(a) General requirements.
(1) Only approved containers and portable tanks shall be used for storage and handling of flammable liquids. Approved safety cans or Department of Transportation approved containers shall be used for the handling and use of flammable liquids in quantities of 5 gallons or less, except that this shall not apply to those flammable liquid materials which are highly viscid (extremely hard to pour), which may be used and handled in original shipping containers. For quantities of one gallon or less, the original container may be used, for storage, use and handling of flammable liquids.
(2) Flammable liquids shall not be stored in areas used for exits, stairways, or normally used for the safe passage of people.
(b) Indoor storage of flammable liquids.
(1) No more than 25 gallons of flammable liquids shall be stored in a room outside of an approved storage cabinet. For storage of liquefied petroleum gas, see § 1926.153.
(2) Quantities of flammable liquid in excess of 25 gallons shall be stored in an acceptable or approved cabinet meeting the following requirements:
(i) Acceptable wooden storage cabinets shall be constructed in the following manner, or equivalent: The bottom, sides, and top shall be constructed of an exterior grade of plywood at least 1 inch in thickness, which shall not break down or delaminate under standard fire test conditions. All joints shall be rabbeted and shall be fastened in two directions with flathead wood screws. When more than one door is used, there shall be a rabbeted overlap of not less than 1 inch. Steel hinges shall be mounted in such a manner as to not lose their holding capacity due to loosening or burning out of the screws when subjected to fire. Such cabinets shall be painted inside and out with fire retardant paint.
(ii) Approved metal storage cabinets will be acceptable.
(iii) Cabinets shall be labeled in conspicuous lettering, “Flammable-Keep Away from Open Flames.”
(3) Not more than 60 gallons of Category 1, 2 and/or 3 flammable liquids or 120 gallons of Category 4 flammable liquids shall be stored in any one storage cabinet. Not more than three such cabinets may be located in a single storage area. Quantities in excess of this shall be stored in an inside storage room.
(i) Inside storage rooms shall be constructed to meet the required fire-resistive rating for their use. Such construction shall comply with the test specifications set forth in Standard Methods of Fire Test of Building Construction and Material, NFPA 251-1969.
(ii) Where an automatic extinguishing system is provided, the system shall be designed and installed in an approved manner. Openings to other rooms or buildings shall be provided with noncombustible liquid-tight raised sills or ramps at least 4 inches in height, or the floor in the storage area shall be at least 4 inches below the surrounding floor. Openings shall be provided with approved self-closing fire doors. The room shall be liquid-tight where the walls join the floor. A permissible alternate to the sill or ramp is an open-grated trench, inside of the room, which drains to a safe location. Where other portions of the building or other buildings are exposed, windows shall be protected as set forth in the Standard for Fire Doors and Windows, NFPA No. 80-1970, for Class E or F openings. Wood of at least 1-inch nominal thickness may be used for shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay, and similar installations.
(iii) Materials which will react with water and create a fire hazard shall not be stored in the same room with flammable liquids.
(iv) Storage in inside storage rooms shall comply with Table F-2 following:
|Fire protection provided||Fire resistance||Maximum size||Total allowable quantities gals./sq. ft./floor area|
|Yes||2 hrs||500 sq. ft||10|
|No||2 hrs||500 sq. ft||4|
|Yes||1 hr||150 sq. ft||5|
|No||1 hr||150 sq. ft||2|
(v) Electrical wiring and equipment located in inside storage rooms shall be approved for Class I, Division 1, Hazardous Locations. For definition of Class I, Division 1, Hazardous Locations, see § 1926.449.
(vi) Every inside storage room shall be provided with either a gravity or a mechanical exhausting system. Such system shall commence not more than 12 inches above the floor and be designed to provide for a complete change of air within the room at least 6 times per hour. If a mechanical exhausting system is used, it shall be controlled by a switch located outside of the door. The ventilating equipment and any lighting fixtures shall be operated by the same switch. An electric pilot light shall be installed adjacent to the switch if Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids are dispensed within the room. Where gravity ventilation is provided, the fresh air intake, as well as the exhausting outlet from the room, shall be on the exterior of the building in which the room is located.
(vii) In every inside storage room there shall be maintained one clear aisle at least 3 feet wide. Containers over 30 gallons capacity shall not be stacked one upon the other.
(viii) Flammable liquids in excess of that permitted in inside storage rooms shall be stored outside of buildings in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.
(5) Quantity. The quantity of flammable liquids kept in the vicinity of spraying operations shall be the minimum required for operations and should ordinarily not exceed a supply for 1 day or one shift. Bulk storage of portable containers of flammable liquids shall be in a separate, constructed building detached from other important buildings or cut off in a standard manner.
(c) Storage outside buildings.
(1) Storage of containers (not more than 60 gallons each) shall not exceed 1,100 gallons in any one pile or area. Piles or groups of containers shall be separated by a 5-foot clearance. Piles or groups of containers shall not be nearer than 20 feet to a building.
(2) Within 200 feet of each pile of containers, there shall be a 12-foot-wide access way to permit approach of fire control apparatus.
(3) The storage area shall be graded in a manner to divert possible spills away from buildings or other exposures, or shall be surrounded by a curb or earth dike at least 12 inches high. When curbs or dikes are used, provisions shall be made for draining off accumulations of ground or rain water, or spills of flammable liquids. Drains shall terminate at a safe location and shall be accessible to operation under fire conditions.
(4) Outdoor portable tank storage:
(i) Portable tanks shall not be nearer than 20 feet from any building. Two or more portable tanks, grouped together, having a combined capacity in excess of 2,200 gallons, shall be separated by a 5-foot-clear area. Individual portable tanks exceeding 1,100 gallons shall be separated by a 5-foot-clear area.
(ii) Within 200 feet of each portable tank, there shall be a 12-foot-wide access way to permit approach of fire control apparatus.
(5) Storage areas shall be kept free of weeds, debris, and other combustible material not necessary to the storage.
(6) Portable tanks, not exceeding 660 gallons, shall be provided with emergency venting and other devices, as required by chapters III and IV of NFPA 30-1969, The Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.
(7) Portable tanks, in excess of 660 gallons, shall have emergency venting and other devices, as required by chapters II and III of The Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, NFPA 30-1969.
(d) Fire control for flammable liquid storage.
(1) At least one portable fire extinguisher, having a rating of not less than 20-B units, shall be located outside of, but not more than 10 feet from, the door opening into any room used for storage of more than 60 gallons of flammable liquids.
(2) At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B units shall be located not less than 25 feet, nor more than 75 feet, from any flammable liquid storage area located outside.
(3) When sprinklers are provided, they shall be installed in accordance with the Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, NFPA 13-1969.
(4) At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B:C units shall be provided on all tank trucks or other vehicles used for transporting and/or dispensing flammable liquids.
(e) Dispensing liquids.
(1) Areas in which flammable liquids are transferred at one time, in quantities greater than 5 gallons from one tank or container to another tank or container, shall be separated from other operations by 25-feet distance or by construction having a fire resistance of at least 1 hour. Drainage or other means shall be provided to control spills. Adequate natural or mechanical ventilation shall be provided to maintain the concentration of flammable vapor at or below 10 percent of the lower flammable limit.
(2) Transfer of Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids from one container to another shall be done only when containers are electrically interconnected (bonded).
(3) Flammable liquids shall be drawn from or transferred into vessels, containers, or tanks within a building or outside only through a closed piping system, from safety cans, by means of a device drawing through the top, or from a container, or portable tanks, by gravity or pump, through an approved self-closing valve. Transferring by means of air pressure on the container or portable tanks is prohibited.
(4) The dispensing units shall be protected against collision damage.
(5) Dispensing devices and nozzles for Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids shall be of an approved type.
(f) Handling liquids at point of final use.
(1) Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids shall be kept in closed containers when not actually in use.
(2) Leakage or spillage of flammable liquids shall be disposed of promptly and safely.
(3) Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids may be used only where there are no open flames or other sources of ignition within 50 feet of the operation, unless conditions warrant greater clearance.
(g) Service and refueling areas.
(1) Flammable liquids shall be stored in approved closed containers, in tanks located underground, or in aboveground portable tanks.
(2) The tank trucks shall comply with the requirements covered in the Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, NFPA No. 385-1966.
(3) The dispensing hose shall be an approved type.
(4) The dispensing nozzle shall be an approved automatic-closing type without a latch-open device.
(5) Underground tanks shall not be abandoned.
(6) Clearly identified and easily accessible switch(es) shall be provided at a location remote from dispensing devices to shut off the power to all dispensing devices in the event of an emergency.
(i) Heating equipment of an approved type may be installed in the lubrication or service area where there is no dispensing or transferring of Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids, provided the bottom of the heating unit is at least 18 inches above the floor and is protected from physical damage.
(ii) Heating equipment installed in lubrication or service areas, where Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids are dispensed, shall be of an approved type for garages, and shall be installed at least 8 feet above the floor.
(8) There shall be no smoking or open flames in the areas used for fueling, servicing fuel systems for internal combustion engines, receiving or dispensing of flammable liquids.
(9) Conspicuous and legible signs prohibiting smoking shall be posted.
(10) The motors of all equipment being fueled shall be shut off during the fueling operation.
(11) Each service or fueling area shall be provided with at least one fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B:C located so that an extinguisher will be within 75 feet of each pump, dispenser, underground fill pipe opening, and lubrication or service area.
(h) Scope. This section applies to the handling, storage, and use of flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or below 199.4 °F (93 °C). This section does not apply to:
(1) Bulk transportation of flammable liquids; and
(2) Storage, handling, and use of fuel oil tanks and containers connected with oil burning equipment.
(i) Tank storage -
(1) Design and construction of tanks -
(B) Tanks may be built of materials other than steel for installation underground or if required by the properties of the liquid stored. Tanks located above ground or inside buildings shall be of noncombustible construction.
(C) Tanks built of materials other than steel shall be designed to specifications embodying principles recognized as good engineering design for the material used.
(D) Unlined concrete tanks may be used for storing flammable liquids having a gravity of 40° API or heavier. Concrete tanks with special lining may be used for other services provided the design is in accordance with sound engineering practice.
(F) Special engineering consideration shall be required if the specific gravity of the liquid to be stored exceeds that of water or if the tanks are designed to contain flammable liquids at a liquid temperature below 0 °F.
(B) Metal tanks shall be welded, riveted, and caulked, brazed, or bolted, or constructed by use of a combination of these methods. Filler metal used in brazing shall be nonferrous metal or an alloy having a melting point above 1000 °F. and below that of the metal joined.
(iii) Atmospheric tanks.
(A) Atmospheric tanks shall be built in accordance with acceptable good standards of design. Atmospheric tanks may be built in accordance with:
(1) Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., Subjects No. 142, Standard for Steel Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 1968; No. 58, Standard for Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Fifth Edition, December 1961; or No. 80, Standard for Steel Inside Tanks for Oil-Burner Fuel, September 1963.
(2) American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 12A, Specification for Oil Storage Tanks with Riveted Shells, Seventh Edition, September 1951, or No. 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, Third Edition, 1966.
(3) American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 12B, Specification for Bolted Production Tanks, Eleventh Edition, May 1958, and Supplement 1, March 1962; No. 12D, Specification for Large Welded Production Tanks, Seventh Edition, August 1957; or No. 12F, Specification for Small Welded Production Tanks, Fifth Edition, March 1961. Tanks built in accordance with these standards shall be used only as production tanks for storage of crude petroleum in oil-producing areas.
(B) Tanks designed for underground service not exceeding 2,500 gallons (9,462.5 L) capacity may be used aboveground.
(C) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels may be used as atmospheric tanks.
(D) Atmospheric tanks shall not be used for the storage of a flammable liquid at a temperature at or above its boiling point.
(iv) Low pressure tanks.
(A) The normal operating pressure of the tank shall not exceed the design pressure of the tank.
(B) Low-pressure tanks shall be built in accordance with acceptable standards of design. Low-pressure tanks may be built in accordance with:
(1) American Petroleum Institute Standard No. 620. Recommended Rules for the Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, Third Edition, 1966.
(2) The principles of the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code, 1968.
(C) Atmospheric tanks built according to Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., requirements in paragraph (i)(1)(iii)(A) of this section and shall be limited to 2.5 p.s.i.g. under emergency venting conditions.
This paragraph may be used for operating pressures not exceeding 1 p.s.i.g.
(D) Pressure vessels may be used as low-pressure tanks.
(v) Pressure vessels.
(A) The normal operating pressure of the vessel shall not exceed the design pressure of the vessel.
(B) Pressure vessels shall be built in accordance with the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 1968.
(vi) Provisions for internal corrosion. When tanks are not designed in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, or the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.'s, standards, or if corrosion is anticipated beyond that provided for in the design formulas used, additional metal thickness or suitable protective coatings or linings shall be provided to compensate for the corrosion loss expected during the design life of the tank.
(2) Installation of outside aboveground tanks.
(ii) Spacing (shell-to-shell) between aboveground tanks.
(A) The distance between any two flammable liquid storage tanks shall not be less than 3 feet (0.912 m).
(B) Except as provided in paragraph (i)(2)(ii)(C) of this section, the distance between any two adjacent tanks shall not be less than one-sixth the sum of their diameters. When the diameter of one tank is less than one-half the diameter of the adjacent tank, the distance between the two tanks shall not be less than one-half the diameter of the smaller tank.
(C) Where crude petroleum in conjunction with production facilities are located in noncongested areas and have capacities not exceeding 126,000 gallons (3,000 barrels), the distance between such tanks shall not be less than 3 feet (0.912 m).
(D) Where unstable flammable liquids are stored, the distance between such tanks shall not be less than one-half the sum of their diameters.
(E) When tanks are compacted in three or more rows or in an irregular pattern, greater spacing or other means shall be provided so that inside tanks are accessible for firefighting purposes.
(F) The minimum separation between a liquefied petroleum gas container and a flammable liquid storage tank shall be 20 feet (6.08 m), except in the case of flammable liquid tanks operating at pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. or equipped with emergency venting which will permit pressures to exceed 2.5 p.s.i.g. in which case the provisions of paragraphs (i)(2)(ii) (A) and (B) of this section shall apply. Suitable means shall be taken to prevent the accumulation of flammable liquids under adjacent liquefied petroleum gas containers such as by diversion curbs or grading. When flammable liquid storage tanks are within a diked area, the liquefied petroleum gas containers shall be outside the diked area and at least 10 feet (3.04 m) away from the centerline of the wall of the diked area. The foregoing provisions shall not apply when liquefied petroleum gas containers of 125 gallons (473.125 L) or less capacity are installed adjacent to fuel oil supply tanks of 550 gallons (2,081.75 L) or less capacity.
(iv) Normal venting for aboveground tanks.
(A) Atmospheric storage tanks shall be adequately vented to prevent the development of vacuum or pressure sufficient to distort the roof of a cone roof tank or exceeding the design pressure in the case of other atmospheric tanks, as a result of filling or emptying, and atmospheric temperature changes.
(B) Normal vents shall be sized either in accordance with:
(1) The American Petroleum Institute Standard 2000 (1968), Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks; or
(2) other accepted standard; or
(3) shall be at least as large as the filling or withdrawal connection, whichever is larger but in no case less than 11/4 inch (3.175 cm) nominal inside diameter.
(C) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels shall be adequately vented to prevent development of pressure or vacuum, as a result of filling or emptying and atmospheric temperature changes, from exceeding the design pressure of the tank or vessel. Protection shall also be provided to prevent overpressure from any pump discharging into the tank or vessel when the pump discharge pressure can exceed the design pressure of the tank or vessel.
(D) If any tank or pressure vessel has more than one fill or withdrawal connection and simultaneous filling or withdrawal can be made, the vent size shall be based on the maximum anticipated simultaneous flow.
(E) Unless the vent is designed to limit the internal pressure 2.5 p.s.i. or less, the outlet of vents and vent drains shall be arranged to discharge in such a manner as to prevent localized overheating of any part of the tank in the event vapors from such vents are ignited.
(F) Tanks and pressure vessels storing Category 1 flammable liquids shall be equipped with venting devices that shall be normally closed except when venting to pressure or vacuum conditions. Tanks and pressure vessels storing Category 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be equipped with venting devices that shall be normally closed except when venting under pressure or vacuum conditions, or with approved flame arresters.
Exemption: Tanks of 3,000 bbls (barrels) (84 m(3)) capacity or less containing crude petroleum in crude-producing areas; and, outside aboveground atmospheric tanks under 1,000 gallons (3,785 L) capacity containing other than Category 1 flammable liquids may have open vents. (See paragraph (i)(2)(vi)(B) of this section.)
(G) Flame arresters or venting devices required in paragraph (i)(2)(iv)(F) of this section may be omitted for Category 2 flammable liquids or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C) where conditions are such that their use may, in case of obstruction, result in tank damage.
(v) Emergency relief venting for fire exposure for aboveground tanks.
(A) Every aboveground storage tank shall have some form of construction or device that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by exposure fires.
(B) In a vertical tank the construction referred to in paragraph (i)(2)(v)(A) of this section may take the form of a floating roof, lifter roof, a weak roof-to-shell seam, or other approved pressure relieving construction. The weak roof-to-shell seam shall be constructed to fail preferential to any other seam.
(C) Where entire dependence for emergency relief is placed upon pressure relieving devices, the total venting capacity of both normal and emergency vents shall be enough to prevent rupture of the shell or bottom of the tank if vertical, or of the shell or heads if horizontal. If unstable liquids are stored, the effects of heat or gas resulting from polymerization, decomposition, condensation, or self-reactivity shall be taken into account. The total capacity of both normal and emergency venting devices shall be not less than that derived from Table F-10 except as provided in paragraph (i)(2)(v) (E) or (F) of this section. Such device may be a self-closing manhole cover, or one using long bolts that permit the cover to lift under internal pressure, or an additional or larger relief valve or valves. The wetted area of the tank shall be calculated on the basis of 55 percent of the total exposed area of a sphere or spheroid, 75 percent of the total exposed area of a horizontal tank and the first 30 feet (9.12 m) above grade of the exposed shell area of a vertical tank.
Table F-10 - Wetted Area Versus Cubic Feet (Meters) Free Air Per Hour
[14.7 psia and 60 °F. (15.55 °C)]
|Square feet (m2)||CFH (m3H)||Square feet (m2)||CFH (m3H)||Square feet (m2)||CFH (m3H)|
|20 (1.84)||21,100 (590.8)||200 (18.4)||211,000 (5,908)||1,000 (90.2)||524,000 (14,672)|
|30 (2.76)||31,600 (884.8)||250 (23)||239,000 (6,692)||1,200 (110.4)||557,000 (15,596)|
|40 (3.68)||42,100 (1,178.8)||300 (27.6)||265,000 (7,420)||1,400 (128.8)||587,000 (16,436)|
|50 (4.6)||52,700 (1,475.6)||350 (32.2)||288,000 (8,064)||1,600 (147.2)||614,000 (17,192)|
|60 (5.52)||63,200 (1,769.6)||400 (36.8)||312,000 (8,736)||1,800 (165.6)||639,000 (17,892)|
|70 (6.44)||73,700 (2,063.6)||500 (46)||354,000 (9,912)||2,000 (180.4)||662,000 (18,536)|
|80 (7.36)||84,200 (2,357.6)||600 (55.2)||392,000 (10,976)||2,400 (220.8)||704,000 (19,712)|
|90 (8.28)||94,800 (2,654.4)||700 (64.4)||428,000 (11,984)||2,800 (257.6)||742,000 (20,776)|
|100 (9.2)||105,000 (2,940)||800 (73.6)||462,000 (12,936)||and|
|120 (11.04)||126,000 (3,528)||900 (82.8)||493,000 (13,804)||over|
|140 (12.88)||147,000 (4,116)||1,000 (90.2)||524,000 (14,672)|
|160 (14.72)||168,000 (4,704)|
|180 (16.56)||190,000 (5,320)|
|200 (18.4)||211,000 (5,908)|
(D) For tanks and storage vessels designed for pressure over 1 p.s.i.g., the total rate of venting shall be determined in accordance with Table F-10, except that when the exposed wetted area of the surface is greater than 2,800 square feet (257.6 m2), the total rate of venting shall be calculated by the following formula:
CFH = 1,107A0.82
CFH = Venting requirement, in cubic feet (meters) of free air per hour.
A = Exposed wetted surface, in square feet (m2).
The foregoing formula is based on Q = 21,000A0.82.
(E) The total emergency relief venting capacity for any specific stable liquid may be determined by the following formula:
V = 1337 ÷ L√ M
V = Cubic feet (meters) of free air per hour from Table F-10.
L = Latent heat of vaporization of specific liquid in B.t.u. per pound.
M = Molecular weight of specific liquids.
(F) The required airflow rate of paragraph (i)(2)(v) (C) or (E) of this section may be multiplied by the appropriate factor listed in the following schedule when protection is provided as indicated. Only one factor may be used for any one tank.
0.5 for drainage in accordance with paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(B) of this section for tanks over 200 square feet (18.4 m2) of wetted area.
0.3 for approved water spray.
0.3 for approved insulation.
0.15 for approved water spray with approved insulation.
(G) The outlet of all vents and vent drains on tanks equipped with emergency venting to permit pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. shall be arranged to discharge in such a way as to prevent localized overheating of any part of the tank, in the event vapors from such vents are ignited.
(H) Each commercial tank venting device shall have stamped on it the opening pressure, the pressure at which the valve reaches the full open position, and the flow capacity at the latter pressure, expressed in cubic feet (meters) per hour of air at 60 °F. (15.55 °C) and at a pressure of 14.7 p.s.i.a.
(I) The flow capacity of tank venting devices 12 inches (30.48 cm) and smaller in nominal pipe size shall be determined by actual test of each type and size of vent. These flow tests may be conducted by the manufacturer if certified by a qualified impartial observer, or may be conducted by an outside agency. The flow capacity of tank venting devices larger than 12 inches (30.48 cm) nominal pipe size, including manhole covers with long bolts or equivalent, may be calculated provided that the opening pressure is actually measured, the rating pressure and corresponding free orifice area are stated, the word “calculated” appears on the nameplate, and the computation is based on a flow coefficient of 0.5 applied to the rated orifice area.
(vi) Vent piping for aboveground tanks.
(A) Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.
(B) Where vent pipe outlets for tanks storing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are adjacent to buildings or public ways, they shall be located so that the vapors are released at a safe point outside of buildings and not less than 12 feet (3.658 m) above the adjacent ground level. In order to aid their dispersion, vapors shall be discharged upward or horizontally away from closely adjacent walls. Vent outlets shall be located so that flammable vapors will not be trapped by eaves or other obstructions and shall be at least 5 feet (1.52 m) from building openings.
(C) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as to discharge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors they may be required to handle when manifolded tanks are subject to the same fire exposure.
(vii) Drainage, dikes, and walls for aboveground tanks -
(A) Drainage and diked areas. The area surrounding a tank or a group of tanks shall be provided with drainage as in paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(B) of this section, or shall be diked as provided in (i)(2)(vii)(C) of this section, to prevent accidental discharge of liquid from endangering adjoining property or reaching waterways.
(B) Drainage. Where protection of adjoining property or waterways is by means of a natural or manmade drainage system, such systems shall comply with the following:
(2) The drainage system shall terminate in vacant land or other area or in an impounding basin having a capacity not smaller than that of the largest tank served. This termination area and the route of the drainage system shall be so located that, if the flammable liquids in the drainage system are ignited, the fire will not seriously expose tanks or adjoining property.
(C) Diked areas. Where protection of adjoining property or waterways is accomplished by retaining the liquid around the tank by means of a dike, the volume of the diked area shall comply with the following requirements:
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(C)(2) of this section, the volumetric capacity of the diked area shall not be less than the greatest amount of liquid that can be released from the largest tank within the diked area, assuming a full tank. The capacity of the diked area enclosing more than one tank shall be calculated by deducting the volume of the tanks other than the largest tank below the height of the dike.
(2) For a tank or group of tanks with fixed roofs containing crude petroleum with boilover characteristics, the volumetric capacity of the diked area shall be not less than the capacity of the largest tank served by the enclosure, assuming a full tank. The capacity of the diked enclosure shall be calculated by deducting the volume below the height of the dike of all tanks within the enclosure.
(3) Walls of the diked area shall be of earth, steel, concrete or solid masonry designed to be liquidtight and to withstand a full hydrostatic head. Earthen walls 3 feet (0.912 m) or more in height shall have a flat section at the top not less than 2 feet (0.608 m) wide. The slope of an earthen wall shall be consistent with the angle of repose of the material of which the wall is constructed.
(4) The walls of the diked area shall be restricted to an average height of 6 feet (1.824 m) above interior grade.
(6) No loose combustible material, empty or full drum or barrel, shall be permitted within the diked area.
(viii) Tank openings other than vents for aboveground tanks.
(D) Openings for gaging shall be provided with a vaportight cap or cover.
(E) For Category 2 flammable liquids or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), other than crude oils, gasolines, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static electricity. A fill pipe entering the top of a tank shall terminate within 6 inches (15.24 cm) of the bottom of the tank and shall be installed to avoid excessive vibration.
(F) Filling and emptying connections which are made and broken shall be located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignition and not less than 5 feet (1.52 m) away from any building opening. Such connection shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The connection shall be properly identified.
(3) Installation of underground tanks -
(i) Location. Evacuation for underground storage tanks shall be made with due care to avoid undermining of foundations of existing structures. Underground tanks or tanks under buildings shall be so located with respect to existing building foundations and supports that the loads carried by the latter cannot be transmitted to the tank. The distance from any part of a tank storing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), to the nearest wall of any basement or pit shall be not less than 1 foot (0.304 m), and to any property line that may be built upon, not less than 3 feet (0.912 m). The distance from any part of a tank storing Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids to the nearest wall of any basement, pit or property line shall be not less than 1 foot (0.304 m).
(ii) Depth and cover. Underground tanks shall be set on firm foundations and surrounded with at least 6 inches (15.24 cm) of noncorrosive, inert materials such as clean sand, earth, or gravel well tamped in place. The tank shall be placed in the hole with care since dropping or rolling the tank into the hole can break a weld, puncture or damage the tank, or scrape off the protective coating of coated tanks. Tanks shall be covered with a minimum of 2 feet (0.608 m) of earth, or shall be covered with not less than 1 foot (0.304 m) of earth, on top of which shall be placed a slab of reinforced concrete not less than 4 inches (10.16 cm) thick. When underground tanks are, or are likely to be, subject to traffic, they shall be protected against damage from vehicles passing over them by at least 3 feet (0.912 m) of earth cover, or 18 inches (45.72 cm) of well-tamped earth, plus 6 inches (15.24 cm) of reinforced concrete or 8 inches (20.32 cm) of asphaltic concrete. When asphaltic or reinforced concrete paving is used as part of the protection, it shall extend at least 1 foot (0.304 m) horizontally beyond the outline of the tank in all directions.
(iii) Corrosion protection. Corrosion protection for the tank and its piping shall be provided by one or more of the following methods:
(A) Use of protective coatings or wrappings;
(B) Cathodic protection; or,
(C) Corrosion resistant materials of construction.
(A) Location and arrangement of vents for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C). Vent pipes from tanks storing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be so located that the discharge point is outside of buildings, higher than the fill pipe opening, and not less than 12 feet (3.658 m) above the adjacent ground level. Vent pipes shall discharge only upward in order to disperse vapors. Vent pipes 2 inches (5.08 cm) or less in nominal inside diameter shall not be obstructed by devices that will cause excessive back pressure. Vent pipe outlets shall be so located that flammable vapors will not enter building openings, or be trapped under eaves or other obstructions. If the vent pipe is less than 10 feet (3.04 m) in length, or greater than 2 inches (5.08 cm) in nominal inside diameter, the outlet shall be provided with a vacuum and pressure relief device or there shall be an approved flame arrester located in the vent line at the outlet or within the approved distance from the outlet.
(B) Size of vents. Each tank shall be vented through piping adequate in size to prevent blow-back of vapor or liquid at the fill opening while the tank is being filled. Vent pipes shall be not less than 11/4 inch (3.175 cm) nominal inside diameter.
Table F-11 - Vent Line Diameters
|Maximum flow GPM (L)||Pipe length1|
|50 feet (15.2 m)||100 feet (30.4 m)||200 feet (60.8 m)|
|Inches (cm)||Inches (cm)||Inches (cm)|
|100 (378.5)||1 1/4 (3.175)||1 1/4 (3.175)||1 1/4 (3.175)|
|200 (757)||1 1/4 (3.175)||1 1/4 (3.175)||1 1/4 (3.175)|
|300 (1,135.5)||1 1/4 (3.175)||1 1/4 (3.175)||1 1/2 (3.81)|
|400 (1,514)||1 1/4 (3.175)||1 1/2 (3.81)||2 (5.08)|
|500 (1,892.5)||1 1/2 (3.81)||1 1/2 (3.81)||2 (5.08)|
|600 (2,271)||1 1/2 (3.81)||2 (5.08)||2 (5.08)|
|700 (2,649.5)||2 (5.08)||2 (5.08)||2 (5.08)|
|800 (3,028)||2 (5.08)||2 (5.08)||3 (7.62)|
|900 (3,406.5)||2 (5.08)||2 (5.08)||3 (7.62)|
|1,000 (3,785)||2 (5.08)||2 (5.08)||3 (7.62)|
(C) Location and arrangement of vents for Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids. Vent pipes from tanks storing Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids shall terminate outside of the building and higher than the fill pipe opening. Vent outlets shall be above normal snow level. They may be fitted with return bends, coarse screens or other devices to minimize ingress of foreign material.
(D) Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph (3)(iv)(C) of this section. Vent pipes shall be so laid as to drain toward the tank without sags or traps in which liquid can collect. They shall be located so that they will not be subjected to physical damage. The tank end of the vent pipe shall enter the tank through the top.
(E) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as to discharge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors they may be required to handle when manifolded tanks are filled simultaneously.
(v) Tank openings other than vents.
(A) Connections for all tank openings shall be vapor or liquid tight.
(B) Openings for manual gaging, if independent of the fill pipe, shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap or cover. If inside a building, each such opening shall be protected against liquid overflow and possible vapor release by means of a spring loaded check valve or other approved device.
(C) Fill and discharge lines shall enter tanks only through the top. Fill lines shall be sloped toward the tank.
(D) For Category 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), other than crude oils, gasolines, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches (15.24 cm) of the bottom of the tank.
(E) Filling and emptying connections which are made and broken shall be located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignition and not less than 5 feet (1.52 m) away from any building opening. Such connection shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The connection shall be properly identified.
(4) Installation of tanks inside of buildings -
(ii) Vents. Vents for tanks inside of buildings shall be as provided in paragraphs (i)(2) (iv), (v), (vi)(B), and (3)(iv) of this section, except that emergency venting by the use of weak roof seams on tanks shall not be permitted. Vents shall discharge vapors outside the buildings.
(iii) Vent piping. Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.
(iv) Tank openings other than vents.
(A) Connections for all tank openings shall be vapor or liquidtight. Vents are covered in paragraph (i)(4)(ii) of this section.
(B) Each connection to a tank inside of buildings through which liquid can normally flow shall be provided with an internal or an external valve located as close as practical to the shell of the tank. Such valves, when external, and their connections to the tank shall be of steel except when the chemical characteristics of the liquid stored are incompatible with steel. When materials other than steel are necessary, they shall be suitable for the pressures, structural stresses, and temperatures involved, including fire exposures.
(C) Flammable liquid tanks located inside of buildings, except in one-story buildings designed and protected for flammable liquid storage, shall be provided with an automatic-closing heat-actuated valve on each withdrawal connection below the liquid level, except for connections used for emergency disposal, to prevent continued flow in the event of fire in the vicinity of the tank. This function may be incorporated in the valve required in paragraph (i)(4)(iv)(B) of this section, and if a separate valve, shall be located adjacent to the valve required in paragraph (i)(4)(iv)(B) of this section.
(D) Openings for manual gaging, if independent of the fill pipe (see paragraph (i)(4)(iv)(F) of this section), shall be provided with a vaportight cap or cover. Each such opening shall be protected against liquid overflow and possible vapor release by means of a spring loaded check valve or other approved device.
(E) For Category 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), other than crude oils, gasolines, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches (15.24 cm) of the bottom of the tank.
(F) The fill pipe inside of the tank shall be installed to avoid excessive vibration of the pipe.
(G) The inlet of the fill pipe shall be located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignition and not less than 5 feet (1.52 m) away from any building opening. The inlet of the fill pipe shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The fill connection shall be properly identified.
(H) Tanks inside buildings shall be equipped with a device, or other means shall be provided, to prevent overflow into the building.
(5) Supports, foundations, and anchorage for all tank locations -
(i) General. Tank supports shall be installed on firm foundations. Tank supports shall be of concrete, masonry, or protected steel. Single wood timber supports (not cribbing) laid horizontally may be used for outside aboveground tanks if not more than 12 inches (30.48 cm) high at their lowest point.
(ii) Fire resistance. Steel supports or exposed piling shall be protected by materials having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours, except that steel saddles need not be protected if less than 12 inches (30.48 cm) high at their lowest point. Water spray protection or its equivalent may be used in lieu of fire-resistive materials to protect supports.
(iii) Spheres. The design of the supporting structure for tanks such as spheres shall receive special engineering consideration.
(iv) Load distribution. Every tank shall be so supported as to prevent the excessive concentration of loads on the supporting portion of the shell.
(v) Foundations. Tanks shall rest on the ground or on foundations made of concrete, masonry, piling, or steel. Tank foundations shall be designed to minimize the possibility of uneven settling of the tank and to minimize corrosion in any part of the tank resting on the foundation.
(vi) Flood areas. Where a tank is located in an area that may be subjected to flooding, the applicable precautions outlined in this subdivision shall be observed.
(A) No aboveground vertical storage tank containing a flammable liquid shall be located so that the allowable liquid level within the tank is below the established maximum flood stage, unless the tank is provided with a guiding structure such as described in paragraphs (i)(5)(vi) (M), (N), and (O) of this section.
(B) Independent water supply facilities shall be provided at locations where there is no ample and dependable public water supply available for loading partially empty tanks with water.
(C) In addition to the preceding requirements, each tank so located that more than 70 percent, but less than 100 percent, of its allowable liquid storage capacity will be submerged at the established maximum flood stage, shall be safeguarded by one of the following methods: Tank shall be raised, or its height shall be increased, until its top extends above the maximum flood stage a distance equivalent to 30 percent or more of its allowable liquid storage capacity: Provided, however, That the submerged part of the tank shall not exceed two and one-half times the diameter. Or, as an alternative to the foregoing, adequate noncombustible structural guides, designed to permit the tank to float vertically without loss of product, shall be provided.
(D) Each horizontal tank so located that more than 70 percent of its storage capacity will be submerged at the established flood stage, shall be anchored, attached to a foundation of concrete or of steel and concrete, of sufficient weight to provide adequate load for the tank when filled with flammable liquid and submerged by flood waters to the established flood stage, or adequately secured by other means.
(F) At locations where there is no ample and dependable water supply, or where filling of underground tanks with liquids is impracticable because of the character of their contents, their use, or for other reasons, each tank shall be safeguarded against movement when empty and submerged by high ground water or flood waters by anchoring, weighting with concrete or other approved solid loading material, or securing by other means. Each such tank shall be so constructed and installed that it will safely resist external pressures due to high ground water or flood waters.
(G) At locations where there is an ample and dependable water supply available, underground tanks containing flammable liquids, so installed that more than 70 percent of their storage capacity will be submerged at the maximum flood stage, shall be so anchored, weighted, or secured by other means, as to prevent movement of such tanks when filled with flammable liquids, and submerged by flood waters to the established flood stage.
(H) Pipe connections below the allowable liquid level in a tank shall be provided with valves or cocks located as closely as practicable to the tank shell. Such valves and their connections to tanks shall be of steel or other material suitable for use with the liquid being stored. Cast iron shall not be permitted.
(I) At locations where an independent water supply is required, it shall be entirely independent of public power and water supply. Independent source of water shall be available when flood waters reach a level not less than 10 feet (3.04 m) below the bottom of the lowest tank on a property.
(J) The self-contained power and pumping unit shall be so located or so designed that pumping into tanks may be carried on continuously throughout the rise in flood waters from a level 10 feet (3.04 m) below the lowest tank to the level of the potential flood stage.
(K) Capacity of the pumping unit shall be such that the rate of rise of water in all tanks shall be equivalent to the established potential average rate of rise of flood waters at any stage.
(L) Each independent pumping unit shall be tested periodically to insure that it is in satisfactory operating condition.
(M) Structural guides for holding floating tanks above their foundations shall be so designed that there will be no resistance to the free rise of a tank, and shall be constructed of noncombustible material.
(N) The strength of the structure shall be adequate to resist lateral movement of a tank subject to a horizontal force in any direction equivalent to not less than 25 pounds per square foot (1.05 kg m2) acting on the projected vertical cross-sectional area of the tank.
(O) Where tanks are situated on exposed points or bends in a shoreline where swift currents in flood waters will be present, the structures shall be designed to withstand a unit force of not less than 50 pounds per square foot (2.1 kg m2).
(P) The filling of a tank to be protected by water loading shall be started as soon as flood waters reach a dangerous flood stage. The rate of filling shall be at least equal to the rate of rise of the floodwaters (or the established average potential rate of rise).
(Q) Sufficient fuel to operate the water pumps shall be available at all times to insure adequate power to fill all tankage with water.
(R) All valves on connecting pipelines shall be closed and locked in closed position when water loading has been completed.
(S) Where structural guides are provided for the protection of floating tanks, all rigid connections between tanks and pipelines shall be disconnected and blanked off or blinded before the floodwaters reach the bottom of the tank, unless control valves and their connections to the tank are of a type designed to prevent breakage between the valve and the tank shell.
(T) All valves attached to tanks other than those used in connection with water loading operations shall be closed and locked.
(U) If a tank is equipped with a swing line, the swing pipe shall be raised to and secured at its highest position.
(V) Inspections. The Assistant Secretary or his designated representative shall make periodic inspections of all plants where the storage of flammable liquids is such as to require compliance with the foregoing requirements, in order to assure the following:
(1) That all flammable liquid storage tanks are in compliance with these requirements and so maintained.
(2) That detailed printed instructions of what to do in flood emergencies are properly posted.
(3) That station operators and other employees depended upon to carry out such instructions are thoroughly informed as to the location and operation of such valves and other equipment necessary to effect these requirements.
(vii) Earthquake areas. In areas subject to earthquakes, the tank supports and connections shall be designed to resist damage as a result of such shocks.
(6) Sources of ignition. In locations where flammable vapors may be present, precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition by eliminating or controlling sources of ignition. Sources of ignition may include open flames, lightning, smoking, cutting and welding, hot surfaces, frictional heat, sparks (static, electrical, and mechanical), spontaneous ignition, chemical and physical-chemical reactions, and radiant heat.
(7) Testing -
(i) General. All tanks, whether shop built or field erected, shall be strength tested before they are placed in service in accordance with the applicable paragraphs of the code under which they were built. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code stamp, American Petroleum Institute (API) monogram, or the label of the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., on a tank shall be evidence of compliance with this strength test. Tanks not marked in accordance with the above codes shall be strength tested before they are placed in service in accordance with good engineering principles and reference shall be made to the sections on testing in the codes listed in paragraphs (i)(1) (iii)(A), (iv)(B), or (v)(B) of this section.
(ii) Strength. When the vertical length of the fill and vent pipes is such that when filled with liquid the static head imposed upon the bottom of the tank exceeds 10 pounds per square inch (68.94 kPa), the tank and related piping shall be tested hydrostatically to a pressure equal to the static head thus imposed.
(iii) Tightness. In addition to the strength test called for in paragraphs (i)(7) (i) and (ii) of this section, all tanks and connections shall be tested for tightness. Except for underground tanks, this tightness test shall be made at operating pressure with air, inert gas, or water prior to placing the tank in service. In the case of field-erected tanks the strength test may be considered to be the test for tank tightness. Underground tanks and piping, before being covered, enclosed, or placed in use, shall be tested for tightness hydrostatically, or with air pressure at not less than 3 pounds per square inch (20.68 kPa) and not more than 5 pounds per square inch (34.47 kPa).
(iv) Repairs. All leaks or deformations shall be corrected in an acceptable manner before the tank is placed in service. Mechanical caulking is not permitted for correcting leaks in welded tanks except pinhole leaks in the roof.
(j) Piping, valves, and fittings -
(1) General -
(i) Design. The design (including selection of materials) fabrication, assembly, test, and inspection of piping systems containing flammable liquids shall be suitable for the expected working pressures and structural stresses. Conformity with the applicable provisions of Pressure Piping, ANSI B31 series and the provisions of this paragraph, shall be considered prima facie evidence of compliance with the foregoing provisions.
(ii) Exceptions. This paragraph does not apply to any of the following:
(A) Tubing or casing on any oil or gas wells and any piping connected directly thereto.
(B) Motor vehicle, aircraft, boat, or portable or stationary engines.
(C) Piping within the scope of any applicable boiler and pressures vessel code.
(iii) Definitions. As used in this paragraph, piping systems consist of pipe, tubing, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fittings, the pressure containing parts of other components such as expansion joints and strainers, and devices which serve such purposes as mixing, separating, snubbing, distributing, metering, or controlling flow.
(2) Materials for piping, valves, and fittings -
(ii) Exceptions. Materials other than steel, nodular iron, or malleable iron may be used underground, or if required by the properties of the flammable liquid handled. Material other than steel, nodular iron, or malleable iron shall be designed to specifications embodying principles recognized as good engineering practices for the material used.
(iii) Linings. Piping, valves, and fittings may have combustible or noncombustible linings.
(iv) Low-melting materials. When low-melting point materials such as aluminum and brass or materials that soften on fire exposure such as plastics, or non-ductile materials such as cast iron, are necessary, special consideration shall be given to their behavior on fire exposure. If such materials are used in above ground piping systems or inside buildings, they shall be suitably protected against fire exposure or so located that any spill resulting from the failure of these materials could not unduly expose persons, important buildings or structures or can be readily controlled by remote valves.
(3) Pipe joints. Joints shall be made liquid tight. Welded or screwed joints or approved connectors shall be used. Threaded joints and connections shall be made up tight with a suitable lubricant or piping compound. Pipe joints dependent upon the friction characteristics of combustible materials for mechanical continuity of piping shall not be used inside buildings. They may be used outside of buildings above or below ground. If used above ground, the piping shall either be secured to prevent disengagement at the fitting or the piping system shall be so designed that any spill resulting from such disengagement could not unduly expose persons, important buildings or structures, and could be readily controlled by remote valves.
(4) Supports. Piping systems shall be substantially supported and protected against physical damage and excessive stresses arising from settlement, vibration, expansion, or contraction.
(5) Protection against corrosion. All piping for flammable liquids, both aboveground and underground, where subject to external corrosion, shall be painted or otherwise protected.
(6) Valves. Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of valves to operate the system properly and to protect the plant. Piping systems in connection with pumps shall contain a sufficient number of valves to control properly the flow of liquid in normal operation and in the event of physical damage. Each connection to pipelines, by which equipments such as tankcars or tank vehicles discharge liquids by means of pumps into storage tanks, shall be provided with a check valve for automatic protection against backflow if the piping arrangement is such that backflow from the system is possible.
(7) Testing. All piping before being covered, enclosed, or placed in use shall be hydrostatically tested to 150 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, or pneumatically tested to 110 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, but not less than 5 pounds per square inch gage at the highest point of the system. This test shall be maintained for a sufficient time to complete visual inspection of all joints and connections, but for at least 10 minutes.
(k) Marine service stations -
(i) The dispensing area shall be located away from other structures so as to provide room for safe ingress and egress of craft to be fueled. Dispensing units shall in all cases be at least 20 feet (6.08 m) from any activity involving fixed sources of ignition.
(ii) Dispensing shall be by approved dispensing units with or without integral pumps and may be located on open piers, wharves, or floating docks or on shore or on piers of the solid fill type.
(iii) Dispensing nozzles shall be automatic-closing without a hold-open latch.
(2) Tanks and pumps.
(ii) Where shore location would require excessively long supply lines to dispensers, tanks may be installed on a pier provided that applicable portions of paragraph (b) of this section relative to spacing, diking, and piping are complied with and the quantity so stored does not exceed 1,100 gallons (4,163.5 L) aggregate capacity.
(iii) Shore tanks supplying marine service stations may be located above ground, where rock ledges or high water table make underground tanks impractical.
(iv) Where tanks are at an elevation which would produce gravity head on the dispensing unit, the tank outlet shall be equipped with a pressure control valve positioned adjacent to and outside the tank block valve specified in § 1926.152(c)(8) of this section, so adjusted that liquid cannot flow by gravity from the tank in case of piping or hose failure.
(i) Piping between shore tanks and dispensing units shall be as described in paragraph (k)(2)(iii) of this section, except that, where dispensing is from a floating structure, suitable lengths of oil-resistant flexible hose may be employed between the shore piping and the piping on the floating structure as made necessary by change in water level or shoreline.
(ii) A readily accessible valve to shut off the supply from shore shall be provided in each pipeline at or near the approach to the pier and at the shore end of each pipeline adjacent to the point where flexible hose is attached.
(iii) Piping shall be located so as to be protected from physical damage.
(iv) Piping handling Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be grounded to control stray currents.
(4) Definition; as used in this section: Marine service station shall mean that portion of a property where flammable liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, or floating docks into the fuel tanks of self-propelled craft, and shall include all facilities used in connection therewith.