(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, where steel joists are used and columns are not framed in at least two directions with solid web structural steel members, a steel joist shall be field-bolted at the column to provide lateral stability to the column during erection. For the installation of this joist:
(i) A vertical stabilizer plate shall be provided on each column for steel joists. The plate shall be a minimum of 6 inch by 6 inch (152 mm by 152 mm) and shall extend at least 3 inches (76 mm) below the bottom chord of the joist with a13/16 inch (21 mm) hole to provide an attachment point for guying or plumbing cables.
(ii) The bottom chords of steel joists at columns shall be stabilized to prevent rotation during erection.
(iii) Hoisting cables shall not be released until the seat at each end of the steel joist is field-bolted, and each end of the bottom chord is restrained by the column stabilizer plate.
(2) Where constructibility does not allow a steel joist to be installed at the column:
(i) an alternate means of stabilizing joists shall be installed on both sides near the column and shall:
(A) provide stability equivalent to paragraph (a)(1) of this section;
(B) be designed by a qualified person;
(C) be shop installed; and
(D) be included in the erection drawings.
(ii) hoisting cables shall not be released until the seat at each end of the steel joist is field-bolted and the joist is stabilized.
(3) Where steel joists at or near columns span 60 feet (18.3 m) or less, the joist shall be designed with sufficient strength to allow one employee to release the hoisting cable without the need for erection bridging.
(4) Where steel joists at or near columns span more than 60 feet (18.3 m), the joists shall be set in tandem with all bridging installed unless an alternative method of erection, which provides equivalent stability to the steel joist, is designed by a qualified person and is included in the site-specific erection plan.
(5) A steel joist or steel joist girder shall not be placed on any support structure unless such structure is stabilized.
(6) When steel joist(s) are landed on a structure, they shall be secured to prevent unintentional displacement prior to installation.
(7) No modification that affects the strength of a steel joist or steel joist girder shall be made without the approval of the project structural engineer of record.
(8) Field-bolted joists.
(i) Except for steel joists that have been pre-assembled into panels, connections of individual steel joists to steel structures in bays of 40 feet (12.2 m) or more shall be fabricated to allow for field bolting during erection.
(ii) These connections shall be field-bolted unless constructibility does not allow.
(9) Steel joists and steel joist girders shall not be used as anchorage points for a fall arrest system unless written approval to do so is obtained from a qualified person.
(10) A bridging terminus point shall be established before bridging is installed. (See appendix C to this subpart.)
(b) Attachment of steel joists and steel joist girders.
(1) Each end of “K” series steel joists shall be attached to the support structure with a minimum of two1/8-inch (3 mm) fillet welds 1 inch (25 mm) long or with two1/2-inch (13 mm) bolts, or the equivalent.
(2) Each end of “LH” and “DLH” series steel joists and steel joist girders shall be attached to the support structure with a minimum of two1/4-inch (6 mm) fillet welds 2 inches (51 mm) long, or with two3/4-inch (19 mm) bolts, or the equivalent.
(3) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, each steel joist shall be attached to the support structure, at least at one end on both sides of the seat, immediately upon placement in the final erection position and before additional joists are placed.
(4) Panels that have been pre-assembled from steel joists with bridging shall be attached to the structure at each corner before the hoisting cables are released.
(c) Erection of steel joists.
(1) Both sides of the seat of one end of each steel joist that requires bridging under Tables A and B shall be attached to the support structure before hoisting cables are released.
(2) For joists over 60 feet, both ends of the joist shall be attached as specified in paragraph (b) of this section and the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section met before the hoisting cables are released.
(3) On steel joists that do not require erection bridging under Tables A and B, only one employee shall be allowed on the joist until all bridging is installed and anchored.
Table A - Erection Bridging for Short Span Joists
Table B - Erection Bridging for Long Span Joists
|32LH06||47-0 through 60-0.|
|32LH07||47-0 through 60-0.|
|32LH08||55-0 through 60-0.|
|32LH09||NM through 60-0.|
|32LH10||NM through 60-0.|
|32LH11||NM through 60-0.|
|32LH12||NM through 60-0.|
|32LH13||NM through 60-0.|
|32LH14||NM through 60-0.|
|32LH15||NM through 60-0.|
|36LH07||47-0 through 60-0.|
|36LH08||47-0 through 60-0.|
|36LH09||57-0 through 60-0.|
|36LH10||NM through 60-0.|
|36LH11||NM through 60-0.|
|36LH12||NM through 60-0.|
|36LH13||NM through 60-0.|
|36LH14||NM through 60-0.|
|36LH15||NM through 60-0.|
(4) Employees shall not be allowed on steel joists where the span of the steel joist is equal to or greater than the span shown in Tables A and B except in accordance with § 1926.757(d).
(5) When permanent bridging terminus points cannot be used during erection, additional temporary bridging terminus points are required to provide stability. (See appendix C of this subpart.)
(d) Erection bridging.
(1) Where the span of the steel joist is equal to or greater than the span shown in Tables A and B, the following shall apply:
(i) A row of bolted diagonal erection bridging shall be installed near the midspan of the steel joist;
(ii) Hoisting cables shall not be released until this bolted diagonal erection bridging is installed and anchored; and
(iii) No more than one employee shall be allowed on these spans until all other bridging is installed and anchored.
(2) Where the span of the steel joist is over 60 feet (18.3 m) through 100 feet (30.5 m), the following shall apply:
(i) All rows of bridging shall be bolted diagonal bridging;
(ii) Two rows of bolted diagonal erection bridging shall be installed near the third points of the steel joist;
(iii) Hoisting cables shall not be released until this bolted diagonal erection bridging is installed and anchored; and
(iv) No more than two employees shall be allowed on these spans until all other bridging is installed and anchored.
(3) Where the span of the steel joist is over 100 feet (30.5 m) through 144 feet (43.9 m), the following shall apply:
(i) All rows of bridging shall be bolted diagonal bridging;
(ii) Hoisting cables shall not be released until all bridging is installed and anchored; and
(iii) No more than two employees shall be allowed on these spans until all bridging is installed and anchored.
(4) For steel members spanning over 144 feet (43.9 m), the erection methods used shall be in accordance with § 1926.756.
(5) Where any steel joist specified in paragraphs (c)(2) and (d)(1), (d)(2), and (d)(3) of this section is a bottom chord bearing joist, a row of bolted diagonal bridging shall be provided near the support(s). This bridging shall be installed and anchored before the hoisting cable(s) is released.
(6) When bolted diagonal erection bridging is required by this section, the following shall apply:
(i) The bridging shall be indicated on the erection drawing;
(ii) The erection drawing shall be the exclusive indicator of the proper placement of this bridging;
(iii) Shop-installed bridging clips, or functional equivalents, shall be used where the bridging bolts to the steel joists;
(iv) When two pieces of bridging are attached to the steel joist by a common bolt, the nut that secures the first piece of bridging shall not be removed from the bolt for the attachment of the second; and
(v) Bridging attachments shall not protrude above the top chord of the steel joist.
(e) Landing and placing loads.
(1) During the construction period, the employer placing a load on steel joists shall ensure that the load is distributed so as not to exceed the carrying capacity of any steel joist.
(2) Except for paragraph (e)(4) of this section, no construction loads are allowed on the steel joists until all bridging is installed and anchored and all joist-bearing ends are attached.
(3) The weight of a bundle of joist bridging shall not exceed a total of 1,000 pounds (454 kg). A bundle of joist bridging shall be placed on a minimum of three steel joists that are secured at one end. The edge of the bridging bundle shall be positioned within 1 foot (.30 m) of the secured end.
(4) No bundle of decking may be placed on steel joists until all bridging has been installed and anchored and all joist bearing ends attached, unless all of the following conditions are met:
(i) The employer has first determined from a qualified person and documented in a site-specific erection plan that the structure or portion of the structure is capable of supporting the load;
(ii) The bundle of decking is placed on a minimum of three steel joists;
(iii) The joists supporting the bundle of decking are attached at both ends;
(iv) At least one row of bridging is installed and anchored;
(v) The total weight of the bundle of decking does not exceed 4,000 pounds (1816 kg); and
(vi) Placement of the bundle of decking shall be in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section.
(5) The edge of the construction load shall be placed within 1 foot (.30 m) of the bearing surface of the joist end.