by January 1, 2009.

(2) The State may adopt, as CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocation provisions replacing the provisions in subpart EEEE of part 97 of this chapter:

(i) Allocation provisions substantively identical to subpart EEEE of part 96 of this chapter, under which the permitting authority makes the allocations; or

(ii) Any methodology for allocating CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances to individual sources under which the permitting authority makes the allocations, provided that:

(A) The State may provide for issuance of an amount of CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances for an ozone season, in addition to the amount in the State's Ozone Season EGU NOX Budget for such ozone season, not exceeding the portion of the State's trading program budget, under the State's emissions trading program approved under § 51.121(p), attributed to the non-EGUs that the applicability provisions in § 96.304 of this chapter are expanded to include under paragraph (ee)(1) of this section.

(B) The State's methodology must not allow the State to allocate CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances for an ozone season in excess of the amount in the State's Ozone Season EGU NOX Budget for such ozone season plus any additional amount of CAIR Ozone Season NOX allowances issued under paragraph (ee)(2)(ii)(A) of this section for such ozone season.

(C) The State's methodology must require that, for EGUs commencing operation before January 1, 2001, the permitting authority will determine, and notify the Administrator of, each unit's allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances by April 30, 2007 for 2009, 2010, and 2011 and by October 31, 2008 and October 31 of each year thereafter for the 4th year after the year of the notification deadline.

(D) The State's methodology must require that, for EGUs commencing operation on or after January 1, 2001, the permitting authority will determine, and notify the Administrator of, each unit's allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances by July 31 of the year for which the CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated.

(3) The State may adopt CAIR opt-in unit provisions as follows:

(i) Provisions for CAIR opt-in units, including provisions for applications for CAIR opt-in permits, approval of CAIR opt-in permits, treatment of units as CAIR opt-in units, and allocation and recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances for CAIR opt-in units, that are substantively identical to subpart IIII of part 96 of this chapter and the provisions of subparts AAAA through HHHH that are applicable to CAIR opt-in units or units for which a CAIR opt-in permit application is submitted and not withdrawn and a CAIR opt-in permit is not yet issued or denied;

(ii) Provisions for CAIR opt-in units, including provisions for applications for CAIR opt-in permits, approval of CAIR opt-in permits, treatment of units as CAIR opt-in units, and allocation and recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances for CAIR opt-in units, that are substantively identical to subpart IIII of part 96 of this chapter and the provisions of subparts AAAA through HHHH that are applicable to CAIR opt-in units or units for which a CAIR opt-in permit application is submitted and not withdrawn and a CAIR opt-in permit is not yet issued or denied, except that the provisions exclude § 96.388(b) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart IIII of part 96 of this chapter that apply only to units covered by § 96.388(b) of this chapter; or

(iii) Provisions for applications for CAIR opt-in units, including provisions for CAIR opt-in permits, approval of CAIR opt-in permits, treatment of units as CAIR opt-in units, and allocation and recordation of CAIR NOX allowances for CAIR opt-in units, that are substantively identical to subpart IIII of part 96 of this chapter and the provisions of subparts AAAA through HHHH that are applicable to CAIR opt-in units or units for which a CAIR opt-in permit application is submitted and not withdrawn and a CAIR opt-in permit is not yet issued or denied, except that the provisions exclude § 96.388(c) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart IIII of part 96 of this chapter that apply only to units covered by § 96.388(c) of this chapter.

(ff) Notwithstanding any provisions of paragraphs (a) through (ee) of this section, subparts AA through II and AAAA through IIII of part 96 of this chapter, subparts AA through II and AAAA through IIII of part 97 of this chapter, and any State's SIP to the contrary:

(1) With regard to any control period that begins after December 31, 2014, the Administrator:

(i) Rescinds the determination in paragraph (a) of this section that the States identified in paragraph (c) of this section must submit a SIP revision with respect to the fine particles (PM2.5) NAAQS and the 8-hour ozone NAAQS meeting the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (ee) of this section; and

(ii) Will not carry out any of the functions set forth for the Administrator in subparts AA through II and AAAA through IIII of part 96 of this chapter, subparts AA through II and AAAA through IIII of part 97 of this chapter, or in any emissions trading program provisions in a State's SIP approved under this section;

(2) The Administrator will not deduct for excess emissions any CAIR NOX allowances or CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances allocated for 2015 or any year thereafter;

(3) By March 3, 2015, the Administrator will remove from the CAIR NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts all CAIR NOX allowances allocated for a control period in 2015 and any subsequent year, and, thereafter, no holding or surrender of CAIR NOX allowances will be required with regard to emissions or excess emissions for such control periods; and

(4) By March 3, 2015, the Administrator will remove from the CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System accounts all CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances allocated for a control period in 2015 and any subsequent year, and, thereafter, no holding or surrender of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances will be required with regard to emissions or excess emissions for such control periods.

[70 FR 25319, May 12, 2005, as amended at 71 FR 25301, 25370, Apr. 28, 2006; 71 FR 74793, Dec. 13, 2006; 72 FR 59203, Oct. 19, 2007; 74 FR 56726, Nov. 3, 2009; 76 FR 48353, Aug. 8, 2011; 79 FR 71671, Dec. 3, 2014]

§ 51.124 Findings and requirements for submission of State implementation plan revisions relating to emissions of sulfur dioxide pursuant to the Clean Air Interstate Rule.

(a)

(1) Under section 110(a)(1) of the CAA, 42 U.S.C. 7410(a)(1), the Administrator determines that each State identified in paragraph (c) of this section must submit a SIP revision to comply with the requirements of section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I) of the CAA, 42 U.S.C. 7410(a)(2)(D)(i)(I), through the adoption of adequate provisions prohibiting sources and other activities from emitting SO2 in amounts that will contribute significantly to nonattainment in, or interfere with maintenance by, one or more other States with respect to the fine particles (PM2.5) NAAQS.

(2) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, such provisions are not applicable as they relate to the State of Minnesota as of December 3, 2009.

(b) For each State identified in paragraph (c) of this section, the SIP revision required under paragraph (a) of this section will contain adequate provisions, for purposes of complying with section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I) of the CAA, 42 U.S.C. 7410(a)(2)(D)(i)(I), only if the SIP revision contains control measures that assure compliance with the applicable requirements of this section.

(c) The following States are subject to the requirements of this section: Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and the District of Columbia.

(d)

(1) The SIP revision under paragraph (a) of this section must be submitted to EPA by no later than September 11, 2006.

(2) The requirements of appendix V to this part shall apply to the SIP revision under paragraph (a) of this section.

(3) The State shall deliver 5 copies of the SIP revision under paragraph (a) of this section to the appropriate Regional Office, with a letter giving notice of such action.

(e) The State's SIP revision shall contain control measures and demonstrate that they will result in compliance with the State's Annual EGU SO2 Budget, if applicable, and achieve the State's Annual Non-EGU SO2 Reduction Requirement, if applicable, for the appropriate periods. The amounts of the State's Annual EGU SO2 Budget and Annual Non-EGU SO2 Reduction Requirement shall be determined as follows:

(1)

(i) The Annual EGU SO2 Budget for the State is defined as the total amount of SO2 emissions from all EGUs in that State for a year, if the State meets the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section by imposing control measures, at least in part, on EGUs. If the State imposes control measures under this section on only EGUs, the Annual EGU SO2 Budget for the State shall not exceed the amount, during the indicated periods, specified in paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

(ii) The Annual Non-EGU SO2 Reduction Requirement, if applicable, is defined as the total amount of SO2 emission reductions that the State demonstrates, in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section, it will achieve from non-EGUs during the appropriate period. If the State meets the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section by imposing control measures on only non-EGUs, then the State's Annual Non-EGU SO2 Reduction Requirement shall equal or exceed, during the appropriate periods, the amount determined in accordance with paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

(iii) If a State meets the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section by imposing control measures on both EGUs and non-EGUs, then:

(A) The Annual Non-EGU SO2 Reduction Requirement shall equal or exceed the difference between the amount specified in paragraph (e)(2) of this section for the appropriate period and the amount of the State's Annual EGU SO2 Budget specified in the SIP revision for the appropriate period; and

(B) The Annual EGU SO2 Budget shall not exceed, during the indicated periods, the amount specified in paragraph (e)(2) of this section plus the amount of the Annual Non-EGU SO2 Reduction Requirement under paragraph (e)(1)(iii)(A) of this section for the appropriate period.

(2) For a State that complies with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section by imposing control measures on only EGUs, the amount of the Annual EGU SO2 Budget, in tons of SO2 per year, shall be as follows, for the indicated State for the indicated period:

State Annual EGU SO2 budget for 2010-2014 (tons) Annual EGU SO2 budget for 2015 and thereafter (tons)
Alabama 157,582 110,307
Delaware 22,411 15,687
District of Columbia 708 495
Florida 253,450 177,415
Georgia 213,057 149,140
Illinois 192,671 134,869
Indiana 254,599 178,219
Iowa 64,095 44,866
Kentucky 188,773 132,141
Louisiana 59,948 41,963
Maryland 70,697 49,488
Michigan 178,605 125,024
Minnesota 49,987 34,991
Mississippi 33,763 23,634
Missouri 137,214 96,050
New Jersey 32,392 22,674
New York 135,139 94,597
North Carolina 137,342 96,139
Ohio 333,520 233,464
Pennsylvania 275,990 193,193
South Carolina 57,271 40,089
Tennessee 137,216 96,051
Texas 320,946 224,662
Virginia 63,478 44,435
West Virginia 215,881 151,117
Wisconsin 87,264 61,085

(3) For a State that complies with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section by imposing control measures on only non-EGUs, the amount of the Annual Non-EGU SO2 Reduction Requirement, in tons of SO2 per year, shall be determined, for the State for 2010 and thereafter, by subtracting the amount of the State's Annual EGU SO2 Budget for the appropriate year, specified in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, from an amount equal to 2 times the State's Annual EGU SO2 Budget for 2010 through 2014, specified in paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

(f) Each SIP revision must set forth control measures to meet the amounts specified in paragraph (e) of this section, as applicable, including the following:

(1) A description of enforcement methods including, but not limited to:

(i) Procedures for monitoring compliance with each of the selected control measures;

(ii) Procedures for handling violations; and

(iii) A designation of agency responsibility for enforcement of implementation.

(2)

(i) If a State elects to impose control measures on EGUs, then those measures must impose an annual SO2 mass emissions cap on all such sources in the State.

(ii) If a State elects to impose control measures on fossil fuel-fired non-EGUs that are boilers or combustion turbines with a maximum design heat input greater than 250 mmBtu/hr, then those measures must impose an annual SO2 mass emissions cap on all such sources in the State.

(iii) If a State elects to impose control measures on non-EGUs other than those described in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section, then those measures must impose an annual SO2 mass emissions cap on all such sources in the State, or the State must demonstrate why such emissions cap is not practicable, and adopt alternative requirements that ensure that the State will comply with its requirements under paragraph (e) of this section, as applicable, in 2010 and subsequent years.

(g)

(1) Each SIP revision that contains control measures covering non-EGUs as part or all of a State's obligation in meeting its requirement under paragraph (a) of this section must demonstrate that such control measures are adequate to provide for the timely compliance with the State's Annual Non-EGU SO2 Reduction Requirement under paragraph (e) of this section and are not adopted or implemented by the State, as of May 12, 2005, and are not adopted or implemented by the federal government, as of the date of submission of the SIP revision by the State to EPA.

(2) The demonstration under paragraph (g)(1) of this section must include the following, with respect to each source category of non-EGUs for which the SIP revision requires control measures:

(i) A detailed historical baseline inventory of SO2 mass emissions from the source category in a representative year consisting, at the State's election, of 2002, 2003, 2004, or 2005, or an average of 2 or more of those years, absent the control measures specified in the SIP revision.

(A) This inventory must represent estimates of actual emissions based on monitoring data in accordance with part 75 of this chapter, if the source category is subject to part 75 monitoring requirements in accordance with part 75 of this chapter.

(B) In the absence of monitoring data in accordance with part 75 of this chapter, actual emissions must be quantified, to the maximum extent practicable, with the same degree of assurance with which emissions are quantified for sources subject to part 75 of this chapter and using source-specific or source-category-specific assumptions that ensure a source's or source category's actual emissions are not overestimated. If a State uses factors to estimate emissions, production or utilization, or effectiveness of controls or rules for a source category, such factors must be chosen to ensure that emissions are not overestimated.

(C) For measures to reduce emissions from motor vehicles, emission estimates must be based on an emissions model that has been approved by EPA for use in SIP development and must be consistent with the planning assumptions regarding vehicle miles traveled and other factors current at the time of the SIP development.

(D) For measures to reduce emissions from nonroad engines or vehicles, emission estimates methodologies must be approved by EPA.

(ii) A detailed baseline inventory of SO2 mass emissions from the source category in the years 2010 and 2015, absent the control measures specified in the SIP revision and reflecting changes in these emissions from the historical baseline year to the years 2010 and 2015, based on projected changes in the production input or output, population, vehicle miles traveled, economic activity, or other factors as applicable to this source category.

(A) These inventories must account for implementation of any control measures that are adopted or implemented by the State, as of May 12, 2005, or adopted or implemented by the federal government, as of the date of submission of the SIP revision by the State to EPA, and must exclude any control measures specified in the SIP revision to meet the SO2 emissions reduction requirements of this section.

(B) Economic and population forecasts must be as specific as possible to the applicable industry, State, and county of the source or source category and must be consistent with both national projections and relevant official planning assumptions, including estimates of population and vehicle miles traveled developed through consultation between State and local transportation and air quality agencies. However, if these official planning assumptions are inconsistent with official U.S. Census projections of population or with energy consumption projections contained in the U.S. Department of Energy's most recent Annual Energy Outlook, then the SIP revision must make adjustments to correct the inconsistency or must demonstrate how the official planning assumptions are more accurate.

(C) These inventories must account for any changes in production method, materials, fuels, or efficiency that are expected to occur between the historical baseline year and 2010 or 2015, as appropriate.

(iii) A projection of SO2 mass emissions in 2010 and 2015 from the source category assuming the same projected changes as under paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section and resulting from implementation of each of the control measures specified in the SIP revision.

(A) These inventories must address the possibility that the State's new control measures may cause production or utilization, and emissions, to shift to unregulated or less stringently regulated sources in the source category in the same or another State, and these inventories must include any such amounts of emissions that may shift to such other sources.

(B) The State must provide EPA with a summary of the computations, assumptions, and judgments used to determine the degree of reduction in projected 2010 and 2015 SO2 emissions that will be achieved from the implementation of the new control measures compared to the relevant baseline emissions inventory.

(iv) The result of subtracting the amounts in paragraph (g)(2)(iii) of this section for 2010 and 2015, respectively, from the lower of the amounts in paragraph (g)(2)(i) or (g)(2)(ii) of this section for 2010 and 2015, respectively, may be credited towards the State's Annual Non-EGU SO2 Reduction Requirement in paragraph (e)(3) of this section for the appropriate period.

(v) Each SIP revision must identify the sources of the data used in each estimate and each projection of emissions.

(h) Each SIP revision must comply with § 51.116 (regarding data availability).

(i) Each SIP revision must provide for monitoring the status of compliance with any control measures adopted to meet the State's requirements under paragraph (e) of this section, as follows:

(1) The SIP revision must provide for legally enforceable procedures for requiring owners or operators of stationary sources to maintain records of, and periodically report to the State:

(i) Information on the amount of SO2 emissions from the stationary sources; and

(ii) Other information as may be necessary to enable the State to determine whether the sources are in compliance with applicable portions of the control measures;

(2) The SIP revision must comply with § 51.212 (regarding testing, inspection, enforcement, and complaints);

(3) If the SIP revision contains any transportation control measures, then the SIP revision must comply with § 51.213 (regarding transportation control measures);

(4)

(i) If the SIP revision contains measures to control EGUs, then the SIP revision must require such sources to comply with the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting provisions of part 75 of this chapter.

(ii) If the SIP revision contains measures to control fossil fuel-fired non-EGUs that are boilers or combustion turbines with a maximum design heat input greater than 250 mmBtu/hr, then the SIP revision must require such sources to comply with the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting provisions of part 75 of this chapter.

(iii) If the SIP revision contains measures to control any other non-EGUs that are not described in paragraph (i)(4)(ii) of this section, then the SIP revision must require such sources to comply with the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting provisions of part 75 of this chapter, or the State must demonstrate why such requirements are not practicable and adopt alternative requirements that ensure that the required emissions reductions will be quantified, to the maximum extent practicable, with the same degree of assurance with which emissions are quantified for sources subject to part 75 of this chapter.

(j) Each SIP revision must show that the State has legal authority to carry out the SIP revision, including authority to:

(1) Adopt emissions standards and limitations and any other measures necessary for attainment and maintenance of the State's relevant Annual EGU SO2 Budget or the Annual Non-EGU SO2 Reduction Requirement, as applicable, under paragraph (e) of this section;

(2) Enforce applicable laws, regulations, and standards and seek injunctive relief;

(3) Obtain information necessary to determine whether air pollution sources are in compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and standards, including authority to require recordkeeping and to make inspections and conduct tests of air pollution sources; and

(4)

(i) Require owners or operators of stationary sources to install, maintain, and use emissions monitoring devices and to make periodic reports to the State on the nature and amounts of emissions from such stationary sources; and

(ii) Make the data described in paragraph (j)(4)(i) of this section available to the public within a reasonable time after being reported and as correlated with any applicable emissions standards or limitations.

(k)

(1) The provisions of law or regulation that the State determines provide the authorities required under this section must be specifically identified, and copies of such laws or regulations must be submitted with the SIP revision.

(2) Legal authority adequate to fulfill the requirements of paragraphs (j)(3) and (4) of this section may be delegated to the State under section 114 of the CAA.

(l)

(1) A SIP revision may assign legal authority to local agencies in accordance with § 51.232.

(2) Each SIP revision must comply with § 51.240 (regarding general plan requirements).

(m) Each SIP revision must comply with § 51.280 (regarding resources).

(n) Each SIP revision must provide for State compliance with the reporting requirements in § 51.125.

(o)

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if a State adopts regulations substantively identical to subparts AAA through III of part 96 of this chapter (CAIR SO2 Trading Program), incorporates such subparts by reference into its regulations, or adopts regulations that differ substantively from such subparts only as set forth in paragraph (o)(2) of this section, then such emissions trading program in the State's SIP revision is automatically approved as meeting the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section, provided that the State has the legal authority to take such action and to implement its responsibilities under such regulations. Before January 1, 2009, a State's regulations shall be considered to be substantively identical to subparts AAA through III of part 96 of the chapter, or differing substantively only as set forth in paragraph (o)(2) of this section, regardless of whether the State's regulations include the definition of “Biomass”, paragraph (3) of the definition of “Cogeneration unit”, and the second sentence of the definition of “Total energy input” in § 96.202 of this chapter promulgated on October 19, 2007, provided that the State timely submits to the Administrator a SIP revision that revises the State's regulations to include such provisions. Submission to the Administrator of a SIP revision that revises the State's regulations to include such provisions shall be considered timely if the submission is made by January 1, 2009.

(2) If a State adopts an emissions trading program that differs substantively from subparts AAA through III of part 96 of this chapter only as follows, then the emissions trading program is approved as set forth in paragraph (o)(1) of this section.

(i) The State may decline to adopt the CAIR SO2 opt-in provisions of subpart III of this part and the provisions applicable only to CAIR SO2 opt-in units in subparts AAA through HHH of this part.

(ii) The State may decline to adopt the CAIR SO2 opt-in provisions of § 96.288(b) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart III of this part applicable only to CAIR SO2 opt-in units under § 96.288(b).

(iii) The State may decline to adopt the CAIR SO2 opt-in provisions of § 96.288(c) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart II of this part applicable only to CAIR SO2 opt-in units under § 96.288(c).

(3) A State that adopts an emissions trading program in accordance with paragraph (o)(1) or (2) of this section is not required to adopt an emissions trading program in accordance with § 96.123 (o)(1) or (2) or (aa)(1) or (2) of this chapter.

(4) If a State adopts an emissions trading program that differs substantively from subparts AAA through III of part 96 of this chapter, other than as set forth in paragraph (o)(2) of this section, then such emissions trading program is not automatically approved as set forth in paragraph (o)(1) or (2) of this section and will be reviewed by the Administrator for approvability in accordance with the other provisions of this section, provided that the SO2 allowances issued under such emissions trading program shall not, and the SIP revision shall state that such SO2 allowances shall not, qualify as CAIR SO2 allowances under any emissions trading program approved under paragraph (o)(1) or (2) of this section.

(p) If a State's SIP revision does not contain an emissions trading program approved under paragraph (o)(1) or (2) of this section but contains control measures on EGUs as part or all of a State's obligation in meeting its requirement under paragraph (a) of this section:

(1) The SIP revision shall provide, for each year that the State has such obligation, for the permanent retirement of an amount of Acid Rain allowances allocated to sources in the State for that year and not deducted by the Administrator under the Acid Rain Program and any emissions trading program approved under paragraph (o)(1) or (2) of this section, equal to the difference between -

(A) The total amount of Acid Rain allowances allocated under the Acid Rain Program to the sources in the State for that year; and

(B) If the State's SIP revision contains only control measures on EGUs, the State's Annual EGU SO2 Budget for the appropriate period as specified in paragraph (e)(2) of this section or, if the State's SIP revision contains control measures on EGUs and non-EGUs, the State's Annual EGU SO2 Budget for the appropriate period as specified in the SIP revision.

(2) The SIP revision providing for permanent retirement of Acid Rain allowances under paragraph (p)(1) of this section must ensure that such allowances are not available for deduction by the Administrator under the Acid Rain Program and any emissions trading program approved under paragraph (o)(1) or (2) of this section.

(q) The terms used in this section shall have the following meanings:

Acid Rain allowance means a limited authorization issued by the Administrator under the Acid Rain Program to emit up to one ton of sulfur dioxide during the specified year or any year thereafter, except as otherwise provided by the Administrator.

Acid Rain Program means a multi-State sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides air pollution control and emissions reduction program established by the Administrator under title IV of the CAA and parts 72 through 78 of this chapter.

Administrator means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency or the Administrator's duly authorized representative.

Allocate or allocation means, with regard to allowances, the determination of the amount of allowances to be initially credited to a source or other entity.

Biomass means -

(1) Any organic material grown for the purpose of being converted to energy;

(2) Any organic byproduct of agriculture that can be converted into energy; or

(3) Any material that can be converted into energy and is nonmerchantable for other purposes, that is segregated from other nonmerchantable material, and that is;

(i) A forest-related organic resource, including mill residues, precommercial thinnings, slash, brush, or byproduct from conversion of trees to merchantable material; or

(ii) A wood material, including pallets, crates, dunnage, manufacturing and construction materials (other than pressure-treated, chemically-treated, or painted wood products), and landscape or right-of-way tree trimmings.

Boiler means an enclosed fossil- or other-fuel-fired combustion device used to produce heat and to transfer heat to recirculating water, steam, or other medium.

Bottoming-cycle cogeneration unit means a cogeneration unit in which the energy input to the unit is first used to produce useful thermal energy and at least some of the reject heat from the useful thermal energy application or process is then used for electricity production.

Clean Air Act or CAA means the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401, et seq.

Cogeneration unit means a stationary, fossil-fuel-fired boiler or stationary, fossil-fuel-fired combustion turbine:

(1) Having equipment used to produce electricity and useful thermal energy for industrial, commercial, heating, or cooling purposes through the sequential use of energy; and

(2) Producing during the 12-month period starting on the date the unit first produces electricity and during any calendar year after the calendar year in which the unit first produces electricity -

(i) For a topping-cycle cogeneration unit,

(A) Useful thermal energy not less than 5 percent of total energy output; and

(B) Useful power that, when added to one-half of useful thermal energy produced, is not less then 42.5 percent of total energy input, if useful thermal energy produced is 15 percent or more of total energy output, or not less than 45 percent of total energy input, if useful thermal energy produced is less than 15 percent of total energy output.

(ii) For a bottoming-cycle cogeneration unit, useful power not less than 45 percent of total energy input;

(3) Provided that the total energy input under paragraphs (2)(i)(B) and (2)(ii) of this definition shall equal the unit's total energy input from all fuel except biomass if the unit is a boiler.

Combustion turbine means:

(1) An enclosed device comprising a compressor, a combustor, and a turbine and in which the flue gas resulting from the combustion of fuel in the combustor passes through the turbine, rotating the turbine; and

(2) If the enclosed device under paragraph (1) of this definition is combined cycle, any associated duct burner, heat recovery steam generator, and steam turbine.

Commence operation means to have begun any mechanical, chemical, or electronic process, including, with regard to a unit, start-up of a unit's combustion chamber.

Electric generating unit or EGU means:

(1)

(i) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this definition, a stationary, fossil-fuel-fired boiler or stationary, fossil-fuel-fired combustion turbine serving at any time, since the later of November 15, 1990 or the start-up of the unit's combustion chamber, a generator with nameplate capacity of more than 25 MWe producing electricity for sale.

(ii) If a stationary boiler or stationary combustion turbine that, under paragraph (1)(i) of this section, is not an electric generating unit begins to combust fossil fuel or to serve a generator with nameplate capacity of more than 25 MWe producing electricity for sale, the unit shall become an electric generating unit as provided in paragraph (1)(i) of this section on the first date on which it both combusts fossil fuel and serves such generator.

(2) A unit that meets the requirements set forth in paragraphs (2)(i)(A), (2)(ii)(A), or (2)(ii)(B) of this definition paragraph shall not be an electric generating unit:

(i)

(A) Any unit that is an electric generating unit under paragraph (1)(i) or (ii) of this definition:

(1) Qualifying as a cogeneration unit during the 12-month period starting on the date the unit first produces electricity and continuing to qualify as a cogeneration unit; and

(2) Not serving at any time, since the later of November 15, 1990 or the start-up of the unit's combustion chamber, a generator with nameplate capacity of more than 25 MWe supplying in any calendar year more than one-third of the unit's potential electric output capacity or 219,000 MWh, whichever is greater, to any utility power distribution system for sale.

(B) If a unit qualifies as a cogeneration unit during the 12-month period starting on the date the unit first produces electricity and meets the requirements of paragraphs (2)(i)(A) of this section for at least one calendar year, but subsequently no longer meets all such requirements, the unit shall become an electric generating unit starting on the earlier of January 1 after the first calendar year during which the unit first no longer qualifies as a cogeneration unit or January 1 after the first calendar year during which the unit no longer meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(i)(A)(2) of this section.

(ii)

(A) Any unit that is an electric generating unit under paragraph (1)(i) or (ii) of this definition commencing operation before January 1, 1985:

(1) Qualifying as a solid waste incineration unit; and

(2) With an average annual fuel consumption of non-fossil fuel for 1985-1987 exceeding 80 percent (on a Btu basis) and an average annual fuel consumption of non-fossil fuel for any 3 consecutive calendar years after 1990 exceeding 80 percent (on a Btu basis).

(B) Any unit that is an electric generating unit under paragraph (1)(i) or (ii) of this definition commencing operation on or after January 1, 1985:

(1) Qualifying as a solid waste incineration unit; and

(2) With an average annual fuel consumption of non-fossil fuel for the first 3 calendar years of operation exceeding 80 percent (on a Btu basis) and an average annual fuel consumption of non-fossil fuel for any 3 consecutive calendar years after 1990 exceeding 80 percent (on a Btu basis).

(C) If a unit qualifies as a solid waste incineration unit and meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(ii)(A) or (B) of this section for at least 3 consecutive calendar years, but subsequently no longer meets all such requirements, the unit shall become an electric generating unit starting on the earlier of January 1 after the first calendar year during which the unit first no longer qualifies as a solid waste incineration unit or January 1 after the first 3 consecutive calendar years after 1990 for which the unit has an average annual fuel consumption of fossil fuel of 20 percent or more.

Fossil fuel means natural gas, petroleum, coal, or any form of solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel derived from such material.

Fossil-fuel-fired means, with regard to a unit, combusting any amount of fossil fuel in any calendar year.

Generator means a device that produces electricity.

Maximum design heat input means the maximum amount of fuel per hour (in Btu/hr) that a unit is capable of combusting on a steady state basis as of the initial installation of the unit as specified by the manufacturer of the unit.

NAAQS means National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

Nameplate capacity means, starting from the initial installation of a generator, the maximum electrical generating output (in MWe) that the generator is capable of producing on a steady state basis and during continuous operation (when not restricted by seasonal or other deratings as of such installation as specified by the manufacturer of the generator or, starting from the completion of any subsequent physical change in the generator resulting in an increase in the maximum electrical generating output (in MWe) that the generator is capable of producing on a steady state basis and during continuous operation (when not restricted by seasonal or other deratings), such increased maximum amount as of such completion as specified by the person conducting the physical change.

Non-EGU means a source of SO2 emissions that is not an EGU.

Potential electrical output capacity means 33 percent of a unit's maximum design heat input, divided by 3,413 Btu/kWh, divided by 1,000 kWh/MWh, and multiplied by 8,760 hr/yr.

Sequential use of energy means:

(1) For a topping-cycle cogeneration unit, the use of reject heat from electricity production in a useful thermal energy application or process; or

(2) For a bottoming-cycle cogeneration unit, the use of reject heat from useful thermal energy application or process in electricity production.

Solid waste incineration unit means a stationary, fossil-fuel-fired boiler or stationary, fossil-fuel-fired combustion turbine that is a “solid waste incineration unit” as defined in section 129(g)(1) of the Clean Air Act.

Topping-cycle cogeneration unit means a cogeneration unit in which the energy input to the unit is first used to produce useful power, including electricity, and at least some of the reject heat from the electricity production is then used to provide useful thermal energy.

Total energy input means, with regard to a cogeneration unit, total energy of all forms supplied to the cogeneration unit, excluding energy produced by the cogeneration unit itself.

Total energy output means, with regard to a cogeneration unit, the sum of useful power and useful thermal energy produced by the cogeneration unit. Each form of energy supplied shall be measured by the lower heating value of that form of energy calculated as follows:

LHV = HHV − 10.55(W + 9H)

Where:

LHV = lower heating value of fuel in Btu/lb,

HHV = higher heating value of fuel in Btu/lb,

W = Weight % of moisture in fuel, and

H = Weight % of hydrogen in fuel.

Unit means a stationary, fossil-fuel-fired boiler or a stationary, fossil-fuel fired combustion turbine.

Useful power means, with regard to a cogeneration unit, electricity or mechanical energy made available for use, excluding any such energy used in the power production process (which process includes, but is not limited to, any on-site processing or treatment of fuel combusted at the unit and any on-site emission controls).

Useful thermal energy means, with regard to a cogeneration unit, thermal energy that is:

(1) Made available to an industrial or commercial process, excluding any heat contained in condensate return or makeup water;

(2) Used in a heating application (e.g., space heating or domestic hot water heating); or

(3) Used in a space cooling application (i.e., thermal energy used by an absorption chiller).

Utility power distribution system means the portion of an electricity grid owned or operated by a utility and dedicated to delivering electricity to customers.

(r) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a State may adopt, and include in a SIP revision submitted by March 31, 2007, regulations relating to the Federal CAIR SO2 Trading Program under subparts AAA through HHH of part 97 of this chapter as follows. The State may adopt the following CAIR opt-in unit provisions:

(1) Provisions for CAIR opt-in units, including provisions for applications for CAIR opt-in permits, approval of CAIR opt-in permits, treatment of units as CAIR opt-in units, and allocation and recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances for CAIR opt-in units, that are substantively identical to subpart III of part 96 of this chapter and the provisions of subparts AAA through HHH that are applicable to CAIR opt-in units or units for which a CAIR opt-in permit application is submitted and not withdrawn and a CAIR opt-in permit is not yet issued or denied;

(2) Provisions for CAIR opt-in units, including provisions for applications for CAIR opt-in permits, approval of CAIR opt-in permits, treatment of units as CAIR opt-in units, and allocation and recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances for CAIR opt-in units, that are substantively identical to subpart III of part 96 of this chapter and the provisions of subparts AAA through HHH that are applicable to CAIR opt-in units or units for which a CAIR opt-in permit application is submitted and not withdrawn and a CAIR opt-in permit is not yet issued or denied, except that the provisions exclude § 96.288(b) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart III of part 96 of this chapter that apply only to units covered by § 96.288(b) of this chapter; or

(3) Provisions for applications for CAIR opt-in units, including provisions for CAIR opt-in permits, approval of CAIR opt-in permits, treatment of units as CAIR opt-in units, and allocation and recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances for CAIR opt-in units, that are substantively identical to subpart III of part 96 of this chapter and the provisions of subparts AAA through HHH that are applicable to CAIR opt-in units or units for which a CAIR opt-in permit application is submitted and not withdrawn and a CAIR opt-in permit is not yet issued or denied, except that the provisions exclude § 96.288(c) of this chapter and the provisions of subpart III of part 96 of this chapter that apply only to units covered by § 96.288(c) of this chapter.

(s) Notwithstanding any provisions of paragraphs (a) through (r) of this section, subparts AAA through III of part 96 of this chapter, subparts AAA through III of part 97 of this chapter, and any State's SIP to the contrary:

(1) With regard to any control period that begins after December 31, 2014, the Administrator:

(i) Rescinds the determination in paragraph (a) of this section that the States identified in paragraph (c) of this section must submit a SIP revision with respect to the fine particles (PM2.5) NAAQS meeting the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (r) of this section; and

(ii) Will not carry out any of the functions set forth for the Administrator in subparts AAA through III of part 96 of this chapter, subparts AAA through III of part 97 of this chapter, or in any emissions trading program in a State's SIP approved under this section; and

(2) The Administrator will not deduct for excess emissions any CAIR SO2 allowances allocated for 2015 or any year thereafter.

[70 FR 25328, May 12, 2005, as amended at 71 FR 25302, 25372, Apr. 28, 2006; 71 FR 74793, Dec. 13, 2006; 72 FR 59204, Oct. 19, 2007; 74 FR 56726, Nov. 3, 2009; 76 FR 48353, Aug. 8, 2011; 79 FR 71671, Dec. 3, 2014]

§ 51.125 [Reserved]
§ 51.126 Determination of widespread use of ORVR and waiver of CAA section 182(b)(3) Stage II gasoline vapor recovery requirements.

(a) Pursuant to section 202(a)(6) of the Clean Air Act, the Administrator has determined that, effective May 16, 2012, onboard refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) systems are in widespread use in the motor vehicle fleet within the United States.

(b) Effective May 16, 2012, the Administrator waives the requirement of Clean Air Act section 182(b)(3) for Stage II vapor recovery systems in ozone nonattainment areas regardless of classification. States must submit and receive EPA approval of a revision to their approved State Implementation Plans before removing Stage II requirements that are contained therein.

[77 FR 28782, May 16, 2012]

Subpart H - Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes
Source:

51 FR 40668, Nov. 7, 1986, unless otherwise noted.

§ 51.150 Classification of regions for episode plans.

(a) This section continues the classification system for episode plans. Each region is classified separately with respect to each of the following pollutants: Sulfur oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone.

(b) Priority I Regions means any area with greater ambient concentrations than the following:

(1) Sulfur dioxide - 100 µg/m3 (0.04 ppm) annual arithmetic mean; 455 µg/m3 (0.17 ppm) 24-hour maximum.

(2) Particulate matter - 95 µg/m3 annual geometric mean; 325 µg/m3 24-hour maximum.

(3) Carbon monoxide - 55 mg/m3 (48 ppm) 1-hour maximum; 14 mg/m3 (12 ppm) 8-hour maximum.

(4) Nitrogen dioxide - 100 µg/m3 (0.06 ppm) annual arithmetic mean.

(5) Ozone - 195 µg/m3 (0.10 ppm) 1-hour maximum.

(c) Priority IA Region means any area which is Priority I primarily because of emissions from a single point source.

(d) Priority II Region means any area which is not a Priority I region and has ambient concentrations between the following:

(1) Sulfur Dioxides - 60-100 µg/m3 (0.02-0.04 ppm) annual arithmetic mean; 260-445 µg/m3 (0.10-0.17 ppm) 24-hour maximum; any concentration above 1,300 µg/m3 (0.50 ppm) three-hour average.

(2) Particulate matter - 60-95 µg/m3 annual geometric mean; 150-325 µg/m3 24-hour maximum.

(e) In the absence of adequate monitoring data, appropriate models must be used to classify an area under paragraph (b) of this section, consistent with the requirements contained in § 51.112(a).

(f) Areas which do not meet the above criteria are classified Priority III.

[51 FR 40668, Nov. 7, 1986, as amended at 58 FR 38822, July 20, 1993]

§ 51.151 Significant harm levels.

Each plan for a Priority I region must include a contingency plan which must, as a minimum, provide for taking action necessary to prevent ambient pollutant concentrations at any location in such region from reaching the following levels:

Sulfur dioxide - 2.620 µg/m3 (1.0 ppm) 24-hour average.

PM10 - 600 micrograms/cubic meter; 24-hour average.

Carbon monoxide - 57.5 mg/m3 (50 ppm) 8-hour average; 86.3 mg/m3 (75 ppm) 4-hour average; 144 mg/m3 (125 ppm) 1-hour average.

Ozone - 1,200 ug/m3 (0.6 ppm) 2-hour average.

Nitrogen dioxide - 3.750 ug/m3 (2.0 ppm) 1-hour average; 938 ug/m3 (0.5 ppm) 24-hour average.

[51 FR 40668, Nov. 7, 1986, as amended at 52 FR 24713, July 1, 1987]

§ 51.152 Contingency plans.

(a) Each contingency plan must -

(1) Specify two or more stages of episode criteria such as those set forth in appendix L to this part, or their equivalent;

(2) Provide for public announcement whenever any episode stage has been determined to exist; and

(3) Specify adequate emission control actions to be taken at each episode stage. (Examples of emission control actions are set forth in appendix L.)

(b) Each contingency plan for a Priority I region must provide for the following:

(1) Prompt acquisition of forecasts of atmospheric stagnation conditions and of updates of such forecasts as frequently as they are issued by the National Weather Service.

(2) Inspection of sources to ascertain compliance with applicable emission control action requirements.

(3) Communications procedures for transmitting status reports and orders as to emission control actions to be taken during an episode stage, including procedures for contact with public officials, major emission sources, public health, safety, and emergency agencies and news media.

(c) Each plan for a Priority IA and II region must include a contingency plan that meets, as a minimum, the requirements of paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Areas classified Priority III do not need to develop episode plans.

(d) Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, the Administrator may, at his discretion -

(1) Exempt from the requirements of this section those portions of Priority I, IA, or II regions which have been designated as attainment or unclassifiable for national primary and secondary standards under section 107 of the Act; or

(2) Limit the requirements pertaining to emission control actions in Priority I regions to -

(i) Urbanized areas as identified in the most recent United States Census, and

(ii) Major emitting facilities, as defined by section 169(1) of the Act, outside the urbanized areas.

§ 51.153 Reevaluation of episode plans.

(a) States should periodically reevaluate priority classifications of all Regions or portion of Regions within their borders. The reevaluation must consider the three most recent years of air quality data. If the evaluation indicates a change to a higher priority classification, appropriate changes in the episode plan must be made as expeditiously as practicable.

(b) [Reserved]

Subpart I - Review of New Sources and Modifications
Source:

51 FR 40669, Nov. 7, 1986, unless otherwise noted.

§ 51.160 Legally enforceable procedures.

(a) Each plan must set forth legally enforceable procedures that enable the State or local agency to determine whether the construction or modification of a facility, building, structure or installation, or combination of these will result in -

(1) A violation of applicable portions of the control strategy; or

(2) Interference with attainment or maintenance of a national standard in the State in which the proposed source (or modification) is located or in a neighboring State.

(b) Such procedures must include means by which the State or local agency responsible for final decisionmaking on an application for approval to construct or modify will prevent such construction or modification if -

(1) It will result in a violation of applicable portions of the control strategy; or

(2) It will interfere with the attainment or maintenance of a national standard.

(c) The procedures must provide for the submission, by the owner or operator of the building, facility, structure, or installation to be constructed or modified, of such information on -

(1) The nature and amounts of emissions to be emitted by it or emitted by associated mobile sources;

(2) The location, design, construction, and operation of such facility, building, structure, or installation as may be necessary to permit the State or local agency to make the determination referred to in paragraph (a) of this section.

(d) The procedures must provide that approval of any construction or modification must not affect the responsibility to the owner or operator to comply with applicable portions of the control strategy.

(e) The procedures must identify types and sizes of facilities, buildings, structures, or installations which will be subject to review under this section. The plan must discuss the basis for determining which facilities will be subject to review.

(f) The procedures must discuss the air quality data and the dispersion or other air quality modeling used to meet the requirements of this subpart.

(1) All applications of air quality modeling involved in this subpart shall be based on the applicable models, data bases, and other requirements specified in appendix W of this part (Guideline on Air Quality Models).

(2) Where an air quality model specified in appendix W of this part (Guideline on Air Quality Models) is inappropriate, the model may be modified or another model substituted. Such a modification or substitution of a model may be made on a case-by-case basis or, where appropriate, on a generic basis for a specific State program. Written approval of the Administrator must be obtained for any modification or substitution. In addition, use of a modified or substituted model must be subject to notice and opportunity for public comment under procedures set forth in § 51.102.

[51 FR 40669, Nov. 7, 1986, as amended at 58 FR 38822, July 20, 1993; 60 FR 40468, Aug. 9, 1995; 61 FR 41840, Aug. 12, 1996]

§ 51.161 Public availability of information.

(a) The legally enforceable procedures in § 51.160 must also require the State or local agency to provide opportunity for public comment on information submitted by owners and operators. The public information must include the agency's analysis of the effect of construction or modification on ambient air quality, including the agency's proposed approval or disapproval.

(b) For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, opportunity for public comment shall include, as a minimum -

(1) Availability for public inspection in at least one location in the area affected of the information submitted by the owner or operator and of the State or local agency's analysis of the effect on air quality. This requirement may be met by making these materials available at a physical location or on a public Web site identified by the State or local agency;

(2) A 30-day period for submittal of public comment; and

(3) A notice by prominent advertisement in the area affected of the location of the source information and analysis specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(c) Where the 30-day comment period required in paragraph (b) of this section would conflict with existing requirements for acting on requests for permission to construct or modify, the State may submit for approval a comment period which is consistent with such existing requirements.

(d) A copy of the notice required by paragraph (b) of this section must also be sent to the Administrator through the appropriate Regional Office, and to all other State and local air pollution control agencies having jurisdiction in the region in which such new or modified installation will be located. The notice also must be sent to any other agency in the region having responsibility for implementing the procedures required under this subpart. For lead, a copy of the notice is required for all point sources. The definition of point for lead is given in § 51.100(k)(2).

[51 FR 40669, Nov. 7, 1986, as amended at 81 FR 71629, Oct. 18, 2016]

§ 51.162 Identification of responsible agency.

Each plan must identify the State or local agency which will be responsible for meeting the requirements of this subpart in each area of the State. Where such responsibility rests with an agency other than an air pollution control agency, such agency will consult with the appropriate State or local air pollution control agency in carrying out the provisions of this subpart.

§ 51.163 Administrative procedures.

The plan must include the administrative procedures, which will be followed in making the determination specified in paragraph (a) of § 51.160.

§ 51.164 Stack height procedures.

Such procedures must provide that the degree of emission limitation required of any source for control of any air pollutant must not be affected by so much of any source's stack height that exceeds good engineering practice or by any other dispersion technique, except as provided in § 51.118(b). Such procedures must provide that before a State issues a permit to a source based on a good engineering practice stack height that exceeds the height allowed by § 51.100(ii) (1) or (2), the State must notify the public of the availability of the demonstration study and must provide opportunity for public hearing on it. This section does not require such procedures to restrict in any manner the actual stack height of any source.

§ 51.165 Permit requirements.

(a) State Implementation Plan and Tribal Implementation Plan provisions satisfying sections 172(c)(5) and 173 of the Act shall meet the following conditions:

(1) All such plans shall use the specific definitions. Deviations from the following wording will be approved only if the State specifically demonstrates that the submitted definition is more stringent, or at least as stringent, in all respects as the corresponding definition below:

(i) Stationary source means any building, structure, facility, or installation which emits or may emit a regulated NSR pollutant.

(ii)

(A) Building, structure, facility, or installation means all of the pollutant-emitting activities which belong to the same industrial grouping, are located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties, and are under the control of the same person (or persons under common control) except the activities of any vessel. Pollutant emitting activities shall be considered as part of the same industrial grouping if they belong to the same Major Group (i.e., which have the same two-digit code) as described in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1972, as amended by the 1977 Supplement (U.S. Government Printing Office stock numbers 4101-0065 and 003-005-00176-0, respectively).

(B) The plan may include the following provision: Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a)(1)(ii)(A) of this section, building, structure, facility, or installation means, for onshore activities under Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Major Group 13: Oil and Gas Extraction, all of the pollutant-emitting activities included in Major Group 13 that are located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties, and are under the control of the same person (or persons under common control). Pollutant emitting activities shall be considered adjacent if they are located on the same surface site; or if they are located on surface sites that are located within1/4 mile of one another (measured from the center of the equipment on the surface site) and they share equipment. Shared equipment includes, but is not limited to, produced fluids storage tanks, phase separators, natural gas dehydrators or emissions control devices. Surface site, as used in this paragraph (a)(1)(ii)(B), has the same meaning as in 40 CFR 63.761.

(iii) Potential to emit means the maximum capacity of a stationary source to emit a pollutant under its physical and operational design. Any physical or operational limitation on the capacity of the source to emit a pollutant, including air pollution control equipment and restrictions on hours of operation or on the type or amount of material combusted, stored, or processed, shall be treated as part of its design only if the limitation or the effect it would have on emissions is federally enforceable. Secondary emissions do not count in determining the potential to emit of a stationary source.

(iv)

(A) Major stationary source means:

(1) Any stationary source of air pollutants that emits, or has the potential to emit, 100 tons per year or more of any regulated NSR pollutant (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(xxxvii) of this section), except that lower emissions thresholds shall apply in areas subject to subpart 2, subpart 3, or subpart 4 of part D, title I of the Act, according to paragraphs (a)(1)(iv)(A)(1)(i) through (viii) of this section.

(i) 50 tons per year of Volatile organic compounds in any serious ozone nonattainment area.

(ii) 50 tons per year of Volatile organic compounds in an area within an ozone transport region, except for any severe or extreme ozone nonattainment area.

(iii) 25 tons per year of Volatile organic compounds in any severe ozone nonattainment area.

(iv) 10 tons per year of Volatile organic compounds in any extreme ozone nonattainment area.

(v) 50 tons per year of Carbon monoxide in any serious nonattainment area for carbon monoxide, where stationary sources contribute significantly to Carbon monoxide levels in the area (as determined under rules issued by the Administrator).

(vi) 70 tons per year of PM10 in any serious nonattainment area for PM10.

(vii) 70 tons per year of PM2.5 in any serious nonattainment area for PM2.5.

(viii) 70 tons per year of any individual precursor for PM2.5 (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(xxxvii) of this section), in any serious nonattainment area for PM2.5.

(2) For the purposes of applying the requirements of paragraph (a)(8) of this section to stationary sources of nitrogen oxides located in an ozone nonattainment area or in an ozone transport region, any stationary source which emits, or has the potential to emit, 100 tons per year or more of nitrogen oxides emissions, except that the emission thresholds in paragraphs (a)(1)(iv)(A)(2)(i) through (vi) of this section shall apply in areas subject to subpart 2 of part D, title I of the Act.

(i) 100 tons per year or more of nitrogen oxides in any ozone nonattainment area classified as marginal or moderate.

(ii) 100 tons per year or more of nitrogen oxides in any ozone nonattainment area classified as a transitional, submarginal, or incomplete or no data area, when such area is located in an ozone transport region.

(iii) 100 tons per year or more of nitrogen oxides in any area designated under section 107(d) of the Act as attainment or unclassifiable for ozone that is located in an ozone transport region.

(iv) 50 tons per year or more of nitrogen oxides in any serious nonattainment area for ozone.

(v) 25 tons per year or more of nitrogen oxides in any severe nonattainment area for ozone.

(vi) 10 tons per year or more of nitrogen oxides in any extreme nonattainment area for ozone; or

(3) Any physical change that would occur at a stationary source not qualifying under paragraphs (a)(1)(iv)(A)(1) or (2) of this section as a major stationary source, if the change would constitute a major stationary source by itself.

(B) A major stationary source that is major for volatile organic compounds shall be considered major for ozone

(C) The fugitive emissions of a stationary source shall not be included in determining for any of the purposes of this paragraph whether it is a major stationary source, unless the source belongs to one of the following categories of stationary sources:

(1) Coal cleaning plants (with thermal dryers);

(2) Kraft pulp mills;

(3) Portland cement plants;

(4) Primary zinc smelters;

(5) Iron and steel mills;

(6) Primary aluminum ore reduction plants;

(7) Primary copper smelters;

(8) Municipal incinerators capable of charging more than 50 tons of refuse per day;

(9) Hydrofluoric, sulfuric, or nitric acid plants;

(10) Petroleum refineries;

(11) Lime plants;

(12) Phosphate rock processing plants;

(13) Coke oven batteries;

(14) Sulfur recovery plants;

(15) Carbon black plants (furnace process);

(16) Primary lead smelters;

(17) Fuel conversion plants;

(18) Sintering plants;

(19) Secondary metal production plants;

(20) Chemical process plants - The term chemical processing plant shall not include ethanol production facilities that produce ethanol by natural fermentation included in NAICS codes 325193 or 312140;

(21) Fossil-fuel boilers (or combination thereof) totaling more than 250 million British thermal units per hour heat input;

(22) Petroleum storage and transfer units with a total storage capacity exceeding 300,000 barrels;

(23) Taconite ore processing plants;

(24) Glass fiber processing plants;

(25) Charcoal production plants;

(26) Fossil fuel-fired steam electric plants of more than 250 million British thermal units per hour heat input; and

(27) Any other stationary source category which, as of August 7, 1980, is being regulated under section 111 or 112 of the Act.

(v)

(A) Major modification means any physical change in or change in the method of operation of a major stationary source that would result in:

(1) A significant emissions increase of a regulated NSR pollutant (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(xxxvii) of this section); and

(2) A significant net emissions increase of that pollutant from the major stationary source.

(B) Any significant emissions increase (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(xxvii) of this section) from any emissions units or net emissions increase (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(vi) of this section) at a major stationary source that is significant for volatile organic compounds shall be considered significant for ozone.

(C) A physical change or change in the method of operation shall not include:

(1) Routine maintenance, repair and replacement;

(2) Use of an alternative fuel or raw material by reason of an order under sections 2 (a) and (b) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 (or any superseding legislation) or by reason of a natural gas curtailment plan pursuant to the Federal Power Act;

(3) Use of an alternative fuel by reason of an order or rule section 125 of the Act;

(4) Use of an alternative fuel at a steam generating unit to the extent that the fuel is generated from municipal solid waste;

(5) Use of an alternative fuel or raw material by a stationary source which;

(i) The source was capable of accommodating before December 21, 1976, unless such change would be prohibited under any federally enforceable permit condition which was established after December 12, 1976, pursuant to 40 CFR 52.21 or under regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR part 51, subpart I.

(ii) The source is approved to use under any permit issued under regulations approved pursuant to this section;

(6) An increase in the hours of operation or in the production rate, unless such change is prohibited under any federally enforceable permit condition which was established after December 21, 1976, pursuant to 40 CFR 52.21 or regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR part 51, subpart I.

(7) Any change in ownership at a stationary source.

(8) [Reserved]

(9) The installation, operation, cessation, or removal of a temporary clean coal technology demonstration project, provided that the project complies with:

(i) The State Implementation Plan for the State in which the project is located, and

(ii) Other requirements necessary to attain and maintain the national ambient air quality standard during the project and after it is terminated.

(D) This definition shall not apply with respect to a particular regulated NSR pollutant when the major stationary source is complying with the requirements under paragraph (f) of this section for a PAL for that pollutant. Instead, the definition at paragraph (f)(2)(viii) of this section shall apply.

(E) For the purpose of applying the requirements of (a)(8) of this section to modifications at major stationary sources of nitrogen oxides located in ozone nonattainment areas or in ozone transport regions, whether or not subject to subpart 2, part D, title I of the Act, any significant net emissions increase of nitrogen oxides is considered significant for ozone.

(F) Any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a major stationary source of volatile organic compounds that results in any increase in emissions of volatile organic compounds from any discrete operation, emissions unit, or other pollutant emitting activity at the source shall be considered a significant net emissions increase and a major modification for ozone, if the major stationary source is located in an extreme ozone nonattainment area that is subject to subpart 2, part D, title I of the Act.

(G) Fugitive emissions shall not be included in determining for any of the purposes of this section whether a physical change in or change in the method of operation of a major stationary source is a major modification, unless the source belongs to one of the source categories listed in paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(C) of this section.

(vi)

(A) Net emissions increase means, with respect to any regulated NSR pollutant emitted by a major stationary source, the amount by which the sum of the following exceeds zero:

(1) The increase in emissions from a particular physical change or change in the method of operation at a stationary source as calculated pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section; and

(2) Any other increases and decreases in actual emissions at the major stationary source that are contemporaneous with the particular change and are otherwise creditable. Baseline actual emissions for calculating increases and decreases under this paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(A)(2) shall be determined as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(xxxv) of this section, except that paragraphs (a)(1)(xxxv)(A)(3) and (a)(1)(xxxv)(B)(4) of this section shall not apply.

(B) An increase or decrease in actual emissions is contemporaneous with the increase from the particular change only if it occurs before the date that the increase from the particular change occurs;

(C) An increase or decrease in actual emissions is creditable only if:

(1) It occurs within a reasonable period to be specified by the reviewing authority; and

(2) The reviewing authority has not relied on it in issuing a permit for the source under regulations approved pursuant to this section, which permit is in effect when the increase in actual emissions from the particular change occurs; and

(3) As it pertains to an increase or decrease in fugitive emissions (to the extent quantifiable), it occurs at an emissions unit that is part of one of the source categories listed in paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(C) of this section or it occurs at an emissions unit that is located at a major stationary source that belongs to one of the listed source categories. Fugitive emission increases or decreases are not creditable for those emissions units located at a facility whose primary activity is not represented by one of the source categories listed in paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(C) of this section and that are not, by themselves, part of a listed source category.

(D) An increase in actual emissions is creditable only to the extent that the new level of actual emissions exceeds the old level.

(E) A decrease in actual emissions is creditable only to the extent that:

(1) The old level of actual emission or the old level of allowable emissions whichever is lower, exceeds the new level of actual emissions;

(2) It is enforceable as a practical matter at and after the time that actual construction on the particular change begins; and

(3) The reviewing authority has not relied on it in issuing any permit under regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR part 51 subpart I or the State has not relied on it in demonstrating attainment or reasonable further progress;

(4) It has approximately the same qualitative significance for public health and welfare as that attributed to the increase from the particular change; and

(F) An increase that results from a physical change at a source occurs when the emissions unit on which construction occurred becomes operational and begins to emit a particular pollutant. Any replacement unit that requires shakedown becomes operational only after a reasonable shakedown period, not to exceed 180 days.

(G) Paragraph (a)(1)(xii)(B) of this section shall not apply for determining creditable increases and decreases or after a change.

(vii) Emissions unit means any part of a stationary source that emits or would have the potential to emit any regulated NSR pollutant and includes an electric steam generating unit as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(xx) of this section. For purposes of this section, there are two types of emissions units as described in paragraphs (a)(1)(vii)(A) and (B) of this section.

(A) A new emissions unit is any emissions unit which is (or will be) newly constructed and which has existed for less than 2 years from the date such emissions unit first operated.

(B) An existing emissions unit is any emissions unit that does not meet the requirements in paragraph (a)(1)(vii)(A) of this section. A replacement unit, as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(xxi) of this section, is an existing emissions unit.

(viii) Secondary emissions means emissions which would occur as a result of the construction or operation of a major stationary source or major modification, but do not come from the major stationary source or major modification itself. For the purpose of this section, secondary emissions must be specific, well defined, quantifiable, and impact the same general area as the stationary source or modification which causes the secondary emissions. Secondary emissions include emissions from any offsite support facility which would not be constructed or increase its emissions except as a result of the construction or operation of the major stationary source or major modification. Secondary emissions do not include any emissions which come directly from a mobile source, such as emissions from the tailpipe of a motor vehicle, from a train, or from a vessel.

(ix) Fugitive emissions means those emissions which could not reasonably pass through a stack, chimney, vent or other functionally equivalent opening.

(x)

(A) Significant means, in reference to a net emissions increase or the potential of a source to emit any of the following pollutants, a rate of emissions that would equal or exceed any of the following rates:

Pollutant Emission Rate

Carbon monoxide: 100 tons per year (tpy)

Nitrogen oxides: 40 tpy

Sulfur dioxide: 40 tpy

Ozone: 40 tpy of Volatile organic compounds or Nitrogen oxides

Lead: 0.6 tpy

PM10: 15 tpy

PM2.5: 10 tpy of direct PM2.5 emissions; 40 tpy of Sulfur dioxide emissions, 40 tpy of Nitrogen oxide emissions, or 40 tpy of VOC emissions, to the extent that any such pollutant is defined as a precursor for PM2.5 in paragraph (a)(1)(xxxvii) of this section.

(B) Notwithstanding the significant emissions rate for ozone in paragraph (a)(1)(x)(A) of this section, significant means, in reference to an emissions increase or a net emissions increase, any increase in actual emissions of volatile organic compounds that would result from any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a major stationary source locating in a serious or severe ozone nonattainment area that is subject to subpart 2, part D, title I of the Act, if such emissions increase of volatile organic compounds exceeds 25 tons per year.

(C) For the purposes of applying the requirements of paragraph (a)(8) of this section to modifications at major stationary sources of nitrogen oxides located in an ozone nonattainment area or in an ozone transport region, the significant emission rates and other requirements for volatile organic compounds in paragraphs (a)(1)(x)(A), (B), and (E) of this section shall apply to nitrogen oxides emissions.

(D) Notwithstanding the significant emissions rate for carbon monoxide under paragraph (a)(1)(x)(A) of this section, significant means, in reference to an emissions increase or a net emissions increase, any increase in actual emissions of carbon monoxide that would result from any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a major stationary source in a serious nonattainment area for carbon monoxide if such increase equals or exceeds 50 tons per year, provided the Administrator has determined that stationary sources contribute significantly to carbon monoxide levels in that area.

(E) Notwithstanding the significant emissions rates for ozone under paragraphs (a)(1)(x)(A) and (B) of this section, any increase in actual emissions of volatile organic compounds from any emissions unit at a major stationary source of volatile organic compounds located in an extreme ozone nonattainment area that is subject to subpart 2, part D, title I of the Act shall be considered a significant net emissions increase.

(F) For the purposes of applying the requirements of paragraph (a)(13) of this section to modifications at existing major stationary sources of Ammonia located in a PM2.5 nonattainment area, if the plan requires that the control requirements of this section apply to major stationary sources and major modifications of Ammonia as a regulated NSR pollutant (as a PM2.5 precursor), the plan shall also define “significant” for Ammonia for that area, subject to the approval of the Administrator.

(xi) Allowable emissions means the emissions rate of a stationary source calculated using the maximum rated capacity of the source (unless the source is subject to federally enforceable limits which restrict the operating rate, or hours of operation, or both) and the most stringent of the following:

(A) The applicable standards set forth in 40 CFR part 60 or 61;

(B) Any applicable State Implementation Plan emissions limitation including those with a future compliance date; or

(C) The emissions rate specified as a federally enforceable permit condition, including those with a future compliance date.

(xii)

(A) Actual emissions means the actual rate of emissions of a regulated NSR pollutant from an emissions unit, as determined in accordance with paragraphs (a)(1)(xii)(B) through (D) of this section, except that this definition shall not apply for calculating whether a significant emissions increase has occurred, or for establishing a PAL under paragraph (f) of this section. Instead, paragraphs (a)(1)(xxviii) and (xxxv) of this section shall apply for those purposes.

(B) In general, actual emissions as of a particular date shall equal the average rate, in tons per year, at which the unit actually emitted the pollutant during a consecutive 24-month period which precedes the particular date and which is representative of normal source operation. The reviewing authority shall allow the use of a different time period upon a determination that it is more representative of normal source operation. Actual emissions shall be calculated using the unit's actual operating hours, production rates, and types of materials processed, stored, or combusted during the selected time period.

(C) The reviewing authority may presume that source-specific allowable emissions for the unit are equivalent to the actual emissions of the unit.

(D) For any emissions unit that has not begun normal operations on the particular date, actual emissions shall equal the potential to emit of the unit on that date.

(xiii) Lowest achievable emission rate (LAER) means, for any source, the more stringent rate of emissions based on the following:

(A) The most stringent emissions limitation which is contained in the implementation plan of any State for such class or category of stationary source, unless the owner or operator of the proposed stationary source demonstrates that such limitations are not achievable; or

(B) The most stringent emissions limitation which is achieved in practice by such class or category of stationary sources. This limitation, when applied to a modification, means the lowest achievable emissions rate for the new or modified emissions units within or stationary source. In no event shall the application of the term permit a proposed new or modified stationary source to emit any pollutant in excess of the amount allowable under an applicable new source standard of performance.

(xiv) Federally enforceable means all limitations and conditions which are enforceable by the Administrator, including those requirements developed pursuant to 40 CFR parts 60 and 61, requirements within any applicable State implementation plan, any permit requirements established pursuant to 40 CFR 52.21 or under regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR part 51, subpart I, including operating permits issued under an EPA-approved program that is incorporated into the State implementation plan and expressly requires adherence to any permit issued under such program.

(xv) Begin actual construction means in general, initiation of physical on-site construction activities on an emissions unit which are of a permanent nature. Such activities include, but are not limited to, installation of building supports and foundations, laying of underground pipework, and construction of permanent storage structures. With respect to a change in method of operating this term refers to those on-site activities other than preparatory activities which mark the initiation of the change.

(xvi) Commence as applied to construction of a major stationary source or major modification means that the owner or operator has all necessary preconstruction approvals or permits and either has:

(A) Begun, or caused to begin, a continuous program of actual on-site construction of the source, to be completed within a reasonable time; or

(B) Entered into binding agreements or contractual obligations, which cannot be canceled or modified without substantial loss to the owner or operator, to undertake a program of actual construction of the source to be completed within a reasonable time.

(xvii) Necessary preconstruction approvals or permits means those Federal air quality control laws and regulations and those air quality control laws and regulations which are part of the applicable State Implementation Plan.

(xviii) Construction means any physical change or change in the method of operation (including fabrication, erection, installation, demolition, or modification of an emissions unit) that would result in a change in emissions.

(xix) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) is as defined in § 51.100(s) of this part.

(xx) Electric utility steam generating unit means any steam electric generating unit that is constructed for the purpose of supplying more than one-third of its potential electric output capacity and more than 25 MW electrical output to any utility power distribution system for sale. Any steam supplied to a steam distribution system for the purpose of providing steam to a steam-electric generator that would produce electrical energy for sale is also considered in determining the electrical energy output capacity of the affected facility.

(xxi) Replacement unit means an emissions unit for which all the criteria listed in paragraphs (a)(1)(xxi)(A) through (D) of this section are met. No creditable emission reductions shall be generated from shutting down the existing emissions unit that is replaced.

(A) The emissions unit is a reconstructed unit within the meaning of § 60.15(b)(1) of this chapter, or the emissions unit completely takes the place of an existing emissions unit;

(B) The emissions unit is identical to or functionally equivalent to the replaced emissions unit;

(C) The replacement does not alter the basic design parameters of the process unit; and

(D) The replaced emissions unit is permanently removed from the major stationary source, otherwise permanently disabled, or permanently barred from operation by a permit that is enforceable as a practical matter. If the replaced emissions unit is brought back into operation, it shall constitute a new emissions unit.

(xxii) Temporary clean coal technology demonstration project means a clean coal technology demonstration project that is operated for a period of 5 years or less, and which complies with the State Implementation Plan for the State in which the project is located and other requirements necessary to attain and maintain the national ambient air quality standards during the project and after it is terminated.

(xxiii) Clean coal technology means any technology, including technologies applied at the precombustion, combustion, or post combustion stage, at a new or existing facility which will achieve significant reductions in air emissions of sulfur dioxide or oxides of nitrogen associated with the utilization of coal in the generation of electricity, or process steam which was not in widespread use as of November 15, 1990.

(xxiv) Clean coal technology demonstration project means a project using funds appropriated under the heading “Department of Energy-Clean Coal Technology,” up to a total amount of $2,500,000,000 for commercial demonstration of clean coal technology, or similar projects funded through appropriations for the Environmental Protection Agency. The Federal contribution for a qualifying project shall be at least 20 percent of the total cost of the demonstration project.

(xxv) [Reserved]

(xxvi) Pollution prevention means any activity that through process changes, product reformulation or redesign, or substitution of less polluting raw materials, eliminates or reduces the release of air pollutants (including fugitive emissions) and other pollutants to the environment prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal; it does not mean recycling (other than certain “in-process recycling” practices), energy recovery, treatment, or disposal.

(xxvii) Significant emissions increase means, for a regulated NSR pollutant, an increase in emissions that is significant (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(x) of this section) for that pollutant.

(xxviii)

(A) Projected actual emissions means, the maximum annual rate, in tons per year, at which an existing emissions unit is projected to emit a regulated NSR pollutant in any one of the 5 years (12-month period) following the date the unit resumes regular operation after the project, or in any one of the 10 years following that date, if the project involves increasing the emissions unit's design capacity or its potential to emit of that regulated NSR pollutant and full utilization of the unit would result in a significant emissions increase or a significant net emissions increase at the major stationary source.

(B) In determining the projected actual emissions under paragraph (a)(1)(xxviii)(A) of this section before beginning actual construction, the owner or operator of the major stationary source:

(1) Shall consider all relevant information, including but not limited to, historical operational data, the company's own representations, the company's expected business activity and the company's highest projections of business activity, the company's filings with the State or Federal regulatory authorities, and compliance plans under the approved plan; and

(2) Shall include fugitive emissions to the extent quantifiable, and emissions associated with startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions; and

(3) Shall exclude, in calculating any increase in emissions that results from the particular project, that portion of the unit's emissions following the project that an existing unit could have accommodated during the consecutive 24-month period used to establish the baseline actual emissions under paragraph (a)(1)(xxxv) of this section and that are also unrelated to the particular project, including any increased utilization due to product demand growth; or,

(4) In lieu of using the method set out in paragraphs (a)(1)(xxviii)(B)(1) through (3) of this section, may elect to use the emissions unit's potential to emit, in tons per year, as defined under paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section.

(xxix) [Reserved]

(xxx) Nonattainment major new source review (NSR) program means a major source preconstruction permit program that has been approved by the Administrator and incorporated into the plan to implement the requirements of this section, or a program that implements part 51, appendix S, Sections I through VI of this chapter. Any permit issued under such a program is a major NSR permit.

(xxxi) Continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS) means all of the equipment that may be required to meet the data acquisition and availability requirements of this section, to sample, condition (if applicable), analyze, and provide a record of emissions on a continuous basis.

(xxxii) Predictive emissions monitoring system (PEMS) means all of the equipment necessary to monitor process and control device operational parameters (for example, control device secondary voltages and electric currents) and other information (for example, gas flow rate, O2 or CO2 concentrations), and calculate and record the mass emissions rate (for example, lb/hr) on a continuous basis.

(xxxiii) Continuous parameter monitoring system (CPMS) means all of the equipment necessary to meet the data acquisition and availability requirements of this section, to monitor process and control device operational parameters (for example, control device secondary voltages and electric currents) and other information (for example, gas flow rate, O2 or CO2 concentrations), and to record average operational parameter value(s) on a continuous basis.

(xxxiv) Continuous emissions rate monitoring system (CERMS) means the total equipment required for the determination and recording of the pollutant mass emissions rate (in terms of mass per unit of time).

(xxxv) Baseline actual emissions means the rate of emissions, in tons per year, of a regulated NSR pollutant, as determined in accordance with paragraphs (a)(1)(xxxv)(A) through (D) of this section.

(A) For any existing electric utility steam generating unit, baseline actual emissions means the average rate, in tons per year, at which the unit actually emitted the pollutant during any consecutive 24-month period selected by the owner or operator within the 5-year period immediately preceding when the owner or operator begins actual construction of the project. The reviewing authority shall allow the use of a different time period upon a determination that it is more representative of normal source operation.

(1) The average rate shall include fugitive emissions to the extent quantifiable, and emissions associated with startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

(2) The average rate shall be adjusted downward to exclude any non-compliant emissions that occurred while the source was operating above any emission limitation that was legally enforceable during the consecutive 24-month period.

(3) For a regulated NSR pollutant, when a project involves multiple emissions units, only one consecutive 24-month period must be used to determine the baseline actual emissions for the emissions units being changed. A different consecutive 24-month period can be used for each regulated NSR pollutant.

(4) The average rate shall not be based on any consecutive 24-month period for which there is inadequate information for determining annual emissions, in tons per year, and for adjusting this amount if required by paragraph (a)(1)(xxxv)(A)(2) of this section.

(B) For an existing emissions unit (other than an electric utility steam generating unit), baseline actual emissions means the average rate, in tons per year, at which the emissions unit actually emitted the pollutant during any consecutive 24-month period selected by the owner or operator within the 10-year period immediately preceding either the date the owner or operator begins actual construction of the project, or the date a complete permit application is received by the reviewing authority for a permit required either under this section or under a plan approved by the Administrator, whichever is earlier, except that the 10-year period shall not include any period earlier than November 15, 1990.

(1) The average rate shall include fugitive emissions to the extent quantifiable, and emissions associated with startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

(2) The average rate shall be adjusted downward to exclude any non-compliant emissions that occurred while the source was operating above an emission limitation that was legally enforceable during the consecutive 24-month period.

(3) The average rate shall be adjusted downward to exclude any emissions that would have exceeded an emission limitation with which the major stationary source must currently comply, had such major stationary source been required to comply with such limitations during the consecutive 24-month period. However, if an emission limitation is part of a maximum achievable control technology standard that the Administrator proposed or promulgated under part 63 of this chapter, the baseline actual emissions need only be adjusted if the State has taken credit for such emissions reductions in an attainment demonstration or maintenance plan consistent with the requirements of paragraph (a)(3)(ii)(G) of this section.

(4) For a regulated NSR pollutant, when a project involves multiple emissions units, only one consecutive 24-month period must be used to determine the baseline actual emissions for the emissions units being changed. A different consecutive 24-month period can be used For each regulated NSR pollutant.

(5) The average rate shall not be based on any consecutive 24-month period for which there is inadequate information for determining annual emissions, in tons per year, and for adjusting this amount if required by paragraphs (a)(1)(xxxv)(B)(2) and (3) of this section.

(C) For a new emissions unit, the baseline actual emissions for purposes of determining the emissions increase that will result from the initial construction and operation of such unit shall equal zero; and thereafter, for all other purposes, shall equal the unit's potential to emit.

(D) For a PAL for a major stationary source, the baseline actual emissions shall be calculated for existing electric utility steam generating units in accordance with the procedures contained in paragraph (a)(1)(xxxv)(A) of this section, for other existing emissions units in accordance with the procedures contained in paragraph (a)(1)(xxxv)(B) of this section, and for a new emissions unit in accordance with the procedures contained in paragraph (a)(1)(xxxv)(C) of this section.

(xxxvi) [Reserved]

(xxxvii) Regulated NSR pollutant, for purposes of this section, means the following:

(A) Nitrogen oxides or any volatile organic compounds;

(B) Any pollutant for which a national ambient air quality standard has been promulgated;

(C) Any pollutant that is identified under this paragraph (a)(1)(xxxvii)(C) as a constituent or precursor of a general pollutant listed under paragraph (a)(1)(xxxvii)(A) or (B) of this section, provided that such constituent or precursor pollutant may only be regulated under NSR as part of regulation of the general pollutant. Precursors identified by the Administrator for purposes of NSR are the following:

(1) Volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides are precursors to ozone in all ozone nonattainment areas.

(2) Sulfur dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Volatile organic compounds and Ammonia are precursors to PM2.5 in any PM2.5 nonattainment area.

(D) PM2.5 emissions and PM10 emissions shall include gaseous emissions from a source or activity which condense to form particulate matter at ambient temperatures. On or after January 1, 2011 (or any earlier date established in the upcoming rulemaking codifying test methods), such condensable particulate matter shall be accounted for in applicability determinations and in establishing emissions limitations for PM2.5 and PM10 in nonattainment major NSR permits. Compliance with emissions limitations for PM2.5 and PM10 issued prior to this date shall not be based on condensable particulate matter unless required by the terms and conditions of the permit or the applicable implementation plan. Applicability determinations made prior to this date without accounting for condensable particulate matter shall not be considered in violation of this section unless the applicable implementation plan required condensable particulate matter to be included.

(xxxviii) Reviewing authority means the State air pollution control agency, local agency, other State agency, Indian tribe, or other agency authorized by the Administrator to carry out a permit program under this section and § 51.166, or the Administrator in the case of EPA-implemented permit programs under § 52.21.

(xxxix) Project means a physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, an existing major stationary source.

(xl) Best available control technology (BACT) means an emissions limitation (including a visible emissions standard) based on the maximum degree of reduction for each regulated NSR pollutant which would be emitted from any proposed major stationary source or major modification which the reviewing authority, on a case-by-case basis, taking into account energy, environmental, and economic impacts and other costs, determines is achievable for such source or modification through application of production processes or available methods, systems, and techniques, including fuel cleaning or treatment or innovative fuel combustion techniques for control of such pollutant. In no event shall application of best available control technology result in emissions of any pollutant which would exceed the emissions allowed by any applicable standard under 40 CFR part 60, 61, or 63. If the reviewing authority determines that technological or economic limitations on the application of measurement methodology to a particular emissions unit would make the imposition of an emissions standard infeasible, a design, equipment, work practice, operational standard, or combination thereof, may be prescribed instead to satisfy the requirement for the application of BACT. Such standard shall, to the degree possible, set forth the emissions reduction achievable by implementation of such design, equipment, work practice or operation, and shall provide for compliance by means which achieve equivalent results.

(xli) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit means any permit that is issued under a major source preconstruction permit program that has been approved by the Administrator and incorporated into the plan to implement the requirements of § 51.166 of this chapter, or under the program in § 52.21 of this chapter.

(xlii) Federal Land Manager means, with respect to any lands in the United States, the Secretary of the department with authority over such lands.

(2) Applicability procedures.

(i) Each plan shall adopt a preconstruction review program to satisfy the requirements of sections 172(c)(5) and 173 of the Act for any area designated nonattainment for any national ambient air quality standard under subpart C of 40 CFR part 81. Such a program shall apply to any new major stationary source or major modification that is major for the pollutant for which the area is designated nonattainment under section 107(d)(1)(A)(i) of the Act, if the stationary source or modification would locate anywhere in the designated nonattainment area. Different pollutants, including individual precursors, are not summed to determine applicability of a major stationary source or major modification.

(ii) Each plan shall use the specific provisions of paragraphs (a)(2)(ii)(A) through (F) of this section. Deviations from these provisions will be approved only if the State specifically demonstrates that the submitted provisions are more stringent than or at least as stringent in all respects as the corresponding provisions in paragraphs (a)(2)(ii)(A) through (F) of this section.

(A) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section, and consistent with the definition of major modification contained in paragraph (a)(1)(v)(A) of this section, a project is a major modification for a regulated NSR pollutant (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(xxxvii) of this section) if it causes two types of emissions increases - a significant emissions increase (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(xxvii) of this section) and a significant net emissions increase (as defined in paragraphs (a)(1)(vi) and (x) of this section). The project is not a major modification if it does not cause a significant emissions increase. If the project causes a significant emissions increase, then the project is a major modification only if it also results in a significant net emissions increase.

(B) The procedure for calculating (before beginning actual construction) whether a significant emissions increase (i.e., the first step of the process) will occur depends upon the type of emissions units being modified, according to paragraphs (a)(2)(ii)(C) through (F) of this section. The procedure for calculating (before beginning actual construction) whether a significant net emissions increase will occur at the major stationary source (i.e., the second step of the process) is contained in the definition in paragraph (a)(1)(vi) of this section. Regardless of any such preconstruction projections, a major modification results if the project causes a significant emissions increase and a significant net emissions increase.

(C) Actual-to-projected-actual applicability test for projects that only involve existing emissions units. A significant emissions increase of a regulated NSR pollutant is projected to occur if the sum of the difference between the projected actual emissions (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(xxviii) of this section) and the baseline actual emissions (as defined in paragraphs (a)(1)(xxxv)(A) and (B) of this section, as applicable), for each existing emissions unit, equals or exceeds the significant amount for that pollutant (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(x) of this section).

(D) Actual-to-potential test for projects that only involve construction of a new emissions unit(s). A significant emissions increase of a regulated NSR pollutant is projected to occur if the sum of the difference between the potential to emit (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section) from each new emissions unit following completion of the project and the baseline actual emissions (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(xxxv)(C) of this section) of these units before the project equals or exceeds the significant amount for that pollutant (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(x) of this section).

(E) [Reserved]

(F) Hybrid test for projects that involve multiple types of emissions units. A significant emissions increase of a regulated NSR pollutant is projected to occur if the sum of the difference for all emissions units, using the method specified in paragraphs (a)(2)(ii)(C) through (D) of this section as applicable with respect to each emissions unit, equals or exceeds the significant amount for that pollutant (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(x) of this section).

(G) The “sum of the difference” as used in paragraphs (C), (D) and (F) of this section shall include both increases and decreases in emissions calculated in accordance with those paragraphs.

(iii) The plan shall require that for any major stationary source with a PAL for a regulated NSR pollutant, the major stationary source shall comply with requirements under paragraph (f) of this section.

(3)

(i) Each plan shall provide that for sources and modifications subject to any preconstruction review program adopted pursuant to this subsection the baseline for determining credit for emissions reductions is the emissions limit under the applicable State Implementation Plan in effect at the time the application to construct is filed, except that the offset baseline shall be the actual emissions of the source from which offset credit is obtained where;

(A) The demonstration of reasonable further progress and attainment of ambient air quality standards is based upon the actual emissions of sources located within a designated nonattainment area for which the preconstruction review program was adopted; or

(B) The applicable State Implementation Plan does not contain an emissions limitation for that source or source category.

(ii) The plan shall further provide that:

(A) Where the emissions limit under the applicable State Implementation Plan allows greater emissions than the potential to emit of the source, emissions offset credit will be allowed only for control below this potential;

(B) For an existing fuel combustion source, credit shall be based on the allowable emissions under the applicable State Implementation Plan for the type of fuel being burned at the time the application to construct is filed. If the existing source commits to switch to a cleaner fuel at some future date, emissions offset credit based on the allowable (or actual) emissions for the fuels involved is not acceptable, unless the permit is conditioned to require the use of a specified alternative control measure which would achieve the same degree of emissions reduction should the source switch back to a dirtier fuel at some later date. The reviewing authority should ensure that adequate long-term supplies of the new fuel are available before granting emissions offset credit for fuel switches,

(C)

(1) Emissions reductions achieved by shutting down an existing emission unit or curtailing production or operating hours may be generally credited for offsets if they meet the requirements in paragraphs (a)(3)(ii)(C)(1)(i) through (ii) of this section.

(i) Such reductions are surplus, permanent, quantifiable, and federally enforceable.

(ii) The shutdown or curtailment occurred after the last day of the base year for the SIP planning process. For purposes of this paragraph, a reviewing authority may choose to consider a prior shutdown or curtailment to have occurred after the last day of the base year if the projected emissions inventory used to develop the attainment demonstration explicitly includes the emissions from such previously shutdown or curtailed emission units. However, in no event may credit be given for shutdowns that occurred before August 7, 1977.

(2) Emissions reductions achieved by shutting down an existing emissions unit or curtailing production or operating hours and that do not meet the requirements in paragraph (a)(3)(ii)(C)(1)(ii) of this section may be generally credited only if:

(i) The shutdown or curtailment occurred on or after the date the construction permit application is filed; or

(ii) The applicant can establish that the proposed new emissions unit is a replacement for the shutdown or curtailed emissions unit, and the emissions reductions achieved by the shutdown or curtailment met the requirements of paragraph (a)(3)(ii)(C)(1)(i) of this section.

(D) No emissions credit may be allowed for replacing one hydrocarbon compound with another of lesser reactivity, except that emissions credit may be allowed for the replacement with those compounds listed as having negligible photochemical reactivity in § 51.100(s).

(E) All emission reductions claimed as offset credit shall be federally enforceable;

(F) Procedures relating to the permissible location of offsetting emissions shall be followed which are at least as stringent as those set out in 40 CFR part 51 appendix S section IV.D.

(G) Credit for an emissions reduction can be claimed to the extent that the reviewing authority has not relied on it in issuing any permit under regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR part 51 subpart I or the State has not relied on it in demonstration attainment or reasonable further progress.

(H) [Reserved]

(I) [Reserved]

(J) The total tonnage of increased emissions, in tons per year, resulting from a major modification that must be offset in accordance with section 173 of the Act shall be determined by summing the difference between the allowable emissions after the modification (as defined by paragraph (a)(1)(xi) of this section) and the actual emissions before the modification (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(xii) of this section) for each emissions unit.

(4) Each plan may provide that the provisions of this paragraph do not apply to a source or modification that would be a major stationary source or major modification only if fugitive emissions, to the extent quantifiable, are considered in calculating the potential to emit of the stationary source or modification and the source does not belong to any of the following categories:

(i) Coal cleaning plants (with thermal dryers);

(ii) Kraft pulp mills;

(iii) Portland cement plants;

(iv) Primary zinc smelters;

(v) Iron and steel mills;

(vi) Primary aluminum ore reduction plants;

(vii) Primary copper smelters;

(viii) Municipal incinerators capable of charging more than 50 tons of refuse per day;

(ix) Hydrofluoric, sulfuric, or citric acid plants;

(x) Petroleum refineries;

(xi) Lime plants;

(xii) Phosphate rock processing plants;

(xiii) Coke oven batteries;

(xiv) Sulfur recovery plants;

(xv) Carbon black plants (furnace process);

(xvi) Primary lead smelters;

(xvii) Fuel conversion plants;

(xviii) Sintering plants;

(xix) Secondary metal production plants;

(xx) Chemical process plants - The term chemical processing plant shall not include ethanol production facilities that produce ethanol by natural fermentation included in NAICS codes 325193 or 312140;

(xxi) Fossil-fuel boilers (or combination thereof) totaling more than 250 million British thermal units per hour heat input;

(xxii) Petroleum storage and transfer units with a total storage capacity exceeding 300,000 barrels;

(xxiii) Taconite ore processing plants;

(xxiv) Glass fiber processing plants;

(xxv) Charcoal production plants;

(xxvi) Fossil fuel-fired steam electric plants of more than 250 million British thermal units per hour heat input;

(xxvii) Any other stationary source category which, as of August 7, 1980, is being regulated under section 111 or 112 of the Act.

(5) Each plan shall include enforceable procedures to provide that:

(i) Approval to construct shall not relieve any owner or operator of the responsibility to comply fully with applicable provision of the plan and any other requirements under local, State or Federal law.

(ii) At such time that a particular source or modification becomes a major stationary source or major modification solely by virtue of a relaxation in any enforcement limitation which was established after August 7, 1980, on the capacity of the source or modification otherwise to emit a pollutant, such as a restriction on hours of operation, then the requirements of regulations approved pursuant to this section shall apply to the source or modification as though construction had not yet commenced on the source or modification;

(6) Each plan shall provide that, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(6)(vi) of this section, the following specific provisions apply with respect to any regulated NSR pollutant emitted from projects at existing emissions units at a major stationary source (other than projects at a source with a PAL) in circumstances where there is a reasonable possibility, within the meaning of paragraph (a)(6)(vi) of this section, that a project that is not a part of a major modification may result in a significant emissions increase of such pollutant, and the owner or operator elects to use the method specified in paragraphs (a)(1)(xxviii)(B)(1) through (3) of this section for calculating projected actual emissions. Deviations from these provisions will be approved only if the State specifically demonstrates that the submitted provisions are more stringent than or at least as stringent in all respects as the corresponding provisions in paragraphs (a)(6)(i) through (vi) of this section.

(i) Before beginning actual construction of the project, the owner or operator shall document and maintain a record of the following information:

(A) A description of the project;

(B) Identification of the emissions unit(s) whose emissions of a regulated NSR pollutant could be affected by the project; and

(C) A description of the applicability test used to determine that the project is not a major modification for any regulated NSR pollutant, including the baseline actual emissions, the projected actual emissions, the amount of emissions excluded under paragraph (a)(1)(xxviii)(B)(3) of this section and an explanation for why such amount was excluded, and any netting calculations, if applicable.

(ii) If the emissions unit is an existing electric utility steam generating unit, before beginning actual construction, the owner or operator shall provide a copy of the information set out in paragraph (a)(6)(i) of this section to the reviewing authority. Nothing in this paragraph (a)(6)(ii) shall be construed to require the owner or operator of such a unit to obtain any determination from the reviewing authority before beginning actual construction.

(iii) The owner or operator shall monitor the emissions of any regulated NSR pollutant that could increase as a result of the project and that is emitted by any emissions units identified in paragraph (a)(6)(i)(B) of this section; and calculate and maintain a record of the annual emissions, in tons per year on a calendar year basis, for a period of 5 years following resumption of regular operations after the change, or for a period of 10 years following resumption of regular operations after the change if the project increases the design capacity or potential to emit of that regulated NSR pollutant at such emissions unit.

(iv) If the unit is an existing electric utility steam generating unit, the owner or operator shall submit a report to the reviewing authority within 60 days after the end of each year during which records must be generated under paragraph (a)(6)(iii) of this section setting out the unit's annual emissions during the year that preceded submission of the report.

(v) If the unit is an existing unit other than an electric utility steam generating unit, the owner or operator shall submit a report to the reviewing authority if the annual emissions, in tons per year, from the project identified in paragraph (a)(6)(i) of this section, exceed the baseline actual emissions (as documented and maintained pursuant to paragraph (a)(6)(i)(C) of this section, by a significant amount (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(x) of this section) for that regulated NSR pollutant, and if such emissions differ from the preconstruction projection as documented and maintained pursuant to paragraph (a)(6)(i)(C) of this section. Such report shall be submitted to the reviewing authority within 60 days after the end of such year. The report shall contain the following:

(A) The name, address and telephone number of the major stationary source;

(B) The annual emissions as calculated pursuant to paragraph (a)(6)(iii) of this section; and

(C) Any other information that the owner or operator wishes to include in the report (e.g., an explanation as to why the emissions differ from the preconstruction projection).

(vi) A “reasonable possibility” under paragraph (a)(6) of this section occurs when the owner or operator calculates the project to result in either:

(A) A projected actual emissions increase of at least 50 percent of the amount that is a “significant emissions increase,” as defined under paragraph (a)(1)(xxvii) of this section (without reference to the amount that is a significant net emissions increase), for the regulated NSR pollutant; or

(B) A projected actual emissions increase that, added to the amount of emissions excluded under paragraph (a)(1)(xxviii)(B)(3), sums to at least 50 percent of the amount that is a “significant emissions increase,” as defined under paragraph (a)(1)(xxvii) of this section (without reference to the amount that is a significant net emissions increase), for the regulated NSR pollutant. For a project for which a reasonable possibility occurs only within the meaning of paragraph (a)(6)(vi)(B) of this section, and not also within the meaning of paragraph (a)(6)(vi)(A) of this section, then provisions (a)(6)(ii) through (v) do not apply to the project.

(7) Each plan shall provide that the owner or operator of the source shall make the information required to be documented and maintained pursuant to paragraph (a)(6) of this section available for review upon a request for inspection by the reviewing authority or the general public pursuant to the requirements contained in § 70.4(b)(3)(viii) of this chapter.

(8) The plan shall provide that the requirements of this section applicable to major stationary sources and major modifications of volatile organic compounds shall apply to nitrogen oxides emissions from major stationary sources and major modifications of nitrogen oxides in an ozone transport region or in any ozone nonattainment area, except in ozone nonattainment areas or in portions of an ozone transport region where the Administrator has granted a NOX waiver applying the standards set forth under section 182(f) of the Act and the waiver continues to apply.

(9)

(i) The plan shall require that in meeting the emissions offset requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this section, the ratio of total actual emissions reductions to the emissions increase shall be at least 1:1 unless an alternative ratio is provided for the applicable nonattainment area in paragraphs (a)(9)(ii) through (a)(9)(iv) of this section.

(ii) The plan shall require that in meeting the emissions offset requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this section for ozone nonattainment areas that are subject to subpart 2, part D, title I of the Act, the ratio of total actual emissions reductions of VOC to the emissions increase of VOC shall be as follows:

(A) In any marginal nonattainment area for ozone - at least 1.1:1;

(B) In any moderate nonattainment area for ozone - at least 1.15:1;

(C) In any serious nonattainment area for ozone - at least 1.2:1;

(D) In any severe nonattainment area for ozone - at least 1.3:1 (except that the ratio may be at least 1.2:1 if the approved plan also requires all existing major sources in such nonattainment area to use BACT for the control of VOC); and

(E) In any extreme nonattainment area for ozone - at least 1.5:1 (except that the ratio may be at least 1.2:1 if the approved plan also requires all existing major sources in such nonattainment area to use BACT for the control of VOC); and

(iii) Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (a)(9)(ii) of this section for meeting the requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this section, the ratio of total actual emissions reductions of VOC to the emissions increase of VOC shall be at least 1.15:1 for all areas within an ozone transport region that is subject to subpart 2, part D, title I of the Act, except for serious, severe, and extreme ozone nonattainment areas that are subject to subpart 2, part D, title I of the Act.

(iv) The plan shall require that in meeting the emissions offset requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this section for ozone nonattainment areas that are subject to subpart 1, part D, title I of the Act (but are not subject to subpart 2, part D, title I of the Act, including 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas subject to 40 CFR 51.902(b)), the ratio of total actual emissions reductions of VOC to the emissions increase of VOC shall be at least 1:1.

(10) The plan shall require that the requirements of this section applicable to major stationary sources and major modifications of PM-10 shall also apply to major stationary sources and major modifications of PM-10 precursors, except where the Administrator determines that such sources do not contribute significantly to PM-10 levels that exceed the PM-10 ambient standards in the area.

(11) The plan shall require that, in meeting the emissions offset requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this section, the emissions offsets obtained shall be for the same regulated NSR pollutant, unless interprecursor offsetting is permitted for a particular pollutant as specified in this paragraph. The plan may allow the offset requirements in paragraph (a)(3) of this section for direct PM2.5 emissions or emissions of precursors of PM2.5 to be satisfied by offsetting reductions in direct PM2.5 emissions or emissions of any PM2.5 precursor identified under paragraph (a)(1)(xxxvii)(C) of this section if such offsets comply with the interprecursor trading hierarchy and ratio established in the approved plan for a particular nonattainment area.

(12) The plan shall require that in any area designated nonattainment for the 2008 ozone NAAQS and designated nonattainment for the 1997 ozone NAAQS on April 6, 2015 the requirements of this section applicable to major stationary sources and major modifications of ozone shall include the anti-backsliding requirements contained at § 51.1105.

(13) The plan shall require that the control requirements of this section applicable to major stationary sources and major modifications of PM2.5 shall also apply to major stationary sources and major modifications of PM2.5 precursors in a PM2.5 nonattainment area, except that a reviewing authority may exempt new major stationary sources and major modifications of a particular precursor from the requirements of this section for PM2.5 if the NNSR precursor demonstration submitted to and approved by the Administrator shows that such sources do not contribute significantly to PM2.5 levels that exceed the standard in the area. Any demonstration submitted for the Administrator's review must meet the conditions for a NNSR precursor demonstration as set forth in § 51.1006(a)(3).

(b)

(1) Each plan shall include a preconstruction review permit program or its equivalent to satisfy the requirements of section 110(a)(2)(D)(i) of the Act for any new major stationary source or major modification as defined in paragraphs (a)(1) (iv) and (v) of this section. Such a program shall apply to any such source or modification that would locate in any area designated as attainment or unclassifiable for any national ambient air quality standard pursuant to section 107 of the Act, when it would cause or contribute to a violation of any national ambient air quality standard.

(2) A major source or major modification will be considered to cause or contribute to a violation of a national ambient air quality standard when such source or modification would, at a minimum, exceed the following significance levels at any locality that does not or would not meet the applicable national standard:

Pollutant Annual Averaging time (hours)
24 8 3 1
SO2 1.0 µg/m3 5 µg/m3 25 µg/m3
PM10 1.0 µg/m3 5 µg/m3
PM2.5 0.3 µg/m3 1.2 µg/m3
NO2 1.0 µg/m3
CO 0.5 mg/m3 2 mg/m3

(3) Such a program may include a provision which allows a proposed major source or major modification subject to paragraph (b) of this section to reduce the impact of its emissions upon air quality by obtaining sufficient emission reductions to, at a minimum, compensate for its adverse ambient impact where the major source or major modification would otherwise cause or contribute to a violation of any national ambient air quality standard. The plan shall require that, in the absence of such emission reductions, the State or local agency shall deny the proposed construction.

(4) The requirements of paragraph (b) of this section shall not apply to a major stationary source or major modification with respect to a particular pollutant if the owner or operator demonstrates that, as to that pollutant, the source or modification is located in an area designated as nonattainment pursuant to section 107 of the Act.

(c-e) [Reserved]

(f) Actuals PALs. The plan shall provide for PALs according to the provisions in paragraphs (f)(1) through (15) of this section.

(1) Applicability.

(i) The reviewing authority may approve the use of an actuals PAL for any existing major stationary source (except as provided in paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section) if the PAL meets the requirements in paragraphs (f)(1) through (15) of this section. The term “PAL” shall mean “actuals PAL” throughout paragraph (f) of this section.

(ii) The reviewing authority shall not allow an actuals PAL for VOC or NOX for any major stationary source located in an extreme ozone nonattainment area.

(iii) Any physical change in or change in the method of operation of a major stationary source that maintains its total source-wide emissions below the PAL level, meets the requirements in paragraphs (f)(1) through (15) of this section, and complies with the PAL permit:

(A) Is not a major modification for the PAL pollutant;

(B) Does not have to be approved through the plan's nonattainment major NSR program; and

(C) Is not subject to the provisions in paragraph (a)(5)(ii) of this section (restrictions on relaxing enforceable emission limitations that the major stationary source used to avoid applicability of the nonattainment major NSR program).

(iv) Except as provided under paragraph (f)(1)(iii)(C) of this section, a major stationary source shall continue to comply with all applicable Federal or State requirements, emission limitations, and work practice requirements that were established prior to the effective date of the PAL.

(2) Definitions. The plan shall use the definitions in paragraphs (f)(2)(i) through (xi) of this section for the purpose of developing and implementing regulations that authorize the use of actuals PALs consistent with paragraphs (f)(1) through (15) of this section. When a term is not defined in these paragraphs, it shall have the meaning given in paragraph (a)(1) of this section or in the Act.

(i) Actuals PAL for a major stationary source means a PAL based on the baseline actual emissions (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(xxxv) of this section) of all emissions units (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(vii) of this section) at the source, that emit or have the potential to emit the PAL pollutant.

(ii) Allowable emissions means “allowable emissions” as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(xi) of this section, except as this definition is modified according to paragraphs (f)(2)(ii)(A) through (B) of this section.

(A) The allowable emissions for any emissions unit shall be calculated considering any emission limitations that are enforceable as a practical matter on the emissions unit's potential to emit.

(B) An emissions unit's potential to emit shall be determined using the definition in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section, except that the words “or enforceable as a practical matter” should be added after “federally enforceable.”

(iii) Small emissions unit means an emissions unit that emits or has the potential to emit the PAL pollutant in an amount less than the significant level for that PAL pollutant, as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(x) of this section or in the Act, whichever is lower.

(iv) Major emissions unit means:

(A) Any emissions unit that emits or has the potential to emit 100 tons per year or more of the PAL pollutant in an attainment area; or

(B) Any emissions unit that emits or has the potential to emit the PAL pollutant in an amount that is equal to or greater than the major source threshold for the PAL pollutant as defined by the Act for nonattainment areas. For example, in accordance with the definition of major stationary source in section 182(c) of the Act, an emissions unit would be a major emissions unit for VOC if the emissions unit is located in a serious ozone nonattainment area and it emits or has the potential to emit 50 or more tons of VOC per year.

(v) Plantwide applicability limitation (PAL) means an emission limitation expressed in tons per year, for a pollutant at a major stationary source, that is enforceable as a practical matter and established source-wide in accordance with paragraphs (f)(1) through (f)(15) of this section.

(vi) PAL effective date generally means the date of issuance of the PAL permit. However, the PAL effective date for an increased PAL is the date any emissions unit which is part of the PAL major modification becomes operational and begins to emit the PAL pollutant.

(vii) PAL effective period means the period beginning with the PAL effective date and ending 10 years later.

(viii) PAL major modification means, notwithstanding paragraphs (a)(1)(v) and (vi) of this section (the definitions for major modification and net emissions increase), any physical change in or change in the method of operation of the PAL source that causes it to emit the PAL pollutant at a level equal to or greater than the PAL.

(ix) PAL permit means the major NSR permit, the minor NSR permit, or the State operating permit under a program that is approved into the plan, or the title V permit issued by the reviewing authority that establishes a PAL for a major stationary source.

(x) PAL pollutant means the pollutant for which a PAL is established at a major stationary source.

(xi) Significant emissions unit means an emissions unit that emits or has the potential to emit a PAL pollutant in an amount that is equal to or greater than the significant level (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(x) of this section or in the Act, whichever is lower) for that PAL pollutant, but less than the amount that would qualify the unit as a major emissions unit as defined in paragraph (f)(2)(iv) of this section.

(3) Permit application requirements. As part of a permit application requesting a PAL, the owner or operator of a major stationary source shall submit the following information to the reviewing authority for approval:

(i) A list of all emissions units at the source designated as small, significant or major based on their potential to emit. In addition, the owner or operator of the source shall indicate which, if any, Federal or State applicable requirements, emission limitations or work practices apply to each unit.

(ii) Calculations of the baseline actual emissions (with supporting documentation). Baseline actual emissions are to include emissions associated not only with operation of the unit, but also emissions associated with startup, shutdown and malfunction.

(iii) The calculation procedures that the major stationary source owner or operator proposes to use to convert the monitoring system data to monthly emissions and annual emissions based on a 12-month rolling total for each month as required by paragraph (f)(13)(i) of this section.

(4) General requirements for establishing PALs.

(i) The plan allows the reviewing authority to establish a PAL at a major stationary source, provided that at a minimum, the requirements in paragraphs (f)(4)(i)(A) through (G) of this section are met.

(A) The PAL shall impose an annual emission limitation in tons per year, that is enforceable as a practical matter, for the entire major stationary source. For each month during the PAL effective period after the first 12 months of establishing a PAL, the major stationary source owner or operator shall show that the sum of the monthly emissions from each emissions unit under the PAL for the previous 12 consecutive months is less than the PAL (a 12-month average, rolled monthly). For each month during the first 11 months from the PAL effective date, the major stationary source owner or operator shall show that the sum of the preceding monthly emissions from the PAL effective date for each emissions unit under the PAL is less than the PAL.

(B) The PAL shall be established in a PAL permit that meets the public participation requirements in paragraph (f)(5) of this section.

(C) The PAL permit shall contain all the requirements of paragraph (f)(7) of this section.

(D) The PAL shall include fugitive emissions, to the extent quantifiable, from all emissions units that emit or have the potential to emit the PAL pollutant at the major stationary source.

(E) Each PAL shall regulate emissions of only one pollutant.

(F) Each PAL shall have a PAL effective period of 10 years.

(G) The owner or operator of the major stationary source with a PAL shall comply with the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements provided in paragraphs (f)(12) through (14) of this section for each emissions unit under the PAL through the PAL effective period.

(ii) At no time (during or after the PAL effective period) are emissions reductions of a PAL pollutant, which occur during the PAL effective period, creditable as decreases for purposes of offsets under paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section unless the level of the PAL is reduced by the amount of such emissions reductions and such reductions would be creditable in the absence of the PAL.

(5) Public participation requirement for PALs. PALs for existing major stationary sources shall be established, renewed, or increased through a procedure that is consistent with §§ 51.160 and 51.161 of this chapter. This includes the requirement that the reviewing authority provide the public with notice of the proposed approval of a PAL permit and at least a 30-day period for submittal of public comment. The reviewing authority must address all material comments before taking final action on the permit.

(6) Setting the 10-year actuals PAL level.

(i) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(6)(ii) of this section, the plan shall provide that the actuals PAL level for a major stationary source shall be established as the sum of the baseline actual emissions (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(xxxv) of this section) of the PAL pollutant for each emissions unit at the source; plus an amount equal to the applicable significant level for the PAL pollutant under paragraph (a)(1)(x) of this section or under the Act, whichever is lower. When establishing the actuals PAL level, for a PAL pollutant, only one consecutive 24-month period must be used to determine the baseline actual emissions for all existing emissions units. However, a different consecutive 24-month period may be used for each different PAL pollutant. Emissions associated with units that were permanently shut down after this 24-month period must be subtracted from the PAL level. The reviewing authority shall specify a reduced PAL level(s) (in tons/yr) in the PAL permit to become effective on the future compliance date(s) of any applicable Federal or State regulatory requirement(s) that the reviewing authority is aware of prior to issuance of the PAL permit. For instance, if the source owner or operator will be required to reduce emissions from industrial boilers in half from baseline emissions of 60 ppm NOX to a new rule limit of 30 ppm, then the permit shall contain a future effective PAL level that is equal to the current PAL level reduced by half of the original baseline emissions of such unit(s).

(ii) For newly constructed units (which do not include modifications to existing units) on which actual construction began after the 24-month period, in lieu of adding the baseline actual emissions as specified in paragraph (f)(6)(i) of this section, the emissions must be added to the PAL level in an amount equal to the potential to emit of the units.

(7) Contents of the PAL permit. The plan shall require that the PAL permit contain, at a minimum, the information in paragraphs (f)(7)(i) through (x) of this section.

(i) The PAL pollutant and the applicable source-wide emission limitation in tons per year.

(ii) The PAL permit effective date and the expiration date of the PAL (PAL effective period).

(iii) Specification in the PAL permit that if a major stationary source owner or operator applies to renew a PAL in accordance with paragraph (f)(10) of this section before the end of the PAL effective period, then the PAL shall not expire at the end of the PAL effective period. It shall remain in effect until a revised PAL permit is issued by the reviewing authority.

(iv) A requirement that emission calculations for compliance purposes include emissions from startups, shutdowns and malfunctions.

(v) A requirement that, once the PAL expires, the major stationary source is subject to the requirements of paragraph (f)(9) of this section.

(vi) The calculation procedures that the major stationary source owner or operator shall use to convert the monitoring system data to monthly emissions and annual emissions based on a 12-month rolling total for each month as required by paragraph (f)(13)(i) of this section.

(vii) A requirement that the major stationary source owner or operator monitor all emissions units in accordance with the provisions under paragraph (f)(12) of this section.

(viii) A requirement to retain the records required under paragraph (f)(13) of this section on site. Such records may be retained in an electronic format.

(ix) A requirement to submit the reports required under paragraph (f)(14) of this section by the required deadlines.

(x) Any other requirements that the reviewing authority deems necessary to implement and enforce the PAL.

(8) PAL effective period and reopening of the PAL permit. The plan shall require the information in paragraphs (f)(8)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) PAL effective period. The reviewing authority shall specify a PAL effective period of 10 years.

(ii) Reopening of the PAL permit.

(A) During the PAL effective period, the plan shall require the reviewing authority to reopen the PAL permit to:

(1) Correct typographical/calculation errors made in setting the PAL or reflect a more accurate determination of emissions used to establish the PAL.

(2) Reduce the PAL if the owner or operator of the major stationary source creates creditable emissions reductions for use as offsets under paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section.

(3) Revise the PAL to reflect an increase in the PAL as provided under paragraph (f)(11) of this section.

(B) The plan shall provide the reviewing authority discretion to reopen the PAL permit for the following:

(1) Reduce the PAL to reflect newly applicable Federal requirements (for example, NSPS) with compliance dates after the PAL effective date.

(2) Reduce the PAL consistent with any other requirement, that is enforceable as a practical matter, and that the State may impose on the major stationary source under the plan.

(3) Reduce the PAL if the reviewing authority determines that a reduction is necessary to avoid causing or contributing to a NAAQS or PSD increment violation, or to an adverse impact on an air quality related value that has been identified for a Federal Class I area by a Federal Land Manager and for which information is available to the general public.

(C) Except for the permit reopening in paragraph (f)(8)(ii)(A)(1) of this section for the correction of typographical/calculation errors that do not increase the PAL level, all other reopenings shall be carried out in accordance with the public participation requirements of paragraph (f)(5) of this section.

(9) Expiration of a PAL. Any PAL which is not renewed in accordance with the procedures in paragraph (f)(10) of this section shall expire at the end of the PAL effective period, and the requirements in paragraphs (f)(9)(i) through (v) of this section shall apply.

(i) Each emissions unit (or each group of emissions units) that existed under the PAL shall comply with an allowable emission limitation under a revised permit established according to the procedures in paragraphs (f)(9)(i)(A) through (B) of this section.

(A) Within the time frame specified for PAL renewals in paragraph (f)(10)(ii) of this section, the major stationary source shall submit a proposed allowable emission limitation for each emissions unit (or each group of emissions units, if such a distribution is more appropriate as decided by the reviewing authority) by distributing the PAL allowable emissions for the major stationary source among each of the emissions units that existed under the PAL. If the PAL had not yet been adjusted for an applicable requirement that became effective during the PAL effective period, as required under paragraph (f)(10)(v) of this section, such distribution shall be made as if the PAL had been adjusted.

(B) The reviewing authority shall decide whether and how the PAL allowable emissions will be distributed and issue a revised permit incorporating allowable limits for each emissions unit, or each group of emissions units, as the reviewing authority determines is appropriate.

(ii) Each emissions unit(s) shall comply with the allowable emission limitation on a 12-month rolling basis. The reviewing authority may approve the use of monitoring systems (source testing, emission factors, etc.) other than CEMS, CERMS, PEMS or CPMS to demonstrate compliance with the allowable emission limitation.

(iii) Until the reviewing authority issues the revised permit incorporating allowable limits for each emissions unit, or each group of emissions units, as required under paragraph (f)(9)(i)(A) of this section, the source shall continue to comply with a source-wide, multi-unit emissions cap equivalent to the level of the PAL emission limitation.

(iv) Any physical change or change in the method of operation at the major stationary source will be subject to the nonattainment major NSR requirements if such change meets the definition of major modification in paragraph (a)(1)(v) of this section.

(v) The major stationary source owner or operator shall continue to comply with any State or Federal applicable requirements (BACT, RACT, NSPS, etc.) that may have applied either during the PAL effective period or prior to the PAL effective period except for those emission limitations that had been established pursuant to paragraph (a)(5)(ii) of this section, but were eliminated by the PAL in accordance with the provisions in paragraph (f)(1)(iii)(C) of this section.

(10) Renewal of a PAL.

(i) The reviewing authority shall follow the procedures specified in paragraph (f)(5) of this section in approving any request to renew a PAL for a major stationary source, and shall provide both the proposed PAL level and a written rationale for the proposed PAL level to the public for review and comment. During such public review, any person may propose a PAL level for the source for consideration by the reviewing authority.

(ii) Application deadline. The plan shall require that a major stationary source owner or operator shall submit a timely application to the reviewing authority to request renewal of a PAL. A timely application is one that is submitted at least 6 months prior to, but not earlier than 18 months from, the date of permit expiration. This deadline for application submittal is to ensure that the permit will not expire before the permit is renewed. If the owner or operator of a major stationary source submits a complete application to renew the PAL within this time period, then the PAL shall continue to be effective until the revised permit with the renewed PAL is issued.

(iii) Application requirements. The application to renew a PAL permit shall contain the information required in paragraphs (f)(10)(iii)(A) through (D) of this section.

(A) The information required in paragraphs (f)(3)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(B) A proposed PAL level.

(C) The sum of the potential to emit of all emissions units under the PAL (with supporting documentation).

(D) Any other information the owner or operator wishes the reviewing authority to consider in determining the appropriate level for renewing the PAL.

(iv) PAL adjustment. In determining whether and how to adjust the PAL, the reviewing authority shall consider the options outlined in paragraphs (f)(10)(iv)(A) and (B) of this section. However, in no case may any such adjustment fail to comply with paragraph (f)(10)(iv)(C) of this section.

(A) If the emissions level calculated in accordance with paragraph (f)(6) of this section is equal to or greater than 80 percent of the PAL level, the reviewing authority may renew the PAL at the same level without considering the factors set forth in paragraph (f)(10)(iv)(B) of this section; or

(B) The reviewing authority may set the PAL at a level that it determines to be more representative of the source's baseline actual emissions, or that it determines to be appropriate considering air quality needs, advances in control technology, anticipated economic growth in the area, desire to reward or encourage the source's voluntary emissions reductions, or other factors as specifically identified by the reviewing authority in its written rationale.

(C) Notwithstanding paragraphs (f)(10)(iv)(A) and (B) of this section,

(1) If the potential to emit of the major stationary source is less than the PAL, the reviewing authority shall adjust the PAL to a level no greater than the potential to emit of the source; and

(2) The reviewing authority shall not approve a renewed PAL level higher than the current PAL, unless the major stationary source has complied with the provisions of paragraph (f)(11) of this section (increasing a PAL).

(v) If the compliance date for a State or Federal requirement that applies to the PAL source occurs during the PAL effective period, and if the reviewing authority has not already adjusted for such requirement, the PAL shall be adjusted at the time of PAL permit renewal or title V permit renewal, whichever occurs first.

(11) Increasing a PAL during the PAL effective period.

(i) The plan shall require that the reviewing authority may increase a PAL emission limitation only if the major stationary source complies with the provisions in paragraphs (f)(11)(i)(A) through (D) of this section.

(A) The owner or operator of the major stationary source shall submit a complete application to request an increase in the PAL limit for a PAL major modification. Such application shall identify the emissions unit(s) contributing to the increase in emissions so as to cause the major stationary source's emissions to equal or exceed its PAL.

(B) As part of this application, the major stationary source owner or operator shall demonstrate that the sum of the baseline actual emissions of the small emissions units, plus the sum of the baseline actual emissions of the significant and major emissions units assuming application of BACT equivalent controls, plus the sum of the allowable emissions of the new or modified emissions unit(s) exceeds the PAL. The level of control that would result from BACT equivalent controls on each significant or major emissions unit shall be determined by conducting a new BACT analysis at the time the application is submitted, unless the emissions unit is currently required to comply with a BACT or LAER requirement that was established within the preceding 10 years. In such a case, the assumed control level for that emissions unit shall be equal to the level of BACT or LAER with which that emissions unit must currently comply.

(C) The owner or operator obtains a major NSR permit for all emissions unit(s) identified in paragraph (f)(11)(i)(A) of this section, regardless of the magnitude of the emissions increase resulting from them (that is, no significant levels apply). These emissions unit(s) shall comply with any emissions requirements resulting from the nonattainment major NSR program process (for example, LAER), even though they have also become subject to the PAL or continue to be subject to the PAL.

(D) The PAL permit shall require that the increased PAL level shall be effective on the day any emissions unit that is part of the PAL major modification becomes operational and begins to emit the PAL pollutant.

(ii) The reviewing authority shall calculate the new PAL as the sum of the allowable emissions for each modified or new emissions unit, plus the sum of the baseline actual emissions of the significant and major emissions units (assuming application of BACT equivalent controls as determined in accordance with paragraph (f)(11)(i)(B)), plus the sum of the baseline actual emissions of the small emissions units.

(iii) The PAL permit shall be revised to reflect the increased PAL level pursuant to the public notice requirements of paragraph (f)(5) of this section.

(12) Monitoring requirements for PALs -

(i) General requirements.

(A) Each PAL permit must contain enforceable requirements for the monitoring system that accurately determines plantwide emissions of the PAL pollutant in terms of mass per unit of time. Any monitoring system authorized for use in the PAL permit must be based on sound science and meet generally acceptable scientific procedures for data quality and manipulation. Additionally, the information generated by such system must meet minimum legal requirements for admissibility in a judicial proceeding to enforce the PAL permit.

(B) The PAL monitoring system must employ one or more of the four general monitoring approaches meeting the minimum requirements set forth in paragraphs (f)(12)(ii)(A) through (D) of this section and must be approved by the reviewing authority.

(C) Notwithstanding paragraph (f)(12)(i)(B) of this section, you may also employ an alternative monitoring approach that meets paragraph (f)(12)(i)(A) of this section if approved by the reviewing authority.

(D) Failure to use a monitoring system that meets the requirements of this section renders the PAL invalid.

(ii) Minimum Performance Requirements for Approved Monitoring Approaches. The following are acceptable general monitoring approaches when conducted in accordance with the minimum requirements in paragraphs (f)(12)(iii) through (ix) of this section:

(A) Mass balance calculations for activities using coatings or solvents;

(B) CEMS;

(C) CPMS or PEMS; and

(D) Emission Factors.

(iii) Mass Balance Calculations. An owner or operator using mass balance calculations to monitor PAL pollutant emissions from activities using coating or solvents shall meet the following requirements:

(A) Provide a demonstrated means of validating the published content of the PAL pollutant that is contained in or created by all materials used in or at the emissions unit;

(B) Assume that the emissions unit emits all of the PAL pollutant that is contained in or created by any raw material or fuel used in or at the emissions unit, if it cannot otherwise be accounted for in the process; and

(C) Where the vendor of a material or fuel, which is used in or at the emissions unit, publishes a range of pollutant content from such material, the owner or operator must use the highest value of the range to calculate the PAL pollutant emissions unless the reviewing authority determines there is site-specific data or a site-specific monitoring program to support another content within the range.

(iv) CEMS. An owner or operator using CEMS to monitor PAL pollutant emissions shall meet the following requirements:

(A) CEMS must comply with applicable Performance Specifications found in 40 CFR part 60, appendix B; and

(B) CEMS must sample, analyze and record data at least every 15 minutes while the emissions unit is operating.

(v) CPMS or PEMS. An owner or operator using CPMS or PEMS to monitor PAL pollutant emissions shall meet the following requirements:

(A) The CPMS or the PEMS must be based on current site-specific data demonstrating a correlation between the monitored parameter(s) and the PAL pollutant emissions across the range of operation of the emissions unit; and

(B) Each CPMS or PEMS must sample, analyze, and record data at least every 15 minutes, or at another less frequent interval approved by the reviewing authority, while the emissions unit is operating.

(vi) Emission factors. An owner or operator using emission factors to monitor PAL pollutant emissions shall meet the following requirements:

(A) All emission factors shall be adjusted, if appropriate, to account for the degree of uncertainty or limitations in the factors' development;

(B) The emissions unit shall operate within the designated range of use for the emission factor, if applicable; and

(C) If technically practicable, the owner or operator of a significant emissions unit that relies on an emission factor to calculate PAL pollutant emissions shall conduct validation testing to determine a site-specific emission factor within 6 months of PAL permit issuance, unless the reviewing authority determines that testing is not required.

(vii) A source owner or operator must record and report maximum potential emissions without considering enforceable emission limitations or operational restrictions for an emissions unit during any period of time that there is no monitoring data, unless another method for determining emissions during such periods is specified in the PAL permit.

(viii) Notwithstanding the requirements in paragraphs (f)(12)(iii) through (vii) of this section, where an owner or operator of an emissions unit cannot demonstrate a correlation between the monitored parameter(s) and the PAL pollutant emissions rate at all operating points of the emissions unit, the reviewing authority shall, at the time of permit issuance:

(A) Establish default value(s) for determining compliance with the PAL based on the highest potential emissions reasonably estimated at such operating point(s); or

(B) Determine that operation of the emissions unit during operating conditions when there is no correlation between monitored parameter(s) and the PAL pollutant emissions is a violation of the PAL.

(ix) Re-validation. All data used to establish the PAL pollutant must be re-validated through performance testing or other scientifically valid means approved by the reviewing authority. Such testing must occur at least once every 5 years after issuance of the PAL.

(13) Recordkeeping requirements.

(i) The PAL permit shall require an owner or operator to retain a copy of all records necessary to determine compliance with any requirement of paragraph (f) of this section and of the PAL, including a determination of each emissions unit's 12-month rolling total emissions, for 5 years from the date of such record.

(ii) The PAL permit shall require an owner or operator to retain a copy of the following records for the duration of the PAL effective period plus 5 years:

(A) A copy of the PAL permit application and any applications for revisions to the PAL; and

(B) Each annual certification of compliance pursuant to title V and the data relied on in certifying the compliance.

(14) Reporting and notification requirements. The owner or operator shall submit semi-annual monitoring reports and prompt deviation reports to the reviewing authority in accordance with the applicable title V operating permit program. The reports shall meet the requirements in paragraphs (f)(14)(i) through (iii).

(i) Semi-Annual Report. The semi-annual report shall be submitted to the reviewing authority within 30 days of the end of each reporting period. This report shall contain the information required in paragraphs (f)(14)(i)(A) through (G) of this section.

(A) The identification of owner and operator and the permit number.

(B) Total annual emissions (tons/year) based on a 12-month rolling total for each month in the reporting period recorded pursuant to paragraph (f)(13)(i) of this section.

(C) All data relied upon, including, but not limited to, any Quality Assurance or Quality Control data, in calculating the monthly and annual PAL pollutant emissions.

(D) A list of any emissions units modified or added to the major stationary source during the preceding 6-month period.

(E) The number, duration, and cause of any deviations or monitoring malfunctions (other than the time associated with zero and span calibration checks), and any corrective action taken.

(F) A notification of a shutdown of any monitoring system, whether the shutdown was permanent or temporary, the reason for the shutdown, the anticipated date that the monitoring system will be fully operational or replaced with another monitoring system, and whether the emissions unit monitored by the monitoring system continued to operate, and the calculation of the emissions of the pollutant or the number determined by method included in the permit, as provided by paragraph (f)(12)(vii) of this section.

(G) A signed statement by the responsible official (as defined by the applicable title V operating permit program) certifying the truth, accuracy, and completeness of the information provided in the report.

(ii) Deviation report. The major stationary source owner or operator shall promptly submit reports of any deviations or exceedance of the PAL requirements, including periods where no monitoring is available. A report submitted pursuant to § 70.6(a)(3)(iii)(B) of this chapter shall satisfy this reporting requirement. The deviation reports shall be submitted within the time limits prescribed by the applicable program implementing § 70.6(a)(3)(iii)(B) of this chapter. The reports shall contain the following information:

(A) The identification of owner and operator and the permit number;

(B) The PAL requirement that experienced the deviation or that was exceeded;

(C) Emissions resulting from the deviation or the exceedance; and

(D) A signed statement by the responsible official (as defined by the applicable title V operating permit program) certifying the truth, accuracy, and completeness of the information provided in the report.

(iii) Re-validation results. The owner or operator shall submit to the reviewing authority the results of any re-validation test or method within 3 months after completion of such test or method.

(15) Transition requirements.

(i) No reviewing authority may issue a PAL that does not comply with the requirements in paragraphs (f)(1) through (15) of this section after the Administrator has approved regulations incorporating these requirements into a plan.

(ii) The reviewing authority may supersede any PAL which was established prior to the date of approval of the plan by the Administrator with a PAL that complies with the requirements of paragraphs (f)(1) through (15) of this section.

(g) If any provision of this section, or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remainder of this section, or the application of such provision to persons or circumstances other than those as to which it is held invalid, shall not be affected thereby.

(h) [Reserved]

(i) Public participation requirements. The reviewing authority shall notify the public of a draft permit by a method described in either paragraph (i)(1) or (2) of this section. The selected method, known as the “consistent noticing method,” shall comply with the public participation procedural requirements of § 51.161 of this chapter and be used for all permits issued under this section and may, when appropriate, be supplemented by other noticing methods on individual permits.

(1) Post the information in paragraphs (i)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section, for the duration of the public comment period, on a public Web site identified by the reviewing authority.

(i) A notice of availability of the draft permit for public comment;

(ii) The draft permit; and

(iii) Information on how to access the administrative record for the draft permit.

(2) Publish a notice of availability of the draft permit for public comment in a newspaper of general circulation in the area where the source is located. The notice shall include information on how to access the draft permit and the administrative record for the draft permit.

[51 FR 40669, Nov. 7, 1986]

§ 51.166 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

(a)

(1) Plan requirements. In accordance with the policy of section 101(b)(1) of the Act and the purposes of section 160 of the Act, each applicable State Implementation Plan and each applicable Tribal Implementation Plan shall contain emission limitations and such other measures as may be necessary to prevent significant deterioration of air quality.

(2) Plan revisions. If a State Implementation Plan revision would result in increased air quality deterioration over any baseline concentration, the plan revision shall include a demonstration that it will not cause or contribute to a violation of the applicable increment(s). If a plan revision proposing less restrictive requirements was submitted after August 7, 1977 but on or before any applicable baseline date and was pending action by the Administrator on that date, no such demonstration is necessary with respect to the area for which a baseline date would be established before final action is taken on the plan revision. Instead, the assessment described in paragraph (a)(4) of this section, shall review the expected impact to the applicable increment(s).

(3) Required plan revision. If the State or the Administrator determines that a plan is substantially inadequate to prevent significant deterioration or that an applicable increment is being violated, the plan shall be revised to correct the inadequacy or the violation. The plan shall be revised within 60 days of such a finding by a State or within 60 days following notification by the Administrator, or by such later date as prescribed by the Administrator after consultation with the State.

(4) Plan assessment. The State shall review the adequacy of a plan on a periodic basis and within 60 days of such time as information becomes available that an applicable increment is being violated.

(5) Public participation. Any State action taken under this paragraph shall be subject to the opportunity for public hearing in accordance with procedures equivalent to those established in § 51.102.

(6) Amendments.

(i) Any State required to revise its implementation plan by reason of an amendment to this section, with the exception of amendments to add new maximum allowable increases or other measures pursuant to section 166(a) of the Act, shall adopt and submit such plan revision to the Administrator for approval no later than 3 years after such amendment is published in the Federal Register. With regard to a revision to an implementation plan by reason of an amendment to paragraph (c) of this section to add maximum allowable increases or other measures, the State shall submit such plan revision to the Administrator for approval within 21 months after such amendment is published in the Federal Register.

(ii) Any revision to an implementation plan that would amend the provisions for the prevention of significant air quality deterioration in the plan shall specify when and as to what sources and modifications the revision is to take effect.

(iii) Any revision to an implementation plan that an amendment to this section required shall take effect no later than the date of its approval and may operate prospectively.

(7) Applicability. Each plan shall contain procedures that incorporate the requirements in paragraphs (a)(7)(i) through (v) of this section.

(i) The requirements of this section apply to the construction of any new major stationary source (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) or any project at an existing major stationary source in an area designated as attainment or unclassifiable under sections 107(d)(1)(A)(ii) or (iii) of the Act.

(ii) The requirements of paragraphs (j) through (r) of this section apply to the construction of any new major stationary source or the major modification of any existing major stationary source, except as this section otherwise provides.

(iii) No new major stationary source or major modification to which the requirements of paragraphs (j) through (r)(5) of this section apply shall begin actual construction without a permit that states that the major stationary source or major modification will meet those requirements.

(iv) Each plan shall use the specific provisions of paragraphs (a)(7)(iv)(a) through (f) of this section. Deviations from these provisions will be approved only if the State specifically demonstrates that the submitted provisions are more stringent than or at least as stringent in all respects as the corresponding provisions in paragraphs (a)(7)(iv)(a) through (f) of this section.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(7)(v) of this section, and consistent with the definition of major modification contained in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, a project is a major modification for a regulated NSR pollutant if it causes two types of emissions increases - a significant emissions increase (as defined in paragraph (b)(39) of this section), and a significant net emissions increase (as defined in paragraphs (b)(3) and (23) of this section). The project is not a major modification if it does not cause a significant emissions increase. If the project causes a significant emissions increase, then the project is a major modification only if it also results in a significant net emissions increase.

(b) The procedure for calculating (before beginning actual construction) whether a significant emissions increase (i.e., the first step of the process) will occur depends upon the type of emissions units being modified, according to paragraphs (a)(7)(iv)(c) through (f) of this section. The procedure for calculating (before beginning actual construction) whether a significant net emissions increase will occur at the major stationary source (i.e., the second step of the process) is contained in the definition in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. Regardless of any such preconstruction projections, a major modification results if the project causes a significant emissions increase and a significant net emissions increase.

(c) Actual-to-projected-actual applicability test for projects that only involve existing emissions units. A significant emissions increase of a regulated NSR pollutant is projected to occur if the sum of the difference between the projected actual emissions (as defined in paragraph (b)(40) of this section) and the baseline actual emissions (as defined in paragraphs (b)(47)(i) and (ii) of this section) for each existing emissions unit, equals or exceeds the significant amount for that pollutant (as defined in paragraph (b)(23) of this section).

(d) Actual-to-potential test for projects that only involve construction of a new emissions unit(s). A significant emissions increase of a regulated NSR pollutant is projected to occur if the sum of the difference between the potential to emit (as defined in paragraph (b)(4) of this section) from each new emissions unit following completion of the project and the baseline actual emissions (as defined in paragraph (b)(47)(iii) of this section) of these units before the project equals or exceeds the significant amount for that pollutant (as defined in paragraph (b)(23) of this section).

(e) [Reserved]

(f) Hybrid test for projects that involve multiple types of emissions units. A significant emissions increase of a regulated NSR pollutant is projected to occur if the sum of the difference for all emissions units, using the method specified in paragraphs (a)(7)(iv)(c) through (d) of this section as applicable with respect to each emissions unit, equals or exceeds the significant amount for that pollutant (as defined in paragraph (b)(23) of this section).

(g) The “sum of the difference” as used in paragraphs (c), (d) and (f) of this section shall include both increases and decreases in emissions calculated in accordance with those paragraphs.

(v) The plan shall require that for any major stationary source with a PAL for a regulated NSR pollutant, the major stationary source shall comply with requirements under paragraph (w) of this section.

(b) Definitions. All State plans shall use the following definitions for the purposes of this section. Deviations from the following wording will be approved only if the State specifically demonstrates that the submitted definition is more stringent, or at least as stringent, in all respects as the corresponding definitions below:

(1)

(i) Major stationary source means:

(a) Any of the following stationary sources of air pollutants which emits, or has the potential to emit, 100 tons per year or more of any regulated NSR pollutant: Fossil fuel-fired steam electric plants of more than 250 million British thermal units per hour heat input, coal cleaning plants (with thermal dryers), kraft pulp mills, portland cement plants, primary zinc smelters, iron and steel mill plants, primary aluminum ore reduction plants (with thermal dryers), primary copper smelters, municipal incinerators capable of charging more than 50 tons of refuse per day, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, and nitric acid plants, petroleum refineries, lime plants, phosphate rock processing plants, coke oven batteries, sulfur recovery plants, carbon black plants (furnace process), primary lead smelters, fuel conversion plants, sintering plants, secondary metal production plants, chemical process plants (which does not include ethanol production facilities that produce ethanol by natural fermentation included in NAICS codes 325193 or 312140), fossil-fuel boilers (or combinations thereof) totaling more than 250 million British thermal units per hour heat input, petroleum storage and transfer units with a total storage capacity exceeding 300,000 barrels, taconite ore processing plants, glass fiber processing plants, and charcoal production plants;

(b) Notwithstanding the stationary source size specified in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(a) of this section, any stationary source which emits, or has the potential to emit, 250 tons per year or more of a regulated NSR pollutant; or

(c) Any physical change that would occur at a stationary source not otherwise qualifying under paragraph (b)(1) of this section as a major stationary source, if the change would constitute a major stationary source by itself.

(ii) A major source that is major for volatile organic compounds or NOX shall be considered major for ozone.

(iii) The fugitive emissions of a stationary source shall not be included in determining for any of the purposes of this section whether it is a major stationary source, unless the source belongs to one of the following categories of stationary sources:

(a) Coal cleaning plants (with thermal dryers);

(b) Kraft pulp mills;

(c) Portland cement plants;

(d) Primary zinc smelters;

(e) Iron and steel mills;

(f) Primary aluminum ore reduction plants;

(g) Primary copper smelters;

(h) Municipal incinerators capable of charging more than 50 tons of refuse per day;

(i) Hydrofluoric, sulfuric, or nitric acid plants;

(j) Petroleum refineries;

(k) Lime plants;

(l) Phosphate rock processing plants;

(m) Coke oven batteries;

(n) Sulfur recovery plants;

(o) Carbon black plants (furnace process);

(p) Primary lead smelters;

(q) Fuel conversion plants;

(r) Sintering plants;

(s) Secondary metal production plants;

(t) Chemical process plants - The term chemical processing plant shall not include ethanol production facilities that produce ethanol by natural fermentation included in NAICS codes 325193 or 312140;

(u) Fossil-fuel boilers (or combination thereof) totaling more than 250 million British thermal units per hour heat input;

(v) Petroleum storage and transfer units with a total storage capacity exceeding 300,000 barrels;

(w) Taconite ore processing plants;

(x) Glass fiber processing plants;

(y) Charcoal production plants;

(z) Fossil fuel-fired steam electric plants of more than 250 million British thermal units per hour heat input, and

(aa) Any other stationary source category which, as of August 7, 1980, is being regulated under section 111 or 112 of the Act.

(2)

(i) Major modification means any physical change in or change in the method of operation of a major stationary source that would result in: a significant emissions increase (as defined in paragraph (b)(39) of this section) of a regulated NSR pollutant (as defined in paragraph (b)(49) of this section); and a significant net emissions increase of that pollutant from the major stationary source.

(ii) Any significant emissions increase (as defined at paragraph (b)(39) of this section) from any emissions units or net emissions increase (as defined in paragraph (b)(3) of this section) at a major stationary source that is significant for volatile organic compounds or NOX shall be considered significant for ozone.

(iii) A physical change or change in the method of operation shall not include:

(a) Routine maintenance, repair and replacement;

Note to paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(a):

On December 24, 2003, the second sentence of this paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(a) is stayed indefinitely by court order. The stayed provisions will become effective immediately if the court terminates the stay. At that time, EPA will publish a document in the Federal Register advising the public of the termination of the stay.

(b) Use of an alternative fuel or raw material by reason of any order under section 2 (a) and (b) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 (or any superseding legislation) or by reason of a natural gas curtailment plan pursuant to the Federal Power Act;

(c) Use of an alternative fuel by reason of an order or rule under section 125 of the Act;

(d) Use of an alternative fuel at a steam generating unit to the extent that the fuel is generated from municipal solid waste;

(e) Use of an alternative fuel or raw material by a stationary source which:

(1) The source was capable of accommodating before January 6, 1975, unless such change would be prohibited under any federally enforceable permit condition which was established after January 6, 1975, pursuant to 40 CFR 52.21 or under regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR part 51, subpart I.

(2) The source is approved to use under any permit issued under 40 CFR 52.21 or under regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR 51.166;

(f) An increase in the hours of operation or in the production rate, unless such change would be prohibited under any federally enforceable permit condition which was established after January 6, 1975, pursuant to 40 CFR 52.21 or under regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR part 51, subpart I.

(g) Any change in ownership at a stationary source.

(h) [Reserved]

(i) The installation, operation, cessation, or removal of a temporary clean coal technology demonstration project, provided that the project complies with:

(1) The State implementation plan for the State in which the project is located; and

(2) Other requirements necessary to attain and maintain the national ambient air quality standards during the project and after it is terminated.

(j) The installation or operation of a permanent clean coal technology demonstration project that constitutes repowering, provided that the project does not result in an increase in the potential to emit of any regulated pollutant emitted by the unit. This exemption shall apply on a pollutant-by-pollutant basis.

(k) The reactivation of a very clean coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit.

(iv) This definition shall not apply with respect to a particular regulated NSR pollutant when the major stationary source is complying with the requirements under paragraph (w) of this section for a PAL for that pollutant. Instead, the definition at paragraph (w)(2)(viii) of this section shall apply.

(v) Fugitive emissions shall not be included in determining for any of the purposes of this section whether a physical change in or change in the method of operation of a major stationary source is a major modification, unless the source belongs to one of the source categories listed in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section.

(3)

(i) Net emissions increase means, with respect to any regulated NSR pollutant emitted by a major stationary source, the amount by which the sum of the following exceeds zero:

(a) The increase in emissions from a particular physical change or change in the method of operation at a stationary source as calculated pursuant to paragraph (a)(7)(iv) of this section; and

(b) Any other increases and decreases in actual emissions at the major stationary source that are contemporaneous with the particular change and are otherwise creditable. Baseline actual emissions for calculating increases and decreases under this paragraph (b)(3)(i)(b) shall be determined as provided in paragraph (b)(47), except that paragraphs (b)(47)(i)(c) and (b)(47)(ii)(d) of this section shall not apply.

(ii) An increase or decrease in actual emissions is contemporaneous with the increase from the particular change only if it occurs within a reasonable period (to be specified by the State) before the date that the increase from the particular change occurs.

(iii) An increase or decrease in actual emissions is creditable only if:

(a) It occurs within a reasonable period (to be specified by the reviewing authority); and

(b) The reviewing authority has not relied on it in issuing a permit for the source under regulations approved pursuant to this section, which permit is in effect when the increase in actual emissions from the particular change occurs; and

(c) [Reserved]

(d) As it pertains to an increase or decrease in fugitive emissions (to the extent quantifiable), it occurs at an emissions unit that is part of one of the source categories listed in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section or it occurs at an emission unit that is located at a major stationary source that belongs to one of the listed source categories. Fugitive emission increases or decreases are not included for those emissions units located at a facility whose primary activity is not represented by one of the source categories listed in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section and that are not, by themselves, part of a listed source category.

(iv) An increase or decrease in actual emissions of sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, or nitrogen oxides that occurs before the applicable minor source baseline date is creditable only if it is required to be considered in calculating the amount of maximum allowable increases remaining available.

(v) An increase in actual emissions is creditable only to the extent that the new level of actual emissions exceeds the old level.

(vi) A decrease in actual emissions is creditable only to the extent that:

(a) The old level of actual emissions or the old level of allowable emissions, whichever is lower, exceeds the new level of actual emissions;

(b) It is enforceable as a practical matter at and after the time that actual construction on the particular change begins;

(c) It has approximately the same qualitative significance for public health and welfare as that attributed to the increase from the particular change; and

(vii) An increase that results from a physical change at a source occurs when the emissions unit on which construction occurred becomes operational and begins to emit a particular pollutant. Any replacement unit that requires shakedown becomes operational only after a reasonable shakedown period, not to exceed 180 days.

(viii) Paragraph (b)(21)(ii) of this section shall not apply for determining creditable increases and decreases.

(4) Potential to emit means the maximum capacity of a stationary source to emit a pollutant under its physical and operational design. Any physical or operational limitation on the capacity of the source to emit a pollutant, including air pollution control equipment and restrictions on hours of operation or on the type or amount of material combusted, stored, or processed, shall be treated as part of its design if the limitation or the effect it would have on emissions is federally enforceable. Secondary emissions do not count in determining the potential to emit of a stationary source.

(5) Stationary source means any building, structure, facility, or installation which emits or may emit a regulated NSR pollutant.

(6)

(i) Building, structure, facility, or installation means all of the pollutant-emitting activities which belong to the same industrial grouping, are located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties, and are under the control of the same person (or persons under common control) except the activities of any vessel. Pollutant-emitting activities shall be considered as part of the same industrial grouping if they belong to the same Major Group (i.e., which have the same two-digit code) as described in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1972, as amended by the 1977 Supplement (U.S. Government Printing Office stock numbers 4101-0066 and 003-005-00176-0, respectively).

(ii) The plan may include the following provision: Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section, building, structure, facility, or installation means, for onshore activities under SIC Major Group 13: Oil and Gas Extraction, all of the pollutant-emitting activities included in Major Group 13 that are located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties, and are under the control of the same person (or persons under common control). Pollutant emitting activities shall be considered adjacent if they are located on the same surface site; or if they are located on surface sites that are located within1/4 mile of one another (measured from the center of the equipment on the surface site) and they share equipment. Shared equipment includes, but is not limited to, produced fluids storage tanks, phase separators, natural gas dehydrators or emissions control devices. Surface site, as used in this paragraph (b)(6)(ii), has the same meaning as in 40 CFR 63.761.

(7) Emissions unit means any part of a stationary source that emits or would have the potential to emit any regulated NSR pollutant and includes an electric utility steam generating unit as defined in paragraph (b)(30) of this section. For purposes of this section, there are two types of emissions units as described in paragraphs (b)(7)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) A new emissions unit is any emissions unit that is (or will be) newly constructed and that has existed for less than 2 years from the date such emissions unit first operated.

(ii) An existing emissions unit is any emissions unit that does not meet the requirements in paragraph (b)(7)(i) of this section. A replacement unit, as defined in paragraph (b)(32) of this section, is an existing emissions unit.

(8) Construction means any physical change or change in the method of operation (including fabrication, erection, installation, demolition, or modification of an emissions unit) that would result in a change in emissions.

(9) Commence as applied to construction of a major stationary source or major modification means that the owner or operator has all necessary preconstruction approvals or permits and either has:

(i) Begun, or caused to begin, a continuous program of actual on-site construction of the source, to be completed within a reasonable time; or

(ii) Entered into binding agreements or contractual obligations, which cannot be cancelled or modified without substantial loss to the owner or operator, to undertake a program of actual construction of the source to be completed within a reasonable time.

(10) Necessary preconstruction approvals or permits means those permits or approvals required under Federal air quality control laws and regulations and those air quality control laws and regulations which are part of the applicable State Implementation Plan.

(11) Begin actual construction means, in general, initiation of physical on-site construction activities on an emissions unit which are of a permanent nature. Such activities include, but are not limited to, installation of building supports and foundations, laying of underground pipework, and construction of permanent storage structures. With respect to a change in method of operation this term refers to those on-site activities, other than preparatory activities, which mark the initiation of the change.

(12) Best available control technology means an emissions limitation (including a visible emissions standard) based on the maximum degree of reduction for each regulated NSR pollutant which would be emitted from any proposed major stationary source or major modification which the reviewing authority, on a case-by-case basis, taking into account energy, environmental, and economic impacts and other costs, determines is achievable for such source or modification through application of production processes or available methods, systems, and techniques, including fuel cleaning or treatment or innovative fuel combination techniques for control of such pollutant. In no event shall application of best available control technology result in emissions of any pollutant which would exceed the emissions allowed by any applicable standard under 40 CFR part 60, 61, or 63. If the reviewing authority determines that technological or economic limitations on the application of measurement methodology to a particular emissions unit would make the imposition of an emissions standard infeasible, a design, equipment, work practice, operational standard or combination thereof, may be prescribed instead to satisfy the requirement for the application of best available control technology. Such standard shall, to the degree possible, set forth the emissions reduction achievable by implementation of such design, equipment, work practice or operation, and shall provide for compliance by means which achieve equivalent results.

(13)

(i) Baseline concentration means that ambient concentration level that exists in the baseline area at the time of the applicable minor source baseline date. A baseline concentration is determined for each pollutant for which a minor source baseline date is established and shall include:

(a) The actual emissions, as defined in paragraph (b)(21) of this section, representative of sources in existence on the applicable minor source baseline date, except as provided in paragraph (b)(13)(ii) of this section;

(b) The allowable emissions of major stationary sources that commenced construction before the major source baseline date, but were not in operation by the applicable minor source baseline date.

(ii) The following will not be included in the baseline concentration and will affect the applicable maximum allowable increase(s):

(a) Actual emissions, as defined in paragraph (b)(21) of this section, from any major stationary source on which construction commenced after the major source baseline date; and

(b) Actual emissions increases and decreases, as defined in paragraph (b)(21) of this section, at any stationary source occurring after the minor source baseline date.

(14)

(i) Major source baseline date means:

(a) In the case of PM10 and sulfur dioxide, January 6, 1975;

(b) In the case of nitrogen dioxide, February 8, 1988; and

(c) In the case of PM2.5, October 20, 2010.

(ii) Minor source baseline date means the earliest date after the trigger date on which a major stationary source or a major modification subject to 40 CFR 52.21 or to regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR 51.166 submits a complete application under the relevant regulations. The trigger date is:

(a) In the case of PM10 and sulfur dioxide, August 7, 1977;

(b) In the case of nitrogen dioxide, February 8, 1988; and

(c) In the case of PM2.5, October 20, 2011.

(iii) The baseline date is established for each pollutant for which increments or other equivalent measures have been established if:

(a) The area in which the proposed source or modification would construct is designated as attainment or unclassifiable under section 107(d)(1)(A)(ii) or (iii) of the Act for the pollutant on the date of its complete application under 40 CFR 52.21 or under regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR 51.166; and

(b) In the case of a major stationary source, the pollutant would be emitted in significant amounts, or, in the case of a major modification, there would be a significant net emissions increase of the pollutant.

(iv) Any minor source baseline date established originally for the TSP increments shall remain in effect and shall apply for purposes of determining the amount of available PM-10 increments, except that the reviewing authority may rescind any such minor source baseline date where it can be shown, to the satisfaction of the reviewing authority, that the emissions increase from the major stationary source, or the net emissions increase from the major modification, responsible for triggering that date did not result in a significant amount of PM-10 emissions.

(15)

(i) Baseline area means any intrastate area (and every part thereof) designated as attainment or unclassifiable under section 107(d)(1)(A)(ii) or (iii) of the Act in which the major source or major modification establishing the minor source baseline date would construct or would have an air quality impact for the pollutant for which the baseline date is established, as follows: Equal to or greater than 1 µg/m3 (annual average) for SO2, NO2, or PM10; or equal or greater than 0.3 µg/m3 (annual average) for PM2.5.

(ii) Area redesignations under section 107(d)(1)(A)(ii) or (iii) of the Act cannot intersect or be smaller than the area of impact of any major stationary source or major modification which:

(a) Establishes a minor source baseline date; or

(b) Is subject to 40 CFR 52.21 or under regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR 51.166, and would be constructed in the same State as the State proposing the redesignation.

(iii) Any baseline area established originally for the TSP increments shall remain in effect and shall apply for purposes of determining the amount of available PM-10 increments, except that such baseline area shall not remain in effect if the permit authority rescinds the corresponding minor source baseline date in accordance with paragraph (b)(14)(iv) of this section.

(16) Allowable emissions means the emissions rate of a stationary source calculated using the maximum rated capacity of the source (unless the source is subject to federally enforceable limits which restrict the operating rate, or hours of operation, or both) and the most stringent of the following:

(i) The applicable standards as set forth in 40 CFR parts 60 and 61;

(ii) The applicable State Implementation Plan emissions limitation, including those with a future compliance date; or

(iii) The emissions rate specified as a federally enforceable permit condition.

(17) Federally enforceable means all limitations and conditions which are enforceable by the Administrator, including those requirements developed pursuant to 40 CFR parts 60 and 61, requirements within any applicable State implementation plan, any permit requirements established pursuant to 40 CFR 52.21 or under regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR part 51, subpart I, including operating permits issued under an EPA-approved program that is incorporated into the State implementation plan and expressly requires adherence to any permit issued under such program.

(18) Secondary emissions means emissions which occur as a result of the construction or operation of a major stationary source or major modification, but do not come from the major stationary source or major modification itself. For the purposes of this section, secondary emissions must be specific, well defined, quantifiable, and impact the same general areas the stationary source modification which causes the secondary emissions. Secondary emissions include emissions from any offsite support facility which would not be constructed or increase its emissions except as a result of the construction or operation of the major stationary source or major modification. Secondary emissions do not include any emissions which come directly from a mobile source, such as emissions from the tailpipe of a motor vehicle, from a train, or from a vessel.

(19) Innovative control technology means any system of air pollution control that has not been adequately demonstrated in practice, but would have a substantial likelihood of achieving greater continuous emissions reduction than any control system in current practice or of achieving at least comparable reductions at lower cost in terms of energy, economics, or nonair quality environmental impacts.

(20) Fugitive emissions means those emissions which could not reasonably pass through a stack, chimney, vent, or other functionally equivalent opening.

(21)

(i) Actual emissions means the actual rate of emissions of a regulated NSR pollutant from an emissions unit, as determined in accordance with paragraphs (b)(21)(ii) through (iv) of this section, except that this definition shall not apply for calculating whether a significant emissions increase has occurred, or for establishing a PAL under paragraph (w) of this section. Instead, paragraphs (b)(40) and (b)(47) of this section shall apply for those purposes.

(ii) In general, actual emissions as of a particular date shall equal the average rate, in tons per year, at which the unit actually emitted the pollutant during a consecutive 24-month period which precedes the particular date and which is representative of normal source operation. The reviewing authority shall allow the use of a different time period upon a determination that it is more representative of normal source operation. Actual emissions shall be calculated using the unit's actual operating hours, production rates, and types of materials processed, stored, or combusted during the selected time period.

(iii) The reviewing authority may presume that source-specific allowable emissions for the unit are equivalent to the actual emissions of the unit.

(iv) For any emissions unit that has not begun normal operations on the particular date, actual emissions shall equal the potential to emit of the unit on that date.

(22) Complete means, in reference to an application for a permit, that the application contains all the information necessary for processing the application. Designating an application complete for purposes of permit processing does not preclude the reviewing authority from requesting or accepting any additional information.

(23)

(i) Significant means, in reference to a net emissions increase or the potential of a source to emit any of the following pollutants, a rate of emissions that would equal or exceed any of the following rates:

Pollutant and Emissions Rate

Carbon monoxide: 100 tons per year (tpy)

Nitrogen oxides: 40 tpy

Sulfur dioxide: 40 tpy

Particulate matter: 25 tpy of particulate matter emissions. 15 tpy of PM10 emissions

PM2.5: 10 tpy of direct PM2.5 emissions; 40 tpy of sulfur dioxide emissions; 40 tpy of nitrogen oxide emissions unless demonstrated not to be a PM2.5 precursor under paragraph (b)(49) of this section

Ozone: 40 tpy of volatile organic compounds or nitrogen oxides

Lead: 0.6 tpy

Fluorides: 3 tpy

Sulfuric acid mist: 7 tpy

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S): 10 tpy

Total reduced sulfur (including H2S): 10 tpy

Reduced sulfur compounds (including H2S): 10 tpy

Municipal waste combustor organics (measured as total tetra-through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans): 3.2 × 10-−6 megagrams per year (3.5 × 10−6 tons per year)

Municipal waste combustor metals (measured as particulate matter): 14 megagrams per year (15 tons per year)

Municipal waste combustor acid gases (measured as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride): 36 megagrams per year (40 tons per year)

Municipal solid waste landfill emissions (measured as nonmethane organic compounds): 45 megagrams per year (50 tons per year)

(ii) Significant means, in reference to a net emissions increase or the potential of a source to emit a regulated NSR pollutant that paragraph (b)(23)(i) of this section does not list, any emissions rate.

(iii) Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(23)(i) of this section, significant means any emissions rate or any net emissions increase associated with a major stationary source or major modification, which would construct within 10 kilometers of a Class I area, and have an impact on such area equal to or greater than 1 µg/m3 (24-hour average).

(24) Federal Land Manager means, with respect to any lands in the United States, the Secretary of the department with authority over such lands.

(25) High terrain means any area having an elevation 900 feet or more above the base of the stack of a source.

(26) Low terrain means any area other than high terrain.

(27) Indian Reservation means any federally recognized reservation established by Treaty, Agreement, Executive Order, or Act of Congress.

(28) Indian Governing Body means the governing body of any tribe, band, or group of Indians subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and recognized by the United States as possessing power of self-government.

(29) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) is as defined in § 51.100(s) of this part.

(30) Electric utility steam generating unit means any steam electric generating unit that is constructed for the purpose of supplying more than one-third of its potential electric output capacity and more than 25 MW electrical output to any utility power distribution system for sale. Any steam supplied to a steam distribution system for the purpose of providing steam to a steam-electric generator that would produce electrical energy for sale is also considered in determining the electrical energy output capacity of the affected facility.

(31) [Reserved]

(32) Replacement unit means an emissions unit for which all the criteria listed in paragraphs (b)(32)(i) through (iv) of this section are met. No creditable emission reductions shall be generated from shutting down the existing emissions unit that is replaced.

(i) The emissions unit is a reconstructed unit within the meaning of § 60.15(b)(1) of this chapter, or the emissions unit completely takes the place of an existing emissions unit;

(ii) The emissions unit is identical to or functionally equivalent to the replaced emissions unit;

(iii) The replacement does not change the basic design parameter(s) of the process unit;-and

(iv) The replaced emissions unit is permanently removed from the major stationary source, otherwise permanently disabled, or permanently barred from operation by a permit that is enforceable as a practical matter. If the replaced emissions unit is brought back into operation, it shall constitute a new emissions unit.

(33) Clean coal technology means any technology, including technologies applied at the precombustion, combustion, or post combustion stage, at a new or existing facility which will achieve significant reductions in air emissions of sulfur dioxide or oxides of nitrogen associated with the utilization of coal in the generation of electricity, or process steam which was not in widespread use as of November 15, 1990.

(34) Clean coal technology demonstration project means a project using funds appropriated under the heading “Department of Energy - Clean Coal Technology”, up to a total amount of $2,500,000,000 for commercial demonstration of clean coal technology, or similar projects funded through appropriations for the Environmental Protection Agency. The Federal contribution for a qualifying project shall be at least 20 percent of the total cost of the demonstration project.

(35) Temporary clean coal technology demonstration project means a clean coal technology demonstration project that is operated for a period of 5 years or less, and which complies with the State implementation plan for the State in which the project is located and other requirements necessary to attain and maintain the national ambient air quality standards during and after the project is terminated.

(36)

(i) Repowering means replacement of an existing coal-fired boiler with one of the following clean coal technologies: atmospheric or pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, magnetohydrodynamics, direct and indirect coal-fired turbines, integrated gasification fuel cells, or as determined by the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, a derivative of one or more of these technologies, and any other technology capable of controlling multiple combustion emissions simultaneously with improved boiler or generation efficiency and with significantly greater waste reduction relative to the performance of technology in widespread commercial use as of November 15, 1990.

(ii) Repowering shall also include any oil and/or gas-fired unit which has been awarded clean coal technology demonstration funding as of January 1, 1991, by the Department of Energy.

(iii) The reviewing authority shall give expedited consideration to permit applications for any source that satisfies the requirements of this subsection and is granted an extension under section 409 of the Clean Air Act.

(37) Reactivation of a very clean coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit means any physical change or change in the method of operation associated with the commencement of commercial operations by a coal-fired utility unit after a period of discontinued operation where the unit:

(i) Has not been in operation for the two-year period prior to the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, and the emissions from such unit continue to be carried in the permitting authority's emissions inventory at the time of enactment;

(ii) Was equipped prior to shutdown with a continuous system of emissions control that achieves a removal efficiency for sulfur dioxide of no less than 85 percent and a removal efficiency for particulates of no less than 98 percent;

(iii) Is equipped with low-NOX burners prior to the time of commencement of operations following reactivation; and

(iv) Is otherwise in compliance with the requirements of the Clean Air Act.

(38) Pollution prevention means any activity that through process changes, product reformulation or redesign, or substitution of less polluting raw materials, eliminates or reduces the release of air pollutants (including fugitive emissions) and other pollutants to the environment prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal; it does not mean recycling (other than certain “in-process recycling” practices), energy recovery, treatment, or disposal.

(39) Significant emissions increase means, for a regulated NSR pollutant, an increase in emissions that is significant (as defined in paragraph (b)(23) of this section) for that pollutant.

(40)

(i) Projected actual emissions means the maximum annual rate, in tons per year, at which an existing emissions unit is projected to emit a regulated NSR pollutant in any one of the 5 years (12-month period) following the date the unit resumes regular operation after the project, or in any one of the 10 years following that date, if the project involves increasing the emissions unit's design capacity or its potential to emit that regulated NSR pollutant, and full utilization of the unit would result in a significant emissions increase, or a significant net emissions increase at the major stationary source.

(ii) In determining the projected actual emissions under paragraph (b)(40)(i) of this section (before beginning actual construction), the owner or operator of the major stationary source:

(a) Shall consider all relevant information, including but not limited to, historical operational data, the company's own representations, the company's expected business activity and the company's highest projections of business activity, the company's filings with the State or Federal regulatory authorities, and compliance plans under the approved plan; and

(b) Shall include fugitive emissions to the extent quantifiable, and emissions associated with startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions; and

(c) Shall exclude, in calculating any increase in emissions that results from the particular project, that portion of the unit's emissions following the project that an existing unit could have accommodated during the consecutive 24-month period used to establish the baseline actual emissions under paragraph (b)(47) of this section and that are also unrelated to the particular project, including any increased utilization due to product demand growth; or,

(d) In lieu of using the method set out in paragraphs (b)(40)(ii)(a) through (c) of this section, may elect to use the emissions unit's potential to emit, in tons per year, as defined under paragraph (b)(4) of this section.

(41) [Reserved]

(42) Prevention of Significant Deterioration Program (PSD) program means a major source preconstruction permit program that has been approved by the Administrator and incorporated into the plan to implement the requirements of this section, or the program in § 52.21 of this chapter. Any permit issued under such a program is a major NSR permit.

(43) Continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS) means all of the equipment that may be required to meet the data acquisition and availability requirements of this section, to sample, condition (if applicable), analyze, and provide a record of emissions on a continuous basis.

(44) Predictive emissions monitoring system (PEMS) means all of the equipment necessary to monitor process and control device operational parameters (for example, control device secondary voltages and electric currents) and other information (for example, gas flow rate, O2 or CO2 concentrations), and calculate and record the mass emissions rate (for example, lb/hr) on a continuous basis.

(45) Continuous parameter monitoring system (CPMS) means all of the equipment necessary to meet the data acquisition and availability requirements of this section, to monitor process and control device operational parameters (for example, control device secondary voltages and electric currents) and other information (for example, gas flow rate, O2 or CO2 concentrations), and to record average operational parameter value(s) on a continuous basis.

(46) Continuous emissions rate monitoring system (CERMS) means the total equipment required for the determination and recording of the pollutant mass emissions rate (in terms of mass per unit of time).

(47) Baseline actual emissions means the rate of emissions, in tons per year, of a regulated NSR pollutant, as determined in accordance with paragraphs (b)(47)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(i) For any existing electric utility steam generating unit, baseline actual emissions means the average rate, in tons per year, at which the unit actually emitted the pollutant during any consecutive 24-month period selected by the owner or operator within the 5-year period immediately preceding when the owner or operator begins actual construction of the project. The reviewing authority shall allow the use of a different time period upon a determination that it is more representative of normal source operation.

(a) The average rate shall include fugitive emissions to the extent quantifiable, and emissions associated with startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

(b) The average rate shall be adjusted downward to exclude any non-compliant emissions that occurred while the source was operating above an emission limitation that was legally enforceable during the consecutive 24-month period.

(c) For a regulated NSR pollutant, when a project involves multiple emissions units, only one consecutive 24-month period must be used to determine the baseline actual emissions for the emissions units being changed. A different consecutive 24-month period can be used For each regulated NSR pollutant.

(d) The average rate shall not be based on any consecutive 24-month period for which there is inadequate information for determining annual emissions, in tons per year, and for adjusting this amount if required by paragraph (b)(47)(i)(b) of this section.

(ii) For an existing emissions unit (other than an electric utility steam generating unit), baseline actual emissions means the average rate, in tons per year, at which the emissions unit actually emitted the pollutant during any consecutive 24-month period selected by the owner or operator within the 10-year period immediately preceding either the date the owner or operator begins actual construction of the project, or the date a complete permit application is received by the reviewing authority for a permit required either under this section or under a plan approved by the Administrator, whichever is earlier, except that the 10-year period shall not include any period earlier than November 15, 1990.

(a) The average rate shall include fugitive emissions to the extent quantifiable, and emissions associated with startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

(b) The average rate shall be adjusted downward to exclude any non-compliant emissions that occurred while the source was operating above an emission limitation that was legally enforceable during the consecutive 24-month period.

(c) The average rate shall be adjusted downward to exclude any emissions that would have exceeded an emission limitation with which the major stationary source must currently comply, had such major stationary source been required to comply with such limitations during the consecutive 24-month period. However, if an emission limitation is part of a maximum achievable control technology standard that the Administrator proposed or promulgated under part 63 of this chapter, the baseline actual emissions need only be adjusted if the State has taken credit for such emissions reductions in an attainment demonstration or maintenance plan consistent with the requirements of § 51.165(a)(3)(ii)(G).

(d) For a regulated NSR pollutant, when a project involves multiple emissions units, only one consecutive 24-month period must be used to determine the baseline actual emissions for the emissions units being changed. A different consecutive 24-month period can be used For each regulated NSR pollutant.

(e) The average rate shall not be based on any consecutive 24-month period for which there is inadequate information for determining annual emissions, in tons per year, and for adjusting this amount if required by paragraphs (b)(47)(ii)(b) and (c) of this section.

(iii) For a new emissions unit, the baseline actual emissions for purposes of determining the emissions increase that will result from the initial construction and operation of such unit shall equal zero; and thereafter, for all other purposes, shall equal the unit's potential to emit.

(iv) For a PAL for a stationary source, the baseline actual emissions shall be calculated for existing electric utility steam generating units in accordance with the procedures contained in paragraph (b)(47)(i) of this section, for other existing emissions units in accordance with the procedures contained in paragraph (b)(47)(ii) of this section, and for a new emissions unit in accordance with the procedures contained in paragraph (b)(47)(iii) of this section.

(48) Subject to regulation means, for any air pollutant, that the pollutant is subject to either a provision in the Clean Air Act, or a nationally-applicable regulation codified by the Administrator in subchapter C of this chapter, that requires actual control of the quantity of emissions of that pollutant, and that such a control requirement has taken effect and is operative to control, limit or restrict the quantity of emissions of that pollutant released from the regulated activity. Except that:

(i) Greenhouse gases (GHGs), the air pollutant defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride, shall not be subject to regulation except as provided in paragraph (b)(48)(iv) of this section.

(ii) For purposes of paragraphs (b)(48)(iii) and (iv) of this section, the term tpy CO2 equivalent emissions (CO2e) shall represent an amount of GHGs emitted, and shall be computed as follows:

(a) Multiplying the mass amount of emissions (tpy), for each of the six greenhouse gases in the pollutant GHGs, by the gas's associated global warming potential published at Table A-1 to subpart A of part 98 of this chapter - Global Warming Potentials.

(b) Sum the resultant value from paragraph (b)(48)(ii)(a) of this section for each gas to compute a tpy CO2e.

(iii) The term emissions increase as used in paragraph (b)(48)(iv) of this section shall mean that both a significant emissions increase (as calculated using the procedures in paragraph (a)(7)(iv) of this section) and a significant net emissions increase (as defined in paragraphs (b)(3) and (23) of this section) occur. For the pollutant GHGs, an emissions increase shall be based on tpy CO2e, and shall be calculated assuming the pollutant GHGs is a regulated NSR pollutant and “significant” is defined as 75,000 tpy CO2e instead of applying the value in paragraph (b)(23)(ii) of this section.

(iv) Beginning January 2, 2011, the pollutant GHGs is subject to regulation if:

(a) The stationary source is a new major stationary source for a regulated NSR pollutant that is not GHGs, and also will emit or will have the potential to emit 75,000 tpy CO2e or more; or

(b) The stationary source is an existing major stationary source for a regulated NSR pollutant that is not GHGs, and also will have an emissions increase of a regulated NSR pollutant, and an emissions increase of 75,000 tpy CO2e or more.

(49) Regulated NSR pollutant, for purposes of this section, means the following:

(i) Any pollutant for which a national ambient air quality standard has been promulgated. This includes, but is not limited to, the following:

(a) PM2.5 emissions and PM10 emissions shall include gaseous emissions from a source or activity which condense to form particulate matter at ambient temperatures. On or after January 1, 2011, such condensable particulate matter shall be accounted for in applicability determinations and in establishing emissions limitations for PM2.5 and PM10 in PSD permits. Compliance with emissions limitations for PM2.5 and PM10 issued prior to this date shall not be based on condensable particulate matter unless required by the terms and conditions of the permit or the applicable implementation plan. Applicability determinations made prior to this date without accounting for condensable particulate matter shall not be considered in violation of this section unless the applicable implementation plan required condensable particulate matter to be included;

(b) Any pollutant identified under this paragraph (b)(49)(i)(b) as a constituent or precursor to a pollutant for which a national ambient air quality standard has been promulgated. Precursors identified by the Administrator for purposes of NSR are the following:

(1) Volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides are precursors to ozone in all attainment and unclassifiable areas.

(2) Sulfur dioxide is a precursor to PM2.5 in all attainment and unclassifiable areas.

(3) Nitrogen oxides are presumed to be precursors to PM2.5 in all attainment and unclassifiable areas, unless the State demonstrates to the Administrator's satisfaction or EPA demonstrates that emissions of nitrogen oxides from sources in a specific area are not a significant contributor to that area's ambient PM2.5 concentrations.

(4) Volatile organic compounds are presumed not to be precursors to PM2.5 in any attainment or unclassifiable area, unless the State demonstrates to the Administrator's satisfaction or EPA demonstrates that emissions of volatile organic compounds from sources in a specific area are a significant contributor to that area's ambient PM2.5 concentrations.

(ii) Any pollutant that is subject to any standard promulgated under section 111 of the Act;

(iii) Any Class I or II substance subject to a standard promulgated under or established by title VI of the Act;

(iv) Any pollutant that otherwise is subject to regulation under the Act as defined in paragraph (b)(48) of this section.

(v) Notwithstanding paragraphs (b)(49)(i) through (iv) of this section, the term regulated NSR pollutant shall not include any or all hazardous air pollutants either listed in section 112 of the Act, or added to the list pursuant to section 112(b)(2) of the Act, and which have not been delisted pursuant to section 112(b)(3) of the Act, unless the listed hazardous air pollutant is also regulated as a constituent or precursor of a general pollutant listed under section 108 of the Act.

(50) Reviewing authority means the State air pollution control agency, local agency, other State agency, Indian tribe, or other agency authorized by the Administrator to carry out a permit program under § 51.165 and this section, or the Administrator in the case of EPA-implemented permit programs under § 52.21 of this chapter.

(51) Project means a physical change in, or change in method of operation of, an existing major stationary source.

(52) Lowest achievable emission rate (LAER) is as defined in § 51.165(a)(1)(xiii).

(c) Ambient air increments and other measures.

(1) The plan shall contain emission limitations and such other measures as may be necessary to assure that in areas designated as Class I, II, or III, increases in pollutant concentrations over the baseline concentration shall be limited to the following:

Pollutant Maximum
allowable
increase (micrograms per cubic meter)
Class I Area
PM2.5:
Annual arithmetic mean 1
24-hr maximum 2
PM10:
Annual arithmetic mean 4
24-hr maximum 8
Sulfur dioxide:
Annual arithmetic mean 2
24-hr maximum 5
3-hr maximum 25
Nitrogen dioxide:
Annual arithmetic mean 2.5
Class II Area
PM2.5:
Annual arithmetic mean 4
24-hr maximum 9
PM10:
Annual arithmetic mean 17
24-hr maximum 30
Sulfur dioxide:
Annual arithmetic mean 20
24-hr maximum 91
3-hr maximum 512
Nitrogen dioxide:
Annual arithmetic mean 25
Class III Area
PM2.5:
Annual arithmetic mean 8
24-hr maximum 18
PM10:
Annual arithmetic mean 34
24-hr maximum 60
Sulfur dioxide:
Annual arithmetic mean 40
24-hr maximum 182
3-hr maximum 700
Nitrogen dioxide:
Annual arithmetic mean 50

For any period other than an annual period, the applicable maximum allowable increase may be exceeded during one such period per year at any one location.

(2) Where the State can demonstrate that it has alternative measures in its plan other than maximum allowable increases as defined under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, that satisfy the requirements in sections 166(c) and 166(d) of the Clean Air Act for a regulated NSR pollutant for which the Administrator has established maximum allowable increases pursuant to section 166(a) of the Act, the requirements for maximum allowable increases for that pollutant under paragraph (c)(1) of this section shall not apply upon approval of the plan by the Administrator. The following regulated NSR pollutants are eligible for such treatment:

(i) Nitrogen dioxide.

(ii) PM2.5.

(d) Ambient air ceilings. The plan shall provide that no concentration of a pollutant shall exceed:

(1) The concentration permitted under the national secondary ambient air quality standard, or

(2) The concentration permitted under the national primary ambient air quality standard, whichever concentration is lowest for the pollutant for a period of exposure.

(e) Restrictions on area classifications. The plan shall provide that -

(1) All of the following areas which were in existence on August 7, 1977, shall be Class I areas and may not be redesignated:

(i) International parks,

(ii) National wilderness areas which exceed 5,000 acres in size,

(iii) National memorial parks which exceed 5,000 acres in size, and

(iv) National parks which exceed 6,000 acres in size.

(2) Areas which were redesignated as Class I under regulations promulgated before August 7, 1977, shall remain Class I, but may be redesignated as provided in this section.

(3) Any other area, unless otherwise specified in the legislation creating such an area, is initially designated Class II, but may be redesignated as provided in this section.

(4) The following areas may be redesignated only as Class I or II:

(i) An area which as of August 7, 1977, exceeded 10,000 acres in size and was a national monument, a national primitive area, a national preserve, a national recreational area, a national wild and scenic river, a national wildlife refuge, a national lakeshore or seashore; and

(ii) A national park or national wilderness area established after August 7, 1977, which exceeds 10,000 acres in size.

(f) Exclusions from increment consumption.

(1) The plan may provide that the following concentrations shall be excluded in determining compliance with a maximum allowable increase:

(i) Concentrations attributable to the increase in emissions from stationary sources which have converted from the use of petroleum products, natural gas, or both by reason of an order in effect under section 2 (a) and (b) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 (or any superseding legislation) over the emissions from such sources before the effective date of such an order;

(ii) Concentrations attributable to the increase in emissions from sources which have converted from using natural gas by reason of natural gas curtailment plan in effect pursuant to the Federal Power Act over the emissions from such sources before the effective date of such plan;

(iii) Concentrations of particulate matter attributable to the increase in emissions from construction or other temporary emission-related activities of new or modified sources;

(iv) The increase in concentrations attributable to new sources outside the United States over the concentrations attributable to existing sources which are included in the baseline concentration; and

(v) Concentrations attributable to the temporary increase in emissions of sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, or nitrogen oxides from stationary sources which are affected by plan revisions approved by the Administrator as meeting the criteria specified in paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(2) If the plan provides that the concentrations to which paragraph (f)(1) (i) or (ii) of this section, refers shall be excluded, it shall also provide that no exclusion of such concentrations shall apply more than five years after the effective date of the order to which paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section, refers or the plan to which paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section, refers, whichever is applicable. If both such order and plan are applicable, no such exclusion shall apply more than five years after the later of such effective dates.

(3) [Reserved]

(4) For purposes of excluding concentrations pursuant to paragraph (f)(1)(v) of this section, the Administrator may approve a plan revision that:

(i) Specifies the time over which the temporary emissions increase of sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, or nitrogen oxides would occur. Such time is not to exceed 2 years in duration unless a longer time is approved by the Administrator.

(ii) Specifies that the time period for excluding certain contributions in accordance with paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section, is not renewable;

(iii) Allows no emissions increase from a stationary source which would:

(a) Impact a Class I area or an area where an applicable increment is known to be violated; or

(b) Cause or contribute to the violation of a national ambient air quality standard;

(iv) Requires limitations to be in effect the end of the time period specified in accordance with paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section, which would ensure that the emissions levels from stationary sources affected by the plan revision would not exceed those levels occurring from such sources before the plan revision was approved.

(g) Redesignation.

(1) The plan shall provide that all areas of the State (except as otherwise provided under paragraph (e) of this section) shall be designated either Class I, Class II, or Class III. Any designation other than Class II shall be subject to the redesignation procedures of this paragraph. Redesignation (except as otherwise precluded by paragraph (e) of this section) may be proposed by the respective States or Indian Governing Bodies, as provided below, subject to approval by the Administrator as a revision to the applicable State implementation plan.

(2) The plan may provide that the State may submit to the Administrator a proposal to redesignate areas of the State Class I or Class II: Provided, That:

(i) At least one public hearing has been held in accordance with procedures established in § 51.102.

(ii) Other States, Indian Governing Bodies, and Federal Land Managers whose lands may be affected by the proposed redesignation were notified at least 30 days prior to the public hearing;

(iii) A discussion of the reasons for the proposed redesignation, including a satisfactory description and analysis of the health, environmental, economic, social, and energy effects of the proposed redesignation, was prepared and made available for public inspection at least 30 days prior to the hearing and the notice announcing the hearing contained appropriate notification of the availability of such discussion;

(iv) Prior to the issuance of notice respecting the redesignation of an area that includes any Federal lands, the State has provided written notice to the appropriate Federal Land Manager and afforded adequate opportunity (not in excess of 60 days) to confer with the State respecting the redesignation and to submit written comments and recommendations. In redesignating any area with respect to which any Federal Land Manager had submitted written comments and recommendations, the State shall have published a list of any inconsistency between such redesignation and such comments and recommendations (together with the reasons for making such redesignation against the recommendation of the Federal Land Manager); and

(v) The State has proposed the redesignation after consultation with the elected leadership of local and other substate general purpose governments in the area covered by the proposed redesignation.

(3) The plan may provide that any area other than an area to which paragraph (e) of this section refers may be redesignated as Class III if -

(i) The redesignation would meet the requirements of provisions established in accordance with paragraph (g)(2) of this section;

(ii) The redesignation, except any established by an Indian Governing Body, has been specifically approved by the Governor of the State, after consultation with the appropriate committees of the legislature, if it is in session, or with the leadership of the legislature, if it is not in session (unless State law provides that such redesignation must be specifically approved by State legislation) and if genera