(a) Every hoist used to transport persons shall be equipped with overspeed, overwind, and automatic stop controls.
(b) Every hoist handling a platform, cage, or other device used to transport persons shall be equipped with brakes capable of stopping the fully loaded platform, cage, or other device.
(c) Cages, platforms, or other devices used to transport persons in shafts and slopes shall be equipped with safety catches or other no less effective devices approved by the Secretary that act quickly and effectively in an emergency. Such catches or devices shall be tested at least once every two months.
(d) Hoisting equipment, including automatic elevators, used to transport persons shall be examined daily.
(e) Where persons are transported into or out of a mine by a hoist, a qualified hoisting engineer shall be on duty while any person is underground. No such engineer, however, shall be required for automatically operated cages, platforms, or elevators.
[48 FR 53239, Nov. 25, 1983]
Brakes on hoists used to transport persons shall be capable of stopping and holding the fully loaded platform, cage, or other device at any point in the shaft, slope, or incline.
A record shall be made in a book of the tests, required by § 75.1400, of the safety catches or other devices approved by the Secretary. Each entry shall be signed by the person making the tests and countersigned by a responsible official.
Hoists and elevators shall be examined daily and such examinations shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
(a) Elevators. A visual examination of the rope for wear, broken wires, and corrosion, especially at excessive strain points such as near the attachments and where the rope rests on sheaves;
(b) Hoists and elevators.
(1) An examination of the rope fastenings for defects;
(2) An examination of safety catches;
(3) An examination of the cages, platforms, elevators, or other devices for loose, missing or defective parts;
(4) An examination of the head sheaves to check for broken flanges, defective bearings, rope alignment, and proper lubrication; and
(5) An observation of the lining and all other equipment and appurtenances installed in the shaft.
[48 FR 53239, Nov. 25, 1983]
At the completion of each daily examination required by § 75.1400, the person making the examination shall certify, by signature and date, that the examination has been made. If any unsafe condition is found during the examinations required by § 75.1400-3, the person conducting the examination shall make a record of the condition and the date. Certifications and records shall be retained for one year.
Hoists shall have rated capacities consistent with the loads handled. An accurate and reliable indicator of the position of the cage, platform, skip, bucket, or cars shall be provided.
[48 FR 53239, Nov. 25, 1983]
The indicator required by § 75.1401 of this subpart shall be placed so that it is in clear view of the hoisting engineer and shall be checked daily to determine its accuracy.
[48 FR 53239, Nov. 25, 1983]
There shall be at least two effective methods approved by the Secretary of signaling between each of the shaft stations and the hoist room, one of which shall be a telephone or speaking tube.
One of the methods used to communicate between shaft stations and the hoist room shall give signals which can be heard by the hoisting engineer at all times while men are underground.
Signaling systems used for communication between shaft stations and the hoist room shall be tested daily.
Other safeguards adequate, in the judgment of an authorized representative of the Secretary, to minimize hazards with respect to transportation of men and materials shall be provided.
(a) Sections 75.1403-2 through 75.1403-11 set out the criteria by which an authorized representative of the Secretary will be guided in requiring other safeguards on a mine-by-mine basis under § 75.1403. Other safeguards may be required.
(b) The authorized representative of the Secretary shall in writing advise the operator of a specific safeguard which is required pursuant to § 75.1403 and shall fix a time in which the operator shall provide and thereafter maintain such safeguard. If the safeguard is not provided within the time fixed and if it is not maintained thereafter, a notice shall be issued to the operator pursuant to section 104 of the Act.
(c) Nothing in the sections in the § 75.1403 series in this Subpart O precludes the issuance of a withdrawal order because of imminent danger.
Hoists and elevators used to transport materials should be equipped with brakes capable of stopping and holding the fully loaded platform, cage, skip, car, or other device at any point in the shaft, slope, or incline.
(a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel hoist should be provided with a locking mechanism or interlocked with the brake to prevent accidental withdrawal of the clutch.
(b) Cages used for hoisting persons should be constructed with the sides enclosed to a height of at least six feet and should have gates, safety chains, or bars across the ends of the cage when persons are being hoisted or lowered.
(c) Self-dumping cages, platforms, or other devices used for transportation of persons should have a locking device to prevent tilting when persons are transported.
(d) An attendant should be on duty at the surface when persons are being hoisted or lowered at the beginning and end of each shift.
(e) Precautions should be taken to protect persons working in shaft sumps.
(f) Workers should wear safety belts while doing work in or over shafts.
[48 FR 53239, Nov. 25, 1983]
(a) The doors of automatic elevators should be equipped with interlocking switches so arranged that the elevator car will be immovable while any door is opened or unlocked, and arranged so that such door or doors cannot be inadvertently opened when the elevator car is not at a landing.
(b) A “Stop” switch should be provided in the automatic elevator compartment that will permit the elevator to be stopped at any location in the shaft.
(c) A slack cable device should be used where appropriate on automatic elevators which will automatically shut-off the power and apply the brakes in the event the elevator is obstructed while descending.
(d) Each automatic elevator should be provided with a telephone or other effective communication system by which aid or assistance can be obtained promptly.
(a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors used to transport men, and such controls should be readily accessible and maintained so that the belt can be stopped or started at any location.
(b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips should be stopped while men are loading or unloading.
(c) All belt conveyors used for the transportation of persons should have a minimum vertical clearance of 18 inches from the nearest overhead projection when measured from the edge of the belt and there should be at least 36 inches of side clearance where men board or leave such belt conveyors.
(d) When men are being transported on regularly scheduled mantrips on belt conveyors the belt speed should not exceed 300 feet per minute when the vertical clearance is less than 24 inches, and should not exceed 350 feet per minute when the vertical clearance is 24 inches or more.
(e) Adequate illumination including colored lights or reflective signs should be installed at all loading and unloading stations. Such colored lights and reflective signs should be so located as to be observable to all persons riding the belt conveyor.
(f) After supplies have been transported on belt conveyors such belts should be examined for unsafe conditions prior to the transportation of men on regularly scheduled mantrips, and belt conveyors should be clear before men are transported.
(g) A clear travelway at least 24 inches wide should be provided on both sides of all belt conveyors installed after March 30, 1970. Where roof supports are installed within 24 inches of a belt conveyor, a clear travelway at least 24 inches wide should be provided on the side of such support farthest from the conveyor.
(h) On belt conveyors that do not transport men, stop and start controls should be installed at intervals not to exceed 1,000 feet. Such controls should be properly installed and positioned so as to be readily accessible.
(i) Telephone or other suitable communications should be provided at points where men or supplies are regularly loaded on or unloaded from the belt conveyors.
(j) Persons should not cross moving belt conveyors, except where suitable crossing facilities are provided.
(a) Each self-propelled personnel carrier should:
(1) Be provided with an audible warning device;
(2) Be provided with a sealed-beam headlight, or its equivalent, on each end;
(3) Be provided with reflectors on both ends and sides.
(b) In addition, each track-mounted self-propelled personnel carrier should:
(1) Be provided with a suitable lifting jack and bar, which shall be secured or carried in a tool compartment;
(2) Be equipped with 2 separate and independent braking systems properly installed and well maintained;
(3) Be equipped with properly installed and well-maintained sanding devices, except that personnel carriers (jitneys), which transport not more than 5 men, need not be equipped with such sanding device;
(4) If an open type, be equipped with guards of sufficient strength and height to prevent personnel from being thrown from such carriers.
(a) Mantrips should be operated independently of any loaded trip, empty trip, or supply trip and should not be operated within 300 feet of any trip, including another mantrip.
(b) A sufficient number of mantrip cars should be provided to prevent overcrowding of men.
(c) Mantrips should not be pushed.
(d) Where mantrips are operated by locomotives on slopes such mantrips should be coupled to the front and rear by locomotives capable of holding such mantrips. Where ropes are used on slopes for mantrip haulage, such conveyances should be connected by chains, steel ropes, or other effective devices between mantrip cars and the rope.
(e) Safety goggles or eyeshields should be provided for all persons being transported in open-type mantrips.
(f) All trips, including trailers and sleds, should be operated at speeds consistent with conditions and the equipment used, and should be so controlled that they can be stopped within the limits of visibility.
(g) All mantrips should be under the direction of a supervisor and the operator of each mantrip should be familiar with the haulage safety rules and regulations.
(h) Men should proceed in an orderly manner to and from mantrips and no person should be permitted to get on or off a moving mantrip.
(j) Mantrips should not be permitted to proceed until the operator of the mantrip is assured that he has a clear road.
(k) Supplies or tools, except small hand tools or instruments, should not be transported with men.
(l) At places where men enter or leave mantrip conveyances, ample clearance should be provided and provisions made to prevent persons from coming in contact with energized electric circuits.
(m) The mine car next to a trolley locomotive should not be used to transport men. Such cars may be used to transport small tools and supplies. This is not to be construed as permitting the transportation of large or bulky supplies such as shuttle car wheel units, or similar material.
(n) Drop-bottom cars used to transport men should have the bottoms secured with an additional locking device.
(o) Extraneous materials or supplies should not be transported on top of equipment; however, materials and supplies that are necessary for or related to the operation of such equipment may be transported on top of such equipment if a hazard is not introduced.
(a) The speed at which haulage equipment is operated should be determined by the condition of the roadbed, rails, rail joints, switches, frogs, and other elements of the track and the type and condition of the haulage equipment.
(b) Track haulage roads should have a continuous clearance on one side of at least 24 inches from the farthest projection of normal traffic. Where it is necessary to change the side on which clearance is provided, 24 inches of clearance should be provided on both sides for a distance of not less than 100 feet and warning signs should be posted at such locations.
(c) Track haulage roads developed after March 30, 1970, should have clearance on the “tight” side of at least 12 inches from the farthest projection of normal traffic. A minimum clearance of 6 inches should be maintained on the “tight” side of all track haulage roads developed prior to March 30, 1970.
(d) The clearance space on all track haulage roads should be kept free of loose rock, supplies, and other loose materials.
(e) Positive stopblocks or derails should be installed on all tracks near the top and at landings of shafts, slopes, and surface inclines.
(a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage roads at intervals of not more than 105 feet unless otherwise approved by the Coal Mine Safety District Manager(s).
(b) Shelter holes should be readily accessible and should be at least 5 feet in depth, not more than 4 feet in width (except crosscuts used as shelter holes) and at least the height of the coal seam where the coal seam is less than 6 feet high and at least 6 feet in height where the coal seam is 6 feet or more in height.
(c) Shelter holes should be kept free of refuse and other obstructions. Crosscuts used as shelter holes should be kept free of refuse or other materials to a depth of at least 15 feet.
(d) Shelter holes should be provided at all manually operated doors and at switch throws except:
(1) At room switches, or
(2) at switches where more than 6 feet of side clearance is provided. The Coal Mine Safety District Manager(s) may permit exemption of this requirement if such shelter holes create a hazardous roof condition.
(e) At each underground slope landing where men pass and cars are handled, a shelter hole at least 10 feet in depth, 4 feet in width, and 6 feet in height should be provided.
(a) A permissible trip light or other approved device such as reflectors, approved by the Coal Mine Safety District Manager(s), should be used on the rear of trips pulled, on the front of trips pushed and on trips lowered in slopes. However, trip lights or other approved devices need not be used on cars being shifted to and from loading machines, on cars being handled at loading heads, during gathering operations at working faces, when trailing locomotives are used, or on trips pulled by animals.
(b) Cars on main haulage roads should not be pushed, except where necessary to push cars from side tracks located near the working section to the producing entries and rooms, where necessary to clear switches and sidetracks, and on the approach to cages, slopes, and surface inclines.
(c) Warning lights or reflective signs or tapes should be installed along haulage roads at locations of abrupt or sudden changes in the overhead clearance.
(d) No person, other than the motorman and brakeman, should ride on a locomotive unless authorized by the mine foreman, and then only when safe riding facilities are provided. No person should ride on any loaded car or on the bumper of any car. However, the brakeman may ride on the rear bumper of the last car of a slow moving trip pulled by a locomotive.
(e) Positive-acting stopblocks or derails should be used where necessary to protect persons from danger of runaway haulage equipment.
(f) An audible warning should be given by the operator of all self-propelled equipment including off-track equipment, where persons may be endangered by the movement of the equipment.
(g) Locomotives and personnel carriers should not approach to within 300 feet of preceding haulage equipment, except trailing locomotives that are an integral part of the trip.
(h) A total of at least 36 inches of unobstructed side clearance (both sides combined) should be provided for all rubber-tired haulage equipment where such equipment is used.
(i) Off-track haulage roadways should be maintained as free as practicable from bottom irregularities, debris, and wet or muddy conditions that affect the control of the equipment.
(j) Operators of self-propelled equipment should face in the direction of travel.
(k) Mechanical steering and control devices should be maintained so as to provide positive control at all times.
(l) All self-propelled rubber-tired haulage equipment should be equipped with well maintained brakes, lights, and a warning device.
(m) On and after March 30, 1971, all tram control switches on rubber-tired equipment should be designed to provide automatic return to the stop or off position when released.
All open entrances to shafts should be equipped with safety gates at the top and at each landing. Such gates should be self-closing and should be kept closed except when the cage is at such landing.
Each locomotive and haulage car used in an underground coal mine shall be equipped with automatic brakes, where space permits. Where space does not permit automatic brakes, locomotives and haulage cars shall be subject to speed reduction gear, or other similar devices approved by the Secretary, which are designed to stop the locomotives and haulage cars with the proper margin of safety.
A locomotive equipped with a dual braking system will be deemed to satisfy the requirements of § 75.1404 for a train comprised of such locomotive and haulage cars, provided the locomotive is operated within the limits of its design capabilities and at speeds consistent with the condition of the haulage road. A trailing locomotive or equivalent devices should be used on trains that are operated on ascending grades.
All haulage equipment acquired by an operator of a coal mine on or after March 30, 1971, shall be equipped with automatic couplers which couple by impact and uncouple without the necessity of persons going between the ends of such equipment. All haulage equipment without automatic couplers in use in a mine on March 30, 1970, shall also be so equipped within 4 years after March 30, 1970.
The requirement of § 75.1405 with respect to automatic couplers applies only to track haulage cars which are regularly coupled and uncoupled.
Sections 75.1429 through 75.1438 appear at 48 FR 53239, Nov. 25, 1983, unless otherwise noted.
If guide ropes are used in shafts for personnel hoisting applications other than shaft development, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of the guide rope at installation shall meet the minimum value calculated as follows: Minimum value = Static Load × 5.0.
(a) Sections 75.1430 through 75.1438 apply to wire ropes in service used to hoist -
(1) Persons in shafts or slopes underground; or
(2) Loads in shaft or slope development when persons work below the suspended loads.
(b) These standards do not apply to wire ropes used for elevators.
At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values obtained by the following formulas in which “L” equals the maximum suspended rope length in feet:
(a) Winding drum ropes (all constructions, including rotation resistant).
For rope lengths less than 3,000 feet:
Minimum Value = Static Load × (7.0−0.001L)
For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater:
Minimum Value = Static Load × 4.0
(b) Friction drum ropes.
For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet:
Minimum Value = Static Load × (7.0 − 0.0005L)
For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater:
Minimum Value = Static Load × 5.0
(c) Tail ropes (balance ropes).
Minimum Value = Weight of Rope × 7.0
After initial rope stretch but before visible wear occurs, the rope diameter of newly installed wire ropes shall be measured at least once in every third interval of active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent measurements. A record of the measurements and the date shall be made by the person taking the measurements. This record shall be retained until the rope is retired from service.
(a) At least once every fourteen calendar days, each wire rope in service shall be visually examined along its entire active length for visible structural damage, corrosion, and improper lubrication or dressing. In addition, visual examination for wear and broken wires shall be made at stress points, including the area near attachments, where the rope rests on sheaves, where the rope leaves the drum, at drum crossovers, and at change-of-layer regions. When any visible condition that results in a reduction of rope strength is present, the affected portion of the rope shall be examined on a daily basis.
(b) Before any person is hoisted with a newly installed wire rope or any wire rope that has not been examined in the previous fourteen calendar days, the wire rope shall be examined in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section.
(c) At least once every six months, nondestructive tests shall be conducted of the active length of the rope, or rope diameter measurements shall be made -
(1) Wherever wear is evident;
(2) Where the hoist rope rests on sheaves at regular stopping points;
(3) Where the hoist rope leaves the drum at regular stopping points; and
(4) At drum crossover and change-of-layer regions.
(d) At the completion of each examination required by paragraph (a) of this section, the person making the examination shall certify, by signature and date, that the examination has been made. If any condition listed in paragraph (a) of this standard is present, the person conducting the examination shall make a record of the condition and the date. Certifications and records of examinations shall be retained for one year.
(e) The person making the measurements or nondestructive tests as required by paragraph (c) of this section shall record the measurements or test results and the date. This record shall be retained until the rope is retired from service.
Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions occurs:
(a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either -
(1) Five percent of the total number of wires; or
(2) Fifteen percent of the total number of wires within any strand;
(b) On a regular lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length;
(c) A loss of more than one-third of the original diameter of the outer wires;
(d) Rope deterioration from corrosion;
(e) Distortion of the rope structure;
(f) Heat damage from any source;
(g) Diameter reduction due to wear that exceeds six percent of the baseline diameter measurement; or
(h) Loss of more than ten percent of rope strength as determined by nondestructive testing.
(a) Wire rope shall be attached to the load by a method that develops at least 80 percent of the nominal strength of the rope.
(b) Except for terminations where use of other materials is a design feature, zinc (spelter) shall be used for socketing wire ropes. Design feature means either the manufacturer's original design or a design approved by a registered professional engineer.
(c) Load end attachment methods using splices are prohibited.
(a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached -
(1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke;
(2) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the shaft, if the drum is fixed to the shaft; or
(3) By properly assembled anchor bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum. Design feature means either the manufacturer's original design or a design approved by a registered professional engineer.
(b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length.
Damaged or deteriorated wire rope shall be removed by cutoff and the rope reterminated where there is -
(a) More than one broken wire at an attachment;
(b) Improper installation of an attachment;
(c) Slippage at an attachment; or
(d) Evidence of deterioration from corrosion at an attachment.
Wire rope attachments shall be replaced when cracked, deformed, or excessively worn.