58 FR 40197, July 27, 1993, unless otherwise noted.
The purpose of these regulations is to set out ED's rules for implementing the Age Discrimination Act of 1975. The Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of age in programs or activities receiving Federal financial assistance. The Act permits federally assisted programs or activities, and recipients of Federal funds, to continue to use age distinctions and factors other than age that meet the requirements of the Act.
(a) These regulations apply to any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance from ED.
(b) These regulations do not apply to -
(1) An age distinction contained in that part of a Federal, State, or local statute or ordinance adopted by an elected, general purpose legislative body that -
(i) Provides any benefits or assistance to persons based on age;
(ii) Establishes criteria for participation in age-related terms; or
(iii) Describes intended beneficiaries or target groups in age-related terms; or
(2) Any employment practice of any employer, employment agency, labor organization, or any labor-management joint apprenticeship training program, except any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance for employment under the Job Training Partnership Act (29 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.).
The following definitions apply to these regulations: Act means the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as amended (Title III of Pub. L. 94-135).
Action means any act, activity, policy, rule, standard, or method of administration, or the use of any policy, rule, standard, or method of administration.
Age means how old a person is, or the number of years from the date of a person's birth.
Age distinction means any action using age or an age-related term.
Age-related term means a word or words that necessarily imply a particular age or range of ages (e.g., “children,” “adult,” “older persons,” but not “student” or “grade”).
Agency means a Federal department or agency that is empowered to extend financial assistance.
Applicant for Federal financial assistance means one who submits an application, request, or plan required to be approved by a Department official or by a recipient as a condition to becoming a recipient or subrecipient.
Department means the United States Department of Education.
ED means the United States Department of Education.
Federal financial assistance means any grant, entitlement, loan, cooperative agreement, contract (other than a procurement contract or a contract of insurance or guaranty), or any other arrangement by which ED provides or otherwise makes available assistance in the form of -
(b) Services of Federal personnel; or
(c) Real and personal property or any interest in or use of property, including -
(1) Transfers or leases of property for less than fair market value or for reduced consideration; and
(2) Proceeds from a subsequent transfer or lease of property if the Federal share of its fair market value is not returned to the Federal Government.
Program or activity means all of the operations of -
(1) A department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of a State or local government; or
(2) The entity of a State or local government that distributes such assistance and each such department or agency (and each other State or local government entity) to which the assistance is extended, in the case of assistance to a State or local government;
(1) A college, university, or other postsecondary institution, or a public system of higher education; or
(2) A local educational agency (as defined in 20 U.S.C. 8801), system of vocational education, or other school system;
(1) An entire corporation, partnership, other private organization, or an entire sole proprietorship -
(i) If assistance is extended to such corporation, partnership, private organization, or sole proprietorship as a whole; or
(ii) Which is principally engaged in the business of providing education, health care, housing, social services, or parks and recreation; or
(2) The entire plant or other comparable, geographically separate facility to which Federal financial assistance is extended, in the case of any other corporation, partnership, private organization, or sole proprietorship; or
Recipient means any State or its political subdivision, any instrumentality of a State or its political subdivision, any public or private agency, institution, organization, or other entity, or any person to which Federal financial assistance from ED is extended, directly or through another recipient. “Recipient” includes any successor, assignee, or transferee of a recipient, but excludes the ultimate beneficiary of the assistance.
Secretary means the Secretary of Education, or his or her designee.
Subrecipient means any of the entities in the definition of “recipient” to which a recipient extends or passes on Federal financial assistance. A subrecipient is generally regarded as a recipient of Federal financial assistance and has all the duties of a recipient in these regulations.
United States means the fifty States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Wake Island, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the territories and possessions of the United States.
The rules stated in this section are subject to the exceptions contained in §§ 110.12 and 110.13 of these regulations.
(a) General rule. No person in the United States shall, on the basis of age, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
(b) Specific rules. A recipient may not, in any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, directly or through contractual, licensing, or other arrangements, use age distinctions or take any other actions that have the effect, on the basis of age, of -
(1) Excluding individuals from, denying them the benefits of, or subjecting them to discrimination under a program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance; or
(2) Denying or limiting individuals in their opportunity to participate in any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
(c) Other forms of discrimination. The specific forms of age discrimination listed in paragraph (b) of this section do not necessarily constitute a complete list.
For purposes of these regulations, the terms normal operation and statutory objective have the following meanings:
(a) Normal operation means the operation of a program or activity without significant changes that would impair its ability to meet its objectives.
(b) Statutory objective means any purpose of a program or activity expressly stated in any Federal statute, State statute, or local statute or ordinance adopted by an elected, general purpose legislative body.
A recipient is permitted to take an action otherwise prohibited by § 110.10 if the action reasonably takes into account age as a factor necessary to the normal operation or the achievement of any statutory objective of a program or activity. An action reasonably takes into account age as a factor necessary to the normal operation or the achievement of any statutory objective of a program or activity, if -
(a) Age is used as a measure or approximation of one or more other characteristics;
(b) The other characteristic or characteristics must be measured or approximated in order for the normal operation of the program or activity to continue, or to achieve any statutory objective of the program or activity;
(c) The other characteristic or characteristics can be reasonably measured or approximated by the use of age; and
(d) The other characteristic or characteristics are impractical to measure directly on an individual basis.
A recipient is permitted to take an action otherwise prohibited by § 110.10 that is based on a factor other than age, even though that action may have a disproportionate effect on persons of different ages. An action may be based on a factor other than age only if the factor bears a direct and substantial relationship to the normal operation of the program or activity or to the achievement of a statutory objective.
Even in the absence of a finding of discrimination, a recipient may take affirmative action to overcome the effects of conditions that resulted in limited participation in the recipient's program or activity on the basis of age.
If a recipient operating a program or activity provides special benefits to the elderly or to children, the use of age distinctions is presumed to be necessary to the normal operation of the program or activity, notwithstanding the provisions of § 110.12.
Any age distinction contained in regulations issued by ED is presumed to be necessary to the achievement of a statutory objective of the program or activity to which the regulations apply, notwithstanding the provisions of § 110.12.
Each ED recipient has primary responsibility for ensuring that its program or activity is in compliance with the Act and these regulations and shall take steps to eliminate violations of the Act. A recipient also has responsibility to maintain records, provide information, and to afford ED access to its records to the extent required for ED to determine whether the recipient is in compliance with the Act and these regulations.
If the recipient initially receiving funds makes the funds available to a subrecipient, the recipient shall notify the subrecipient of its obligations under the Act and these regulations.
Each recipient shall -
(a) Provide ED with information that ED determines is necessary to ascertain whether the recipient is in compliance with the Act and these regulations; and
(b) Permit reasonable access by ED to the books, records, accounts, reports, and other recipient facilities and sources of information to the extent ED determines is necessary to ascertain whether a recipient is in compliance with the Act and these regulations.
(a) Assurances. An applicant for Federal financial assistance to which these regulations apply shall sign a written assurance, on a form specified by ED, that the program or activity will be operated in compliance with these regulations. An applicant may incorporate this assurance by reference in subsequent applications to ED.
(b) Duration of obligation.
(1) In the case of Federal financial assistance extended in the form of real property or to provide real property or structures on the property, the assurance will obligate the recipient or, in the case of a subsequent transfer, the transferee, for the period during which the real property or structures are used for the purpose for which Federal financial assistance is extended or for another purpose involving the provision of similar services or benefits.
(2) In the case of Federal financial assistance extended to provide personal property, the assurance will obligate the recipient for the period during which it retains ownership or possession of the property.
(3) In all other cases the assurance will obligate the recipient for the period during which Federal financial assistance is extended.
(1) If Federal financial assistance is provided in the form of real property or interest in the property from ED, the instrument effecting or recording this transfer must contain a covenant running with the land to assure nondiscrimination for the period during which the real property is used for a purpose for which the Federal financial assistance is extended or for another purpose involving the provision of similar services or benefits.
(2) If no transfer of property is involved but property is purchased or improved with Federal financial assistance, the recipient shall agree to include the covenant described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section in the instrument effecting or recording any subsequent transfer of the property.
(3) If Federal financial assistance is provided in the form of real property or interest in the property from ED, the covenant must also include a condition coupled with a right to be reserved by ED to revert title to the property in the event of a breach of the covenant. If a transferee of real property proposes to mortgage or otherwise encumber the real property as security for financing construction of new, or improvement of existing, facilities on the property for the purposes for which the property was transferred, ED may, upon request of the transferee and if necessary to accomplish that financing and upon conditions that ED deems appropriate, agree to forbear the exercise of the right to revert title for as long as the lien of the mortgage or other encumbrance remains effective.
(a) As part of a compliance review under § 110.30 or a complaint investigation under § 110.31, ED may require a recipient employing the equivalent of 15 or more full-time employees to complete a written self-evaluation, in a manner specified by ED, of any age distinction imposed in its program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance from ED to assess the recipient's compliance with the Act.
(b) Whenever an assessment indicates a violation of the Act or these regulations, the recipient shall take corrective action.
(a) Designation of responsible employee. Each recipient shall designate at least one employee to coordinate its efforts to comply with and carry out its responsibilities under the Act and these regulations, including investigation of any complaints that the recipient receives alleging any actions that are prohibited by the Act and these regulations.
(b) Notice. A recipient shall notify its beneficiaries, in a continuing manner, of information regarding the provisions of the Act and these regulations. The notification must also identify the responsible employee by name or title, address, and telephone number.
(c) Grievance procedures. A recipient shall adopt and publish grievance procedures providing for prompt and equitable resolution of complaints alleging any action that would be prohibited by the Act or these regulations.
(a) ED may conduct compliance reviews, pre-award reviews, and other similar procedures that permit ED to investigate and correct violations of the Act and of these regulations. ED may conduct these reviews in the absence of a complaint against a recipient. The review may be as comprehensive as necessary to determine whether a violation of these regulations occurred.
(b) If a compliance review or pre-award review indicates a violation of the Act or these regulations, ED attempts to achieve voluntary compliance with the Act. If voluntary compliance cannot be achieved, ED arranges for enforcement as described in § 110.35.
(a) Any person, individually or as a member of a class or on behalf of others, may file a complaint with ED alleging discrimination prohibited by the Act or by these regulations based on an action occurring on or after July 1, 1979. A complainant shall file a complaint within 180 days from the date the complainant first had knowledge of the alleged discrimination. However, for good cause shown, ED may extend this time limit.
(b) ED attempts to facilitate the filing of complaints, if possible, by -
(1) Accepting as a complete complaint any written statement that identifies the parties involved and the date the complainant first had knowledge of the alleged violation, describes generally the action or practice complained of, and is signed by the complainant;
(2) Freely permitting a complainant to add information to the complaint to meet the requirements of a complete complaint;
(3) Widely disseminating information regarding the obligations of recipients under the Act and these regulations;
(4) Notifying the complainant and the recipient of their rights and obligations under the complaint procedure, including the right to have a representative at all stages of the complaint procedure; and
(5) Notifying the complainant and the recipient (or their representatives) of their right to contact ED for information and assistance regarding the complaint resolution process.
(c) A complaint is considered to be complete on the date that ED receives all the information necessary to process it, as described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
(d) ED returns to the complainant any complaint outside the jurisdiction of these regulations and states the reason or reasons why it is outside the jurisdiction of the regulations.
(a) ED promptly refers to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service or to the mediation agency designated by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, all complaints that -
(1) Fall within the jurisdiction of the Act and these regulations, unless the age distinction complained of is clearly within an exemption under § 110.2(b); and
(2) Contain all information necessary for further processing.
(b) Both the complainant and the recipient shall participate in the mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or to make an informed judgment that an agreement is not possible. The recipient and the complainant need not meet with the mediator at the same time, and the meeting may be conducted by telephone or other means of effective dialogue if a personal meeting between the party and the mediator is impractical.
(c) If the complainant and the recipient reach an agreement, the mediator shall prepare a written statement of the agreement and have the complainant and recipient sign it. The mediator shall send a copy of the agreement to ED. ED takes no further action on the complaint unless informed that the complainant or the recipient fails to comply with the agreement, at which time ED reinstates the complaint.
(d) The mediator shall protect the confidentiality of all information obtained in the course of the mediation process. No mediator shall testify in any adjudicative proceeding, produce any document, or otherwise disclose any information obtained in the course of the mediation process without prior approval of the head of the mediation agency.
(e) The mediation will proceed for a maximum of 60 days after a complaint is filed with ED. Mediation ends if -
(1) 60 days elapse from the time the complaint is received;
(2) Prior to the end of the 60-day period, an agreement is reached; or
(3) Prior to the end of the 60-day period, the mediator determines that agreement cannot be reached.
(f) The mediator shall return unresolved complaints to ED.
(a) Initial investigation. ED investigates complaints that are unresolved after mediation or reopened because of a violation of the mediation agreement. ED uses methods during the investigation to encourage voluntary resolution of the complaint, including discussions with the complainant and recipient to establish the facts and, if possible, resolve the complaint to the mutual satisfaction of the parties. ED may seek the assistance of any involved State, local, or other Federal agency.
(b) Formal investigation, conciliation, and hearing. If ED cannot resolve the complaint during the early stages of the investigation, ED completes the investigation of the complaint and makes formal findings. If the investigation indicates a violation of the Act or these regulations, ED attempts to achieve voluntary compliance. If ED cannot obtain voluntary compliance, ED begins enforcement as described in § 110.35.
A recipient may not engage in acts of intimidation or retaliation against any person who -
(a) Attempts to assert a right protected by the Act or these regulations; or
(b) Cooperates in any mediation, investigation, hearing, or other part of ED's investigation, conciliation, and enforcement process.
(1) Termination of, or refusal to grant or continue, a recipient's Federal financial assistance from ED for a program or activity in which the recipient has violated the Act or these regulations. The determination of the recipient's violation may be made only after a recipient has had an opportunity for a hearing on the record before an administrative law judge.
(2) Any other means authorized by law, including, but not limited to -
(i) Referral to the Department of Justice for proceedings to enforce any rights of the United States or obligations of the recipient created by the Act or these regulations; or
(ii) Use of any requirement of or referral to any Federal, State, or local government agency that will have the effect of correcting a violation of the Act or of these regulations.
(b) ED limits any termination or refusal under § 110.35(a)(1) to the particular recipient and to the particular program or activity ED finds in violation of the Act or these regulations. ED will not base any part of a termination on a finding with respect to any program or activity that does not receive Federal financial assistance from ED.
(c) ED takes no action under paragraph (a) of this section until -
(1) ED has advised the recipient of its failure to comply with the Act or with these regulations and has determined that voluntary compliance cannot be obtained; and
(2) Thirty days have elapsed after the Secretary has sent a written report of the circumstances and grounds of the action to the committees of the Congress having legislative jurisdiction over the program or activity involved. The Secretary files a report if any action is taken under § 110.35(a)(1).
(d) The Secretary also may defer granting new Federal financial assistance from ED to a recipient if termination proceedings in § 110.35(a)(1) are initiated.
(1) New Federal financial assistance from ED includes all assistance for which ED requires an application or approval, including renewal or continuation of existing activities, or authorization of new activities, during the deferral period. New Federal financial assistance from ED does not include increases in funding as a result of changed computation of formula awards or assistance approved prior to the initiation of termination proceedings.
(2) ED does not begin a deferral until the recipient has received a notice of an opportunity for a hearing under § 110.35(a)(1). A deferral may not continue for more than 60 days unless a hearing has begun within that time or the time for beginning the hearing has been extended by mutual consent of the recipient and ED. A deferral may not continue for more than 30 days after the close of the hearing, unless the hearing results in a finding against the recipient.
(b) Action taken under section 305 of the Act is subject to judicial review as provided by section 306 of the Act.
(a) If the Secretary withholds funds from a recipient under these regulations, the Secretary may disburse the funds withheld directly to an alternate recipient: any public or nonprofit private organization or agency, or State or political subdivision of the State.
(b) The Secretary requires any alternate recipient to demonstrate -
(1) The ability to comply with the Act and these regulations; and
(2) The ability to achieve the goals of the Federal statute authorizing the Federal financial assistance.
If ED finds that a recipient has discriminated on the basis of age, the recipient shall take any remedial action that ED may require to overcome the effects of the discrimination. If another recipient exercises control over the recipient that has discriminated or if the entity that has discriminated is a subrecipient, both recipients or recipient and subrecipient may be required to take remedial action.
(a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act. Administrative remedies are exhausted if -
(1) One hundred eighty days have elapsed since the complainant filed the complaint with ED, and ED has made no finding with regard to the complaint; or
(2) ED issues any finding in favor of the recipient.
(b) If ED fails to make a finding within 180 days or issues a finding in favor of the recipient, ED promptly -
(1) Advises the complainant of this fact;
(2) Advises the complainant of his or her right to bring a civil action for injunctive relief; and
(3) Informs the complainant -
(i) That a civil action can be brought only in a United States district court for the district in which the recipient is found or transacts business;
(ii) That a complainant prevailing in a civil action has the right to be awarded the costs of the action, including reasonable attorney's fees, but that these costs must be demanded in the complaint filed with the court;
(iii) That before commencing the action, the complainant shall give 30 days notice by registered mail to the Secretary, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Attorney General of the United States, and the recipient;
(iv) That the notice shall state the alleged violation of the Act, the relief requested, the court in which the action will be brought, and whether or not attorney's fees are demanded in the event the complainant prevails; and
(v) That the complainant may not bring an action if the same alleged violation of the Act by the same recipient is the subject of a pending action in any court of the United States.