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Title 29

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Title 29

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Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances
Authority:

29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), or 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), 4-2010 (75 FR 55355) or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

All of subpart Z issued under 29 U.S.C. 655(b), except those substances that have exposure limits listed in Tables Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3 of § 1910.1000. The latter were issued under 29 U.S.C. 655(a).

Section 1910.1000, Tables Z-1, Z-2 and Z-3 also issued under 5 U.S.C. 553, but not under 29 CFR part 1911 except for the arsenic (organic compounds), benzene, cotton dust, and chromium (VI) listings.

Section 1910.1001 also issued under 40 U.S.C. 3704 and 5 U.S.C. 553.

Section 1910.1002 also issued under 5 U.S.C. 553, but not under 29 U.S.C. 655 or 29 CFR part 1911.

Sections 1910.1018, 1910.1029, and 1910.1200 also issued under 29 U.S.C. 653.

Section 1910.1030 also issued under Public Law 106-430, 114 Stat. 1901.

Section 1910.1201 also issued under 49 U.S.C. 1801-1819 and 5 U.S.C. 553.

Source:

39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 40 FR 23072, May 28, 1975.

§ 1910.1000 Air contaminants.

An employee's exposure to any substance listed in Tables Z-1, Z-2, or Z-3 of this section shall be limited in accordance with the requirements of the following paragraphs of this section.

(a) Table Z-1 -

(1) Substances with limits preceded by “C” - Ceiling Values. An employee's exposure to any substance in Table Z-1, the exposure limit of which is preceded by a “C”, shall at no time exceed the exposure limit given for that substance. If instantaneous monitoring is not feasible, then the ceiling shall be assessed as a 15-minute time weighted average exposure which shall not be exceeded at any time during the working day.

(2) Other substances - 8-hour Time Weighted Averages. An employee's exposure to any substance in Table Z-1, the exposure limit of which is not preceded by a “C”, shall not exceed the 8-hour Time Weighted Average given for that substance in any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week.

(b) Table Z-2. An employee's exposure to any substance listed in Table Z-2 shall not exceed the exposure limits specified as follows:

(1) 8-hour time weighted averages. An employee's exposure to any substance listed in Table Z-2, in any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week, shall not exceed the 8-hour time weighted average limit given for that substance in Table Z-2.

(2) Acceptable ceiling concentrations. An employee's exposure to a substance listed in Table Z-2 shall not exceed at any time during an 8-hour shift the acceptable ceiling concentration limit given for the substance in the table, except for a time period, and up to a concentration not exceeding the maximum duration and concentration allowed in the column under “acceptable maximum peak above the acceptable ceiling concentration for an 8-hour shift.”

(3) Example. During an 8-hour work shift, an employee may be exposed to a concentration of Substance A (with a 10 ppm TWA, 25 ppm ceiling and 50 ppm peak) above 25 ppm (but never above 50 ppm) only for a maximum period of 10 minutes. Such exposure must be compensated by exposures to concentrations less than 10 ppm so that the cumulative exposure for the entire 8-hour work shift does not exceed a weighted average of 10 ppm.

(c) Table Z-3. An employee's exposure to any substance listed in Table Z-3, in any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week, shall not exceed the 8-hour time weighted average limit given for that substance in the table.

(d) Computation formulae. The computation formula which shall apply to employee exposure to more than one substance for which 8-hour time weighted averages are listed in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910 in order to determine whether an employee is exposed over the regulatory limit is as follows:

(1)

(i) The cumulative exposure for an 8-hour work shift shall be computed as follows:

E = (Ca Ta + Cb Tb + . . .Cn Tn) ÷ 8

Where:

E is the equivalent exposure for the working shift.

C is the concentration during any period of time T where the concentration remains constant.

T is the duration in hours of the exposure at the concentration C.

The value of E shall not exceed the 8-hour time weighted average specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910 for the substance involved.

(ii) To illustrate the formula prescribed in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, assume that Substance A has an 8-hour time weighted average limit of 100 ppm noted in Table Z-1. Assume that an employee is subject to the following exposure:

Two hours exposure at 150 ppm

Two hours exposure at 75 ppm

Four hours exposure at 50 ppm

Substituting this information in the formula, we have

(2 × 150 + 2 × 75 + 4 × 50) ÷ 8 = 81.25 ppm

Since 81.25 ppm is less than 100 ppm, the 8-hour time weighted average limit, the exposure is acceptable.

(2)

(i) In case of a mixture of air contaminants an employer shall compute the equivalent exposure as follows:

Em = (C1 ÷ L1 + C2 ÷ L2) + . . .(Cn ÷ Ln)

Where:

Em is the equivalent exposure for the mixture.

C is the concentration of a particular contaminant.

L is the exposure limit for that substance specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910.

The value of Em shall not exceed unity (1).

(ii) To illustrate the formula prescribed in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, consider the following exposures:

Substance Actual concentration of 8-hour exposure (ppm) 8-hour TWA PEL (ppm)
B 500 1,000
C 45 200
D 40 200

Substituting in the formula, we have:

Em = 500 ÷ 1,000 + 45 ÷ 200 + 40 ÷ 200

Em = 0.500 + 0.225 + 0.200

Em = 0.925

Since Em is less than unity (1), the exposure combination is within acceptable limits.

(e) To achieve compliance with paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, administrative or engineering controls must first be determined and implemented whenever feasible. When such controls are not feasible to achieve full compliance, protective equipment or any other protective measures shall be used to keep the exposure of employees to air contaminants within the limits prescribed in this section. Any equipment and/or technical measures used for this purpose must be approved for each particular use by a competent industrial hygienist or other technically qualified person. Whenever respirators are used, their use shall comply with 1910.134.

Table Z-1 - Limits for Air Contaminants

Substance CAS No. (c) ppm (a)1 mg/m3 (b)1 Skin designation
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 200 360
Acetic acid 64-19-7 10 25
Acetic anhydride 108-24-7 5 20
Acetone 67-64-1 1000 2400
Acetonitrile 75-05-8 40 70
2-Acetylaminofluorine; see 1910.1014 53-96-3
Acetylene dichloride; see 1,2-Dichloroethylene.
Acetylene tetrabromide 79-27-6 1 14
Acrolein 107-02-8 0.1 0.25
Acrylamide 79-06-1 0.3 X
Acrylonitrile; see 1910.1045 107-13-1
Aldrin 309-00-2 0.25 X
Allyl alcohol 107-18-6 2 5 X
Allyl chloride 107-05-1 1 3
Allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) 106-92-3 (C)10 (C)45
Allyl propyl disulfide 2179-59-1 2 12
alpha-Alumina 1344-28-1
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Aluminum, metal (as Al) 7429-90-5
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
4-Aminodiphenyl; see 1910.1011 92-67-1
2-Aminoethanol; see Ethanolamine.
2-Aminopyridine 504-29-0 0.5 2
Ammonia 7664-41-7 50 35
Ammonium sulfamate 7773-06-0
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
n-Amyl acetate 628-63-7 100 525
sec-Amyl acetate 626-38-0 125 650
Aniline and homologs 62-53-3 5 19 X
Anisidine (o-, p-isomers) 29191-52-4 0.5 X
Antimony and compounds (as Sb) 7440-36-0 0.5
ANTU (alpha Naphthylthiourea) 86-88-4 0.3
Arsenic, inorganic compounds (as As); see 1910.1018 7440-38-2
Arsenic, organic compounds (as As) 7440-38-2 0.5
Arsine 7784-42-1 0.05 0.2
Asbestos; see 1910.1001 (4)
Azinphos-methyl 86-50-0 0.2 X
Barium, soluble compounds (as Ba) 7440-39-3 0.5
Barium sulfate 7727-43-7
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Benomyl 17804-35-2
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Benzene; see 1910.1028 71-43-2
See Table Z-2 for the limits applicable in the operations or sectors excluded in 1910.1028d
Benzidine; see 1910.1010 92-87-5
p-Benzoquinone; see Quinone.
Benzo(a)pyrene; see Coal tar pitch volatiles.
Benzoyl peroxide 94-36-0 5
Benzyl chloride 100-44-7 1 5
Beryllium and beryllium compounds (as Be); see 1926.11248 7440-41-7
Biphenyl; see Diphenyl.
Bismuth telluride, Undoped 1304-82-1
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Boron oxide 1303-86-2
Total dust 15
Boron trifluoride 7637-07-2 (C)1 (C)3
Bromine 7726-95-6 0.1 0.7
Bromoform 75-25-2 0.5 5 X
Butadiene (1,3-Butadiene); See 29 CFR 1910.1051; 29 CFR 1910.19(l) 106-99-0 1 ppm/5 ppm STEL
Butanethiol; see Butyl mercaptan.
2-Butanone (Methyl ethyl ketone) 78-93-3 200 590
2-Butoxyethanol 111-76-2 50 240 X
n-Butyl-acetate 123-86-4 150 710
sec-Butyl acetate 105-46-4 200 950
tert-Butyl acetate 540-88-5 200 950
n-Butyl alcohol 71-36-3 100 300
sec-Butyl alcohol 78-92-2 150 450
tert-Butyl alcohol 75-65-0 100 300
Butylamine 109-73-9 (C)5 (C)15 X
tert-Butyl chromate (as CrO3); see 1910.10266 1189-85-1
n-Butyl glycidyl ether (BGE) 2426-08-6 50 270
Butyl mercaptan 109-79-5 10 35
p-tert-Butyltoluene 98-51-1 10 60
Cadmium (as Cd); see 1910.1027 7440-43-9
Calcium carbonate 1317-65-3
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Calcium hydroxide 1305-62-0
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Calcium oxide 1305-78-8 5
Calcium silicate 1344-95-2
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Calcium sulfate 7778-18-9
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Camphor, synthetic 76-22-2 2
Carbaryl (Sevin) 63-25-2 5
Carbon black 1333-86-4 3.5
Carbon dioxide 124-38-9 5000 9000
Carbon disulfide 75-15-0 (2)
Carbon monoxide 630-08-0 50 55
Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 (2)
Cellulose 9004-34-6
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Chlordane 57-74-9 0.5 X
Chlorinated camphene 8001-35-2 0.5 X
Chlorinated diphenyl oxide 55720-99-5 0.5
Chlorine 7782-50-5 (C)1 (C)3
Chlorine dioxide 10049-04-4 0.1 0.3
Chlorine trifluoride 7790-91-2 (C)0.1 (C)0.4
Chloroacetaldehyde 107-20-0 (C)1 (C)3
a-Chloroacetophenone (Phenacyl chloride) 532-27-4 0.05 0.3
Chlorobenzene 108-90-7 75 350
o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile 2698-41-1 0.05 0.4
Chlorobromomethane 74-97-5 200 1050
2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene; see beta-Chloroprene.
Chlorodiphenyl (42% Chlorine) (PCB) 53469-21-9 1 X
Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine) (PCB) 11097-69-1 0.5 X
1-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane; see Epichlorohydrin.
2-Chloroethanol; see Ethylene chlorohydrin.
Chloroethylene; see Vinyl chloride.
Chloroform (Trichloromethane) 67-66-3 (C)50 (C)240
bis(Chloromethyl) ether; see 1910.1008 542-88-1
Chloromethyl methyl ether; see 1910.1006 107-30-2
1-Chloro-1-nitropropane 600-25-9 20 100
Chloropicrin 76-06-2 0.1 0.7
beta-Chloroprene 126-99-8 25 90 X
2-Chloro-6-(trichloromethyl) pyridine 1929-82-4
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Chromium (II) compounds.
(as Cr) 7440-47-3 0.5
Chromium (III) compounds.
(as Cr) 7440-47-3 0.5
Chromium (VI) compounds; See 1910.10265
Chromium metal and insol. salts (as Cr) 7440-47-3 1
Chrysene; see Coal tar pitch volatiles.
Clopidol 2971-90-6
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Coal dust (less than 5% SiO2), respirable fraction (3)
Coal dust (greater than or equal to 5% SiO2), respirable fraction (3)
Coal tar pitch volatiles (benzene soluble fraction), anthracene, BaP, phenanthrene, acridine, chrysene, pyrene 65966-93-2 0.2
Cobalt metal, dust, and fume (as Co) 7440-48-4 0.1
Coke oven emissions; see 1910.1029.
Copper 7440-50-8
Fume (as Cu) 0.1
Dusts and mists (as Cu) 1
Cotton duste; see 1910.1043 1
Crag herbicide (Sesone) 136-78-7
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Cresol, all isomers 1319-77-3 5 22 X
Crotonaldehyde 123-73-9;
4170-30-3
2 6
Cumene 98-82-8 50 245 X
Cyanides (as CN) (4) 5 X
Cyclohexane 110-82-7 300 1050
Cyclohexanol 108-93-0 50 200
Cyclohexanone 108-94-1 50 200
Cyclohexene 110-83-8 300 1015
Cyclopentadiene 542-92-7 75 200
2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) 94-75-7 10
Decaborane 17702-41-9 0.05 0.3 X
Demeton (Systox) 8065-48-3 0.1 X
Diacetone alcohol (4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone) 123-42-2 50 240
1,2-Diaminoethane; see Ethylenediamine.
Diazomethane 334-88-3 0.2 0.4
Diborane 19287-45-7 0.1 0.1
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP); see 1910.1044 96-12-8
1,2-Dibromoethane; see Ethylene dibromide.
Dibutyl phosphate 107-66-4 1 5
Dibutyl phthalate 84-74-2 5
o-Dichlorobenzene 95-50-1 (C)50 (C)300
p-Dichlorobenzene 106-46-7 75 450
3,′-Dichlorobenzidine; see 1910.1007 91-94-1
Dichlorodifluoromethane 75-71-8 1000 4950
1,3-Dichloro-5,5-dimethyl hydantoin 118-52-5 0.2
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) 50-29-3 1 X
1,1-Dichloroethane 75-34-3 100 400
1,2-Dichloroethane; see Ethylene dichloride.
1,2-Dichloroethylene 540-59-0 200 790
Dichloroethyl ether 111-44-4 (C)15 (C)90 X
Dichloromethane; see Methylene chloride.
Dichloromonofluoromethane 75-43-4 1000 4200
1,1-Dichloro-1-nitroethane 594-72-9 (C)10 (C)60
1,2-Dichloropropane; see Propylene dichloride.
Dichlorotetrafluoroethane 76-14-2 1000 7000
Dichlorvos (DDVP) 62-73-7 1 X
Dicyclopentadienyl iron 102-54-5
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Dieldrin 60-57-1 0.25 X
Diethylamine 109-89-7 25 75
2-Diethylaminoethanol 100-37-8 10 50 X
Diethyl ether; see Ethyl ether.
Difluorodibromomethane 75-61-6 100 860
Diglycidyl ether (DGE) 2238-07-5 (C)0.5 (C)2.8
Dihydroxybenzene; see Hydroquinone.
Diisobutyl ketone 108-83-8 50 290
Diisopropylamine 108-18-9 5 20 X
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene; see 1910.1015 60-11-7
Dimethoxymethane; see Methylal.
Dimethyl acetamide 127-19-5 10 35 X
Dimethylamine 124-40-3 10 18
Dimethylaminobenzene; see Xylidine
Dimethylaniline (N,N-Dimethylaniline) 121-69-7 5 25 X
Dimethylbenzene; see Xylene.
Dimethyl-1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethyl phosphate 300-76-5 3
Dimethylformamide 68-12-2 10 30 X
2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone; see Diisobutyl ketone.
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine 57-14-7 0.5 1 X
Dimethylphthalate 131-11-3 5
Dimethyl sulfate 77-78-1 1 5 X
Dinitrobenzene (all isomers) 1 X
(ortho) 528-29-0
(meta) 99-65-0
(para) 100-25-4
Dinitro-o-cresol 534-52-1 0.2 X
Dinitrotoluene 25321-14-6 1.5 X
Dioxane (Diethylene dioxide) 123-91-1 100 360 X
Diphenyl (Biphenyl) 92-52-4 0.2 1
Diphenylmethane diisocyanate; see Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate.
Dipropylene glycol methyl ether 34590-94-8 100 600 X
Di-sec octyl phthalate (Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) 117-81-7 5
Emery 12415-34-8
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Endrin 72-20-8 0.1 X
Epichlorohydrin 106-89-8 5 19 X
EPN 2104-64-5 0.5 X
1,2-Epoxypropane; see Propylene oxide.
2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol; see Glycidol.
Ethanethiol; see Ethyl mercaptan.
Ethanolamine 141-43-5 3 6
2-Ethoxyethanol (Cellosolve) 110-80-5 200 740 X
2-Ethoxyethyl acetate (Cellosolve acetate) 111-15-9 100 540 X
Ethyl acetate 141-78-6 400 1400
Ethyl acrylate 140-88-5 25 100 X
Ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) 64-17-5 1000 1900
Ethylamine 75-04-7 10 18
Ethyl amyl ketone (5-Methyl-3-heptanone) 541-85-5 25 130
Ethyl benzene 100-41-4 100 435
Ethyl bromide 74-96-4 200 890
Ethyl butyl ketone (3-Heptanone) 106-35-4 50 230
Ethyl chloride 75-00-3 1000 2600
Ethyl ether 60-29-7 400 1200
Ethyl formate 109-94-4 100 300
Ethyl mercaptan 75-08-1 (C)10 (C)25
Ethyl silicate 78-10-4 100 850
Ethylene chlorohydrin 107-07-3 5 16 X
Ethylenediamine 107-15-3 10 25
Ethylene dibromide 106-93-4 (2)
Ethylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloroethane) 107-06-2 (2)
Ethylene glycol dinitrate 628-96-6 (C)0.2 (C)1 X
Ethylene glycol methyl acetate; see Methyl cellosolve acetate.
Ethyleneimine; see 1910.1012 151-56-4
Ethylene oxide; see 1910.1047 75-21-8
Ethylidene chloride; see 1,1-Dichloroethane.
N-Ethylmorpholine 100-74-3 20 94 X
Ferbam 14484-64-1
Total dust 15
Ferrovanadium dust 12604-58-9 1
Fluorides (as F) (4) 2.5
Fluorine 7782-41-4 0.1 0.2
Fluorotrichloromethane (Trichlorofluoromethane) 75-69-4 1000 5600
Formaldehyde; see 1910.1048 50-00-0
Formic acid 64-18-6 5 9
Furfural 98-01-1 5 20 X
Furfuryl alcohol 98-00-0 50 200
Grain dust (oat, wheat, barley) 10
Glycerin (mist) 56-81-5
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Glycidol 556-52-5 50 150
Glycol monoethyl ether; see 2-Ethoxyethanol.
Graphite, natural, respirable dust 7782-42-5 (3)
Graphite, synthetic
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Guthion; see Azinphos methyl.
Gypsum 13397-24-5
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Hafnium 7440-58-6 0.5
Heptachlor 76-44-8 0.5 X
Heptane (n-Heptane) 142-82-5 500 2000
Hexachloroethane 67-72-1 1 10 X
Hexachloronaphthalene 1335-87-1 0.2 X
n-Hexane 110-54-3 500 1800
2-Hexanone (Methyl n-butyl ketone) 591-78-6 100 410
Hexone (Methyl isobutyl ketone) 108-10-1 100 410
sec-Hexyl acetate 108-84-9 50 300
Hydrazine 302-01-2 1 1.3 X
Hydrogen bromide 10035-10-6 3 10
Hydrogen chloride 7647-01-0 (C)5 (C)7
Hydrogen cyanide 74-90-8 10 11 X
Hydrogen fluoride (as F) 7664-39-3 (2)
Hydrogen peroxide 7722-84-1 1 1.4
Hydrogen selenide (as Se) 7783-07-5 0.05 0.2
Hydrogen sulfide 7783-06-4 (2)
Hydroquinone 123-31-9 2
Iodine 7553-56-2 (C)0.1 (C)1
Iron oxide fume 1309-37-1 10
Isoamyl acetate 123-92-2 100 525
Isoamyl alcohol (primary and secondary) 123-51-3 100 360
Isobutyl acetate 110-19-0 150 700
Isobutyl alcohol 78-83-1 100 300
Isophorone 78-59-1 25 140
Isopropyl acetate 108-21-4 250 950
Isopropyl alcohol 67-63-0 400 980
Isopropylamine 75-31-0 5 12
Isopropyl ether 108-20-3 500 2100
Isopropyl glycidyl ether (IGE) 4016-14-2 50 240
Kaolin 1332-58-7
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Ketene 463-51-4 0.5 0.9
Lead, inorganic (as Pb); see 1910.1025 7439-92-1
Limestone 1317-65-3
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Lindane 58-89-9 0.5 X
Lithium hydride 7580-67-8 0.025
L.P.G. (Liquefied petroleum gas) 68476-85-7 1000 1800
Magnesite 546-93-0
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Magnesium oxide fume 1309-48-4
Total particulate 15
Malathion 121-75-5
Total dust 15 X
Maleic anhydride 108-31-6 0.25 1
Manganese compounds (as Mn) 7439-96-5 (C)5
Manganese fume (as Mn) 7439-96-5 (C)5
Marble 1317-65-3
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Mercury (aryl and inorganic) (as Hg) 7439-97-6 (2)
Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg) 7439-97-6 (2)
Mercury (vapor) (as Hg) 7439-97-6 (2)
Mesityl oxide 141-79-7 25 100
Methanethiol; see Methyl mercaptan.
Methoxychlor 72-43-5
Total dust 15
2-Methoxyethanol (Methyl cellosolve) 109-86-4 25 80 X
2-Methoxyethyl acetate (Methyl cellosolve acetate) 110-49-6 25 120 X
Methyl acetate 79-20-9 200 610
Methyl acetylene (Propyne) 74-99-7 1000 1650
Methyl acetylene-propadiene mixture (MAPP) 1000 1800
Methyl acrylate 96-33-3 10 35 X
Methylal (Dimethoxy-methane) 109-87-5 1000 3100
Methyl alcohol 67-56-1 200 260
Methylamine 74-89-5 10 12
Methyl amyl alcohol; see Methyl isobutyl carbinol.
Methyl n-amyl ketone 110-43-0 100 465
Methyl bromide 74-83-9 (C)20 (C)80 X
Methyl butyl ketone; see 2-Hexanone.
Methyl cellosolve; see 2-Methoxyethanol.
Methyl cellosolve acetate; see 2-Methoxyethyl acetate.
Methyl chloride 74-87-3 (2)
Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-Trichloroethane) 71-55-6 350 1900
Methylcyclohexane 108-87-2 500 2000
Methylcyclohexanol 25639-42-3 100 470
o-Methylcyclohexanone 583-60-8 100 460 X
Methylene chloride 75-09-2 (2)
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK); see 2-Butanone.
Methyl formate 107-31-3 100 250
Methyl hydrazine (Monomethyl hydrazine) 60-34-4 (C)0.2 (C)0.35 X
Methyl iodide 74-88-4 5 28 X
Methyl isoamyl ketone 110-12-3 100 475
Methyl isobutyl carbinol 108-11-2 25 100 X
Methyl isobutyl ketone; see Hexone.
Methyl isocyanate 624-83-9 0.02 0.05 X
Methyl mercaptan 74-93-1 (C)10 (C)20
Methyl methacrylate 80-62-6 100 410
Methyl propyl ketone; see 2-Pentanone.
alpha-Methyl styrene 98-83-9 (C)100 (C)480
Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) 101-68-8 (C)0.02 (C)0.2
Mica; see Silicates.
Molybdenum (as Mo) 7439-98-7
Soluble compounds 5
Insoluble compounds.
Total dust 15
Monomethyl aniline 100-61-8 2 9 X
Monomethyl hydrazine; see Methyl hydrazine.
Morpholine 110-91-8 20 70 X
Naphtha (Coal tar) 8030-30-6 100 400
Naphthalene 91-20-3 10 50
alpha-Naphthylamine; see 1910.1004 134-32-7
beta-Naphthylamine; see 1910.1009 91-59-8
Nickel carbonyl (as Ni) 13463-39-3 0.001 0.007
Nickel, metal and insoluble compounds (as Ni) 7440-02-0 1
Nickel, soluble compounds (as Ni) 7440-02-0 1
Nicotine 54-11-5 0.5 X
Nitric acid 7697-37-2 2 5
Nitric oxide 10102-43-9 25 30
p-Nitroaniline 100-01-6 1 6 X
Nitrobenzene 98-95-3 1 5 X
p-Nitrochlorobenzene 100-00-5 1 X
4-Nitrodiphenyl; see 1910.1003 92-93-3
Nitroethane 79-24-3 100 310
Nitrogen dioxide 10102-44-0 (C)5 (C)9
Nitrogen trifluoride 7783-54-2 10 29
Nitroglycerin 55-63-0 (C)0.2 (C)2 X
Nitromethane 75-52-5 100 250
1-Nitropropane 108-03-2 25 90
2-Nitropropane 79-46-9 25 90
N-Nitrosodimethylamine; see 1910.1016.
Nitrotoluene (all isomers) 5 30 X
o-isomer 88-72-2
m-isomer 99-08-1
p-isomer 99-99-0
Nitrotrichloromethane; see Chloropicrin.
Octachloronaphthalene 2234-13-1 0.1 X
Octane 111-65-9 500 2350
Oil mist, mineral 8012-95-1 5
Osmium tetroxide (as Os) 20816-12-0 0.002
Oxalic acid 144-62-7 1
Oxygen difluoride 7783-41-7 0.05 0.1
Ozone 10028-15-6 0.1 0.2
Paraquat, respirable dust 4685-14-7;
1910-42-5;
2074-50-2
0.5 X
Parathion 56-38-2 0.1 X
Particulates not otherwise regulated (PNOR)f.
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
PCB; see Chlorodiphenyl (42% and 54% chlorine).
Pentaborane 19624-22-7 0.005 0.01
Pentachloronaphthalene 1321-64-8 0.5 X
Pentachlorophenol 87-86-5 0.5 X
Pentaerythritol 115-77-5
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Pentane 109-66-0 1000 2950
2-Pentanone (Methyl propyl ketone) 107-87-9 200 700
Perchloroethylene (Tetrachloroethylene) 127-18-4 (2)
Perchloromethyl mercaptan 594-42-3 0.1 0.8
Perchloryl fluoride 7616-94-6 3 13.5
Petroleum distillates (Naphtha) (Rubber Solvent) 500 2000
Phenol 108-95-2 5 19 X
p-Phenylene diamine 106-50-3 0.1 X
Phenyl ether, vapor 101-84-8 1 7
Phenyl ether-biphenyl mixture, vapor 1 7
Phenylethylene; see Styrene.
Phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) 122-60-1 10 60
Phenylhydrazine 100-63-0 5 22 X
Phosdrin (Mevinphos) 7786-34-7 0.1 X
Phosgene (Carbonyl chloride) 75-44-5 0.1 0.4
Phosphine 7803-51-2 0.3 0.4
Phosphoric acid 7664-38-2 1
Phosphorus (yellow) 7723-14-0 0.1
Phosphorus pentachloride 10026-13-8 1
Phosphorus pentasulfide 1314-80-3 1
Phosphorus trichloride 7719-12-2 0.5 3
Phthalic anhydride 85-44-9 2 12
Picloram 1918-02-1
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Picric acid 88-89-1 0.1 X
Pindone (2-Pivalyl-1,3-indandione) 83-26-1 0.1
Plaster of Paris 26499-65-0
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Platinum (as Pt) 7440-06-4
Metal
Soluble salts 0.002
Portland cement 65997-15-1
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Propane 74-98-6 1000 1800
beta-Propriolactone; see 1910.1013 57-57-8
n-Propyl acetate 109-60-4 200 840
n-Propyl alcohol 71-23-8 200 500
n-Propyl nitrate 627-13-4 25 110
Propylene dichloride 78-87-5 75 350
Propylene imine 75-55-8 2 5 X
Propylene oxide 75-56-9 100 240
Propyne; see Methyl acetylene.
Pyrethrum 8003-34-7 5
Pyridine 110-86-1 5 15
Quinone 106-51-4 0.1 0.4
RDX; see Cyclonite.
Rhodium (as Rh), metal fume and insoluble compounds 7440-16-6 0.1
Rhodium (as Rh), soluble compounds 7440-16-6 0.001
Ronnel 299-84-3 15
Rotenone 83-79-4 5
Rouge
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Selenium compounds (as Se) 7782-49-2 0.2
Selenium hexafluoride (as Se) 7783-79-1 0.05 0.4
Silica, amorphous, precipitated and gel 112926-00-8 (3)
Silica, amorphous, diatomaceous earth, containing less than 1% crystalline silica 61790-53-2 (3)
Silica, crystalline, respirable dust
Cristobalite; see 1910.10537 14464-46-1
Quartz; see 1910.10537 14808-60-7
Tripoli (as quartz); see 1910.10537 1317-95-9
Tridymite; see 1910.10537 15468-32-3
Silica, fused, respirable dust 60676-86-0 (3)
Silicates (less than 1% crystalline silica)
Mica (respirable dust) 12001-26-2 (3)
Soapstone, total dust (3)
Soapstone, respirable dust (3)
Talc (containing asbestos); use asbestos limit; see 29 CFR 1910.1001 (3)
Talc (containing no asbestos), respirable dust 14807-96-6 (3)
Tremolite, asbestiform; see 1910.1001.
Silicon 7440-21-3
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Silicon carbide 409-21-2
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Silver, metal and soluble compounds (as Ag) 7440-22-4 0.01
Soapstone; see Silicates.
Sodium fluoroacetate 62-74-8 0.05 X
Sodium hydroxide 1310-73-2 2
Starch 9005-25-8
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Stibine 7803-52-3 0.1 0.5
Stoddard solvent 8052-41-3 500 2900
Strychnine 57-24-9 0.15
Styrene 100-42-5 (2)
Sucrose 57-50-1
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Sulfur dioxide 7446-09-5 5 13
Sulfur hexafluoride 2551-62-4 1000 6000
Sulfuric acid 7664-93-9 1
Sulfur monochloride 10025-67-9 1 6
Sulfur pentafluoride 5714-22-7 0.025 0.25
Sulfuryl fluoride 2699-79-8 5 20
Systox; see Demeton.
2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) 93-76-5 10
Talc; see Silicates.
Tantalum, metal and oxide dust 7440-25-7 5
TEDP (Sulfotep) 3689-24-5 0.2 X
Tellurium and compounds (as Te) 13494-80-9 0.1
Tellurium hexafluoride (as Te) 7783-80-4 0.02 0.2
Temephos 3383-96-8
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
TEPP (Tetraethyl pyrophosphate) 107-49-3 0.05 X
Terphenyls 26140-60-3 (C)1 (C)9
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloro-2,2-difluoroethane 76-11-9 500 4170
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane 76-12-0 500 4170
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 79-34-5 5 35 X
Tetrachloroethylene; see Perchloroethylene.
Tetrachloromethane; see Carbon tetrachloride.
Tetrachloronaphthalene 1335-88-2 2 X
Tetraethyl lead (as Pb) 78-00-2 0.075 X
Tetrahydrofuran 109-99-9 200 590
Tetramethyl lead (as Pb) 75-74-1 0.075 X
Tetramethyl succinonitrile 3333-52-6 0.5 3 X
Tetranitromethane 509-14-8 1 8
Tetryl (2,4,6-Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine) 479-45-8 1.5 X
Thallium, soluble compounds (as Tl) 7440-28-0 0.1 X
4,4′-Thiobis (6-tert, Butyl-m-cresol) 96-69-5
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Thiram 137-26-8 5
Tin, inorganic compounds (except oxides) (as Sn) 7440-31-5 2
Tin, organic compounds (as Sn) 7440-31-5 0.1
Titanium dioxide 13463-67-7
Total dust 15
Toluene 108-88-3 (2)
Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) 584-84-9 (C)0.02 (C)0.14
o-Toluidine 95-53-4 5 22 X
Toxaphene; see Chlorinated camphene.
Tremolite; see Silicates.
Tributyl phosphate 126-73-8 5
1,1,1-Trichloroethane; see Methyl chloroform.
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 79-00-5 10 45 X
Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 (2)
Trichloromethane; see Chloroform.
Trichloronaphthalene 1321-65-9 5 X
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 96-18-4 50 300
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane 76-13-1 1000 7600
Triethylamine 121-44-8 25 100
Trifluorobromomethane 75-63-8 1000 6100
2,4,6-Trinitrophenol; see Picric acid.
2,4,6-Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine; see Tetryl.
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) 118-96-7 1.5 X
Triorthocresyl phosphate 78-30-8 0.1
Triphenyl phosphate 115-86-6 3
Turpentine 8006-64-2 100 560
Uranium (as U) 7440-61-1
Soluble compounds 0.05
Insoluble compounds 0.25
Vanadium 1314-62-1
Respirable dust (as V2 O5) (C)0.5
Fume (as V2 O5) (C)0.1
Vegetable oil mist
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Vinyl benzene; see Styrene.
Vinyl chloride; see 1910.1017 75-01-4
Vinyl cyanide; see Acrylonitrile.
Vinyl toluene 25013-15-4 100 480
Warfarin 81-81-2 0.1
Xylenes (o-, m-, p-isomers) 1330-20-7 100 435
Xylidine 1300-73-8 5 25 X
Yttrium 7440-65-5 1
Zinc chloride fume 7646-85-7 1
Zinc oxide fume 1314-13-2 5
Zinc oxide 1314-13-2
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Zinc stearate 557-05-1
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Zirconium compounds (as Zr) 7440-67-7 5

Table Z-2

Substance 8-hour time weighted average Acceptable ceiling concentration Acceptable maximum peak above the acceptable ceiling concentration for an 8-hr shift
Concentration Maximum duration
Benzenea (Z37.40-1969) 10 ppm 25 ppm 50 ppm 10 minutes.
Beryllium and beryllium compounds (Z37.29-1970)d 2 µg/m3 5 µg/m3 25 µg/m3 30 minutes.
Cadmium fumeb (Z37.5-1970) 0.1 mg/m3 0.3 mg/m3
Cadmium dustb (Z37.5-1970) 0.2 mg/m3 0.6 mg/m3
Carbon disulfide (Z37.3-1968) 20 ppm 30 ppm 100 ppm 30 minutes.
Carbon tetrachloride (Z37.17-1967) 10 ppm 25 ppm 200 ppm 5 min. in any 4 hrs.
Chromic acid and chromates (Z37.7-1971) (as CrO3)c 1 mg/10m3
Ethylene dibromide (Z37.31-1970) 20 ppm 30 ppm 50 ppm 5 minutes.
Ethylene dichloride (Z37.21-1969) 50 ppm 100 ppm 200 ppm 5 min. in any 3 hrs.
Fluoride as dust (Z37.28-1969) 2.5 mg/m3
Formaldehyde; see 1910.1048
Hydrogen fluoride (Z37.28-1969) 3 ppm
Hydrogen sulfide (Z37.2-1966) 20 ppm 50 ppm 10 mins. once, only if no other meas. exp. occurs.
Mercury (Z37.8-1971) 1 mg/10m3
Methyl chloride (Z37.18-1969) 100 ppm 200 ppm 300 ppm 5 mins. in any 3 hrs.
Methylene Chloride: See § 1919.52.
Organo (alkyl) mercury (Z37.30-1969) 0.01 mg/m3 0.04 mg/m3
Styrene (Z37.15-1969) 100 ppm 200 ppm 600 ppm 5 mins. in any 3 hrs.
Tetrachloroethylene (Z37.22-1967) 100 ppm 200 ppm 300 ppm 5 mins. in any 3 hrs.
Toluene (Z37.12-1967) 200 ppm 300 ppm 500 ppm 10 minutes.
Trichloroethylene (Z37.19-1967) 100 ppm 200 ppm 300 ppm 5 mins. in any 2 hrs.

Table Z-3 - Mineral Dusts

Substance mppcfa mg/m3
Silica:
Crystalline
Quartz (Respirable)f 250b 10 mg/m3e
% SiO2 + 5 % SiO2 + 2
Cristobalite: Use 1/2 the value calculated from the count or mass formulae for quartzf
Tridymite: Use 1/2 the value calculated from the formulae for quartzf
Amorphous, including natural diatomaceous earth 20 80 mg/m3
%SiO2
Silicates (less than 1% crystalline silica):
Mica 20
Soapstone 20
Talc (not containing asbestos) 20c
Talc (containing asbestos) Use asbestos limit
Tremolite, asbestiform (see 29 CFR 1910.1001)
Portland cement 50
Graphite (Natural) 15
Coal Dust:
Respirable fraction less than 5% SiO2 2.4 mg/m3e
10 mg/m3e
Respirable fraction greater than 5% SiO2 _____
%SiO2 + 2
Inert or Nuisance Dust:d
Respirable fraction 15 5 mg/m3
Total dust 50 15 mg/m3
Aerodynamic diameter (unit density sphere) Percent passing selector
2 90
2.5 75
3.5 50
5.0 25
10 0

[58 FR 35340, June 30, 1993; 58 FR 40191, July 27, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 56831, Nov. 4, 1996; 62 FR 1600, Jan. 10, 1997; 62 FR 42018, Aug. 4, 1997; 71 FR 10373, Feb. 28, 2006; 71 FR 16673, Apr. 3, 2006; 71 FR 36008, June 23, 2006; 81 FR 16861, Mar. 25, 2016; 81 FR 31167, May 18, 2016; 81 FR 60272, Sept. 1, 2016; 82 FR 2735, Jan. 9, 2017]

§ 1910.1001 Asbestos.

(a) Scope and application.

(1) This section applies to all occupational exposures to asbestos in all industries covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Act, except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) and (3) of this section.

(2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101).

(3) This section does not apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking employments and related employments as defined in 29 CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001).

(b) Definitions. Asbestos includes chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite, tremolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered.

Asbestos-containing material (ACM) means any material containing more than 1% asbestos.

Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

Authorized person means any person authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in regulated areas.

Building/facility owner is the legal entity, including a lessee, which exercises control over management and record keeping functions relating to a building and/or facility in which activities covered by this standard take place.

Certified industrial hygienist (CIH) means one certified in the practice of industrial hygiene by the American Board of Industrial Hygiene.

Director means the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee.

Employee exposure means that exposure to airborne asbestos that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.

Fiber means a particulate form of asbestos 5 micrometers or longer,with a length-to-diameter ratio of at least 3 to 1.

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter means a filter capable of trapping and retaining at least 99.97 percent of 0.3 micrometer diameter mono-disperse particles.

Homogeneous area means an area of surfacing material or thermal system insulation that is uniform in color and texture.

Industrial hygienist means a professional qualified by education, training, and experience to anticipate, recognize, evaluate and develop controls for occupational health hazards.

PACM means “presumed asbestos containing material.”

Presumed asbestos containing material means thermal system insulation and surfacing material found in buildings constructed no later than 1980. The designation of a material as “PACM” may be rebutted pursuant to paragraph (j)(8) of this section.

Regulated area means an area established by the employer to demarcate areas where airborne concentrations of asbestos exceed, or there is a reasonable possibility they may exceed, the permissible exposure limits.

Surfacing ACM means surfacing material which contains more than 1% asbestos.

Surfacing material means material that is sprayed, troweled-on or otherwise applied to surfaces (such as acoustical plaster on ceilings and fireproofing materials on structural members, or other materials on surfaces for acoustical, fireproofing, and other purposes).

Thermal System Insulation (TSI) means ACM applied to pipes, fittings, boilers, breeching, tanks, ducts or other structural components to prevent heat loss or gain.

Thermal System Insulation ACM means thermal system insulation which contains more than 1% asbestos.

(c) Permissible exposure limit (PELS) -

(1) Time-weighted average limit (TWA). The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos in excess of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average (TWA) as determined by the method prescribed in appendix A to this section, or by an equivalent method.

(2) Excursion limit. The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos in excess of 1.0 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (1 f/cc) as averaged over a sampling period of thirty (30) minutes as determined by the method prescribed in appendix A to this section, or by an equivalent method.

(d) Exposure monitoring -

(1) General.

(i) Determinations of employee exposure shall be made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 30-minute short-term exposures of each employee.

(ii) Representative 8-hour TWA employee exposures shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing full-shift exposures for each shift for each employee in each job classification in each work area. Representative 30-minute short-term employee exposures shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing 30 minute exposures associated with operations that are most likely to produce exposures above the excursion limit for each shift for each job classification in each work area.

(2) Initial monitoring.

(i) Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard, except as provided for in paragraphs (d)(2)(ii) and (d)(2)(iii) of this section, shall perform initial monitoring of employees who are, or may reasonably be expected to be exposed to airborne concentrations at or above the TWA permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit.

(ii) Where the employer has monitored after March 31, 1992, for the TWA permissible exposure limit and/or the excursion limit, and the monitoring satisfies all other requirements of this section, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section.

(iii) Where the employer has relied upon objective data that demonstrate that asbestos is not capable of being released in airborne concentrations at or above the TWA permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling, then no initial monitoring is required.

(3) Monitoring frequency (periodic monitoring) and patterns. After the initial determinations required by paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, samples shall be of such frequency and pattern as to represent with reasonable accuracy the levels of exposure of the employees. In no case shall sampling be at intervals greater than six months for employees whose exposures may reasonably be foreseen to exceed the TWA permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit.

(4) Changes in monitoring frequency. If either the initial or the periodic monitoring required by paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section statistically indicates that employee exposures are below the TWA permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.

(5) Additional monitoring. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (d)(2)(ii) and (d)(4) of this section, the employer shall institute the exposure monitoring required under paragraphs (d)(2)(i) and (d)(3) of this section whenever there has been a change in the production, process, control equipment, personnel or work practices that may result in new or additional exposures above the TWA permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit or when the employer has any reason to suspect that a change may result in new or additional exposures above the PEL and/or excursion limit.

(6) Method of monitoring.

(i) All samples taken to satisfy the monitoring requirements of paragraph (d) of this section shall be personal samples collected following the procedures specified in appendix A.

(ii) All samples taken to satisfy the monitoring requirements of paragraph (d) of this section shall be evaluated using the OSHA Reference Method (ORM) specified in appendix A of this section, or an equivalent counting method.

(iii) If an equivalent method to the ORM is used, the employer shall ensure that the method meets the following criteria:

(A) Replicate exposure data used to establish equivalency are collected in side-by-side field and laboratory comparisons; and

(B) The comparison indicates that 90% of the samples collected in the range 0.5 to 2.0 times the permissible limit have an accuracy range of plus or minus 25 percent of the ORM results at a 95% confidence level as demonstrated by a statistically valid protocol; and

(C) The equivalent method is documented and the results of the comparison testing are maintained.

(iv) To satisfy the monitoring requirements of paragraph (d) of this section, employers must use the results of monitoring analysis performed by laboratories which have instituted quality assurance programs that include the elements as prescribed in appendix A of this section.

(7) Employee notification of monitoring results.

(i) The employer must, within 15 working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this sections, notify each affected employee of these results either individually in writing or by posting the results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.

(ii) The written notification required by paragraph (d)(7)(i) of this section shall contain the corrective action being taken by the employer to reduce employee exposure to or below the TWA and/or excursion limit, wherever monitoring results indicated that the TWA and/or excursion limit had been exceeded.

(e) Regulated Areas -

(1) Establishment. The employer shall establish regulated areas wherever airborne concentrations of asbestos and/or PACM are in excess of the TWA and/or excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) Demarcation. Regulated areas shall be demarcated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of persons who will be exposed to asbestos.

(3) Access. Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons or to persons authorized by the Act or regulations issued pursuant thereto.

(4) Provision of respirators. Each person entering a regulated area shall be supplied with and required to use a respirator, selected in accordance with paragraph (g)(2) of this section.

(5) Prohibited activities. The employer shall ensure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in the regulated areas.

(f) Methods of compliance -

(1) Engineering controls and work practices.

(i) The employer shall institute engineering controls and work practices to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the TWA and/or excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, except to the extent that such controls are not feasible.

(ii) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work practices that can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the TWA and/or excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section.

(iii) For the following operations, wherever feasible engineering controls and work practices that can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce the employee exposure to or below the TWA and/or excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to or below 0.5 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (as an eight-hour time-weighted average) or 2.5 fibers/cc for 30 minutes (short-term exposure) and shall supplement them by the use of any combination of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section, work practices and feasible engineering controls that will reduce employee exposure to or below the TWA and to or below the excursion limit permissible prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section: Coupling cutoff in primary asbestos cement pipe manufacturing; sanding in primary and secondary asbestos cement sheet manufacturing; grinding in primary and secondary friction product manufacturing; carding and spinning in dry textile processes; and grinding and sanding in primary plastics manufacturing.

(iv) Local exhaust ventilation. Local exhaust ventilation and dust collection systems shall be designed, constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with good practices such as those found in the American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, ANSI Z9.2-1979.

(v) Particular tools. All hand-operated and power-operated tools which would produce or release fibers of asbestos, such as, but not limited to, saws, scorers, abrasive wheels, and drills, shall be provided with local exhaust ventilation systems which comply with paragraph (f)(1)(iv) of this section.

(vi) Wet methods. Insofar as practicable, asbestos shall be handled, mixed, applied, removed, cut, scored, or otherwise worked in a wet state sufficient to prevent the emission of airborne fibers so as to expose employees to levels in excess of the TWA and/or excursion limit, prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, unless the usefulness of the product would be diminished thereby.

(vii) [Reserved]

(viii) Particular products and operations. No asbestos cement, mortar, coating, grout, plaster, or similar material containing asbestos, shall be removed from bags, cartons, or other containers in which they are shipped, without being either wetted, or enclosed, or ventilated so as to prevent effectively the release of airborne fibers.

(ix) Compressed air. Compressed air shall not be used to remove asbestos or materials containing asbestos unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system which effectively captures the dust cloud created by the compressed air.

(x) Flooring. Sanding of asbestos-containing flooring material is prohibited.

(2) Compliance program.

(i) Where the TWA and/or excursion limit is exceeded, the employer shall establish and implement a written program to reduce employee exposure to or below the TWA and to or below the excursion limit by means of engineering and work practice controls as required by paragraph (f)(1) of this section, and by the use of respiratory protection where required or permitted under this section.

(ii) Such programs shall be reviewed and updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the employer's compliance program.

(iii) Written programs shall be submitted upon request for examination and copying to the Assistant Secretary, the Director, affected employees and designated employee representatives.

(iv) The employer shall not use employee rotation as a means of compliance with the TWA and/or excursion limit.

(3) Specific compliance methods for brake and clutch repair:

(i) Engineering controls and work practices for brake and clutch repair and service. During automotive brake and clutch inspection, disassembly, repair and assembly operations, the employer shall institute engineering controls and work practices to reduce employee exposure to materials containing asbestos using a negative pressure enclosure/HEPA vacuum system method or low pressure/wet cleaning method, which meets the detailed requirements set out in appendix F to this section. The employer may also comply using an equivalent method which follows written procedures which the employer demonstrates can achieve results equivalent to Method A in appendix F to this section. For facilities in which no more than 5 pair of brakes or 5 clutches are inspected, disassembled, repaired, or assembled per week, the method set forth in paragraph [D] of appendix F to this section may be used.

(ii) The employer may also comply by using an equivalent method which follows written procedures, which the employer demonstrates can achieve equivalent exposure reductions as do the two “preferred methods.” Such demonstration must include monitoring data conducted under workplace conditions closely resembling the process, type of asbestos containing materials, control method, work practices and environmental conditions which the equivalent method will be used, or objective data, which document that under all reasonably foreseeable conditions of brake and clutch repair applications, the method results in exposures which are equivalent to the methods set out in appendix F to this section.

(g) Respiratory protection -

(1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls.

(ii) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities, for which engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible.

(iii) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the TWA and/or excursion limit.

(iv) Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program.

(i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with 29 CFR 134 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.

(ii) Employers must provide an employee with a tight-fitting, powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative pressure respirator selected according to paragraph (g)(3) of this standard when the employee chooses to use a PAPR and it provides adequate protection to the employee.

(iii) No employee must be assigned to tasks requiring the use of respirators if, based on their most recent medical examination, the examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to function normally using a respirator, or that the safety or health of the employee or other employees will be impaired by the use of a respirator. Such employees must be assigned to another job or given the opportunity to transfer to a different position, the duties of which they can perform. If such a transfer position is available, the position must be with the same employer, in the same geographical area, and with the same seniority, status, and rate of pay the employee had just prior to such transfer.

(3) Respirator selection. Employers must:

(i) Select, and provide to employees, the appropriate respirators specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134; however, employers must not select or use filtering facepiece respirators for protection against asbestos fibers.

(ii) Provide HEPA filters for powered and non-powered air-purifying respirators.

(h) Protective work clothing and equipment -

(1) Provision and use. If an employee is exposed to asbestos above the TWA and/or excursion limit, or where the possibility of eye irritation exists, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and ensure that the employee uses appropriate protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:

(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;

(ii) Gloves, head coverings, and foot coverings; and

(iii) Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment which complies with 1910.133 of this part.

(2) Removal and storage.

(i) The employer shall ensure that employees remove work clothing contaminated with asbestos only in change rooms provided in accordance with paragraph (i)(1) of this section.

(ii) The employer shall ensure that no employee takes contaminated work clothing out of the change room, except those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, maintenance, or disposal.

(iii) Contaminated work clothing shall be placed and stored in closed containers which prevent dispersion of the asbestos outside the container.

(iv) The employer shall ensure that containers of contaminated protective devices or work clothing, which are to be taken out of change rooms or the workplace for cleaning, maintenance or disposal, bear labels in accordance with paragraph (j) of this section.

(3) Cleaning and replacement.

(i) The employer shall clean, launder, repair, or replace protective clothing and equipment required by this paragraph to maintain their effectiveness. The employer shall provide clean protective clothing and equipment at least weekly to each affected employee.

(ii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of asbestos from protective clothing and equipment by blowing or shaking.

(iii) Laundering of contaminated clothing shall be done so as to prevent the release of airborne fibers of asbestos in excess of the permissible exposure limits prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.

(iv) Any employer who gives contaminated clothing to another person for laundering shall inform such person of the requirement in paragraph (h)(3)(iii) of this section to effectively prevent the release of airborne fibers of asbestos in excess of the permissible exposure limits.

(v) The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans protective clothing or equipment contaminated with asbestos of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to asbestos.

(vi) The employer shall ensure that contaminated clothing is transported in sealed impermeable bags, or other closed, impermeable containers, and labeled in accordance with paragraph (j) of this section.

(i) Hygiene facilities and practices -

(1) Change rooms.

(i) The employer shall provide clean change rooms for employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to asbestos is above the TWA and/or excursion limit.

(ii) The employer shall ensure that change rooms are in accordance with 1910.141(e) of this part, and are equipped with two separate lockers or storage facilities, so separated as to prevent contamination of the employee's street clothes from his protective work clothing and equipment.

(2) Showers.

(i) The employer shall ensure that employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure is above the TWA and/or excursion limit, shower at the end of the work shift.

(ii) The employer shall provide shower facilities which comply with 1910.141(d)(3) of this part.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that employees who are required to shower pursuant to paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section do not leave the workplace wearing any clothing or equipment worn during the work shift.

(3) Lunchrooms.

(i) The employer shall provide lunchroom facilities for employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure is above the TWA and/or excursion limit.

(ii) The employer shall ensure that lunchroom facilities have a positive pressure, filtered air supply, and are readily accessible to employees.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure is above the PEL and/or excursion limit wash their hands and faces prior to eating, drinking or smoking.

(iv) The employer shall ensure that employees do not enter lunchroom facilities with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface asbestos fibers have been removed from the clothing or equipment by vacuuming or other method that removes dust without causing the asbestos to become airborne.

(4) Smoking in work areas. The employer shall ensure that employees do not smoke in work areas where they are occupationally exposed to asbestos because of activities in that work area.

(j) Communication of hazards to employees - Introduction. This section applies to the communication of information concerning asbestos hazards in general industry to facilitate compliance with this standard. Asbestos exposure in general industry occurs in a wide variety of industrial and commercial settings. Employees who manufacture asbestos-containing products may be exposed to asbestos fibers. Employees who repair and replace automotive brakes and clutches may be exposed to asbestos fibers. In addition, employees engaged in housekeeping activities in industrial facilities with asbestos product manufacturing operations, and in public and commercial buildings with installed asbestos containing materials may be exposed to asbestos fibers. Most of these workers are covered by this general industry standard, with the exception of state or local governmental employees in non-state plan states. It should be noted that employees who perform housekeeping activities during and after construction activities are covered by the asbestos construction standard, 29 CFR 1926.1101, formerly 1926.58. However, housekeeping employees, regardless of industry designation, should know whether building components they maintain may expose them to asbestos. The same hazard communication provisions will protect employees who perform housekeeping operations in all three asbestos standards; general industry, construction, and shipyard employment. As noted in the construction standard, building owners are often the only and/or best source of information concerning the presence of previously installed asbestos containing building materials. Therefore they, along with employers of potentially exposed employees, are assigned specific information conveying and retention duties under this section.

(1) Hazard communication - general.

(i) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers shall comply with all requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (§ 1910.1200) for asbestos.

(ii) In classifying the hazards of asbestos at least the following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer and lung effects.

(iii) Employers shall include asbestos in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS (§ 1910.1200). Employers shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of asbestos and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and paragraph (j)(7) of this section.

(2) Installed Asbestos Containing Material. Employers and building owners are required to treat installed TSI and sprayed on and troweled-on surfacing materials as ACM in buildings constructed no later than 1980 for purposes of this standard. These materials are designated “presumed ACM or PACM”, and are defined in paragraph (b) of this section. Asphalt and vinyl flooring material installed no later than 1980 also must be treated as asbestos-containing. The employer or building owner may demonstrate that PACM and flooring material do not contain asbestos by complying with paragraph (j)(8)(iii) of this section.

(3) Duties of employers and building and facility owners.

(i) Building and facility owners shall determine the presence, location, and quantity of ACM and/or PACM at the work site. Employers and building and facility owners shall exercise due diligence in complying with these requirements to inform employers and employees about the presence and location of ACM and PACM.

(ii) Building and facility owners shall maintain records of all information required to be provided pursuant to this section and/or otherwise known to the building owner concerning the presence, location and quantity of ACM and PACM in the building/facility. Such records shall be kept for the duration of ownership and shall be transferred to successive owners.

(iii) Building and facility owners shall inform employers of employees, and employers shall inform employees who will perform housekeeping activities in areas which contain ACM and/or PACM of the presence and location of ACM and/or PACM in such areas which may be contacted during such activities.

(4) Warning signs -

(i) Posting. Warning signs shall be provided and displayed at each regulated area. In addition, warning signs shall be posted at all approaches to regulated areas so that an employee may read the signs and take necessary protective steps before entering the area.

(ii) Sign specifications:

(A) The warning signs required by paragraph (j)(4)(i) of this section shall bear the following legend:

DANGER

ASBESTOS

MAY CAUSE CANCER

CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(B) In addition, where the use of respirators and protective clothing is required in the regulated area under this section, the warning signs shall include the following:

WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING IN THIS AREA

(C) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in paragraph (j)(4)(ii)(A) of this section:

DANGER

ASBESTOS

CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE

HAZARD

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(D) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in paragraph (j)(4)(ii)(B) of this section:

RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING ARE REQUIRED IN THIS AREA

(iii) The employer shall ensure that employees working in and contiguous to regulated areas comprehend the warning signs required to be posted by paragraph (j)(4)(i) of this section. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs and graphics.

(iv) At the entrance to mechanical rooms/areas in which employees reasonably can be expected to enter and which contain ACM and/or PACM, the building owner shall post signs which identify the material which is present, its location, and appropriate work practices which, if followed, will ensure that ACM and/or PACM will not be disturbed. The employer shall ensure, to the extent feasible, that employees who come in contact with these signs can comprehend them. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs, graphics, and awareness training.

(5) Warning labels -

(i) Labeling. Labels shall be affixed to all raw materials, mixtures, scrap, waste, debris, and other products containing asbestos fibers, or to their containers. When a building owner or employer identifies previously installed ACM and/or PACM, labels or signs shall be affixed or posted so that employees will be notified of what materials contain ACM and/or PACM. The employer shall attach such labels in areas where they will clearly be noticed by employees who are likely to be exposed, such as at the entrance to mechanical room/areas. Signs required by paragraph (j) of this section may be posted in lieu of labels so long as they contain the information required for labeling.

(ii) Label specifications. In addition to the requirements of paragraph (j)(1), the employer shall ensure that labels of bags or containers of protective clothing and equipment, scrap, waste, and debris containing asbestos fibers include the following information:

DANGER

CONTAINS ASBESTOS FIBERS

MAY CAUSE CANCER

CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS

DO NOT BREATHE DUST

AVOID CREATING DUST

(iii) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on raw materials, mixtures or labels of bags or containers of protective clothing and equipment, scrap, waste, and debris containing asbestos fibers in lieu of the labeling requirements in paragraphs (j)(1)(i) and (j)(5)(ii) of this section:

DANGER

CONTAINS ASBESTOS FIBERS

AVOID CREATING DUST

CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD

(6) The provisions for labels and for safety data sheets required by paragraph (j) of this section do not apply where:

(i) Asbestos fibers have been modified by a bonding agent, coating, binder, or other material provided that the manufacturer can demonstrate that during any reasonably foreseeable use, handling, storage, disposal, processing, or transportation, no airborne concentrations of fibers of asbestos in excess of the TWA permissible exposure level and/or excursion limit will be released or

(ii) Asbestos is present in a product in concentrations less than 1.0%.

(7) Employee information and training.

(i) The employer shall train each employee who is exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos at or above the PEL and/or excursion limit in accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer shall institute a training program and ensure employee participation in the program.

(ii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter.

(iii) The training program shall be conducted in a manner which the employee is able to understand. The employer shall ensure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The health effects associated with asbestos exposure;

(B) The relationship between smoking and exposure to asbestos producing lung cancer:

(C) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of asbestos, and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to asbestos;

(D) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment;

(E) The specific procedures implemented to protect employees from exposure to asbestos, such as appropriate work practices, emergency and clean-up procedures, and personal protective equipment to be used;

(F) The purpose, proper use, and limitations of respirators and protective clothing, if appropriate;

(G) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by paragraph (l) of this section;

(H) The content of this standard, including appendices.

(I) The names, addresses and phone numbers of public health organizations which provide information, materials, and/or conduct programs concerning smoking cessation. The employer may distribute the list of such organizations contained in appendix I to this section, to comply with this requirement.

(J) The requirements for posting signs and affixing labels and the meaning of the required legends for such signs and labels.

(iv) The employer shall also provide, at no cost to employees who perform housekeeping operations in an area which contains ACM or PACM, an asbestos awareness training course, which shall at a minimum contain the following elements: health effects of asbestos, locations of ACM and PACM in the building/facility, recognition of ACM and PACM damage and deterioration, requirements in this standard relating to housekeeping, and proper response to fiber release episodes, to all employees who perform housekeeping work in areas where ACM and/or PACM is present. Each such employee shall be so trained at least once a year.

(v) Access to information and training materials.

(A) The employer shall make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available without cost to all affected employees.

(B) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the Assistant Secretary and the training program to the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(C) The employer shall inform all employees concerning the availability of self-help smoking cessation program material. Upon employee request, the employer shall distribute such material, consisting of NIH Publication No. 89-1647, or equivalent self-help material, which is approved or published by a public health organization listed in appendix I to this section.

(8) Criteria to rebut the designation of installed material as PACM.

(i) At any time, an employer and/or building owner may demonstrate, for purposes of this standard, that PACM does not contain asbestos. Building owners and/or employers are not required to communicate information about the presence of building material for which such a demonstration pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (j)(8)(ii) of this section has been made. However, in all such cases, the information, data and analysis supporting the determination that PACM does not contain asbestos, shall be retained pursuant to paragraph (m) of this section.

(ii) An employer or owner may demonstrate that PACM does not contain asbestos by the following:

(A) Having a completed inspection conducted pursuant to the requirements of AHERA (40 CFR 763, subpart E) which demonstrates that no ACM is present in the material; or

(B) Performing tests of the material containing PACM which demonstrate that no ACM is present in the material. Such tests shall include analysis of bulk samples collected in the manner described in 40 CFR 763.86. The tests, evaluation and sample collection shall be conducted by an accredited inspector or by a CIH. Analysis of samples shall be performed by persons or laboratories with proficiency demonstrated by current successful participation in a nationally recognized testing program such as the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) or the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) or the Round Robin for bulk samples administered by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) or an equivalent nationally-recognized round robin testing program.

(iii) The employer and/or building owner may demonstrate that flooring material including associated mastic and backing does not contain asbestos, by a determination of an industrial hygienist based upon recognized analytical techniques showing that the material is not ACM.

(k) Housekeeping.

(1) All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of ACM waste and debris and accompanying dust.

(2) All spills and sudden releases of material containing asbestos shall be cleaned up as soon as possible.

(3) Surfaces contaminated with asbestos may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air.

(4) Vacuuming. HEPA-filtered vacuuming equipment shall be used for vacuuming asbestos containing waste and debris. The equipment shall be used and emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of asbestos into the workplace.

(5) Shoveling, dry sweeping and dry clean-up of asbestos may be used only where vacuuming and/or wet cleaning are not feasible.

(6) Waste disposal. Waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers, equipment, and clothing contaminated with asbestos consigned for disposal, shall be collected, recycled and disposed of in sealed impermeable bags, or other closed, impermeable containers.

(7) Care of asbestos-containing flooring material.

(i) Sanding of asbestos-containing floor material is prohibited.

(ii) Stripping of finishes shall be conducted using low abrasion pads at speeds lower than 300 rpm and wet methods.

(iii) Burnishing or dry buffing may be performed only on asbestos-containing flooring which has sufficient finish so that the pad cannot contact the asbestos-containing material.

(8) Waste and debris and accompanying dust in an area containing accessible ACM and/or PACM or visibly deteriorated ACM, shall not be dusted or swept dry, or vacuumed without using a HEPA filter.

(l) Medical surveillance -

(1) General -

(i) Employees covered. The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or will be exposed to airborne concentrations of fibers of asbestos at or above the TWA and/or excursion limit.

(ii) Examination by a physician.

(A) The employer shall ensure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee and at a reasonable time and place.

(B) Persons other than licensed physicians, who administer the pulmonary function testing required by this section, shall complete a training course in spirometry sponsored by an appropriate academic or professional institution.

(2) Pre-placement examinations.

(i) Before an employee is assigned to an occupation exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos fibers at or above the TWA and/or excursion limit, a pre-placement medical examination shall be provided or made available by the employer.

(ii) Such examination shall include, as a minimum, a medical and work history; a complete physical examination of all systems with emphasis on the respiratory system, the cardiovascular system and digestive tract; completion of the respiratory disease standardized questionnaire in appendix D to this section, part 1; a 14- by 17-inch or other reasonably-sized standard film or digital posterior-anterior chest X-ray; pulmonary function tests to include forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1); and any additional tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician. Classification of all chest X-rays shall be conducted in accordance with appendix E to this section.

(3) Periodic examinations.

(i) Periodic medical examinations shall be made available annually.

(ii) The scope of the medical examination shall be in conformance with the protocol established in paragraph (l)(2)(ii) of this section, except that the frequency of chest X-rays shall be conducted in accordance with Table 1 to this section, and the abbreviated standardized questionnaire contained in part 2 of appendix D to this section shall be administered to the employee.

Table 1 to § 1910.1001 - Frequency of Chest X-ray

Years since first exposure Age of employee
15 to 35 35 + to 45 45 +
0 to 10 Every 5 years Every 5 years Every 5 years.
10 + Every 5 years Every 2 years Every 1 year.

(4) Termination of employment examinations.

(i) The employer shall provide, or make available, a termination of employment medical examination for any employee who has been exposed to airborne concentrations of fibers of asbestos at or above the TWA and/or excursion limit.

(ii) The medical examination shall be in accordance with the requirements of the periodic examinations stipulated in paragraph (l)(3) of this section, and shall be given within 30 calendar days before or after the date of termination of employment.

(5) Recent examinations. No medical examination is required of any employee, if adequate records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with any of paragraphs ((l)(2) through (l)(4)) of this section within the past 1 year period. A pre- employment medical examination which was required as a condition of employment by the employer, may not be used by that employer to meet the requirements of this paragraph, unless the cost of such examination is borne by the employer.

(6) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and Appendices D and E.

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure.

(iii) The employee's representative exposure level or anticipated exposure level.

(iv) A description of any personal protective and respiratory equipment used or to be used.

(v) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee that is not otherwise available to the examining physician.

(7) Physician's written opinion.

(i) The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician. This written opinion shall contain the results of the medical examination and shall include:

(A) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions that would place the employee at an increased risk of material health impairment from exposure to asbestos;

(B) Any recommended limitations on the employee or upon the use of personal protective equipment such as clothing or respirators;

(C) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and of any medical conditions resulting from asbestos exposure that require further explanation or treatment; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the increased risk of lung cancer attributable to the combined effect of smoking and asbestos exposure.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion given to the employer specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to asbestos.

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the physician's written opinion to the affected employee within 30 days from its receipt.

(m) Recordkeeping -

(1) Exposure measurements.

Note:

The employer may utilize the services of competent organizations such as industry trade associations and employee associations to maintain the records required by this section.

(i) The employer shall keep an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to asbestos as prescribed in paragraph (d) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement;

(B) The operation involving exposure to asbestos which is being monitored;

(C) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;

(E) Type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any; and

(F) Name and exposure of the employees whose exposure are represented.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least thirty (30) years, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.20.

(2) Objective data for exempted operations.

(i) Where the processing, use, or handling of products made from or containing asbestos is exempted from other requirements of this section under paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section, the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following:

(A) The product qualifying for exemption;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of asbestos;

(D) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and

(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

(3) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance by paragraph (l)(1)(i) of this section, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The name of the employee;

(B) Physician's written opinions;

(C) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to asbestos; and

(D) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by paragraph (l)(6) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty (30) years, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.

(4) Training. The employer shall maintain all employee training records for one (1) year beyond the last date of employment of that employee.

(5) Availability.

(i) The employer, upon written request, shall make all records required to be maintained by this section available to the Assistant Secretary and the Director for examination and copying.

(ii) The employer, upon request shall make any exposure records required by paragraph (m)(1) of this section available for examination and copying to affected employees, former employees, designated representatives and the Assistant Secretary, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a) through (e) and (g) through (i).

(iii) The employer, upon request, shall make employee medical records required by paragraph (m)(3) of this section available for examination and copying to the subject employee, to anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee, and the Assistant Secretary, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.

(6) Transfer of records. The employer shall comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1020(h).

(n) Observation of monitoring -

(1) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to asbestos conducted in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.

(2) Observation procedures. When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to asbestos requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the observer shall be provided with and be required to use such clothing and equipment and shall comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(o) Appendices.

(1) Appendices A, C, D, E, and F to this section are incorporated as part of this section and the contents of these Appendices are mandatory.

(2) Appendices B, G, H, I, and J to this section are informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.

Appendix A to § 1910.1001 - OSHA Reference Method - Mandatory

This mandatory appendix specifies the procedure for analyzing air samples for asbestos and specifies quality control procedures that must be implemented by laboratories performing the analysis. The sampling and analytical methods described below represent the elements of the available monitoring methods (such as appendix B of their regulation, the most current version of the OSHA method ID-160, or the most current version of the NIOSH Method 7400). All employers who are required to conduct air monitoring under paragraph (d) of the standard are required to utilize analytical laboratories that use this procedure, or an equivalent method, for collecting and analyzing samples.

Sampling and Analytical Procedure

1. The sampling medium for air samples shall be mixed cellulose ester filter membranes. These shall be designated by the manufacturer as suitable for asbestos counting. See below for rejection of blanks.

2. The preferred collection device shall be the 25-mm diameter cassette with an open-faced 50-mm electrically conductive extension cowl. The 37-mm cassette may be used if necessary but only if written justification for the need to use the 37-mm filter cassette accompanies the sample results in the employee's exposure monitoring record. Do not reuse or reload cassettes for asbestos sample collection.

3. An air flow rate between 0.5 liter/min and 2.5 liters/min shall be selected for the 25-mm cassette. If the 37-mm cassette is used, an air flow rate between 1 liter/min and 2.5 liters/min shall be selected.

4. Where possible, a sufficient air volume for each air sample shall be collected to yield between 100 and 1,300 fibers per square millimeter on the membrane filter. If a filter darkens in appearance or if loose dust is seen on the filter, a second sample shall be started.

5. Ship the samples in a rigid container with sufficient packing material to prevent dislodging the collected fibers. Packing material that has a high electrostatic charge on its surface (e.g., expanded polystyrene) cannot be used because such material can cause loss of fibers to the sides of the cassette.

6. Calibrate each personal sampling pump before and after use with a representative filter cassette installed between the pump and the calibration devices.

7. Personal samples shall be taken in the “breathing zone” of the employee (i.e., attached to or near the collar or lapel near the worker's face).

8. Fiber counts shall be made by positive phase contrast using a microscope with an 8 to 10× eyepiece and a 40 to 45× objective for a total magnification of approximately 400× and a numerical aperture of 0.65 to 0.75. The microscope shall also be fitted with a green or blue filter.

9. The microscope shall be fitted with a Walton-Beckett eyepiece graticule calibrated for a field diameter of 100 micrometers (±2 micrometers).

10. The phase-shift detection limit of the microscope shall be about 3 degrees measured using the HSE phase shift test slide as outlined below.

a. Place the test slide on the microscope stage and center it under the phase objective.

b. Bring the blocks of grooved lines into focus.

Note:

The slide consists of seven sets of grooved lines (ca. 20 grooves to each block) in descending order of visibility from sets 1 to 7, seven being the least visible. The requirements for asbestos counting are that the microscope optics must resolve the grooved lines in set 3 completely, although they may appear somewhat faint, and that the grooved lines in sets 6 and 7 must be invisible. Sets 4 and 5 must be at least partially visible but may vary slightly in visibility between microscopes. A microscope that fails to meet these requirements has either too low or too high a resolution to be used for asbestos counting.

c. If the image deteriorates, clean and adjust the microscope optics. If the problem persists, consult the microscope manufacturer.

11. Each set of samples taken will include 10% field blanks or a minimum of 2 field blanks. These blanks must come from the same lot as the filters used for sample collection. The field blank results shall be averaged and subtracted from the analytical results before reporting. A set consists of any sample or group of samples for which an evaluation for this standard must be made. Any samples represented by a field blank having a fiber count in excess of the detection limit of the method being used shall be rejected.

12. The samples shall be mounted by the acetone/triacetin method or a method with an equivalent index of refraction and similar clarity.

13. Observe the following counting rules.

a. Count only fibers equal to or longer than 5 micrometers. Measure the length of curved fibers along the curve.

b. In the absence of other information, count all particles as asbesto that have a length-to-width ratio (aspect ratio) of 3:1 or greater.

c. Fibers lying entirely within the boundary of the Walton-Beckett graticule field shall receive a count of 1. Fibers crossing the boundary once, having one end within the circle, shall receive the count of one half (1/2). Do not count any fiber that crosses the graticule boundary more than once. Reject and do not count any other fibers even though they may be visible outside the graticule area.

d. Count bundles of fibers as one fiber unless individual fibers can be identified by observing both ends of an individual fiber.

e. Count enough graticule fields to yield 100 fibers. Count a minimum of 20 fields; stop counting at 100 fields regardless of fiber count.

14. Blind recounts shall be conducted at the rate of 10 percent.

Quality Control Procedures

1. Intralaboratory program. Each laboratory and/or each company with more than one microscopist counting slides shall establish a statistically designed quality assurance program involving blind recounts and comparisons between microscopists to monitor the variability of counting by each microscopist and between microscopists. In a company with more than one laboratory, the program shall include all laboratories and shall also evaluate the laboratory-to-laboratory variability.

2.a. Interlaboratory program. Each laboratory analyzing asbestos samples for compliance determination shall implement an interlaboratory quality assurance program that as a minimum includes participation of at least two other independent laboratories. Each laboratory shall participate in round robin testing at least once every 6 months with at least all the other laboratories in its interlaboratory quality assurance group. Each laboratory shall submit slides typical of its own work load for use in this program. The round robin shall be designed and results analyzed using appropriate statistical methodology.

2.b. All laboratories should also participate in a national sample testing scheme such as the Proficiency Analytical Testing Program (PAT), or the Asbestos Registry sponsored by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA).

3. All individuals performing asbestos analysis must have taken the NIOSH course for sampling and evaluating airborne asbestos dust or an equalivalent course.

4. When the use of different microscopes contributes to differences between counters and laboratories, the effect of the different microscope shall be evaluated and the microscope shall be replaced, as necessary.

5. Current results of these quality assurance programs shall be posted in each laboratory to keep the microscopists informed.

Appendix B to § 1910.1001 - Detailed Procedures for Asbestos Sampling and Analysis - Non-mandatory

Matrix Air:
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits:
Time Weighted Average 0.1 fiber/cc
Excursion Level (30 minutes) 1.0 fiber/cc
Collection Procedure:
A known volume of air is drawn through a 25-mm diameter cassette containing a mixed-cellulose ester filter. The cassette must be equipped with an electrically conductive 50-mm extension cowl. The sampling time and rate are chosen to give a fiber density of between 100 to 1,300 fibers/mm2 on the filter.
Recommended Sampling Rate 0.5 to 5.0 liters/minute (L/min)
Recommended Air Volumes:
Minimum 25 L
Maximum 2,400 L

Analytical Procedure: A portion of the sample filter is cleared and prepared for asbestos fiber counting by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) at 400X.

Commercial manufacturers and products mentioned in this method are for descriptive use only and do not constitute endorsements by USDOL-OSHA. Similar products from other sources can be substituted.

1. Introduction

This method describes the collection of airborne asbestos fibers using calibrated sampling pumps with mixed-cellulose ester (MCE) filters and analysis by phase contrast microscopy (PCM). Some terms used are unique to this method and are defined below:

Asbestos: A term for naturally occurring fibrous minerals. Asbestos includes chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite (cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos), tremolite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, and any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered. The precise chemical formulation of each species will vary with the location from which it was mined. Nominal compositions are listed:

Chrysotile Mg3 Si2 O5(OH)4
Crocidolite Na2 Fe32 + Fe23 + Si8 O22 (OH)2
Amosite (Mg,Fe)7 Si8 O22 (OH)2
Tremolite-actinolite Ca2(Mg,Fe)5 Si8 O22 (OH)2
Anthophyllite (Mg,Fe)7 Si8 O22 (OH)2

Asbestos Fiber: A fiber of asbestos which meets the criteria specified below for a fiber.

Aspect Ratio: The ratio of the length of a fiber to it's diameter (e.g. 3:1, 5:1 aspect ratios).

Cleavage Fragments: Mineral particles formed by comminution of minerals, especially those characterized by parallel sides and a moderate aspect ratio (usually less than 20:1).

Detection Limit: The number of fibers necessary to be 95% certain that the result is greater than zero.

Differential Counting: The term applied to the practice of excluding certain kinds of fibers from the fiber count because they do not appear to be asbestos.

Fiber: A particle that is 5 µm or longer, with a length-to-width ratio of 3 to 1 or longer.

Field: The area within the graticule circle that is superimposed on the microscope image.

Set: The samples which are taken, submitted to the laboratory, analyzed, and for which, interim or final result reports are generated.

Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite: The non-asbestos form of these minerals which meet the definition of a fiber. It includes any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered.

Walton-Beckett Graticule: An eyepiece graticule specifically designed for asbestos fiber counting. It consists of a circle with a projected diameter of 100 2 µm (area of about 0.00785 mm2) with a crosshair having tic-marks at 3-µm intervals in one direction and 5-µm in the orthogonal direction. There are marks around the periphery of the circle to demonstrate the proper sizes and shapes of fibers. This design is reproduced in Figure 1. The disk is placed in one of the microscope eyepieces so that the design is superimposed on the field of view.

1.1. History

Early surveys to determine asbestos exposures were conducted using impinger counts of total dust with the counts expressed as million particles per cubic foot. The British Asbestos Research Council recommended filter membrane counting in 1969. In July 1969, the Bureau of Occupational Safety and Health published a filter membrane method for counting asbestos fibers in the United States. This method was refined by NIOSH and published as P CAM 239. On May 29, 1971, OSHA specified filter membrane sampling with phase contrast counting for evaluation of asbestos exposures at work sites in the United States. The use of this technique was again required by OSHA in 1986. Phase contrast microscopy has continued to be the method of choice for the measurement of occupational exposure to asbestos.

1.2. Principle

Air is drawn through a MCE filter to capture airborne asbestos fibers. A wedge shaped portion of the filter is removed, placed on a glass microscope slide and made transparent. A measured area (field) is viewed by PCM. All the fibers meeting defined criteria for asbestos are counted and considered a measure of the airborne asbestos concentration.

1.3. Advantages and Disadvantages

There are four main advantages of PCM over other methods:

(1) The technique is specific for fibers. Phase contrast is a fiber counting technique which excludes non-fibrous particles from the analysis.

(2) The technique is inexpensive and does not require specialized knowledge to carry out the analysis for total fiber counts.

(3) The analysis is quick and can be performed on-site for rapid determination of air concentrations of asbestos fibers.

(4) The technique has continuity with historical epidemiological studies so that estimates of expected disease can be inferred from long-term determinations of asbestos exposures.

The main disadvantage of PCM is that it does not positively identify asbestos fibers. Other fibers which are not asbestos may be included in the count unless differential counting is performed. This requires a great deal of experience to adequately differentiate asbestos from non-asbestos fibers. Positive identification of asbestos must be performed by polarized light or electron microscopy techniques. A further disadvantage of PCM is that the smallest visible fibers are about 0.2 µm in diameter while the finest asbestos fibers may be as small as 0.02 µm in diameter. For some exposures, substantially more fibers may be present than are actually counted.

1.4. Workplace Exposure

Asbestos is used by the construction industry in such products as shingles, floor tiles, asbestos cement, roofing felts, insulation and acoustical products. Non-construction uses include brakes, clutch facings, paper, paints, plastics, and fabrics. One of the most significant exposures in the workplace is the removal and encapsulation of asbestos in schools, public buildings, and homes. Many workers have the potential to be exposed to asbestos during these operations.

About 95% of the asbestos in commercial use in the United States is chrysotile. Crocidolite and amosite make up most of the remainder. Anthophyllite and tremolite or actinolite are likely to be encountered as contaminants in various industrial products.

1.5. Physical Properties

Asbestos fiber possesses a high tensile strength along its axis, is chemically inert, non-combustible, and heat resistant. It has a high electrical resistance and good sound absorbing properties. It can be weaved into cables, fabrics or other textiles, and also matted into asbestos papers, felts, or mats.

2. Range and Detection Limit

2.1. The ideal counting range on the filter is 100 to 1,300 fibers/mm2. With a Walton-Beckett graticule this range is equivalent to 0.8 to 10 fibers/field. Using NIOSH counting statistics, a count of 0.8 fibers/field would give an approximate coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.13.

2.2. The detection limit for this method is 4.0 fibers per 100 fields or 5.5 fibers/mm2. This was determined using an equation to estimate the maximum CV possible at a specific concentration (95% confidence) and a Lower Control Limit of zero. The CV value was then used to determine a corresponding concentration from historical CV vs fiber relationships. As an example:

Lower Control Limit (95% Confidence) = AC − 1.645(CV)(AC)

Where:

AC = Estimate of the airborne fiber concentration (fibers/cc) Setting the Lower Control Limit = 0 and solving for CV:

0 = AC − 1.645(CV)(AC)

CV = 0.61

This value was compared with CV vs. count curves. The count at which CV = 0.61 for Leidel-Busch counting statistics or for an OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center (OSHA-SLTC) CV curve (see appendix A for further information) was 4.4 fibers or 3.9 fibers per 100 fields, respectively. Although a lower detection limit of 4 fibers per 100 fields is supported by the OSHA-SLTC data, both data sets support the 4.5 fibers per 100 fields value.

3. Method Performance - Precision and Accuracy

Precision is dependent upon the total number of fibers counted and the uniformity of the fiber distribution on the filter. A general rule is to count at least 20 and not more than 100 fields. The count is discontinued when 100 fibers are counted, provided that 20 fields have already been counted. Counting more than 100 fibers results in only a small gain in precision. As the total count drops below 10 fibers, an accelerated loss of precision is noted.

At this time, there is no known method to determine the absolute accuracy of the asbestos analysis. Results of samples prepared through the Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) Program and analyzed by the OSHA-SLTC showed no significant bias when compared to PAT reference values. The PAT samples were analyzed from 1987 to 1989 (N = 36) and the concentration range was from 120 to 1,300 fibers/mm2.

4. Interferences

Fibrous substances, if present, may interfere with asbestos analysis.

Some common fibers are:

fiberglass

anhydrite

plant fibers

perlite veins

gypsum

some synthetic fibers

membrane structures

sponge spicules

diatoms

microorganisms

wollastonite

The use of electron microscopy or optical tests such as polarized light, and dispersion staining may be used to differentiate these materials from asbestos when necessary.

5. Sampling

5.1. Equipment

5.1.1. Sample assembly (The assembly is shown in Figure 3). Conductive filter holder consisting of a 25-mm diameter, 3-piece cassette having a 50-mm long electrically conductive extension cowl. Backup pad, 25-mm, cellulose. Membrane filter, mixed-cellulose ester (MCE), 25-mm, plain, white, 0.4 to 1.2-µm pore size.

Notes:

(a) Do not re-use cassettes.

(b) Fully conductive cassettes are required to reduce fiber loss to the sides of the cassette due to electrostatic attraction.

(c) Purchase filters which have been selected by the manufacturer for asbestos counting or analyze representative filters for fiber background before use. Discard the filter lot if more than 4 fibers/100 fields are found.

(d) To decrease the possibility of contamination, the sampling system (filter-backup pad-cassette) for asbestos is usually preassembled by the manufacturer.

(e) Other cassettes, such as the Bell-mouth, may be used within the limits of their validation.

5.1.2. Gel bands for sealing cassettes.

5.1.3. Sampling pump.

Each pump must be a battery operated, self-contained unit small enough to be placed on the monitored employee and not interfere with the work being performed. The pump must be capable of sampling at the collection rate for the required sampling time.

5.1.4. Flexible tubing, 6-mm bore.

5.1.5. Pump calibration.

Stopwatch and bubble tube/burette or electronic meter.

5.2. Sampling Procedure

5.2.1. Seal the point where the base and cowl of each cassette meet with a gel band or tape.

5.2.2. Charge the pumps completely before beginning.

5.2.3. Connect each pump to a calibration cassette with an appropriate length of 6-mm bore plastic tubing. Do not use luer connectors - the type of cassette specified above has built-in adapters.

5.2.4. Select an appropriate flow rate for the situation being monitored. The sampling flow rate must be between 0.5 and 5.0 L/min for personal sampling and is commonly set between 1 and 2 L/min. Always choose a flow rate that will not produce overloaded filters.

5.2.5. Calibrate each sampling pump before and after sampling with a calibration cassette in-line (Note: This calibration cassette should be from the same lot of cassettes used for sampling). Use a primary standard (e.g. bubble burette) to calibrate each pump. If possible, calibrate at the sampling site.

Note:

If sampling site calibration is not possible, environmental influences may affect the flow rate. The extent is dependent on the type of pump used. Consult with the pump manufacturer to determine dependence on environmental influences. If the pump is affected by temperature and pressure changes, correct the flow rate using the formula shown in the section “Sampling Pump Flow Rate Corrections” at the end of this appendix.

5.2.6. Connect each pump to the base of each sampling cassette with flexible tubing. Remove the end cap of each cassette and take each air sample open face. Assure that each sample cassette is held open side down in the employee's breathing zone during sampling. The distance from the nose/mouth of the employee to the cassette should be about 10 cm. Secure the cassette on the collar or lapel of the employee using spring clips or other similar devices.

5.2.7. A suggested minimum air volume when sampling to determine TWA compliance is 25 L. For Excursion Limit (30 min sampling time) evaluations, a minimum air volume of 48 L is recommended.

5.2.8. The most significant problem when sampling for asbestos is overloading the filter with non-asbestos dust. Suggested maximum air sample volumes for specific environments are:

Environment Air vol. (L)
Asbestos removal operations (visible dust) 100
Asbestos removal operations (little dust) 240
Office environments 400
to
2,400

Caution: Do not overload the filter with dust. High levels of non-fibrous dust particles may obscure fibers on the filter and lower the count or make counting impossible. If more than about 25 to 30% of the field area is obscured with dust, the result may be biased low. Smaller air volumes may be necessary when there is excessive non-asbestos dust in the air.

While sampling, observe the filter with a small flashlight. If there is a visible layer of dust on the filter, stop sampling, remove and seal the cassette, and replace with a new sampling assembly. The total dust loading should not exceed 1 mg.

5.2.9. Blank samples are used to determine if any contamination has occurred during sample handling. Prepare two blanks for the first 1 to 20 samples. For sets containing greater than 20 samples, prepare blanks as 10% of the samples. Handle blank samples in the same manner as air samples with one exception: Do not draw any air through the blank samples. Open the blank cassette in the place where the sample cassettes are mounted on the employee. Hold it open for about 30 seconds. Close and seal the cassette appropriately. Store blanks for shipment with the sample cassettes.

5.2.10. Immediately after sampling, close and seal each cassette with the base and plastic plugs. Do not touch or puncture the filter membrane as this will invalidate the analysis.

5.2.11 Attach and secure a sample seal around each sample cassette in such a way as to assure that the end cap and base plugs cannot be removed without destroying the seal. Tape the ends of the seal together since the seal is not long enough to be wrapped end-to-end. Also wrap tape around the cassette at each joint to keep the seal secure.

5.3. Sample Shipment

5.3.1. Send the samples to the laboratory with paperwork requesting asbestos analysis. List any known fibrous interferences present during sampling on the paperwork. Also, note the workplace operation(s) sampled.

5.3.2. Secure and handle the samples in such that they will not rattle during shipment nor be exposed to static electricity. Do not ship samples in expanded polystyrene peanuts, vermiculite, paper shreds, or excelsior. Tape sample cassettes to sheet bubbles and place in a container that will cushion the samples in such a manner that they will not rattle.

5.3.3. To avoid the possibility of sample contamination, always ship bulk samples in separate mailing containers.

6. Analysis

6.1. Safety Precautions

6.1.1. Acetone is extremely flammable and precautions must be taken not to ignite it. Avoid using large containers or quantities of acetone. Transfer the solvent in a ventilated laboratory hood. Do not use acetone near any open flame. For generation of acetone vapor, use a spark free heat source.

6.1.2. Any asbestos spills should be cleaned up immediately to prevent dispersal of fibers. Prudence should be exercised to avoid contamination of laboratory facilities or exposure of personnel to asbestos. Asbestos spills should be cleaned up with wet methods and/or a High Efficiency Particulate-Air (HEPA) filtered vacuum.

Caution: Do not use a vacuum without a HEPA filter - It will disperse fine asbestos fibers in the air.

6.2. Equipment

6.2.1. Phase contrast microscope with binocular or trinocular head.

6.2.2. Widefield or Huygenian 10X eyepieces (Note: The eyepiece containing the graticule must be a focusing eyepiece. Use a 40X phase objective with a numerical aperture of 0.65 to 0.75).

6.2.3. Kohler illumination (if possible) with green or blue filter.

6.2.4. Walton-Beckett Graticule, type G-22 with 100 ±2 µm projected diameter.

6.2.5. Mechanical stage.

A rotating mechanical stage is convenient for use with polarized light.

6.2.6. Phase telescope.

6.2.7. Stage micrometer with 0.01-mm subdivisions.

6.2.8. Phase-shift test slide, mark II (Available from PTR optics Ltd., and also McCrone).

6.2.9. Precleaned glass slides, 25 mm × 75 mm. One end can be frosted for convenience in writing sample numbers, etc., or paste-on labels can be used.

6.2.10. Cover glass #11/2.

6.2.11. Scalpel (#10, curved blade).

6.2.12. Fine tipped forceps.

6.2.13. Aluminum block for clearing filter (see appendix D and Figure 4).

6.2.14. Automatic adjustable pipette, 100- to 500-µL.

6.2.15. Micropipette, 5 µL.

6.3. Reagents

6.3.1. Acetone (HPLC grade).

6.3.2. Triacetin (glycerol triacetate).

6.3.3. Lacquer or nail polish.

6.4. Standard Preparation

A way to prepare standard asbestos samples of known concentration has not been developed. It is possible to prepare replicate samples of nearly equal concentration. This has been performed through the PAT program. These asbestos samples are distributed by the AIHA to participating laboratories.

Since only about one-fourth of a 25-mm sample membrane is required for an asbestos count, any PAT sample can serve as a “standard” for replicate counting.

6.5. Sample Mounting

Note:

See Safety Precautions in Section 6.1. before proceeding. The objective is to produce samples with a smooth (non-grainy) background in a medium with a refractive index of approximately 1.46. The technique below collapses the filter for easier focusing and produces permanent mounts which are useful for quality control and interlaboratory comparison.

An aluminum block or similar device is required for sample preparation.

6.5.1. Heat the aluminum block to about 70 °C. The hot block should not be used on any surface that can be damaged by either the heat or from exposure to acetone.

6.5.2. Ensure that the glass slides and cover glasses are free of dust and fibers.

6.5.3. Remove the top plug to prevent a vacuum when the cassette is opened. Clean the outside of the cassette if necessary. Cut the seal and/or tape on the cassette with a razor blade. Very carefully separate the base from the extension cowl, leaving the filter and backup pad in the base.

6.5.4. With a rocking motion cut a triangular wedge from the filter using the scalpel. This wedge should be one-sixth to one-fourth of the filter. Grasp the filter wedge with the forceps on the perimeter of the filter which was clamped between the cassette pieces. DO NOT TOUCH the filter with your finger. Place the filter on the glass slide sample side up. Static electricity will usually keep the filter on the slide until it is cleared.

6.5.5. Place the tip of the micropipette containing about 200 µL acetone into the aluminum block. Insert the glass slide into the receiving slot in the aluminum block. Inject the acetone into the block with slow, steady pressure on the plunger while holding the pipette firmly in place. Wait 3 to 5 seconds for the filter to clear, then remove the pipette and slide from the aluminum block.

6.5.6. Immediately (less than 30 seconds) place 2.5 to 3.5 µL of triacetin on the filter (Note: Waiting longer than 30 seconds will result in increased index of refraction and decreased contrast between the fibers and the preparation. This may also lead to separation of the cover slip from the slide).

6.5.7. Lower a cover slip gently onto the filter at a slight angle to reduce the possibility of forming air bubbles. If more than 30 seconds have elapsed between acetone exposure and triacetin application, glue the edges of the cover slip to the slide with lacquer or nail polish.

6.5.8. If clearing is slow, warm the slide for 15 min on a hot plate having a surface temperature of about 50 °C to hasten clearing. The top of the hot block can be used if the slide is not heated too long.

6.5.9. Counting may proceed immediately after clearing and mounting are completed.

6.6. Sample Analysis

Completely align the microscope according to the manufacturer's instructions. Then, align the microscope using the following general alignment routine at the beginning of every counting session and more often if necessary.

6.6.1. Alignment

(1) Clean all optical surfaces. Even a small amount of dirt can significantly degrade the image.

(2) Rough focus the objective on a sample.

(3) Close down the field iris so that it is visible in the field of view. Focus the image of the iris with the condenser focus. Center the image of the iris in the field of view.

(4) Install the phase telescope and focus on the phase rings. Critically center the rings. Misalignment of the rings results in astigmatism which will degrade the image.

(5) Place the phase-shift test slide on the microscope stage and focus on the lines. The analyst must see line set 3 and should see at least parts of 4 and 5 but, not see line set 6 or 6. A microscope/microscopist combination which does not pass this test may not be used.

6.6.2. Counting Fibers

(1) Place the prepared sample slide on the mechanical stage of the microscope. Position the center of the wedge under the objective lens and focus upon the sample.

(2) Start counting from one end of the wedge and progress along a radial line to the other end (count in either direction from perimeter to wedge tip). Select fields randomly, without looking into the eyepieces, by slightly advancing the slide in one direction with the mechanical stage control.

(3) Continually scan over a range of focal planes (generally the upper 10 to 15 µm of the filter surface) with the fine focus control during each field count. Spend at least 5 to 15 seconds per field.

(4) Most samples will contain asbestos fibers with fiber diameters less than 1 µm. Look carefully for faint fiber images. The small diameter fibers will be very hard to see. However, they are an important contribution to the total count.

(5) Count only fibers equal to or longer than 5 µm. Measure the length of curved fibers along the curve.

(6) Count fibers which have a length to width ratio of 3:1 or greater.

(7) Count all the fibers in at least 20 fields. Continue counting until either 100 fibers are counted or 100 fields have been viewed; whichever occurs first. Count all the fibers in the final field.

(8) Fibers lying entirely within the boundary of the Walton-Beckett graticule field shall receive a count of 1. Fibers crossing the boundary once, having one end within the circle shall receive a count of1/2. Do not count any fiber that crosses the graticule boundary more than once. Reject and do not count any other fibers even though they may be visible outside the graticule area. If a fiber touches the circle, it is considered to cross the line.

(9) Count bundles of fibers as one fiber unless individual fibers can be clearly identified and each individual fiber is clearly not connected to another counted fiber. See Figure 1 for counting conventions.

(10) Record the number of fibers in each field in a consistent way such that filter non-uniformity can be assessed.

(11) Regularly check phase ring alignment.

(12) When an agglomerate (mass of material) covers more than 25% of the field of view, reject the field and select another. Do not include it in the number of fields counted.

(13) Perform a “blind recount” of 1 in every 10 filter wedges (slides). Re-label the slides using a person other than the original counter.

6.7. Fiber Identification

As previously mentioned in Section 1.3., PCM does not provide positive confirmation of asbestos fibers. Alternate differential counting techniques should be used if discrimination is desirable. Differential counting may include primary discrimination based on morphology, polarized light analysis of fibers, or modification of PCM data by Scanning Electron or Transmission Electron Microscopy.

A great deal of experience is required to routinely and correctly perform differential counting. It is discouraged unless it is legally necessary. Then, only if a fiber is obviously not asbestos should it be excluded from the count. Further discussion of this technique can be found in reference 8.10.

If there is a question whether a fiber is asbestos or not, follow the rule:

“WHEN IN DOUBT, COUNT.”

6.8. Analytical Recommendations - Quality Control System

6.8.1. All individuals performing asbestos analysis must have taken the NIOSH course for sampling and evaluating airborne asbestos or an equivalent course.

6.8.2. Each laboratory engaged in asbestos counting shall set up a slide trading arrangement with at least two other laboratories in order to compare performance and eliminate inbreeding of error. The slide exchange occurs at least semiannually. The round robin results shall be posted where all analysts can view individual analyst's results.

6.8.3. Each laboratory engaged in asbestos counting shall participate in the Proficiency Analytical Testing Program, the Asbestos Analyst Registry or equivalent.

6.8.4. Each analyst shall select and count prepared slides from a “slide bank”. These are quality assurance counts. The slide bank shall be prepared using uniformly distributed samples taken from the workload. Fiber densities should cover the entire range routinely analyzed by the laboratory. These slides are counted blind by all counters to establish an original standard deviation. This historical distribution is compared with the quality assurance counts. A counter must have 95% of all quality control samples counted within three standard deviations of the historical mean. This count is then integrated into a new historical mean and standard deviation for the slide.

The analyses done by the counters to establish the slide bank may be used for an interim quality control program if the data are treated in a proper statistical fashion.

7. Calculations

7.1. Calculate the estimated airborne asbestos fiber concentration on the filter sample using the following formula:

where:

AC = Airborne fiber concentration

FB = Total number of fibers greater than 5 µm counted

FL = Total number of fields counted on the filter

BFB = Total number of fibers greater than 5 µm counted in the blank

BFL = Total number of fields counted on the blank

ECA = Effective collecting area of filter (385 mm2 nominal for a 25-mm filter.)

FR = Pump flow rate (L/min)

MFA = Microscope count field area (mm2). This is 0.00785 mm2 for a Walton-Beckett Graticule.

T = Sample collection time (min)

1,000 = Conversion of L to cc

Note:

The collection area of a filter is seldom equal to 385 mm2. It is appropriate for laboratories to routinely monitor the exact diameter using an inside micrometer. The collection area is calculated according to the formula:

Area = π(d/2)2

7.2. Short-cut Calculation

Since a given analyst always has the same interpupillary distance, the number of fields per filter for a particular analyst will remain constant for a given size filter. The field size for that analyst is constant (i.e., the analyst is using an assigned microscope and is not changing the reticle).

For example, if the exposed area of the filter is always 385 mm2 and the size of the field is always 0.00785 mm2, the number of fields per filter will always be 49,000. In addition it is necessary to convert liters of air to cc. These three constants can then be combined such that ECA/(1,000 × MFA) = 49. The previous equation simplifies to:

7.3. Recount Calculations

As mentioned in step 13 of Section 6.6.2., a “blind recount” of 10% of the slides is performed. In all cases, differences will be observed between the first and second counts of the same filter wedge. Most of these differences will be due to chance alone, that is, due to the random variability (precision) of the count method. Statistical recount criteria enables one to decide whether observed differences can be explained due to chance alone or are probably due to systematic differences between analysts, microscopes, or other biasing factors.

The following recount criterion is for a pair of counts that estimate AC in fibers/cc. The criterion is given at the type-I error level. That is, there is 5% maximum risk that we will reject a pair of counts for the reason that one might be biased, when the large observed difference is really due to chance.

Reject a pair of counts if:

Where:

AC1 = lower estimated airborne fiber concentration

AC2 = higher estimated airborne fiber concentration

ACavg = average of the two concentration estimates

CVFB = CV for the average of the two concentration estimates

If a pair of counts are rejected by this criterion then, recount the rest of the filters in the submitted set. Apply the test and reject any other pairs failing the test. Rejection shall include a memo to the industrial hygienist stating that the sample failed a statistical test for homogeneity and the true air concentration may be significantly different than the reported value.

7.4. Reporting Results

Report results to the industrial hygienist as fibers/cc. Use two significant figures. If multiple analyses are performed on a sample, an average of the results is to be reported unless any of the results can be rejected for cause.

8. References

8.1. Dreesen, W.C., et al, U.S. Public Health Service: A Study of Asbestosis in the Asbestos Textile Industry, (Public Health Bulletin No. 241), US Treasury Dept., Washington, DC, 1938.

8.2. Asbestos Research Council: The Measurement of Airborne Asbestos Dust by the Membrane Filter Method (Technical Note), Asbestos Research Council, Rockdale, Lancashire, Great Britain, 1969.

8.3. Bayer, S.G., Zumwalde, R.D., Brown, T.A., Equipment and Procedure for Mounting Millipore Filters and Counting Asbestos Fibers by Phase Contrast Microscopy, Bureau of Occupational Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, Cincinnati, OH, 1969.

8.4. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 2nd ed., Vol. 1 (DHEW/NIOSH Pub. No. 77-157-A). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, 1977. pp. 239-1-239-21.

8.5. Asbestos, Code of Federal Regulations 29 CFR 1910.1001. 1971.

8.6. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite. Final Rule, Federal Register 51:119 (20 June 1986). pp.22612-22790.

8.7. Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite, Code of Federal Regulations 1910.1001. 1988. pp 711-752.

8.8. Criteria for a Recommended Standard - Occupational Exposure to Asbestos (DHEW/NIOSH Pub. No. HSM 72-10267), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH, Cincinnati,OH, 1972. pp. III-1-III-24.

8.9. Leidel, N.A., Bayer,S.G., Zumwalde, R.D.,Busch, K.A., USPHS/NIOSH Membrane Filter Method for Evaluating Airborne Asbestos Fibers (DHEW/NIOSH Pub. No. 79-127). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, 1979.

8.10. Dixon, W.C., Applications of Optical Microscopy in Analysis of Asbestos and Quartz, Analytical Techniques in Occupational Health Chemistry, edited by D.D. Dollberg and A.W. Verstuyft. Wash. DC: American Chemical Society, (ACS Symposium Series 120) 1980. pp. 13-41.

Quality Control

The OSHA asbestos regulations require each laboratory to establish a quality control program. The following is presented as an example of how the OSHA-SLTC constructed its internal CV curve as part of meeting this requirement. Data is from 395 samples collected during OSHA compliance inspections and analyzed from October 1980 through April 1986.

Each sample was counted by 2 to 5 different counters independently of one another. The standard deviation and the CV statistic was calculated for each sample. This data was then plotted on a graph of CV vs. fibers/mm2. A least squares regression was performed using the following equation:

CV = antilog110[A(log10(x))2 + B(log10(x)) + C]

where:

x = the number of fibers/mm2

Application of least squares gave:

A = 0.182205

B = −0.973343

C = 0.327499

Using these values, the equation becomes:

CV = antilog10 [0.182205(log10 (x))2−0.973343(log10 (x)) + 0.327499]

Sampling Pump Flow Rate Corrections

This correction is used if a difference greater than 5% in ambient temperature and/or pressure is noted between calibration and sampling sites and the pump does not compensate for the differences.

Where:

Qact = actual flow rate

Qcal = calibrated flow rate (if a rotameter was used, the rotameter value)

Pcal = uncorrected air pressure at calibration

Pact = uncorrected air pressure at sampling site

Tact = temperature at sampling site (K)

Tcal = temperature at calibration (K)

Walton-Beckett Graticule

When ordering the Graticule for asbestos counting, specify the exact disc diameter needed to fit the ocular of the microscope and the diameter (mm) of the circular counting area. Instructions for measuring the dimensions necessary are listed:

(1) Insert any available graticule into the focusing eyepiece and focus so that the graticule lines are sharp and clear.

(2) Align the microscope.

(3) Place a stage micrometer on the microscope object stage and focus the microscope on the graduated lines.

(4) Measure the magnified grid length, PL (µm), using the stage micrometer.

(5) Remove the graticule from the microscope and measure its actual grid length, AL (mm). This can be accomplished by using a mechanical stage fitted with verniers, or a jeweler's loupe with a direct reading scale.

(6) Let D = 100 µm. Calculate the circle diameter, dc (mm), for the Walton-Beckett graticule and specify the diameter when making a purchase:

Example: If PL = 108 µm, AL = 2.93 mm and D = 100 µm, then,

(7) Each eyepiece-objective-reticle combination on the microscope must be calibrated. Should any of the three be changed (by zoom adjustment, disassembly, replacement, etc.), the combination must be recalibrated. Calibration may change if interpupillary distance is changed. Measure the field diameter, D (acceptable range: 100±2 µm) with a stage micrometer upon receipt of the graticule from the manufacturer. Determine the field area (mm2).

Field Area = Δ(D/2)2

If D = 100 µm = 0.1 mm, then

Field Area = Δ(0.1 mm/2)2 = 0.00785 mm2

The Graticule is available from: Graticules Ltd., Morley Road, Tonbridge TN9 IRN, Kent, England (Telephone 011-44-732-359061). Also available from PTR Optics Ltd., 145 Newton Street, Waltham, MA 02154 [telephone (617) 891-6000] or McCrone Accessories and Components, 2506 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60616 [phone (312)-842-7100]. The graticule is custom made for each microscope.

Counts for the Fibers in the Figure

Structure No. Count Explanation
1 to 6 1 Single fibers all contained within the circle.
7 1/2 Fiber crosses circle once.
8 0 Fiber too short.
9 2 Two crossing fibers.
10 0 Fiber outside graticule.
11 0 Fiber crosses graticule twice.
12 1/2 Although split, fiber only crosses once.

Appendix C to § 1910.1001 [Reserved]

Appendix D to § 1910.1001 - Medical Questionnaires; Mandatory

Appendix E to § 1910.1001 - Classification of Chest X-Rays - Mandatory

(a) Chest X-rays shall be classified in accordance with the Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses (revised edition 2011) (incorporated by reference, see § 1910.6), and recorded on a classification form following the format of the CDC/NIOSH (M) 2.8 form. As a minimum, the content within the bold lines of this form (items 1 through 4) shall be included. This form is not to be submitted to NIOSH.

(b) All X-rays shall be classified only by a B-Reader, a board eligible/certified radiologist, or an experienced physician with known expertise in pneumoconioses.

(c) Whenever classifying chest X-ray film, the physician shall have immediately available for reference a complete set of the ILO standard format radiographs provided for use with the Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses (revised edition 2011).

(d) Whenever classifying digitally-acquired chest X-rays, the physician shall have immediately available for reference a complete set of ILO standard digital chest radiographic images provided for use with the Guidelines for the Use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses (revised edition 2011). Classification of digitally-acquired chest X-rays shall be based on the viewing of images displayed as electronic copies and shall not be based on the viewing of hard copy printed transparencies of images.

Appendix F to § 1910.1001 - Work Practices and Engineering Controls for Automotive Brake and Clutch Inspection, Disassembly, Repair and Assembly - Mandatory

This mandatory appendix specifies engineering controls and work practices that must be implemented by the employer during automotive brake and clutch inspection, disassembly, repair, and assembly operations. Proper use of these engineering controls and work practices by trained employees will reduce employees' asbestos exposure below the permissible exposure level during clutch and brake inspection, disassembly, repair, and assembly operations. The employer shall institute engineering controls and work practices using either the method set forth in paragraph [A] or paragraph [B] of this appendix, or any other method which the employer can demonstrate to be equivalent in terms of reducing employee exposure to asbestos as defined and which meets the requirements described in paragraph [C] of this appendix, for those facilities in which no more than 5 pairs of brakes or 5 clutches are inspected, disassembled, reassembled and/or repaired per week, the method set forth in paragraph [D] of this appendix may be used:

[A] Negative Pressure Enclosure/HEPA Vacuum System Method

(1) The brake and clutch inspection, disassembly, repair, and assembly operations shall be enclosed to cover and contain the clutch or brake assembly and to prevent the release of asbestos fibers into the worker's breathing zone.

(2) The enclosure shall be sealed tightly and thoroughly inspected for leaks before work begins on brake and clutch inspection, disassembly, repair, and assembly.

(3) The enclosure shall be such that the worker can clearly see the operation and shall provide impermeable sleeves through which the worker can handle the brake and clutch inspection, disassembly, repair and assembly. The integrity of the sleeves and ports shall be examined before work begins.

(4) A HEPA-filtered vacuum shall be employed to maintain the enclosure under negative pressure throughout the operation. Compressed-air may be used to remove asbestos fibers or particles from the enclosure.

(5) The HEPA vacuum shall be used first to loosen the asbestos containing residue from the brake and clutch parts and then to evacuate the loosened asbestos containing material from the enclosure and capture the material in the vacuum filter.

(6) The vacuum's filter, when full, shall be first wetted with a fine mist of water, then removed and placed immediately in an impermeable container, labeled according to paragraph (j)(5) of this section and disposed of according to paragraph (k) of this section.

(7) Any spills or releases of asbestos containing waste material from inside of the enclosure or vacuum hose or vacuum filter shall be immediately cleaned up and disposed of according to paragraph (k) of this section.

[B] Low Pressure/Wet Cleaning Method

(1) A catch basin shall be placed under the brake assembly, positioned to avoid splashes and spills.

(2) The reservoir shall contain water containing an organic solvent or wetting agent. The flow of liquid shall be controlled such that the brake assembly is gently flooded to prevent the asbestos-containing brake dust from becoming airborne.

(3) The aqueous solution shall be allowed to flow between the brake drum and brake support before the drum is removed.

(4) After removing the brake drum, the wheel hub and back of the brake assembly shall be thoroughly wetted to suppress dust.

(5) The brake support plate, brake shoes and brake components used to attach the brake shoes shall be thoroughly washed before removing the old shoes.

(6) In systems using filters, the filters, when full, shall be first wetted with a fine mist of water, then removed and placed immediately in an impermeable container, labeled according to paragraph (j)(4) of this section and disposed of according to paragraph (k) of this section.

(7) Any spills of asbestos-containing aqueous solution or any asbestos-containing waste material shall be cleaned up immediately and disposed of according to paragraph (k) of this section.

(8) The use of dry brushing during low pressure/wet cleaning operations is prohibited.

[C] Equivalent Methods

An equivalent method is one which has sufficient written detail so that it can be reproduced and has been demonstrated that the exposures resulting from the equivalent method are equal to or less than the exposures which would result from the use of the method described in paragraph [A] of this appendix. For purposes of making this comparison, the employer shall assume that exposures resulting from the use of the method described in paragraph [A] of this appendix shall not exceed 0.016 f/cc, as measured by the OSHA reference method and as averaged over at least 18 personal samples.

[D] Wet Method.

(1) A spray bottle, hose nozzle, or other implement capable of delivering a fine mist of water or amended water or other delivery system capable of delivering water at low pressure, shall be used to first thoroughly wet the brake and clutch parts. Brake and clutch components shall then be wiped clean with a cloth.

(2) The cloth shall be placed in an impermeable container, labelled according to paragraph (j)(4) of this section and then disposed of according to paragraph (k) of this section, or the cloth shall be laundered in a way to prevent the release of asbestos fibers in excess of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air.

(3) Any spills of solvent or any asbestos containing waste material shall be cleaned up immediately according to paragraph (k) of this section.

(4) The use of dry brushing during the wet method operations is prohibited.

Appendix G to § 1910.1001 - Substance Technical Information for Asbestos - Non-Mandatory

I. Substance Identification

A. Substance: “Asbestos” is the name of a class of magnesium-silicate minerals that occur in fibrous form. Minerals that are included in this group are chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, tremolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos.

B. Asbestos is used in the manufacture of heat-resistant clothing, automative brake and clutch linings, and a variety of building materials including floor tiles, roofing felts, ceiling tiles, asbestos-cement pipe and sheet, and fire-resistant drywall. Asbestos is also present in pipe and boiler insulation materials, and in sprayed-on materials located on beams, in crawlspaces, and between walls.

C. The potential for a product containing asbestos to release breatheable fibers depends on its degree of friability. Friable means that the material can be crumbled with hand pressure and is therefore likely to emit fibers. The fibrous or fluffy sprayed-on materials used for fireproofing, insulation, or sound proofing are considered to be friable, and they readily release airborne fibers if disturbed. Materials such as vinyl-asbestos floor tile or roofing felts are considered nonfriable and generally do not emit airborne fibers unless subjected to sanding or sawing operations. Asbestos-cement pipe or sheet can emit airborne fibers if the materials are cut or sawed, or if they are broken during demolition operations.

D. Permissible exposure: Exposure to airborne asbestos fibers may not exceed 0.2 fibers per cubic centimeter of air (0.1 f/cc) averaged over the 8-hour workday.

II. Health Hazard Data

A. Asbestos can cause disabling respiratory disease and various types of cancers if the fibers are inhaled. Inhaling or ingesting fibers from contaminated clothing or skin can also result in these diseases. The symptoms of these diseases generally do not appear for 20 or more years after initial exposure.

B. Exposure to asbestos has been shown to cause lung cancer, mesothelioma, and cancer of the stomach and colon. Mesothelioma is a rare cancer of the thin membrane lining of the chest and abdomen. Symptoms of mesothelioma include shortness of breath, pain in the walls of the chest, and/or abdominal pain.

III. Respirators and Protective Clothing

A. Respirators: You are required to wear a respirator when performing tasks that result in asbestos exposure that exceeds the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc. These conditions can occur while your employer is in the process of installing engineering controls to reduce asbestos exposure, or where engineering controls are not feasible to reduce asbestos exposure. Air-purifying respirators equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter can be used where airborne asbestos fiber concentrations do not exceed 2 f/cc; otherwise, air-supplied, positive-pressure, full facepiece respirators must be used. Disposable respirators or dust masks are not permitted to be used for asbestos work. For effective protection, respirators must fit your face and head snugly. Your employer is required to conduct fit tests when you are first assigned a respirator and every 6 months thereafter. Respirators should not be loosened or removed in work situations where their use is required.

B. Protective clothing: You are required to wear protective clothing in work areas where asbestos fiber concentrations exceed the permissible exposure limit.

IV. Disposal Procedures and Cleanup

A. Wastes that are generated by processes where asbestos is present include:

1. Empty asbestos shipping containers.

2. Process wastes such as cuttings, trimmings, or reject material.

3. Housekeeping waste from sweeping or vacuuming.

4. Asbestos fireproofing or insulating material that is removed from buildings.

5. Building products that contain asbestos removed during building renovation or demolition.

6. Contaminated disposable protective clothing.

B. Empty shipping bags can be flattened under exhaust hoods and packed into airtight containers for disposal. Empty shipping drums are difficult to clean and should be sealed.

C. Vacuum bags or disposable paper filters should not be cleaned, but should be sprayed with a fine water mist and placed into a labeled waste container.

D. Process waste and housekeeping waste should be wetted with water or a mixture of water and surfactant prior to packaging in disposable containers.

E. Material containing asbestos that is removed from buildings must be disposed of in leak-tight 6-mil thick plastic bags, plastic-lined cardboard containers, or plastic-lined metal containers. These wastes, which are removed while wet, should be sealed in containers before they dry out to minimize the release of asbestos fibers during handling.

V. Access to Information

A. Each year, your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this standard and appendices for asbestos. In addition, your employer must instruct you in the proper work practices for handling materials containing asbestos, and the correct use of protective equipment.

B. Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to asbestos. You or your representative has the right to observe employee measurements and to record the results obtained. Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure, and, if you are exposed above the permissible limit, he or she is required to inform you of the actions that are being taken to reduce your exposure to within the permissible limit.

C. Your employer is required to keep records of your exposures and medical examinations. These exposure records must be kept for at least thirty (30) years. Medical records must be kept for the period of your employment plus thirty (30) years.

D. Your employer is required to release your exposure and medical records to your physician or designated representative upon your written request.

Appendix H to § 1910.1001 - Medical Surveillance Guidelines for Asbestos Non-Mandatory

I. Route of Entry Inhalation, Ingestion

II. Toxicology

Clinical evidence of the adverse effects associated with exposure to asbestos is present in the form of several well-conducted epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed workers, family contacts of workers, and persons living near asbestos mines. These studies have shown a definite association between exposure to asbestos and an increased incidence of lung cancer, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, gastrointestinal cancer, and asbestosis. The latter is a disabling fibrotic lung disease that is caused only by exposure to asbestos. Exposure to asbestos has also been associated with an increased incidence of esophageal, kidney, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and buccal cavity cancers. As with other known chronic occupational diseases, disease associated with asbestos generally appears about 20 years following the first occurrence of exposure: There are no known acute effects associated with exposure to asbestos.

Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of lung cancer among exposed workers who smoke cigarettes is greatly increased over the risk of lung cancer among non-exposed smokers or exposed nonsmokers. These studies suggest that cessation of smoking will reduce the risk of lung cancer for a person exposed to asbestos but will not reduce it to the same level of risk as that existing for an exposed worker who has never smoked.

III. Signs and Symptoms of Exposure-Related Disease

The signs and symptoms of lung cancer or gastrointestinal cancer induced by exposure to asbestos are not unique, except that a chest X-ray of an exposed patient with lung cancer may show pleural plaques, pleural calcification, or pleural fibrosis, and may also show asbestosis (i.e., small irregular parenchymal opacities). Symptoms characteristic of mesothelioma include shortness of breath, pain in the chest or abdominal pain. Mesothelioma has a much longer average latency period compared with lung cancer (40 years versus 15-20 years), and mesothelioma is therefore more likely to be found among workers who were first exposed to asbestos at an early age. Mesothelioma is a fatal disease.

Asbestosis is pulmonary fibrosis caused by the accumulation of asbestos fibers in the lungs. Symptoms include shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and vague feelings of sickness. When the fibrosis worsens, shortness of breath occurs even at rest. The diagnosis of asbestosis is most commonly based on a history of exposure to asbestos, the presence of characteristic radiologic abnormalities, end-inspiratory crackles (rales), and other clinical features of fibrosing lung disease. Pleural plaques and thickening may be observed on chest X-rays. Asbestosis is often a progressive disease even in the absence of continued exposure, although this appears to be a highly individualized characteristic. In severe cases, death may be caused by respiratory or cardiac failure.

IV. Surveillance and Preventive Considerations

As noted in section III of this appendix, exposure to asbestos has been linked to an increased risk of lung cancer, mesothelioma, gastrointestinal cancer, and asbestosis among occupationally exposed workers. Adequate screening tests to determine an employee's potential for developing serious chronic diseases, such as cancer, from exposure to asbestos do not presently exist. However, some tests, particularly chest X-rays and pulmonary function tests, may indicate that an employee has been overexposed to asbestos increasing his or her risk of developing exposure-related chronic diseases. It is important for the physician to become familiar with the operating conditions in which occupational exposure to asbestos is likely to occur. This is particularly important in evaluating medical and work histories and in conducting physical examinations. When an active employee has been identified as having been overexposed to asbestos, measures taken by the employer to eliminate or mitigate further exposure should also lower the risk of serious long-term consequences.

The employer is required to institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or will be exposed to asbestos at or above the permissible exposure limit (0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air). All examinations and procedures must be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, at a reasonable time and place, and at no cost to the employee.

Although broad latitude is given to the physician in prescribing specific tests to be included in the medical surveillance program, OSHA requires inclusion of the following elements in the routine examination:

(i) Medical and work histories with special emphasis directed to symptoms of the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, and digestive tract.

(ii) Completion of the respiratory disease questionnaire contained in appendix D of this section.

(iii) A physical examination including a chest X-ray and pulmonary function test that includes measurement of the employee's forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1).

(iv) Any laboratory or other test that the examining physician deems by sound medical practice to be necessary.

The employer is required to make the prescribed tests available at least annually to those employees covered; more often than specified if recommended by the examining physician; and upon termination of employment.

The employer is required to provide the physician with the following information: A copy of the standard in this section (including all appendices to this section); a description of the employee's duties as they relate to asbestos exposure; the employee's representative level of exposure to asbestos; a description of any personal protective and respiratory equipment used; and information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee that is not otherwise available to the physician. Making this information available to the physician will aid in the evaluation of the employee's health in relation to assigned duties and fitness to wear personal protective equipment, if required.

The employer is required to obtain a written opinion from the examining physician containing the results of the medical examination; the physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions that would place the employee at an increased risk of exposure-related disease; any recommended limitations on the employee or on the use of personal protective equipment; and a statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and of any medical conditions related to asbestos exposure that require further explanation or treatment. This written opinion must not reveal specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to exposure to asbestos, and a copy of the opinion must be provided to the affected employee.

Appendix I to § 1910.1001 - Smoking Cessation Program Information For Asbestos - Non-Mandatory

The following organizations provide smoking cessation information and program material.

1. The National Cancer Institute operates a toll-free Cancer Information Service (CIS) with trained personnel to help you. Call 1-800-4-CANCER* to reach the CIS office serving your area, or write: Office of Cancer Communications, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 31, Room 10A24, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

2. American Cancer Society, 3340 Peachtree Road, NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30062, (404) 320-3333.

The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a voluntary organization composed of 58 divisions and 3,100 local units. Through “The Great American Smokeout” in November, the annual Cancer Crusade in April, and numerous educational materials, ACS helps people learn about the health hazards of smoking and become successful ex-smokers.

3. American Heart Association, 7320 Greenville Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75231, (214) 750-5300.

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a voluntary organization with 130,000 members (physicians, scientists, and laypersons) in 55 state and regional groups. AHA produces a variety of publications and audiovisual materials about the effects of smoking on the heart. AHA also has developed a guidebook for incorporating a weight-control component into smoking cessation programs.

4. American Lung Association, 1740 Broadway, New York, New York 10019, (212) 245-8000.

A voluntary organization of 7,500 members (physicians, nurses, and laypersons), the American Lung Association (ALA) conducts numerous public information programs about the health effect of smoking. ALA has 59 state and 85 local units. The organization actively supports legislation and information campaigns for non-smokers' rights and provides help for smokers who want to quit, for example, through “Freedom From Smoking,” a self-help smoking cessation program.

5. Office on Smoking and Health, U.S. Department of Health and, Human Services, 5600 Fishers Lane, Park Building, Room 110, Rockville, Maryland 20857.

The Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) is the Department of Health and Human Services' lead agency in smoking control. OSH has sponsored distribution of publications on smoking-realted topics, such as free flyers on relapse after initial quitting, helping a friend or family member quit smoking, the health hazards of smoking, and the effects of parental smoking on teenagers.

*In Hawaii, on Oahu call 524-1234 (call collect from neighboring islands),

Spanish-speaking staff members are available during daytime hours to callers from the following areas: California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, New Jersey (area code 210), New York, and Texas. Consult your local telephone directory for listings of local chapters.

Appendix J to § 1910.1001 - Polarized Light Microscopy of Asbestos - Non-Mandatory

Method number: ID-191

Matrix: Bulk

Collection Procedure

Collect approximately 1 to 2 grams of each type of material and place into separate 20 mL scintillation vials.

Analytical Procedure

A portion of each separate phase is analyzed by gross examination, phase-polar examination, and central stop dispersion microscopy.

Commercial manufacturers and products mentioned in this method are for descriptive use only and do not constitute endorsements by USDOL-OSHA. Similar products from other sources may be substituted.

1. Introduction

This method describes the collection and analysis of asbestos bulk materials by light microscopy techniques including phase- polar illumination and central-stop dispersion microscopy. Some terms unique to asbestos analysis are defined below:

Amphibole: A family of minerals whose crystals are formed by long, thin units which have two thin ribbons of double chain silicate with a brucite ribbon in between. The shape of each unit is similar to an “I beam”. Minerals important in asbestos analysis include cummingtonite-grunerite, crocidolite, tremolite-actinolite and anthophyllite.

Asbestos: A term for naturally occurring fibrous minerals. Asbestos includes chrysotile, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), anthophyllite asbestos, tremolite asbestos, crocidolite, actinolite asbestos and any of these minerals which have been chemically treated or altered. The precise chemical formulation of each species varies with the location from which it was mined. Nominal compositions are listed:

Chrysotile Mg3 Si2 O5(OH)4
Crocidolite (Riebeckite asbestos) Na2 Fe32 + Fe23 + Si8 O22(OH)2
Cummingtonite-Grunerite asbestos (Amosite) (Mg,Fe)7 Si8 O22(OH)2
Tremolite-Actinolite asbestos Ca2(Mg,Fe)5 Si8 O22(OH)2
Anthophyllite asbestos (Mg,Fe)7 Si8 O22(OH)2

Asbestos Fiber: A fiber of asbestos meeting the criteria for a fiber. (See section 3.5.)

Aspect Ratio: The ratio of the length of a fiber to its diameter usually defined as “length : width”, e.g. 3:1.

Brucite: A sheet mineral with the composition Mg(OH)2.

Central Stop Dispersion Staining (microscope): This is a dark field microscope technique that images particles using only light refracted by the particle, excluding light that travels through the particle unrefracted. This is usually accomplished with a McCrone objective or other arrangement which places a circular stop with apparent aperture equal to the objective aperture in the back focal plane of the microscope.

Cleavage Fragments: Mineral particles formed by the comminution of minerals, especially those characterized by relatively parallel sides and moderate aspect ratio.

Differential Counting: The term applied to the practice of excluding certain kinds of fibers from a phase contrast asbestos count because they are not asbestos.

Fiber: A particle longer than or equal to 5 µm with a length to width ratio greater than or equal to 3:1. This may include cleavage fragments. (see section 3.5 of this appendix).

Phase Contrast: Contrast obtained in the microscope by causing light scattered by small particles to destructively interfere with unscattered light, thereby enhancing the visibility of very small particles and particles with very low intrinsic contrast.

Phase Contrast Microscope: A microscope configured with a phase mask pair to create phase contrast. The technique which uses this is called Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM).

Phase-Polar Analysis: This is the use of polarized light in a phase contrast microscope. It is used to see the same size fibers that are visible in air filter analysis. Although fibers finer than 1 µm are visible, analysis of these is inferred from analysis of larger bundles that are usually present.

Phase-Polar Microscope: The phase-polar microscope is a phase contrast microscope which has an analyzer, a polarizer, a first order red plate and a rotating phase condenser all in place so that the polarized light image is enhanced by phase contrast.

Sealing Encapsulant: This is a product which can be applied, preferably by spraying, onto an asbestos surface which will seal the surface so that fibers cannot be released.

Serpentine: A mineral family consisting of minerals with the general composition Mg3(Si2O5(OH)4 having the magnesium in brucite layer over a silicate layer. Minerals important in asbestos analysis included in this family are chrysotile, lizardite, antigorite.

1.1. History

Light microscopy has been used for well over 100 years for the determination of mineral species. This analysis is carried out using specialized polarizing microscopes as well as bright field microscopes. The identification of minerals is an on-going process with many new minerals described each year. The first recorded use of asbestos was in Finland about 2500 B.C. where the material was used in the mud wattle for the wooden huts the people lived in as well as strengthening for pottery. Adverse health aspects of the mineral were noted nearly 2000 years ago when Pliny the Younger wrote about the poor health of slaves in the asbestos mines. Although known to be injurious for centuries, the first modern references to its toxicity were by the British Labor Inspectorate when it banned asbestos dust from the workplace in 1898. Asbestosis cases were described in the literature after the turn of the century. Cancer was first suspected in the mid 1930's and a causal link to mesothelioma was made in 1965. Because of the public concern for worker and public safety with the use of this material, several different types of analysis were applied to the determination of asbestos content. Light microscopy requires a great deal of experience and craft. Attempts were made to apply less subjective methods to the analysis. X-ray diffraction was partially successful in determining the mineral types but was unable to separate out the fibrous portions from the non-fibrous portions. Also, the minimum detection limit for asbestos analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) is about 1%. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) was no more successful. These provide useful corroborating information when the presence of asbestos has been shown by microscopy; however, neither can determine the difference between fibrous and non-fibrous minerals when both habits are present. The same is true of Infrared Absorption (IR).

When electron microscopy was applied to asbestos analysis, hundreds of fibers were discovered present too small to be visible in any light microscope. There are two different types of electron microscope used for asbestos analysis: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Scanning Electron Microscopy is useful in identifying minerals. The SEM can provide two of the three pieces of information required to identify fibers by electron microscopy: morphology and chemistry. The third is structure as determined by Selected Area Electron Diffraction - SAED which is performed in the TEM. Although the resolution of the SEM is sufficient for very fine fibers to be seen, accuracy of chemical analysis that can be performed on the fibers varies with fiber diameter in fibers of less than 0.2 µm diameter. The TEM is a powerful tool to identify fibers too small to be resolved by light microscopy and should be used in conjunction with this method when necessary. The TEM can provide all three pieces of information required for fiber identification. Most fibers thicker than 1 µm can adequately be defined in the light microscope. The light microscope remains as the best instrument for the determination of mineral type. This is because the minerals under investigation were first described analytically with the light microscope. It is inexpensive and gives positive identification for most samples analyzed. Further, when optical techniques are inadequate, there is ample indication that alternative techniques should be used for complete identification of the sample.

1.2. Principle

Minerals consist of atoms that may be arranged in random order or in a regular arrangement. Amorphous materials have atoms in random order while crystalline materials have long range order. Many materials are transparent to light, at least for small particles or for thin sections. The properties of these materials can be investigated by the effect that the material has on light passing through it. The six asbestos minerals are all crystalline with particular properties that have been identified and cataloged. These six minerals are anisotropic. They have a regular array of atoms, but the arrangement is not the same in all directions. Each major direction of the crystal presents a different regularity. Light photons travelling in each of these main directions will encounter different electrical neighborhoods, affecting the path and time of travel. The techniques outlined in this method use the fact that light traveling through fibers or crystals in different directions will behave differently, but predictably. The behavior of the light as it travels through a crystal can be measured and compared with known or determined values to identify the mineral species. Usually, Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) is performed with strain-free objectives on a bright-field microscope platform. This would limit the resolution of the microscope to about 0.4 µm. Because OSHA requires the counting and identification of fibers visible in phase contrast, the phase contrast platform is used to visualize the fibers with the polarizing elements added into the light path. Polarized light methods cannot identify fibers finer than about 1 µm in diameter even though they are visible. The finest fibers are usually identified by inference from the presence of larger, identifiable fiber bundles. When fibers are present, but not identifiable by light microscopy, use either SEM or TEM to determine the fiber identity.

1.3. Advantages and Disadvantages

The advantages of light microcopy are:

(a) Basic identification of the materials was first performed by light microscopy and gross analysis. This provides a large base of published information against which to check analysis and analytical technique.

(b) The analysis is specific to fibers. The minerals present can exist in asbestiform, fibrous, prismatic, or massive varieties all at the same time. Therefore, bulk methods of analysis such as X-ray diffraction, IR analysis, DTA, etc. are inappropriate where the material is not known to be fibrous.

(c) The analysis is quick, requires little preparation time, and can be performed on-site if a suitably equipped microscope is available.

The disadvantages are:

(a) Even using phase-polar illumination, not all the fibers present may be seen. This is a problem for very low asbestos concentrations where agglomerations or large bundles of fibers may not be present to allow identification by inference.

(b) The method requires a great degree of sophistication on the part of the microscopist. An analyst is only as useful as his mental catalog of images. Therefore, a microscopist's accuracy is enhanced by experience. The mineralogical training of the analyst is very important. It is the basis on which subjective decisions are made.

(c) The method uses only a tiny amount of material for analysis. This may lead to sampling bias and false results (high or low). This is especially true if the sample is severely inhomogeneous.

(d) Fibers may be bound in a matrix and not distinguishable as fibers so identification cannot be made.

1.4. Method Performance

1.4.1. This method can be used for determination of asbestos content from 0 to 100% asbestos. The detection limit has not been adequately determined, although for selected samples, the limit is very low, depending on the number of particles examined. For mostly homogeneous, finely divided samples, with no difficult fibrous interferences, the detection limit is below 1%. For inhomogeneous samples (most samples), the detection limit remains undefined. NIST has conducted proficiency testing of laboratories on a national scale. Although each round is reported statistically with an average, control limits, etc., the results indicate a difficulty in establishing precision especially in the low concentration range. It is suspected that there is significant bias in the low range especially near 1%. EPA tried to remedy this by requiring a mandatory point counting scheme for samples less than 10%. The point counting procedure is tedious, and may introduce significant biases of its own. It has not been incorporated into this method.

1.4.2. The precision and accuracy of the quantitation tests performed in this method are unknown. Concentrations are easier to determine in commercial products where asbestos was deliberately added because the amount is usually more than a few percent. An analyst's results can be “calibrated” against the known amounts added by the manufacturer. For geological samples, the degree of homogeneity affects the precision.

1.4.3. The performance of the method is analyst dependent. The analyst must choose carefully and not necessarily randomly the portions for analysis to assure that detection of asbestos occurs when it is present. For this reason, the analyst must have adequate training in sample preparation, and experience in the location and identification of asbestos in samples. This is usually accomplished through substantial on-the-job training as well as formal education in mineralogy and microscopy.

1.5. Interferences

Any material which is long, thin, and small enough to be viewed under the microscope can be considered an interference for asbestos. There are literally hundreds of interferences in workplaces. The techniques described in this method are normally sufficient to eliminate the interferences. An analyst's success in eliminating the interferences depends on proper training.

Asbestos minerals belong to two mineral families: the serpentines and the amphiboles. In the serpentine family, the only common fibrous mineral is chrysotile. Occasionally, the mineral antigorite occurs in a fibril habit with morphology similar to the amphiboles. The amphibole minerals consist of a score of different minerals of which only five are regulated by federal standard: amosite, crocidolite, anthophyllite asbestos, tremolite asbestos and actinolite asbestos. These are the only amphibole minerals that have been commercially exploited for their fibrous properties; however, the rest can and do occur occasionally in asbestiform habit.

In addition to the related mineral interferences, other minerals common in building material may present a problem for some microscopists: gypsum, anhydrite, brucite, quartz fibers, talc fibers or ribbons, wollastonite, perlite, attapulgite, etc. Other fibrous materials commonly present in workplaces are: fiberglass, mineral wool, ceramic wool, refractory ceramic fibers, kevlar, nomex, synthetic fibers, graphite or carbon fibers, cellulose (paper or wood) fibers, metal fibers, etc.

Matrix embedding material can sometimes be a negative interference. The analyst may not be able to easily extract the fibers from the matrix in order to use the method. Where possible, remove the matrix before the analysis, taking careful note of the loss of weight. Some common matrix materials are: vinyl, rubber, tar, paint, plant fiber, cement, and epoxy. A further negative interference is that the asbestos fibers themselves may be either too small to be seen in Phase contrast Microscopy (PCM) or of a very low fibrous quality, having the appearance of plant fibers. The analyst's ability to deal with these materials increases with experience.

1.6. Uses and Occupational Exposure

Asbestos is ubiquitous in the environment. More than 40% of the land area of the United States is composed of minerals which may contain asbestos. Fortunately, the actual formation of great amounts of asbestos is relatively rare. Nonetheless, there are locations in which environmental exposure can be severe such as in the Serpentine Hills of California.

There are thousands of uses for asbestos in industry and the home. Asbestos abatement workers are the most current segment of the population to have occupational exposure to great amounts of asbestos. If the material is undisturbed, there is no exposure. Exposure occurs when the asbestos-containing material is abraded or otherwise disturbed during maintenance operations or some other activity. Approximately 95% of the asbestos in place in the United States is chrysotile.

Amosite and crocidolite make up nearly all the difference. Tremolite and anthophyllite make up a very small percentage. Tremolite is found in extremely small amounts in certain chrysotile deposits. Actinolite exposure is probably greatest from environmental sources, but has been identified in vermiculite containing, sprayed-on insulating materials which may have been certified as asbestos-free.

1.7. Physical and Chemical Properties

The nominal chemical compositions for the asbestos minerals were given in Section 1. Compared to cleavage fragments of the same minerals, asbestiform fibers possess a high tensile strength along the fiber axis. They are chemically inert, non- combustible, and heat resistant. Except for chrysotile, they are insoluble in Hydrochloric acid (HCl). Chrysotile is slightly soluble in HCl. Asbestos has high electrical resistance and good sound absorbing characteristics. It can be woven into cables, fabrics or other textiles, or matted into papers, felts, and mats.

1.8. Toxicology (This section is for Information Only and Should Not Be Taken as OSHA Policy)

Possible physiologic results of respiratory exposure to asbestos are mesothelioma of the pleura or peritoneum, interstitial fibrosis, asbestosis, pneumoconiosis, or respiratory cancer. The possible consequences of asbestos exposure are detailed in the NIOSH Criteria Document or in the OSHA Asbestos Standards 29 CFR 1910.1001 and 29 CFR 1926.1101 and 29 CFR 1915.1001.

2. Sampling Procedure

2.1. Equipment for Sampling

(a) Tube or cork borer sampling device

(b) Knife

(c) 20 mL scintillation vial or similar vial

(d) Sealing encapsulant

2.2. Safety Precautions

Asbestos is a known carcinogen. Take care when sampling. While in an asbestos-containing atmosphere, a properly selected and fit-tested respirator should be worn. Take samples in a manner to cause the least amount of dust. Follow these general guidelines:

(a) Do not make unnecessary dust.

(b) Take only a small amount (1 to 2 g).

(c) Tightly close the sample container.

(d) Use encapsulant to seal the spot where the sample was taken, if necessary.

2.3. Sampling Procedure

Samples of any suspect material should be taken from an inconspicuous place. Where the material is to remain, seal the sampling wound with an encapsulant to eliminate the potential for exposure from the sample site. Microscopy requires only a few milligrams of material. The amount that will fill a 20 mL scintillation vial is more than adequate. Be sure to collect samples from all layers and phases of material. If possible, make separate samples of each different phase of the material. This will aid in determining the actual hazard. DO NOT USE ENVELOPES, PLASTIC OR PAPER BAGS OF ANY KIND TO COLLECT SAMPLES. The use of plastic bags presents a contamination hazard to laboratory personnel and to other samples. When these containers are opened, a bellows effect blows fibers out of the container onto everything, including the person opening the container.

If a cork-borer type sampler is available, push the tube through the material all the way, so that all layers of material are sampled. Some samplers are intended to be disposable. These should be capped and sent to the laboratory. If a non-disposable cork borer is used, empty the contents into a scintillation vial and send to the laboratory. Vigorously and completely clean the cork borer between samples.

2.4 Shipment

Samples packed in glass vials must not touch or they might break in shipment.

(a) Seal the samples with a sample seal over the end to guard against tampering and to identify the sample.

(b) Package the bulk samples in separate packages from the air samples. They may cross-contaminate each other and will invalidate the results of the air samples.

(c) Include identifying paperwork with the samples, but not in contact with the suspected asbestos.

(d) To maintain sample accountability, ship the samples by certified mail, overnight express, or hand carry them to the laboratory.

3. Analysis

The analysis of asbestos samples can be divided into two major parts: sample preparation and microscopy. Because of the different asbestos uses that may be encountered by the analyst, each sample may need different preparation steps. The choices are outlined below. There are several different tests that are performed to identify the asbestos species and determine the percentage. They will be explained below.

3.1. Safety

(a) Do not create unnecessary dust. Handle the samples in HEPA-filter equipped hoods. If samples are received in bags, envelopes or other inappropriate container, open them only in a hood having a face velocity at or greater than 100 fpm. Transfer a small amount to a scintillation vial and only handle the smaller amount.

(b) Open samples in a hood, never in the open lab area.

(c) Index of refraction oils can be toxic. Take care not to get this material on the skin. Wash immediately with soap and water if this happens.

(d) Samples that have been heated in the muffle furnace or the drying oven may be hot. Handle them with tongs until they are cool enough to handle.

(e) Some of the solvents used, such as THF (tetrahydrofuran), are toxic and should only be handled in an appropriate fume hood and according to instructions given in the Safety data sheet (SDS).

3.2. Equipment

(a) Phase contrast microscope with 10x, 16x and 40x objectives, 10x wide-field eyepieces, G-22 Walton-Beckett graticule, Whipple disk, polarizer, analyzer and first order red or gypsum plate, 100 Watt illuminator, rotating position condenser with oversize phase rings, central stop dispersion objective, Kohler illumination and a rotating mechanical stage.

(b) Stereo microscope with reflected light illumination, transmitted light illumination, polarizer, analyzer and first order red or gypsum plate, and rotating stage.

(c) Negative pressure hood for the stereo microscope

(d) Muffle furnace capable of 600 °C

(e) Drying oven capable of 50-150 °C

(f) Aluminum specimen pans

(g) Tongs for handling samples in the furnace

(h) High dispersion index of refraction oils (Special for dispersion staining.)

n = 1.550

n = 1.585

n = 1.590

n = 1.605

n = 1.620

n = 1.670

n = 1.680

n = 1.690

(i) A set of index of refraction oils from about n = 1.350 to n = 2.000 in n = 0.005 increments. (Standard for Becke line analysis.)

(j) Glass slides with painted or frosted ends 1 × 3 inches 1mm thick, precleaned.

(k) Cover Slips 22 × 22 mm, #11/2

(l) Paper clips or dissection needles

(m) Hand grinder

(n) Scalpel with both #10 and #11 blades

(o) 0.1 molar HCl

(p) Decalcifying solution (Baxter Scientific Products) Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid,

Tetrasodium0.7 g/l

Sodium Potassium Tartrate8.0 mg/liter

Hydrochloric Acid 99.2 g/liter

Sodium Tartrate 0.14 g/liter

(q) Tetrahydrofuran (THF)

(r) Hotplate capable of 60 °C

(s) Balance

(t) Hacksaw blade

(u) Ruby mortar and pestle

3.3. Sample Pre-Preparation

Sample preparation begins with pre-preparation which may include chemical reduction of the matrix, heating the sample to dryness or heating in the muffle furnace. The end result is a sample which has been reduced to a powder that is sufficiently fine to fit under the cover slip. Analyze different phases of samples separately, e.g., tile and the tile mastic should be analyzed separately as the mastic may contain asbestos while the tile may not.

(a) Wet samples

Samples with a high water content will not give the proper dispersion colors and must be dried prior to sample mounting. Remove the lid of the scintillation vial, place the bottle in the drying oven and heat at 100 °C to dryness (usually about 2 h). Samples which are not submitted to the lab in glass must be removed and placed in glass vials or aluminum weighing pans before placing them in the drying oven.

(b) Samples With Organic Interference - Muffle Furnace

These may include samples with tar as a matrix, vinyl asbestos tile, or any other organic that can be reduced by heating. Remove the sample from the vial and weigh in a balance to determine the weight of the submitted portion. Place the sample in a muffle furnace at 500 °C for 1 to 2 h or until all obvious organic material has been removed. Retrieve, cool and weigh again to determine the weight loss on ignition. This is necessary to determine the asbestos content of the submitted sample, because the analyst will be looking at a reduced sample.

Note:

Heating above 600 °C will cause the sample to undergo a structural change which, given sufficient time, will convert the chrysotile to forsterite. Heating even at lower temperatures for 1 to 2 h may have a measurable effect on the optical properties of the minerals. If the analyst is unsure of what to expect, a sample of standard asbestos should be heated to the same temperature for the same length of time so that it can be examined for the proper interpretation.

(c) Samples With Organic Interference - THF

Vinyl asbestos tile is the most common material treated with this solvent, although, substances containing tar will sometimes yield to this treatment. Select a portion of the material and then grind it up if possible. Weigh the sample and place it in a test tube. Add sufficient THF to dissolve the organic matrix. This is usually about 4 to 5 mL. Remember, THF is highly flammable. Filter the remaining material through a tared silver membrane, dry and weigh to determine how much is left after the solvent extraction. Further process the sample to remove carbonate or mount directly.

(d) Samples With Carbonate Interference

Carbonate material is often found on fibers and sometimes must be removed in order to perform dispersion microscopy. Weigh out a portion of the material and place it in a test tube. Add a sufficient amount of 0.1 M HCl or decalcifying solution in the tube to react all the carbonate as evidenced by gas formation; i.e., when the gas bubbles stop, add a little more solution. If no more gas forms, the reaction is complete. Filter the material out through a tared silver membrane, dry and weigh to determine the weight lost.

3.4. Sample Preparation

Samples must be prepared so that accurate determination can be made of the asbestos type and amount present. The following steps are carried out in the low-flow hood (a low-flow hood has less than 50 fpm flow):

(1) If the sample has large lumps, is hard, or cannot be made to lie under a cover slip, the grain size must be reduced. Place a small amount between two slides and grind the material between them or grind a small amount in a clean mortar and pestle. The choice of whether to use an alumina, ruby, or diamond mortar depends on the hardness of the material. Impact damage can alter the asbestos mineral if too much mechanical shock occurs. (Freezer mills can completely destroy the observable crystallinity of asbestos and should not be used). For some samples, a portion of material can be shaved off with a scalpel, ground off with a hand grinder or hack saw blade.

The preparation tools should either be disposable or cleaned thoroughly. Use vigorous scrubbing to loosen the fibers during the washing. Rinse the implements with copious amounts of water and air-dry in a dust-free environment.

(2) If the sample is powder or has been reduced as in (1) above, it is ready to mount. Place a glass slide on a piece of optical tissue and write the identification on the painted or frosted end. Place two drops of index of refraction medium n = 1.550 on the slide. (The medium n = 1.550 is chosen because it is the matching index for chrysotile. Dip the end of a clean paper-clip or dissecting needle into the droplet of refraction medium on the slide to moisten it. Then dip the probe into the powder sample. Transfer what sticks on the probe to the slide. The material on the end of the probe should have a diameter of about 3 mm for a good mount. If the material is very fine, less sample may be appropriate. For non-powder samples such as fiber mats, forceps should be used to transfer a small amount of material to the slide. Stir the material in the medium on the slide, spreading it out and making the preparation as uniform as possible. Place a cover-slip on the preparation by gently lowering onto the slide and allowing it to fall “trapdoor” fashion on the preparation to push out any bubbles. Press gently on the cover slip to even out the distribution of particulate on the slide. If there is insufficient mounting oil on the slide, one or two drops may be placed near the edge of the coverslip on the slide. Capillary action will draw the necessary amount of liquid into the preparation. Remove excess oil with the point of a laboratory wiper.

Treat at least two different areas of each phase in this fashion. Choose representative areas of the sample. It may be useful to select particular areas or fibers for analysis. This is useful to identify asbestos in severely inhomogeneous samples.

When it is determined that amphiboles may be present, repeat the above process using the appropriate high-dispersion oils until an identification is made or all six asbestos minerals have been ruled out. Note that percent determination must be done in the index medium 1.550 because amphiboles tend to disappear in their matching mediums.

3.5. Analytical Procedure

Note:

This method presumes some knowledge of mineralogy and optical petrography.

The analysis consists of three parts: The determination of whether there is asbestos present, what type is present and the determination of how much is present. The general flow of the analysis is:

(1) Gross examination.

(2) Examination under polarized light on the stereo microscope.

(3) Examination by phase-polar illumination on the compound phase microscope.

(4) Determination of species by dispersion stain. Examination by Becke line analysis may also be used; however, this is usually more cumbersome for asbestos determination.

(5) Difficult samples may need to be analyzed by SEM or TEM, or the results from those techniques combined with light microscopy for a definitive identification. Identification of a particle as asbestos requires that it be asbestiform. Description of particles should follow the suggestion of Campbell. (Figure 1)

For the purpose of regulation, the mineral must be one of the six minerals covered and must be in the asbestos growth habit. Large specimen samples of asbestos generally have the gross appearance of wood. Fibers are easily parted from it. Asbestos fibers are very long compared with their widths. The fibers have a very high tensile strength as demonstrated by bending without breaking. Asbestos fibers exist in bundles that are easily parted, show longitudinal fine structure and may be tufted at the ends showing “bundle of sticks” morphology. In the microscope some of these properties may not be observable. Amphiboles do not always show striations along their length even when they are asbestos. Neither will they always show tufting. They generally do not show a curved nature except for very long fibers. Asbestos and asbestiform minerals are usually characterized in groups by extremely high aspect ratios (greater than 100:1). While aspect ratio analysis is useful for characterizing populations of fibers, it cannot be used to identify individual fibers of intermediate to short aspect ratio. Observation of many fibers is often necessary to determine whether a sample consists of “cleavage fragments” or of asbestos fibers.

Most cleavage fragments of the asbestos minerals are easily distinguishable from true asbestos fibers. This is because true cleavage fragments usually have larger diameters than 1 µm. Internal structure of particles larger than this usually shows them to have no internal fibrillar structure. In addition, cleavage fragments of the monoclinic amphiboles show inclined extinction under crossed polars with no compensator. Asbestos fibers usually show extinction at zero degrees or ambiguous extinction if any at all. Morphologically, the larger cleavage fragments are obvious by their blunt or stepped ends showing prismatic habit. Also, they tend to be acicular rather than filiform.

Where the particles are less than 1 µm in diameter and have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to 3:1, it is recommended that the sample be analyzed by SEM or TEM if there is any question whether the fibers are cleavage fragments or asbestiform particles.

Care must be taken when analyzing by electron microscopy because the interferences are different from those in light microscopy and may structurally be very similar to asbestos. The classic interference is between anthophyllite and biopyribole or intermediate fiber. Use the same morphological clues for electron microscopy as are used for light microscopy, e.g. fibril splitting, internal longitudinal striation, fraying, curvature, etc.

(1) Gross examination:

Examine the sample, preferably in the glass vial. Determine the presence of any obvious fibrous component. Estimate a percentage based on previous experience and current observation. Determine whether any pre- preparation is necessary. Determine the number of phases present. This step may be carried out or augmented by observation at 6 to 40 × under a stereo microscope.

(2) After performing any necessary pre-preparation, prepare slides of each phase as described above. Two preparations of the same phase in the same index medium can be made side-by-side on the same glass for convenience. Examine with the polarizing stereo microscope. Estimate the percentage of asbestos based on the amount of birefringent fiber present.

(3) Examine the slides on the phase-polar microscopes at magnifications of 160 and 400 × . Note the morphology of the fibers. Long, thin, very straight fibers with little curvature are indicative of fibers from the amphibole family. Curved, wavy fibers are usually indicative of chrysotile. Estimate the percentage of asbestos on the phase-polar microscope under conditions of crossed polars and a gypsum plate. Fibers smaller than 1.0 µm in thickness must be identified by inference to the presence of larger, identifiable fibers and morphology. If no larger fibers are visible, electron microscopy should be performed. At this point, only a tentative identification can be made. Full identification must be made with dispersion microscopy. Details of the tests are included in the appendices.

(4) Once fibers have been determined to be present, they must be identified. Adjust the microscope for dispersion mode and observe the fibers. The microscope has a rotating stage, one polarizing element, and a system for generating dark-field dispersion microscopy (see Section 4.6. of this appendix). Align a fiber with its length parallel to the polarizer and note the color of the Becke lines. Rotate the stage to bring the fiber length perpendicular to the polarizer and note the color. Repeat this process for every fiber or fiber bundle examined. The colors must be consistent with the colors generated by standard asbestos reference materials for a positive identification. In n = 1.550, amphiboles will generally show a yellow to straw-yellow color indicating that the fiber indices of refraction are higher than the liquid. If long, thin fibers are noted and the colors are yellow, prepare further slides as above in the suggested matching liquids listed below:

Type of asbestos Index of refraction
Chrysotile n = 1.550.
Amosite n = 1.670 or 1.680.
Crocidolite n = 1.690.
Anthophyllite n = 1.605 and 1.620.
Tremolite n = 1.605 and 1.620.
Actinolite n = 1.620.

Where more than one liquid is suggested, the first is preferred; however, in some cases this liquid will not give good dispersion color. Take care to avoid interferences in the other liquid; e.g., wollastonite in n = 1.620 will give the same colors as tremolite. In n = 1.605 wollastonite will appear yellow in all directions. Wollastonite may be determined under crossed polars as it will change from blue to yellow as it is rotated along its fiber axis by tapping on the cover slip. Asbestos minerals will not change in this way.

Determination of the angle of extinction may, when present, aid in the determination of anthophyllite from tremolite. True asbestos fibers usually have 0° extinction or ambiguous extinction, while cleavage fragments have more definite extinction.

Continue analysis until both preparations have been examined and all present species of asbestos are identified. If there are no fibers present, or there is less than 0.1% present, end the analysis with the minimum number of slides (2).

(5) Some fibers have a coating on them which makes dispersion microscopy very difficult or impossible. Becke line analysis or electron microscopy may be performed in those cases. Determine the percentage by light microscopy. TEM analysis tends to overestimate the actual percentage present.

(6) Percentage determination is an estimate of occluded area, tempered by gross observation. Gross observation information is used to make sure that the high magnification microscopy does not greatly over- or under- estimate the amount of fiber present. This part of the analysis requires a great deal of experience. Satisfactory models for asbestos content analysis have not yet been developed, although some models based on metallurgical grain-size determination have found some utility. Estimation is more easily handled in situations where the grain sizes visible at about 160 × are about the same and the sample is relatively homogeneous.

View all of the area under the cover slip to make the percentage determination. View the fields while moving the stage, paying attention to the clumps of material. These are not usually the best areas to perform dispersion microscopy because of the interference from other materials. But, they are the areas most likely to represent the accurate percentage in the sample. Small amounts of asbestos require slower scanning and more frequent analysis of individual fields.

Report the area occluded by asbestos as the concentration. This estimate does not generally take into consideration the difference in density of the different species present in the sample. For most samples this is adequate. Simulation studies with similar materials must be carried out to apply microvisual estimation for that purpose and is beyond the scope of this procedure.

(7) Where successive concentrations have been made by chemical or physical means, the amount reported is the percentage of the material in the “as submitted” or original state. The percentage determined by microscopy is multiplied by the fractions remaining after pre-preparation steps to give the percentage in the original sample. For example:

Step 1. 60% remains after heating at 550 °C for 1 h.

Step 2. 30% of the residue of step 1 remains after dissolution of carbonate in 0.1 m HCl.

Step 3. Microvisual estimation determines that 5% of the sample is chrysotile asbestos.

The reported result is:

R = (Microvisual result in percent) × (Fraction remaining after step 2) × (Fraction remaining of original sample after step 1)

R = (5) × (.30) × (.60) = 0.9%

(8) Report the percent and type of asbestos present. For samples where asbestos was identified, but is less than 1.0%, report “Asbestos present, less than 1.0%.” There must have been at least two observed fibers or fiber bundles in the two preparations to be reported as present. For samples where asbestos was not seen, report as “None Detected.”

4. Auxiliary Information

Because of the subjective nature of asbestos analysis, certain concepts and procedures need to be discussed in more depth. This information will help the analyst understand why some of the procedures are carried out the way they are.

4.1. Light

Light is electromagnetic energy. It travels from its source in packets called quanta. It is instructive to consider light as a plane wave. The light has a direction of travel. Perpendicular to this and mutually perpendicular to each other, are two vector components. One is the magnetic vector and the other is the electric vector. We shall only be concerned with the electric vector. In this description, the interaction of the vector and the mineral will describe all the observable phenomena. From a light source such a microscope illuminator, light travels in all different direction from the filament.

In any given direction away from the filament, the electric vector is perpendicular to the direction of travel of a light ray. While perpendicular, its orientation is random about the travel axis. If the electric vectors from all the light rays were lined up by passing the light through a filter that would only let light rays with electric vectors oriented in one direction pass, the light would then be POLARIZED.

Polarized light interacts with matter in the direction of the electric vector. This is the polarization direction. Using this property it is possible to use polarized light to probe different materials and identify them by how they interact with light.

The speed of light in a vacuum is a constant at about 2.99 × 108 m/s. When light travels in different materials such as air, water, minerals or oil, it does not travel at this speed. It travels slower. This slowing is a function of both the material through which the light is traveling and the wavelength or frequency of the light. In general, the more dense the material, the slower the light travels. Also, generally, the higher the frequency, the slower the light will travel. The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in a material is called the index of refraction (n). It is usually measured at 589 nm (the sodium D line). If white light (light containing all the visible wavelengths) travels through a material, rays of longer wavelengths will travel faster than those of shorter wavelengths, this separation is called dispersion. Dispersion is used as an identifier of materials as described in Section 4.6.

4.2. Material Properties

Materials are either amorphous or crystalline. The difference between these two descriptions depends on the positions of the atoms in them. The atoms in amorphous materials are randomly arranged with no long range order. An example of an amorphous material is glass. The atoms in crystalline materials, on the other hand, are in regular arrays and have long range order. Most of the atoms can be found in highly predictable locations. Examples of crystalline material are salt, gold, and the asbestos minerals.

It is beyond the scope of this method to describe the different types of crystalline materials that can be found, or the full description of the classes into which they can fall. However, some general crystallography is provided below to give a foundation to the procedures described.

With the exception of anthophyllite, all the asbestos minerals belong to the monoclinic crystal type. The unit cell is the basic repeating unit of the crystal and for monoclinic crystals can be described as having three unequal sides, two 90° angles and one angle not equal to 90°. The orthorhombic group, of which anthophyllite is a member has three unequal sides and three 90° angles. The unequal sides are a consequence of the complexity of fitting the different atoms into the unit cell. Although the atoms are in a regular array, that array is not symmetrical in all directions. There is long range order in the three major directions of the crystal. However, the order is different in each of the three directions. This has the effect that the index of refraction is different in each of the three directions. Using polarized light, we can investigate the index of refraction in each of the directions and identify the mineral or material under investigation. The indices α, β, and γ are used to identify the lowest, middle, and highest index of refraction respectively. The x direction, associated with α is called the fast axis. Conversely, the z direction is associated with γ and is the slow direction. Crocidolite has α along the fiber length making it “length-fast”. The remainder of the asbestos minerals have the γ axis along the fiber length. They are called “length-slow”. This orientation to fiber length is used to aid in the identification of asbestos.

4.3. Polarized Light Technique

Polarized light microscopy as described in this section uses the phase-polar microscope described in Section 3.2. A phase contrast microscope is fitted with two polarizing elements, one below and one above the sample. The polarizers have their polarization directions at right angles to each other. Depending on the tests performed, there may be a compensator between these two polarizing elements. Light emerging from a polarizing element has its electric vector pointing in the polarization direction of the element. The light will not be subsequently transmitted through a second element set at a right angle to the first element. Unless the light is altered as it passes from one element to the other, there is no transmission of light.

4.4. Angle of Extinction

Crystals which have different crystal regularity in two or three main directions are said to be anisotropic. They have a different index of refraction in each of the main directions. When such a crystal is inserted between the crossed polars, the field of view is no longer dark but shows the crystal in color. The color depends on the properties of the crystal. The light acts as if it travels through the crystal along the optical axes. If a crystal optical axis were lined up along one of the polarizing directions (either the polarizer or the analyzer) the light would appear to travel only in that direction, and it would blink out or go dark. The difference in degrees between the fiber direction and the angle at which it blinks out is called the angle of extinction. When this angle can be measured, it is useful in identifying the mineral. The procedure for measuring the angle of extinction is to first identify the polarization direction in the microscope. A commercial alignment slide can be used to establish the polarization directions or use anthophyllite or another suitable mineral. This mineral has a zero degree angle of extinction and will go dark to extinction as it aligns with the polarization directions. When a fiber of anthophyllite has gone to extinction, align the eyepiece reticle or graticule with the fiber so that there is a visual cue as to the direction of polarization in the field of view. Tape or otherwise secure the eyepiece in this position so it will not shift.

After the polarization direction has been identified in the field of view, move the particle of interest to the center of the field of view and align it with the polarization direction. For fibers, align the fiber along this direction. Note the angular reading of the rotating stage. Looking at the particle, rotate the stage until the fiber goes dark or “blinks out”. Again note the reading of the stage. The difference in the first reading and the second is an angle of extinction.

The angle measured may vary as the orientation of the fiber changes about its long axis. Tables of mineralogical data usually report the maximum angle of extinction. Asbestos forming minerals, when they exhibit an angle of extinction, usually do show an angle of extinction close to the reported maximum, or as appropriate depending on the substitution chemistry.

4.5. Crossed Polars with Compensator

When the optical axes of a crystal are not lined up along one of the polarizing directions (either the polarizer or the analyzer) part of the light travels along one axis and part travels along the other visible axis. This is characteristic of birefringent materials.

The color depends on the difference of the two visible indices of refraction and the thickness of the crystal. The maximum difference available is the difference between the α and the γ axes. This maximum difference is usually tabulated as the birefringence of the crystal.

For this test, align the fiber at 45° to the polarization directions in order to maximize the contribution to each of the optical axes. The colors seen are called retardation colors. They arise from the recombination of light which has traveled through the two separate directions of the crystal. One of the rays is retarded behind the other since the light in that direction travels slower. On recombination, some of the colors which make up white light are enhanced by constructive interference and some are suppressed by destructive interference. The result is a color dependent on the difference between the indices and the thickness of the crystal. The proper colors, thicknesses, and retardations are shown on a Michel-Levy chart. The three items, retardation, thickness and birefringence are related by the following relationship:

R = t(nγ - nα)

R = retardation, t = crystal thickness in µm, and

nα,γ = indices of refraction.

Examination of the equation for asbestos minerals reveals that the visible colors for almost all common asbestos minerals and fiber sizes are shades of gray and black. The eye is relatively poor at discriminating different shades of gray. It is very good at discriminating different colors. In order to compensate for the low retardation, a compensator is added to the light train between the polarization elements. The compensator used for this test is a gypsum plate of known thickness and birefringence. Such a compensator when oriented at 45° to the polarizer direction, provides a retardation of 530 nm of the 530 nm wavelength color. This enhances the red color and gives the background a characteristic red to red-magenta color. If this “full-wave” compensator is in place when the asbestos preparation is inserted into the light train, the colors seen on the fibers are quite different. Gypsum, like asbestos has a fast axis and a slow axis. When a fiber is aligned with its fast axis in the same direction as the fast axis of the gypsum plate, the ray vibrating in the slow direction is retarded by both the asbestos and the gypsum. This results in a higher retardation than would be present for either of the two minerals. The color seen is a second order blue. When the fiber is rotated 90° using the rotating stage, the slow direction of the fiber is now aligned with the fast direction of the gypsum and the fast direction of the fiber is aligned with the slow direction of the gypsum. Thus, one ray vibrates faster in the fast direction of the gypsum, and slower in the slow direction of the fiber; the other ray will vibrate slower in the slow direction of the gypsum and faster in the fast direction of the fiber. In this case, the effect is subtractive and the color seen is a first order yellow. As long as the fiber thickness does not add appreciably to the color, the same basic colors will be seen for all asbestos types except crocidolite. In crocidolite the colors will be weaker, may be in the opposite directions, and will be altered by the blue absorption color natural to crocidolite. Hundreds of other materials will give the same colors as asbestos, and therefore, this test is not definitive for asbestos. The test is useful in discriminating against fiberglass or other amorphous fibers such as some synthetic fibers. Certain synthetic fibers will show retardation colors different than asbestos; however, there are some forms of polyethylene and aramid which will show morphology and retardation colors similar to asbestos minerals. This test must be supplemented with a positive identification test when birefringent fibers are present which can not be excluded by morphology. This test is relatively ineffective for use on fibers less than 1 µm in diameter. For positive confirmation TEM or SEM should be used if no larger bundles or fibers are visible.

4.6. Dispersion Staining

Dispersion microscopy or dispersion staining is the method of choice for the identification of asbestos in bulk materials. Becke line analysis is used by some laboratories and yields the same results as does dispersion staining for asbestos and can be used in lieu of dispersion staining. Dispersion staining is performed on the same platform as the phase-polar analysis with the analyzer and compensator removed. One polarizing element remains to define the direction of the light so that the different indices of refraction of the fibers may be separately determined. Dispersion microscopy is a dark-field technique when used for asbestos. Particles are imaged with scattered light. Light which is unscattered is blocked from reaching the eye either by the back field image mask in a McCrone objective or a back field image mask in the phase condenser. The most convenient method is to use the rotating phase condenser to move an oversized phase ring into place. The ideal size for this ring is for the central disk to be just larger than the objective entry aperture as viewed in the back focal plane. The larger the disk, the less scattered light reaches the eye. This will have the effect of diminishing the intensity of dispersion color and will shift the actual color seen. The colors seen vary even on microscopes from the same manufacturer. This is due to the different bands of wavelength exclusion by different mask sizes. The mask may either reside in the condenser or in the objective back focal plane. It is imperative that the analyst determine by experimentation with asbestos standards what the appropriate colors should be for each asbestos type. The colors depend also on the temperature of the preparation and the exact chemistry of the asbestos. Therefore, some slight differences from the standards should be allowed. This is not a serious problem for commercial asbestos uses. This technique is used for identification of the indices of refraction for fibers by recognition of color. There is no direct numerical readout of the index of refraction. Correlation of color to actual index of refraction is possible by referral to published conversion tables. This is not necessary for the analysis of asbestos. Recognition of appropriate colors along with the proper morphology are deemed sufficient to identify the commercial asbestos minerals. Other techniques including SEM, TEM, and XRD may be required to provide additional information in order to identify other types of asbestos.

Make a preparation in the suspected matching high dispersion oil, e.g., n = 1.550 for chrysotile. Perform the preliminary tests to determine whether the fibers are birefringent or not. Take note of the morphological character. Wavy fibers are indicative of chrysotile while long, straight, thin, frayed fibers are indicative of amphibole asbestos. This can aid in the selection of the appropriate matching oil. The microscope is set up and the polarization direction is noted as in Section 4.4. Align a fiber with the polarization direction. Note the color. This is the color parallel to the polarizer. Then rotate the fiber rotating the stage 90° so that the polarization direction is across the fiber. This is the perpendicular position. Again note the color. Both colors must be consistent with standard asbestos minerals in the correct direction for a positive identification of asbestos. If only one of the colors is correct while the other is not, the identification is not positive. If the colors in both directions are bluish-white, the analyst has chosen a matching index oil which is higher than the correct matching oil, e.g. the analyst has used n = 1.620 where chrysotile is present. The next lower oil (Section 3.5.) should be used to prepare another specimen. If the color in both directions is yellow-white to straw-yellow-white, this indicates that the index of the oil is lower than the index of the fiber, e.g. the preparation is in n = 1.550 while anthophyllite is present. Select the next higher oil (Section 3.5.) and prepare another slide. Continue in this fashion until a positive identification of all asbestos species present has been made or all possible asbestos species have been ruled out by negative results in this test. Certain plant fibers can have similar dispersion colors as asbestos. Take care to note and evaluate the morphology of the fibers or remove the plant fibers in pre- preparation. Coating material on the fibers such as carbonate or vinyl may destroy the dispersion color. Usually, there will be some outcropping of fiber which will show the colors sufficient for identification. When this is not the case, treat the sample as described in Section 3.3. and then perform dispersion staining. Some samples will yield to Becke line analysis if they are coated or electron microscopy can be used for identification.

5. References

5.1. Crane, D.T., Asbestos in Air, OSHA method ID160, Revised November 1992.

5.2. Ford, W.E., Dana's Textbook of Mineralogy; Fourth Ed.; John Wiley and Son, New York, 1950, p. vii.

5.3. Selikoff,.I.J., Lee, D.H.K., Asbestos and Disease, Academic Press, New York, 1978, pp. 3,20.

5.4. Women Inspectors of Factories. Annual Report for 1898, H.M. Statistical Office, London, p. 170 (1898).

5.5. Selikoff, I.J., Lee, D.H.K., Asbestos and Disease, Academic Press, New York, 1978, pp. 26,30.

5.6. Campbell, W.J., et al, Selected Silicate Minerals and Their Asbestiform Varieties, United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Information Circular 8751, 1977.

5.7. Asbestos, Code of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR 1910.1001 and 29 CFR 1926.58.

5.8. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Asbestos NESHAP Revision, Federal Register, Vol. 55, No. 224, 20 November 1990, p. 48410.

5.9. Ross, M. The Asbestos Minerals: Definitions, Description, Modes of Formation, Physical and Chemical Properties and Health Risk to the Mining Community, Nation Bureau of Standards Special Publication, Washington, DC, 1977.

5.10. Lilis, R., Fibrous Zeolites and Endemic Mesothelioma in Cappadocia, Turkey, J. Occ Medicine, 1981, 23,(8),548-550.

5.11. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos - 1972, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, HSM-72-10267.

5.12. Campbell, W.J., et al, Relationship of Mineral Habit to Size Characteristics for Tremolite Fragments and Fibers, United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Information Circular 8367, 1979.

5.13. Mefford, D., DCM Laboratory, Denver, private communication, July 1987.

5.14. Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., Zussman, J., Rock Forming Minerals, Longman, Thetford, UK, 1974.

5.15. Kerr, P.F., Optical Mineralogy; Third Ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959.

5.16. Veblen, D.R. (Ed.), Amphiboles and Other Hydrous Pyriboles - Mineralogy, Reviews in Mineralogy, Vol 9A, Michigan, 1982, pp 1-102.

5.17. Dixon, W.C., Applications of Optical Microscopy in the Analysis of Asbestos and Quartz, ACS Symposium Series, No. 120, Analytical Techniques in Occupational Health Chemistry, 1979.

5.18. Polarized Light Microscopy, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, 1976.

5.19. Asbestos Identification, McCrone Research Institute, G & G printers, Chicago, 1987.

5.20. McCrone, W.C., Calculation of Refractive Indices from Dispersion Staining Data, The Microscope, No 37, Chicago, 1989.

5.21. Levadie, B. (Ed.), Asbestos and Other Health Related Silicates, ASTM Technical Publication 834, ASTM, Philadelphia 1982.

5.22. Steel, E. and Wylie, A., Riordan, P.H. (Ed.), Mineralogical Characteristics of Asbestos, Geology of Asbestos Deposits, pp. 93-101, SME-AIME, 1981.

5.23. Zussman, J., The Mineralogy of Asbestos, Asbestos: Properties, Applications and Hazards, pp. 45-67 Wiley, 1979.

[51 FR 22733, June 20, 1986]

§ 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from the distillation residues of coal, petroleum (excluding asphalt), wood, and other organic matter. Asphalt (CAS 8052-42-4, and CAS 64742-93-4) is not covered under the “coal tar pitch volatiles” standard.

[48 FR 2768, Jan. 21, 1983]

§ 1910.1003 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

(a) Scope and application.

(1) This section applies to any area in which the 13 carcinogens addressed by this section are manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to transshipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3) and (4) of this section. The 13 carcinogens are the following:

4-Nitrobiphenyl, Chemical Abstracts Service Register Number (CAS No.) 92933;

alpha-Naphthylamine, CAS No. 134327;

methyl chloromethyl ether, CAS No. 107302;

3,′-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts) CAS No. 91941;

bis-Chloromethyl ether, CAS No. 542881;

beta-Naphthylamine, CAS No. 91598;

Benzidine, CAS No. 92875;

4-Aminodiphenyl, CAS No. 92671;

Ethyleneimine, CAS No. 151564;

beta-Propiolactone, CAS No. 57578;

2-Acetylaminofluorene, CAS No. 53963;

4-Dimethylaminoazo-benezene, CAS No. 60117; and

N-Nitrosodimethylamine, CAS No. 62759.

(2) This section shall not apply to the following:

(i) Solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 0.1 percent by weight or volume of 4-Nitrobiphenyl; methyl chloromethyl ether; bis-chloromethyl ether; beta-Naphthylamine; benzidine or 4-Aminodiphenyl; and

(ii) Solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 1.0 percent by weight or volume of alpha-Naphthylamine; 3,′-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts); Ethyleneimine; beta-Propiolactone; 2-Acetylaminofluorene; 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, or N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

(b) Definitions. For the purposes of this section:

Absolute filter is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 µm particles.

Authorized employee means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

Clean change room means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of the 13 carcinogens addressed by this section. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

Closed system means an operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this section where containment prevents the release of the material into regulated areas, non-regulated areas, or the external environment.

Decontamination means the inactivation of a carcinogen addressed by this section or its safe disposal.

Director means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services to act for the Director.

Disposal means the safe removal of the carcinogens addressed by this section from the work environment.

Emergency means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of a carcinogen addressed by this section that may result in exposure to or contact with the material.

External environment means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.

Isolated system means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment of a carcinogen addressed by this section that is impervious to the passage of the material and would prevent the entry of the carcinogen addressed by this section into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

Laboratory-type hood is a device enclosed on the three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this section within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

Nonregulated area means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

Open-vessel system means an operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this section in an open vessel that is not in an isolated system, a laboratory-type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of the material into regulated areas, non-regulated areas, or the external environment.

Protective clothing means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to a carcinogen addressed by this section.

Regulated area means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

(c) Requirements for areas containing a carcinogen addressed by this section. A regulated area shall be established by an employer where a carcinogen addressed by this section is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) Isolated systems. Employees working with a carcinogen addressed by this section within an isolated system such as a “glove box” shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) Closed system operation.

(i) Within regulated areas where the carcinogens addressed by this section are stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while the carcinogens addressed by this section are contained within, access shall be restricted to authorized employees only.

(ii) Employees exposed to 4-Nitrobiphenyl; alpha-Naphthylamine; 3,′-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts); beta-Naphthylamine; benzidine; 4-Aminodiphenyl; 2-Acetylaminofluorene; 4-Dimethylaminoazo-benzene; and N-Nitrosodimethylamine shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face, and neck upon each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(3) Open-vessel system operations. Open-vessel system operations as defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system. In operations involving “laboratory-type hoods,” or in locations where the carcinogens addressed by this section are contained in an otherwise “closed system,” but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this paragraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only.

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employers must provide each employee engaged in handling operations involving the carcinogens 4-Nitrobiphenyl, alpha-Naphthylamine, 3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts), beta-Naphthylamine, Benzidine, 4-Aminodiphenyl, 2-Acetylaminofluorene, 4-Dimethylaminoazo-benzene, and N-Nitrosodimethylamine, addressed by this section, with, and ensure that each of these employees wears and uses, a NIOSH-certified air-purifying, half-mask respirator with particulate filters. Employers also must provide each employee engaged in handling operations involving the carcinogens methyl chloromethyl ether, bis-Chloromethyl ether, Ethyleneimine, and beta-Propiolactone, addressed by this section, with, and ensure that each of these employees wears and uses any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode, or any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus. Employers may substitute a respirator affording employees higher levels of protection than these respirators.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under paragraph (e) of this section.

(vi) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(vii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face, and neck on each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities and employees exposed to 4-Nitrobiphenyl; alpha-Naphthylamine; 3,′-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts); beta-Naphthylamine; Benzidine; 4-Aminodiphenyl; 2-Acetylaminofluorene; 4-Dimethylaminoazo-benzene; and N-Nitrosodimethylamine shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(5) Maintenance and decontamination activities. In cleanup of leaks of spills, maintenance, or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any operations involving work in an area where direct contact with a carcinogen addressed by this section could result, each authorized employee entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots, and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with § 1910.134;

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) General regulated area requirements -

(1) Respiratory program. The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with § 1910.134 (b), (c), (d) (except (d)(1)(iii) and (iv), and (d)(3)), and (e) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.

(2) Emergencies. In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2) (i) through (v) of this section shall be implemented.

(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with a carcinogen addressed by this section, such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) Emergency deluge showers and eyewash fountains supplied with running potable water shall be located near, within sight of, and on the same level with locations where a direct exposure to Ethyleneimine or beta-Propiolactone only would be most likely as a result of equipment failure or improper work practice.

(3) Hygiene facilities and practices.

(i) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with § 1910.141(d) (1) and (2) (ii) through (vii).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with § 1910.141(d)(3).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment, clean change rooms shall be provided for the number of such employees required to change clothes, in accordance with § 1910.141(e).

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(4) Contamination control.

(i) Except for outdoor systems, regulated areas shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove carcinogens addressed by this section from the surfaces of materials, equipment, and the decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited for 4-Nitrobiphenyl; alpha-Naphthylamine; 3,′-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts); beta-Naphthylamine; Benzidine; 4-Aminodiphenyl; 2-Acetylaminofluorene; 4-Dimethylaminoazo-benzene and N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

(e) Communication of hazards -

(1) Hazard communication.

(i) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers shall comply with all requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (§ 1910.1200) for each carcinogen listed in paragraph (e)(1)(iv) of this section.

(ii) In classifying the hazards of carcinogens listed in paragraph (e)(1)(iv) of this section, at least the hazards listed in paragraph (e)(1)(iv) are to be addressed.

(iii) Employers shall include the carcinogens listed in paragraph (e)(1)(iv) of this section in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS (§ 1910.1200). Employers shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of the carcinogens listed in paragraph (e)(1)(iv) and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and paragraph (e)(4) of this section.

(iv) List of Carcinogens:

(A) 4-Nitrobiphenyl: Cancer.

(B) alpha-Naphthylamine: Cancer; skin irritation; and acute toxicity effects.

(C) Methyl chloromethyl ether: Cancer; skin, eye and respiratory effects; acute toxicity effects; and flammability.

(D) 3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts): Cancer and skin sensitization.

(E) bis-Chloromethyl ether: Cancer; skin, eye, and respiratory tract effects; acute toxicity effects; and flammability.

(F) beta-Naphthylamine: Cancer and acute toxicity effects.

(G) Benzidine: Cancer and acute toxicity effects.

(H) 4-Aminodiphenyl: Cancer.

(I) Ethyleneimine: Cancer; mutagenicity; skin and eye effects; liver effects; kidney effects; acute toxicity effects; and flammability.

(J) beta-Propiolactone: Cancer; skin irritation; eye effects; and acute toxicity effects.

(K) 2-Acetylaminofluorene: Cancer.

(L) 4-Dimethylaminoazo-benzene: Cancer; skin effects; and respiratory tract irritation.

(M) N-Nitrosodimethylamine: Cancer; liver effects; and acute toxicity effects.

(2) Signs.

(i) The employer shall post entrances to regulated areas with signs bearing the legend:

DANGER

(CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION)

MAY CAUSE CANCER

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) The employer shall post signs at entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph (c)(5) of this section. The signs shall bear the legend:

DANGER

(CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION)

MAY CAUSE CANCER

WEAR AIR-SUPPLIED HOODS, IMPERVIOUS SUITS, AND PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT IN THIS AREA

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iv) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA

IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(v) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(3) Prohibited statements. No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction that contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information, or instruction.

(4) Training and indoctrination.

(i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of a carcinogen addressed by this section, including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this section that could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of a carcinogen addressed by this section;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) [Reserved]

(g) Medical surveillance. At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) Examinations.

(i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents, pregnancy, and cigarette smoking.

(2) Records.

(i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a) through (e) and (g) through (i). These records shall also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

[61 FR 9242, Mar. 7, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 1286, Jan. 8, 1998; 63 FR 20099, Apr. 23, 1998; 70 FR 1141, Jan. 5, 2005; 71 FR 16672, Apr. 3, 2006; 73 FR 75584, Dec. 2, 2008; 76 FR 33608, June 8, 2011; 76 FR 80740, Dec. 27, 2011; 77 FR 17779, Mar. 26, 2012]

§ 1910.1004 alpha-Naphthylamine.

See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens.

[61 FR 9245, Mar. 7, 1996]

§ 1910.1005 [Reserved]
§ 1910.1006 Methyl chloromethyl ether.

See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens.

[61 FR 9245, Mar. 7, 1996]

§ 1910.1007 3,′-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts).

See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens.

[61 FR 9245, Mar. 7, 1996]

§ 1910.1008 bis-Chloromethyl ether.

See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens.

[61 FR 9245, Mar. 7, 1996]

§ 1910.1009 beta-Naphthylamine.

See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens.

[61 FR 9245, Mar. 7, 1996]

§ 1910.1010 Benzidine.

See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens.

[61 FR 9245, Mar. 7, 1996]

§ 1910.1011 4-Aminodiphenyl.

See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens.

[61 FR 9245, Mar. 7, 1996]

§ 1910.1012 Ethyleneimine.

See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens.

[61 FR 9245, Mar. 7, 1996]

§ 1910.1013 beta-Propiolactone.

See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens.

[61 FR 9245, Mar. 7, 1996]

§ 1910.1014 2-Acetylaminofluorene.

See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens.

[61 FR 9245, Mar. 7, 1996]

§ 1910.1015 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.

See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens.

[61 FR 9245, Mar. 7, 1996]

§ 1910.1016 N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens.

[61 FR 9245, Mar. 7, 1996]

§ 1910.1017 Vinyl chloride.

(a) Scope and application.

(1) This section includes requirements for the control of employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 75014.

(2) This section applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging, repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride, but does not apply to the handling or use of fabricated products made of polyvinyl chloride.

(3) This section applies to the transportation of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride except to the extent that the Department of Transportation may regulate the hazards covered by this section.

(b) Definitions -

(1) Action level means a concentration of vinyl chloride of 0.5 ppm averaged over an 8-hour work day.

(2) Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or his designee.

(3) Authorized person means any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require him to enter a regulated area or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising an opportunity to observe monitoring and measuring procedures.

(4) Director means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or his designee.

(5) Emergency means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, or operation of a relief device which is likely to, or does, result in massive release of vinyl chloride.

(6) Fabricated product means a product made wholly or partly from polyvinyl chloride, and which does not require further processing at temperatures, and for times, sufficient to cause mass melting of the polyvinyl chloride resulting in the release of vinyl chloride.

(7) Hazardous operation means any operation, procedure, or activity where a release of either vinyl chloride liquid or gas might be expected as a consequence of the operation or because of an accident in the operation, which would result in an employee exposure in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(8) OSHA Area Director means the Director for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Area Office having jurisdiction over the geographic area in which the employer's establishment is located.

(9) Polyvinyl chloride means polyvinyl chloride homopolymer or copolymer before such is converted to a fabricated product.

(10) Vinyl chloride means vinyl chloride monomer.

(c) Permissible exposure limit.

(1) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at concentrations greater than 1 ppm averaged over any 8-hour period, and

(2) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at concentrations greater than 5 ppm averaged over any period not exceeding 15 minutes.

(3) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride by direct contact with liquid vinyl chloride.

(d) Monitoring.

(1) A program of initial monitoring and measurement shall be undertaken in each establishment to determine if there is any employee exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level.

(2) Where a determination conducted under paragraph (d)(1) of this section shows any employee exposures, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level, a program for determining exposures for each such employee shall be established. Such a program:

(i) Must be repeated at least quarterly for any employee exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(ii) Must be repeated not less than every 6 months for any employee exposed without regard to the use of respirators, at or above the action level.

(iii) May be discontinued for any employee only when at least two consecutive monitoring determinations, made not less than 5 working days apart, show exposures for that employee at or below the action level.

(3) Whenever there has been a production, process or control change which may result in an increase in the release of vinyl chloride, or the employer has any other reason to suspect that any employee may be exposed in excess of the action level, a determination of employee exposure under paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall be performed.

(4) The method of monitoring and measurement shall have an accuracy (with a confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 50 percent from 0.25 through 0.5 ppm, plus or minus 35 percent from over 0.5 ppm through 1.0 ppm, and plus or minus 25 percent over 1.0 ppm. (Methods meeting these accuracy requirements are available in the “NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods”).

(5) Employees or their designated representatives shall be afforded reasonable opportunity to observe the monitoring and measuring required by this paragraph.

(e) Regulated area.

(1) A regulated area shall be established where:

(i) Vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride is manufactured, reacted, repackaged, stored, handled or used; and

(ii) Vinyl chloride concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(2) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons.

(f) Methods of compliance. Employee exposures to vinyl chloride shall be controlled to at or below the permissible exposure limit provided in paragraph (c) of this section by engineering, work practice, and personal protective controls as follows:

(1) Feasible engineering and work practice controls shall immediately be used to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit.

(2) Wherever feasible engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted immediately are not sufficient to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit, they shall nonetheless be used to reduce exposures to the lowest practicable level, and shall be supplemented by respiratory protection in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section. A program shall be established and implemented to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit, or to the greatest extent feasible, solely by means of engineering and work practice controls, as soon as feasible.

(3) Written plans for such a program shall be developed and furnished upon request for examination and copying to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director. Such plans must be updated at least annually.

(g) Respiratory protection -

(1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph.

(2) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance § 1910.134 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii), and (d)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (2)), and (f) through (m) which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.

(3) Respirator selection.

(i) Employers must:

(A) Select, and provide to employees, the appropriate respirators specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134.

(B) Provide an organic vapor cartridge that has a service life of at least one hour when using a chemical cartridge respirator at vinyl chloride concentrations up to 10 ppm.

(C) Select a canister that has a service life of at least four hours when using a powered air-purifying respirator having a hood, helmet, or full or half facepiece, or a gas mask with a front-or back-mounted canister, at vinyl chloride concentrations up to 25 ppm.

(ii) When air-purifying respirators are used:

(A) Air-purifying canisters or cartridges must be replaced prior to the expiration of their service life or the end of the shift in which they are first used, whichever occurs first.

(B) A continuous-monitoring and alarm system must be provided when concentrations of vinyl chloride could reasonably exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use. Such a system must be used to alert employees when vinyl chloride concentrations exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use.

(h) Hazardous operations.

(1) Employees engaged in hazardous operations, including entry of vessels to clean polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel walls, shall be provided and required to wear and use;

(i) Respiratory protection in accordance with paragraphs (c) and (g) of this section; and

(ii) Protective garments to prevent skin contact with liquid vinyl chloride or with polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel walls. The protective garments shall be selected for the operation and its possible exposure conditions.

(2) Protective garments shall be provided clean and dry for each use.

(i) Emergency situations. A written operational plan for emergency situations shall be developed for each facility storing, handling, or otherwise using vinyl chloride as a liquid or compressed gas. Appropriate portions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency. The plan shall specifically provide that:

(1) Employees engaged in hazardous operations or correcting situations of existing hazardous releases shall be equipped as required in paragraph (h) of this section;

(2) Other employees not so equipped shall evacuate the area and not return until conditions are controlled by the methods required in paragraph (f) of this section and the emergency is abated.

(j) Training. Each employee engaged in vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride operations shall be provided training in a program relating to the hazards of vinyl chloride and precautions for its safe use.

(1) The program shall include:

(i) The nature of the health hazard from chronic exposure to vinyl chloride including specifically the carcinogenic hazard;

(ii) The specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to vinyl chloride in excess of the permissible limit and necessary protective steps;

(iii) The purpose for, proper use, and limitations of respiratory protective devices;

(iv) The fire hazard and acute toxicity of vinyl chloride, and the necessary protective steps;

(v) The purpose for and a description of the monitoring program;

(vi) The purpose for, and a description of, the medical surveillance program;

(vii) Emergency procedures;

(viii) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition of conditions which may result in the release of vinyl chloride; and

(ix) A review of this standard at the employee's first training and indoctrination program, and annually thereafter.

(2) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(k) Medical surveillance. A program of medical surveillance shall be instituted for each employee exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, to vinyl chloride in excess of the action level. The program shall provide each such employee with an opportunity for examinations and tests in accordance with this paragraph. All medical examinations and procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee.

(1) At the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of medical surveillance;

(i) A general physical examination shall be performed, with specific attention to detecting enlargement of liver, spleen or kidneys, or dysfunction in these organs, and for abnormalities in skin, connective tissues and the pulmonary system (See appendix A).

(ii) A medical history shall be taken, including the following topics:

(A) Alcohol intake;

(B) Past history of hepatitis;

(C) Work history and past exposure to potential hepatotoxic agents, including drugs and chemicals;

(D) Past history of blood transfusions; and

(E) Past history of hospitalizations.

(iii) A serum specimen shall be obtained and determinations made of:

(A) Total bilirubin;

(B) Alkaline phosphatase;

(C) Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT);

(D) Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT); and

(E) Gamma glustamyl transpeptidase.

(2) Examinations must be provided in accordance with this paragraph at least annually.

(3) Each employee exposed to an emergency shall be afforded appropriate medical surveillance.

(4) A statement of each employee's suitability for continued exposure to vinyl chloride including use of protective equipment and respirators, shall be obtained from the examining physician promptly after any examination. A copy of the physician's statement shall be provided each employee.

(5) If any employee's health would be materially impaired by continued exposure, such employee shall be withdrawn from possible contact with vinyl chloride.

(6) Laboratory analyses for all biological specimens included in medical examination shall be performed by accredited laboratories.

(7) If the examining physician determines that alternative medical examinations to those required by paragraph (k)(1) of this section will provide at least equal assurance of detecting medical conditions pertinent to the exposure to vinyl chloride, the employer may accept such alternative examinations as meeting the requirements of paragraph (k)(1) of this section, if the employer obtains a statement from the examining physician setting forth the alternative examinations and the rationale for substitution. This statement shall be available upon request for examination and copying to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(l) Communication of hazards -

(1) Hazard communication - general.

(i) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers shall comply with all requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (§ 1910.1200) for vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride.

(ii) In classifying the hazards of vinyl chloride at least the following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver effects; blood effects; and flammability.

(iii) Employers shall include vinyl chloride in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS (§ 1910.1200). Employers shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of vinyl chloride and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and paragraph (j) of this section.

(2) Signs.

(i) The employer shall post entrances to regulated areas with legible signs bearing the legend:

DANGER

VINYL CHLORIDE

MAY CAUSE CANCER

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) The employer shall post signs at areas containing hazardous operations or where emergencies currently exist. The signs shall be legible and bear the legend:

DANGER

VINYL CHLORIDE

MAY CAUSE CANCER

WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING IN THIS AREA

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in paragraph (l)(2)(i) of this section:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT AREA

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iv) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in paragraph (l)(2)(ii) of this section:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT IN THIS AREA

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(3) Labels.

(i) In addition to the other requirements in this paragraph (l), the employer shall ensure that labels for containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or other waste contaminated with vinyl chloride are legible and include the following information:

CONTAMINATED WITH VINYL CHLORIDE

MAY CAUSE CANCER

(ii) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on labels of containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or other waste contaminated with vinyl chloride in lieu of the labeling requirements in paragraphs (l)(3)(i) of this section:

CONTAMINATED WITH VINYL CHLORIDE

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

(4) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information for containers of polyvinyl chloride in lieu of the labeling requirements in paragraphs (l)(1)(i) of this section:

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (OR TRADE NAME)

Contains

VINYL CHLORIDE

VINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

(5)

(i) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include either the following information in either paragraph (l)(5)(i) or (l)(5)(ii) of this section on containers of vinyl chloride in lieu of the labeling requirements in paragraph (l)(1)(i) of this section:

VINYL CHLORIDE

EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE GAS UNDER PRESSURE

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

(ii) In accordance with 49 CFR Parts 170-189, with the additional legend applied near the label or placard:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

(6) No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information, or instruction.

(m) Records.

(1) All records maintained in accordance with this section shall include the name of each employee where relevant.

(2) Records of required monitoring and measuring and medical records shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a) through (e) and (g) through (i). These records shall be provided upon request to the Director. Authorized personnel rosters shall also be provided upon request to the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(i) Monitoring and measuring records shall:

(A) State the date of such monitoring and measuring and the concentrations determined and identify the instruments and methods used;

(B) Include any additional information necessary to determine individual employee exposures where such exposures are determined by means other than individual monitoring of employees; and

(C) Be maintained for not less than 30 years.

(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) Medical records shall be maintained for the duration of the employment of each employee plus 20 years, or 30 years, whichever is longer.

(n) The employer must, within 15 working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify each affected employee of these results and the steps being taken to reduce exposures within the permissible exposure limit either individually in writing or by posting the results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.

Appendix A to § 1910.1017 - Supplementary Medical Information

When required tests under paragraph (k)(1) of this section show abnormalities, the tests should be repeated as soon as practicable, preferably within 3 to 4 weeks. If tests remain abnormal, consideration should be given to withdrawal of the employee from contact with vinyl chloride, while a more comprehensive examination is made.

Additional tests which may be useful:

A. For kidney dysfunction: urine examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal cells.

B. Pulmonary system: Forced vital capacity, Forced expiratory volume at 1 second, and chest roentgenogram (posterior-anterior, 14 × 17 inches).

C. Additional serum tests: Lactic acid dehydrogenase, lactic acid dehydrogenase isoenzyme, protein determination, and protein electrophoresis.

D. For a more comprehensive examination on repeated abnormal serum tests: Hepatitis B antigen, and liver scanning.

[39 FR 35896, Oct. 4, 1974. Redesignated at 40 FR 23072, May 28, 1975]

§ 1910.1018 Inorganic arsenic.

(a) Scope and application. This section applies to all occupational exposures to inorganic arsenic except that this section does not apply to employee exposures in agriculture or resulting from pesticide application, the treatment of wood with preservatives or the utilization of arsenically preserved wood.

(b) Definitions. Action level means a concentration of inorganic arsenic of 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 µg/m3) averaged over any eight (8) hour period.

Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

Authorized person means any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under paragraph (e) of this section.

Director means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee.

Inorganic arsenic means copper aceto- arsenite and all inorganic compounds containing arsenic except arsine, measured as arsenic (As).

(c) Permissible exposure limit. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to inorganic arsenic at concentrations greater than 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air (10 µg/m3), averaged over any 8-hour period.

(d) [Reserved]

(e) Exposure monitoring -

(1) General.

(i) Determinations of airborne exposure levels shall be made from air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic over an eight (8) hour period.

(ii) For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

(iii) The employer shall collect full shift (for at least 7 continuous hours) personal samples including at least one sample for each shift for each job classification in each work area.

(2) Initial monitoring. Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard shall monitor each such workplace and work operation to accurately determine the airborne concentration of inorganic arsenic to which employees may be exposed.

(3) Frequency.

(i) If the initial monitoring reveals employee exposure to be below the action level the measurements need not be repeated except as otherwise provided in paragraph (e)(4) of this section.

(ii) If the initial monitoring, required by this section, or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall repeat monitoring at least quarterly.

(iii) If the initial monitoring, required by this section, or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the action level and below the permissible exposure limit the employer shall repeat monitoring at least every six months.

(iv) The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven (7) days apart, are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee until such time as any of the events in paragraph (e)(4) of this section occur.

(4) Additional monitoring. Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personal change which may result in new or additional exposure to inorganic arsenic, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to inorganic arsenic, additional monitoring which complies with paragraph (e) of this section shall be conducted.

(5) Employee notification.

(i) The employer must, within 15 working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify each affected employee of these results either individually in writing or by posting the results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit.

(6) Accuracy of measurement.

(i) The employer shall use a method of monitoring and measurement which has an accuracy (with a confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of inorganic arsenic greater than or equal to 10 µg/m3.

(ii) The employer shall use a method of monitoring and measurement which has an accuracy (with confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 35 percent for concentrations of inorganic arsenic greater than 5 µg/m3 but less than 10 µg/m3.

(f) Regulated area -

(1) Establishment. The employer shall establish regulated areas where worker exposures to inorganic arsenic, without regard to the use of respirators, are in excess of the permissible limit.

(2) Demarcation. Regulated areas shall be demarcated and segregated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of persons who will be exposed to inorganic arsenic.

(3) Access. Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons or to persons otherwise authorized by the Act or regulations issued pursuant thereto to enter such areas.

(4) Provision of respirators. All persons entering a regulated area shall be supplied with a respirator, selected in accordance with paragraph (h)(2) of this section.

(5) Prohibited activities. The employer shall assure that in regulated areas, food or beverages are not consumed, smoking products, chewing tobacco and gum are not used and cosmetics are not applied, except that these activities may be conducted in the lunchrooms, change rooms and showers required under paragraph (m) of this section. Drinking water may be consumed in the regulated area.

(g) Methods of compliance -

(1) Controls.

(i) The employer shall institute at the earliest possible time but not later than December 31, 1979, engineering and work practice controls to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, except to the extent that the employer can establish that such controls are not feasible.

(ii) Where engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, they shall nonetheless be used to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall be supplemented by the use of respirators in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section and other necessary personal protective equipment. Employee rotation is not required as a control strategy before respiratory protection is instituted.

(2) Compliance Program.

(i) The employer shall establish and implement a written program to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit by means of engineering and work practice controls.

(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least the following:

(A) A description of each operation in which inorganic arsenic is emitted; e.g. machinery used, material processed, controls in place, crew size, operating procedures and maintenance practices;

(B) Engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to inorganic arsenic;

(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limit;

(D) Monitoring data;

(E) A detailed schedule for implementation of the engineering controls and work practices that cannot be implemented immediately and for the adaption and implementation of any additional engineering and work practices necessary to meet the permissible exposure limit;

(F) Whenever the employer will not achieve the permissible exposure limit with engineering controls and work practices by December 31, 1979, the employer shall include in the compliance plan an analysis of the effectiveness of the various controls, shall install engineering controls and institute work practices on the quickest schedule feasible, and shall include in the compliance plan and implement a program to minimize the discomfort and maximize the effectiveness of respirator use; and

(G) Other relevant information.

(iii) Written plans for such a program shall be submitted upon request to the Assistant Secretary and the Director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the Assistant Secretary, Director, any affected employee or authorized employee representatives.

(iv) The plans required by this paragraph must be revised and updated at least annually to reflect the current status of the program.

(h) Respiratory protection -

(1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering or work-practice controls.

(ii) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities, for which the employer establishes that engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible.

(iii) Work operations for which engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit.

(iv) Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program.

(i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with § 1910.134(b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.

(ii) If an employee exhibits breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, they must be examined by a physician trained in pulmonary medicine to determine whether they can use a respirator while performing the required duty.

(3) Respirator selection.

(i) Employers must:

(A) Select, and provide to employees, the appropriate respirators specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134.

(B) Ensure that employees do not use half mask respirators for protection against arsenic trichloride because it is absorbed rapidly through the skin.

(C) Provide HEPA filters for powered and non-powered air-purifying respirators.

(D) Select for employee use:

(1) Air-purifying respirators that have a combination HEPA filter with an appropriate gas-sorbent cartridge or canister when the employee's exposure exceeds the permissible exposure level for inorganic arsenic and the relevant limit for other gases.

(2) Front-or back-mounted gas masks equipped with HEPA filters and acid gas canisters or any full facepiece supplied-air respirators when the inorganic arsenic concentration is at or below 500 mg/m3; and half mask air-purifying respirators equipped with HEPA filters and acid gas cartridges when the inorganic arsenic concentration is at or below 100 μg/m3.

(ii) Employees required to use respirators may choose, and the employer must provide, a powered air-purifying respirator if it will provide proper protection. In addition, the employer must provide a combination dust and acid-gas respirator to employees who are exposed to gases over the relevant exposure limits.

(i) [Reserved]

(j) Protective work clothing and equipment -

(1) Provision and use. Where the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic exists, and for all workers working in regulated areas, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and assure that employees use appropriate and clean protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:

(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;

(ii) Gloves, and shoes or coverlets;

(iii) Face shields or vented goggles when necessary to prevent eye irritation, which comply with the requirements of § 1910.133(a) (2)-(6); and

(iv) Impervious clothing for employees subject to exposure to arsenic trichloride.

(2) Cleaning and replacement.

(i) The employer shall provide the protective clothing required in paragraph (j) (1) of this section in a freshly laundered and dry condition at least weekly, and daily if the employee works in areas where exposures are over 100 µg/m3 of inorganic arsenic or in areas where more frequent washing is needed to prevent skin irritation.

(ii) The employer shall clean, launder, or dispose of protective clothing required by paragraph (j) (1) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall repair or replace the protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain their effectiveness.

(iv) The employer shall assure that all protective clothing is removed at the completion of a work shift only in change rooms prescribed in paragraph (m) (1) of this section.

(v) The employer shall assure that contaminated protective clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, is placed in a closed container in the change-room which prevents dispersion of inorganic arsenic outside the container.

(vi) The employer shall inform in writing any person who cleans or launders clothing required by this section, of the potentially harmful effects including the carcinogenic effects of exposure to inorganic arsenic.

(vii) Labels on contaminated protective clothing and equipment.

(A) The employer shall ensure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment in the workplace or which are to be removed from the workplace are labeled and that the labels include the following information:

DANGER: CONTAMINATED WITH INORGANIC ARSENIC. MAY CAUSE CANCER. DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING. DISPOSE OF INORGANIC ARSENIC CONTAMINATED WASH WATER IN ACCORDANCE WITH APPLICABLE LOCAL, STATE OR FEDERAL REGULATIONS.

(B) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on containers of protective clothing and equipment in lieu of the labeling requirements in paragraphs (j)(2)(vii) of this section:

CAUTION: Clothing contaminated with inorganic arsenic; do not remove dust by blowing or shaking. Dispose of inorganic arsenic contaminated wash water in accordance with applicable local, State or Federal regulations.

(viii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of inorganic arsenic from protective clothing or equipment by blowing or shaking.

(k) Housekeeping -

(1) Surfaces. All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of inorganic arsenic.

(2) Cleaning floors. Floors and other accessible surfaces contaminated with inorganic arsenic may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air, and shoveling and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other relevant methods have been tried and found not to be effective.

(3) Vacuuming. Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums shall be used and emptied in a manner to minimize the reentry of inorganic arsenic into the workplace.

(4) Housekeeping plan. A written housekeeping and maintenance plan shall be kept which shall list appropriate frequencies for carrying out housekeeping operations, and for cleaning and maintaining dust collection equipment. The plan shall be available for inspection by the Assistant Secretary.

(5) Maintenance of equipment. Periodic cleaning of dust collection and ventilation equipment and checks of their effectiveness shall be carried out to maintain the effectiveness of the system and a notation kept of the last check of effectiveness and cleaning or maintenance.

(l) [Reserved]

(m) Hygiene facilities and practices -

(1) Change rooms. The employer shall provide for employees working in regulated areas or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic, clean change rooms equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for protective clothing and equipment in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.141(e).

(2) Showers.

(i) The employer shall assure that employees working in regulated areas or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic shower at the end of the work shift.

(ii) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with § 1910.141(d)(3).

(3) Lunchrooms.

(i) The employer shall provide for employees working in regulated areas, lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to employees working in regulated areas.

(ii) The employer shall assure that employees working in the regulated area or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from exposure to inorganic arsenic wash their hands and face prior to eating.

(4) Lavatories. The employer shall provide lavatory facilities which comply with § 1910.141(d) (1) and (2).

(5) Vacuuming clothes. The employer shall provide facilities for employees working in areas where exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, exceeds 100 µg/m3 to vacuum their protective clothing and clean or change shoes worn in such areas before entering change rooms, lunchrooms or shower rooms required by paragraph (j) of this section and shall assure that such employees use such facilities.

(6) Avoidance of skin irritation. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to skin or eye contact with arsenic trichloride, or to skin or eye contact with liquid or particulate inorganic arsenic which is likely to cause skin or eye irritation.

(n) Medical surveillance -

(1) General -

(i) Employees covered. The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for the following employees:

(A) All employees who are or will be exposed above the action level, without regard to the use of respirators, at least 30 days per year; and

(B) All employees who have been exposed above the action level, without regard to respirator use, for 30 days or more per year for a total of 10 years or more of combined employment with the employer or predecessor employers prior to or after the effective date of this standard. The determination of exposures prior to the effective date of this standard shall be based upon prior exposure records, comparison with the first measurements taken after the effective date of this standard, or comparison with records of exposures in areas with similar processes, extent of engineering controls utilized and materials used by that employer.

(ii) Examination by physician. The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay and at a reasonable time and place.

(2) Initial examinations. By December 1, 1978, for employees initially covered by the medical provisions of this section, or thereafter at the time of initial assignment to an area where the employee is likely to be exposed over the action level at least 30 days per year, the employer shall provide each affected employee an opportunity for a medical examination, including at least the following elements:

(i) A work history and a medical history which shall include a smoking history and the presence and degree of respiratory symptoms such as breathlessness, cough, sputum production and wheezing.

(ii) A medical examination which shall include at least the following:

(A) A standard film or digital posterior-anterior chest x-ray;

(B) A nasal and skin examination; and

(C) Other examinations which the physician believes appropriate because of the employees exposure to inorganic arsenic or because of required respirator use.

(3) Periodic examinations.

(i) Examinations must be provided in accordance with paragraphs (n)(2)(i) and (n)(2)(ii)(B) and (C) of this section at least annually.

(ii) Whenever a covered employee has not taken the examinations specified in paragraphs (n)(2)(i) and (n)(2)(ii)(B) and (C) of this section within six (6) months preceding the termination of employment, the employer shall provide such examinations to the employee upon termination of employment.

(4) Additional examinations. If the employee for any reason develops signs or symptoms commonly associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic the employer shall provide an appropriate examination and emergency medical treatment.

(5) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(iii) The employee's representative exposure level or anticipated exposure level;

(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(v) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee which is not readily available to the examining physician.

(6) Physician's written opinion.

(i) The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician which shall include:

(A) The results of the medical examination and tests performed;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to inorganic arsenic;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic or upon the use of protective clothing or equipment such as respirators; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require further explanation or treatment.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure.

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.

(o) Employee information and training -

(1) Training program.

(i) The employer shall train each employee who is subject to exposure to inorganic arsenic above the action level without regard to respirator use, or for whom there is the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic, in accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer shall institute a training program and ensure employee participation in the program.

(ii) The training program shall be provided by October 1, 1978, for employees covered by this provision, at the time of initial assignment for those subsequently covered by this provision, and at least annually for other covered employees thereafter; and the employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The information contained in appendix A;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, storage, sources of exposure, and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to inorganic arsenic as well as any necessary protective steps;

(C) The purpose, proper use, and limitation of respirators;

(D) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program as required by paragraph (n) of this section;

(E) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment; and

(F) A review of this standard.

(2) Access to training materials.

(i) The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its appendices.

(ii) The employer shall provide; upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(p) Communication of hazards -

(1) Hazard communication - General.

(i) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers shall comply with all requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (§ 1910.1200) for inorganic arsenic.

(ii) In classifying the hazards of inorganic arsenic at least the following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; liver effects; skin effects; respiratory irritation; nervous system effects; and acute toxicity effects.

(iii) Employers shall include inorganic arsenic in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS (§ 1910.1200). Employers shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of inorganic arsenic and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and paragraph (o) of this section.

(iv) The employer shall ensure that no statement appears on or near any sign or label required by this paragraph (p) which contradicts or detracts from the meaning of the required sign or label.

(2) Signs.

(i) The employer shall post signs demarcating regulated areas bearing the legend:

DANGER

INORGANIC ARSENIC

MAY CAUSE CANCER

DO NOT EAT, DRINK OR SMOKE

WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION IN THIS AREA

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in paragraph (p)(2)(i) of this section:

DANGER

INORGANIC ARSENIC

CANCER HAZARD

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

NO SMOKING OR EATING

RESPIRATOR REQUIRED

(iii) The employer shall ensure that signs required by this paragraph (p) are illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

(3)

(i) Prior to June 1, 2015, in lieu of the labeling requirements in paragraphs (p)(1)(i) of this section, employers may apply precautionary labels to all shipping and storage containers of inorganic arsenic, and to all products containing inorganic arsenic, bearing the following legend:

DANGER

CONTAINS INORGANIC ARSENIC

CANCER HAZARD

HARMFUL IF INHALED OR SWALLOWED

USE ONLY WITH ADEQUATE VENTILATION OR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

(ii) Labels are not required when the inorganic arsenic in the product is bound in such a manner so as to make unlikely the possibility of airborne exposure to inorganic arsenic. (Possible examples of products not requiring labels are semiconductors, light emitting diodes and glass.)

(q) Recordkeeping -

(1) Exposure monitoring.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by paragraph (e) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The date(s), number, duration location, and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure where applicable;

(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(C) The type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any;

(D) Name and job classification of the employees monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent; and

(E) The environmental variables that could affect the measurement of the employee's exposure.

(iii) The employer shall maintain these monitoring records for at least 40 years or for the duration of employment plus 20 years, whichever, is longer.

(2) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by paragraph (n) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The name and description of duties of the employee;

(B) A copy of the physician's written opinions;

(C) Results of any exposure monitoring done for that employee and the representative exposure levels supplied to the physician; and

(D) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to inorganic arsenic.

(iii) The employer shall in addition keep, or assure that the examining physician keeps, the following medical records;

(A) A copy of the medical examination results including medical and work history required under paragraph (n) of this section;

(B) A description of the laboratory procedures and a copy of any standards or guidelines used to interpret the test results or references to that information;

(C) The initial X-ray;

(D) The X-rays for the most recent 5 years; and

(E) Any X-rays with a demonstrated abnormality and all subsequent X-rays;

(iv) The employer shall maintain or assure that the physician maintains those medical records for at least 40 years, or for the duration of employment plus 20 years whichever is longer.

(3) Availability.

(i) The employer shall make available upon request all records required to be maintained by paragraph (q) of this section to the Assistant Secretary and the Director for examination and copying.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a) through (e) and (g) through (i).

(4) Transfer of records.

(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section.

(ii) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving the transfer of records set in 29 CFR 1910.1020(h).

(r) Observation of monitoring -

(1) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to inorganic arsenic conducted pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section.

(2) Observation procedures.

(i) Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to inorganic arsenic requires entry into an area where the use of respirators, protective clothing, or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with and assure the use of such respirators, clothing, and such equipment, and shall require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers shall be entitled to;

(A) Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;

(B) Observe all steps related to the monitoring of inorganic arsenic performed at the place of exposure; and

(C) Record the results obtained or receive copies of the results when returned by the laboratory.

(s) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices to this section is not intended by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed by this standard nor detract from any existing obligation.

Appendix A to § 1910.1018 - Inorganic Arsenic Substance Information Sheet

i. substance identification

A. Substance. Inorganic Arsenic.

B. Definition. Copper acetoarsenite, arsenic and all inorganic compounds containing arsenic except arsine, measured as arsenic (As).

C. Permissible Exposure Limit. 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air as determined as an average over an 8-hour period. No employee may be exposed to any skin or eye contact with arsenic trichloride or to skin or eye contact likely to cause skin or eye irritation.

D. Regulated Areas. Only employees authorized by your employer should enter a regulated area.

ii. health hazard data

A. Comments. The health hazard of inorganic arsenic is high.

B. Ways in which the chemical affects your body. Exposure to airborne concentrations of inorganic arsenic may cause lung cancer, and can be a skin irritant. Inorganic arsenic may also affect your body if swallowed. One compound in particular, arsenic trichloride, is especially dangerous because it can be absorbed readily through the skin. Because inorganic arsenic is a poison, you should wash your hands thoroughly prior to eating or smoking.

iii. protective clothing and equipment

A. Respirators. Respirators will be provided by your employer at no cost to you for routine use if your employer is in the process of implementing engineering and work practice controls or where engineering and work practice controls are not feasible or insufficient. You must wear respirators for non-routine activities or in emergency situations where you are likely to be exposed to levels of inorganic arsenic in excess of the permissible exposure limit. Since how well your respirator fits your face is very important, your employer is required to conduct fit tests to make sure the respirator seals properly when you wear it. These tests are simple and rapid and will be explained to you during training sessions.

B. Protective clothing. If you work in a regulated area, your employer is required to provide at no cost to you, and you must wear, appropriate, clean, protective clothing and equipment. The purpose of this equipment is to prevent you from bringing to your home arsenic-contaminated dust and to protect your body from repeated skin contact with inorganic arsenic likely to cause skin irritation. This clothing should include such items as coveralls or similar full-body clothing, gloves, shoes or coverlets, and aprons. Protective equipment should include face shields or vented goggles, where eye irritation may occur. y

iv. hygiene facilities and practices

You must not eat, drink, smoke, chew gum or tobacco, or apply cosmetics in the regulated area, except that drinking water is permitted. If you work in a regulated area your employer is required to provide lunchrooms and other areas for these purposes.

If you work in a regulated area, your employer is required to provide showers, washing facilities, and change rooms. You must wash your face, and hands before eating and must shower at the end of the work shift. Do not take used protective clothing out of change rooms without your employer's permission. Your employer is required to provide for laundering or cleaning of your protective clothing.

v. signs and labels

Your employer is required to post warning signs and labels for your protection. Signs must be posted in regulated areas. The signs must warn that a cancer hazard is present, that only authorized employees may enter the area, and that no smoking or eating is allowed, and that respirators must be worn.

vi. medical examinations

If your exposure to arsenic is over the Action Level (5 µg/m3) - (including all persons working in regulated areas) at least 30 days per year, or you have been exposed to arsenic for more than 10 years over the Action Level, your employer is required to provide you with a medical examination. The examination shall be every 6 months for employees over 45 years old or with more than 10 years exposure over the Action Level and annually for other covered employees. The medical examination must include a medical history; a chest X-ray (during initial examination only); skin examination and a nasal examination. The examining physician will provide a written opinion to your employer containing the results of the medical exams. You should also receive a copy of this opinion. The physician must not tell your employer any conditions he detects unrelated to occupational exposure to arsenic but must tell you those conditions.

vii. observation of monitoring

Your employer is required to monitor your exposure to arsenic and you or your representatives are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. You are entitled to receive an explanation of the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, you must also be provided with and must wear the protective clothing and equipment.

viii. access to records

You or your representative are entitled to records of your exposure to inorganic arsenic and your medical examination records if you request your employer to provide them.

ix. training and notification

Additional information on all of these items plus training as to hazards of exposure to inorganic arsenic and the engineering and work practice controls associated with your job will also be provided by your employer. If you are exposed over the permissible exposure limit, your employer must inform you of that fact and the actions he is taking to reduce your exposures.

Appendix B to § 1910.1018 - Substance Technical Guidelines

arsenic, arsenic trioxide, arsenic trichloride (three examples)

I. Physical and chemical properties

A. Arsenic (metal).

1. Formula: As.

2. Appearance: Gray metal.

3. Melting point: Sublimes without melting at 613C.

4. Specific Gravity: (H20 = 1):5.73.

5. Solubility in water: Insoluble.

B. Arsenic Trioxide.

1. Formula: As203, (As406).

2. Appearance: White powder.

3. Melting point: 315C.

4. Specific Gravity (H20 = 1):3.74.

5. Solubility in water: 3.7 grams in 100cc of water at 20c.

C. Arsenic Trichloride (liquid).

1. Formula: AsC13.

2. Appearance: Colorless or pale yellow liquid.

3. Melting point: −8.5C.

4. Boiling point: 130.2C.

5. Specific Gravity (H20 = 1):2.16 at 20C.

6. Vapor Pressure: 10mm Hg at 23.5C.

7. Solubility in Water: Decomposes in water.

II. Fire, explosion and reactivity data.

A. Fire: Arsenic, arsenic Trioxide and Arsenic Trichloride are nonflammable.

B. Reactivity:

1. Conditions Contributing to instability: Heat.

2. Incompatibility: Hydrogen gas can react with inorganic arsenic to form the highly toxic gas arsine.

III. Monitoring and Measurement Procedures

Samples collected should be full shift (at least 7-hour) samples. Sampling should be done using a personal sampling pump at a flow rate of 2 liters per minute. Samples should be collected on 0.8 micrometer pore size membrane filter (37mm diameter). Volatile arsenicals such as arsenic trichloride can be most easily collected in a midget bubbler filled with 15 ml. of 0.1 N NaOH.

The method of sampling and analysis should have an accuracy of not less than ±25 percent (with a confidence limit of 95 percent) for 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air (10 µg/m3) and ±35 percent (with a confidence limit of 95 percent) for concentrations of inorganic arsenic between 5 and 10 µg/m3.

Appendix C to § 1910.1018 - Medical Surveillance Guidelines

I. General

Medical examinations are to be provided for all employees exposed to levels of inorganic arsenic above the action level (5 µg/m3) for at least 30 days per year (which would include among others, all employees, who work in regulated areas). Examinations are also to be provided to all employees who have had 10 years or more exposure above the action level for more than 30 days per year while working for the present or predecessor employer though they may no longer be exposed above the level.

An initial medical examination is to be provided to all such employees by December 1, 1978. In addition, an initial medical examination is to be provided to all employees who are first assigned to areas in which worker exposure will probably exceed 5 µg/m3 (after August 1, 1978) at the time of initial assignment. In addition to its immediate diagnostic usefulness, the initial examination will provide a baseline for comparing future test results. The initial examination must include as a minimum the following elements:

(1) A work and medical history, including a smoking history, and presence and degree of respiratory symptoms such as breathlessness, cough, sputum production, and wheezing;

(2) A 14″ by 17″ or other reasonably-sized standard film or digital posterior-anterior chest X-ray;

(3) A nasal and skin examination; and

(4) Other examinations which the physician believes appropriate because of the employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic or because of required respirator use.

Periodic examinations are also to be provided to the employees listed in the first paragraph of this section. The periodic examinations shall be given annually for those covered employees 45 years of age or less with fewer than 10 years employment in areas where employee exposure exceeds the action level (5 µg/m3). Periodic examinations need not include sputum cytology or chest X-ray and only an updated medical history is required.

Periodic examinations for other covered employees shall be provided every six (6) months. These examinations shall include all tests required in the initial examination, except the chest X-ray, and the medical history need only be updated.

The examination contents are minimum requirements. Additional tests such as lateral and oblique X-rays or pulmonary function tests may be useful. For workers exposed to three arsenicals which are associated with lymphatic cancer, copper acetoarsenite, potassium arsenite, or sodium arsenite the examination should also include palpation of superficial lymph nodes and complete blood count.

ii. noncarcinogenic effects

The OSHA standard is based on minimizing risk of exposed workers dying of lung cancer from exposure to inorganic arsenic. It will also minimize skin cancer from such exposures.

The following three sections quoted from “Occupational Diseases: A Guide to Their Recognition”, Revised Edition, June 1977, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is included to provide information on the nonneoplastic effects of exposure to inorganic arsenic. Such effects should not occur if the OSHA standards are followed.

A. Local - Trivalent arsenic compounds are corrosive to the skin. Brief contact has no effect but prolonged contact results in a local hyperemia and later vesicular or pustular eruption. The moist mucous membranes are most sensitive to the irritant action. Conjunctiva, moist and macerated areas of skin, the eyelids, the angles of the ears, nose, mouth, and respiratory mucosa are also vulnerable to the irritant effects. The wrists are common sites of dermatitis, as are the genitalia if personal hygiene is poor. Perforations of the nasal septum may occur. Arsenic trioxide and pentoxide are capable of producing skin sensitization and contact dermatitis. Arsenic is also capable of producing keratoses, especially of the palms and soles.

B. Systemic - The acute toxic effects of arsenic are generally seen following ingestion of inorganic arsenical compounds. This rarely occurs in an industrial setting. Symptoms develop within1/2 to 4 hours following ingestion and are usually characterized by constriction of the throat followed by dysphagia, epigastric pain, vomiting, and watery diarrhea. Blood may appear in vomitus and stools. If the amount ingested is sufficiently high, shock may develop due to severe fluid loss, and death may ensue in 24 hours. If the acute effects are survived, exfoliative dermatitis and peripheral neuritis may develop.

Cases of acute arsenical poisoning due to inhalation are exceedingly rare in industry. When it does occur, respiratory tract symptoms - cough, chest pain, dyspnea - giddiness, headache, and extreme general weakness precede gastrointestinal symptoms. The acute toxic symptoms of trivalent arsenical poisoning are due to severe inflammation of the mucous membranes and greatly increased permeability of the blood capillaries.

Chronic arsenical poisoning due to ingestion is rare and generally confined to patients taking prescribed medications. However, it can be a concomitant of inhaled inorganic arsenic from swallowed sputum and improper eating habits. Symptoms are weight loss, nausea and diarrhea alternating with constipation, pigmentation and eruption of the skin, loss of hair, and peripheral neuritis. Chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis have been described. Polyneuritis may be the salient feature, but more frequently there are numbness and parasthenias of “glove and stocking” distribution. The skin lesions are usually melanotic and keratotic and may occasionally take the form of an intradermal cancer of the squamous cell type, but without infiltrative properties. Horizontal white lines (striations) on the fingernails and toenails are commonly seen in chronic arsenical poisoning and are considered to be a diagnostic accompaniment of arsenical polyneuritis.

Inhalation of inorganic arsenic compounds is the most common cause of chronic poisoning in the industrial situation. This condition is divided into three phases based on signs and symptoms.

First Phase: The worker complains of weakness, loss of appetite, some nausea, occasional vomiting, a sense of heaviness in the stomach, and some diarrhea.

Second Phase: The worker complains of conjunctivitis, a catarrhal state of the mucous membranes of the nose, larynx, and respiratory passage. Coryza, hoarseness, and mild tracheobronchitis may occur. Perforation of the nasal septum is common, and is probably the most typical lesion of the upper respiratory tract in occupational exposure to arsenical dust. Skin lesions, eczematoid and allergic in type, are common.

Third Phase: The worker complains of symptoms of peripheral neuritis, initially of hands and feet, which is essentially sensory. In more severe cases, motor paralyses occur; the first muscles affected are usually the toe extensors and the peronei. In only the most severe cases will paralysis of flexor muscles of the feet or of the extensor muscles of hands occur.

Liver damage from chronic arsenical poisoning is still debated, and as yet the question is unanswered. In cases of chronic and acute arsenical poisoning, toxic effects to the myocardium have been reported based on EKG changes. These findings, however, are now largely discounted and the EKG changes are ascribed to electrolyte disturbances concomitant with arsenicalism. Inhalation of arsenic trioxide and other inorganic arsenical dusts does not give rise to radiological evidence or pneumoconiosis. Arsenic does have a depressant effect upon the bone marrow, with disturbances of both erythropoiesis and myelopoiesis.

Bibliography

Dinman, B. D. 1960. Arsenic; chronic human intoxication. J. Occup. Med. 2:137.

Elkins, H. B. 1959. The Chemistry of Industrial Toxicology, 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Holmquist, L. 1951. Occupational arsenical dermatitis; a study among employees at a copper-ore smelting works including investigations of skin reactions to contact with arsenic compounds. Acta. Derm. Venereol. (Supp. 26) 31:1.

Pinto, S. S., and C. M. McGill. 1953. Arsenic trioxide exposure in industry. Ind. Med. Surg. 22:281.

Pinto, S. S., and K. W. Nelson. 1976. Arsenic toxicology and industrial exposure. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 16:95.

Vallee, B. L., D. D. Ulmer, and W. E. C. Wacker. 1960. Arsenic toxicology and biochemistry. AMA Arch. Indust. Health 21:132.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 FR 19624, May 5, 1978; 43 FR 28472, June 30, 1978; 45 FR 35282, May 23, 1980; 54 FR 24334, June 7, 1989; 58 FR 35310, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 5508, Feb. 13, 1996; 61 FR 9245, Mar. 7, 1996; 63 FR 1286, Jan. 8, 1998; 63 FR 33468, June 18, 1998; 70 FR 1141, Jan. 5, 2005; 71 FR 16672, 16673, Apr. 3, 2006; 71 FR 50189, Aug. 24, 2006; 73 FR 75585, Dec. 12, 2008; 76 FR 33608, June 8, 2011; 77 FR 17780, Mar. 26, 2012; 84 FR 21470, May 14, 2019]

§ 1910.1020 Access to employee exposure and medical records.

(a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to provide employees and their designated representatives a right of access to relevant exposure and medical records; and to provide representatives of the Assistant Secretary a right of access to these records in order to fulfill responsibilities under the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Access by employees, their representatives, and the Assistant Secretary is necessary to yield both direct and indirect improvements in the detection, treatment, and prevention of occupational disease. Each employer is responsible for assuring compliance with this section, but the activities involved in complying with the access to medical records provisions can be carried out, on behalf of the employer, by the physician or other health care personnel in charge of employee medical records. Except as expressly provided, nothing in this section is intended to affect existing legal and ethical obligations concerning the maintenance and confidentiality of employee medical information, the duty to disclose information to a patient/employee or any other aspect of the medical-care relationship, or affect existing legal obligations concerning the protection of trade secret information.

(b) Scope and application.

(1) This section applies to each general industry, maritime, and construction employer who makes, maintains, contracts for, or has access to employee exposure or medical records, or analyses thereof, pertaining to employees exposed to toxic substances or harmful physical agents.

(2) This section applies to all employee exposure and medical records, and analyses thereof, of such employees, whether or not the records are mandated by specific occupational safety and health standards.

(3) This section applies to all employee exposure and medical records, and analyses thereof, made or maintained in any manner, including on an in-house of contractual (e.g., fee-for-service) basis. Each employer shall assure that the preservation and access requirements of this section are complied with regardless of the manner in which the records are made or maintained.

(c) Definitions -

(1) Access means the right and opportunity to examine and copy.

(2) Analysis using exposure or medical records means any compilation of data or any statistical study based at least in part on information collected from individual employee exposure or medical records or information collected from health insurance claims records, provided that either the analysis has been reported to the employer or no further work is currently being done by the person responsible for preparing the analysis.

(3) Designated representative means any individual or organization to whom an employee gives written authorization to exercise a right of access. For the purposes of access to employee exposure records and analyses using exposure or medical records, a recognized or certified collective bargaining agent shall be treated automatically as a designated representative without regard to written employee authorization.

(4) Employee means a current employee, a former employee, or an employee being assigned or transferred to work where there will be exposure to toxic substances or harmful physical agents. In the case of a deceased or legally incapacitated employee, the employee's legal representative may directly exercise all the employee's rights under this section.

(5) Employee exposure record means a record containing any of the following kinds of information:

(i) Environmental (workplace) monitoring or measuring of a toxic substance or harmful physical agent, including personal, area, grab, wipe, or other form of sampling, as well as related collection and analytical methodologies, calculations, and other background data relevant to interpretation of the results obtained;

(ii) Biological monitoring results which directly assess the absorption of a toxic substance or harmful physical agent by body systems (e.g., the level of a chemical in the blood, urine, breath, hair, fingernails, etc) but not including results which assess the biological effect of a substance or agent or which assess an employee's use of alcohol or drugs;

(iii) Material safety data sheets indicating that the material may pose a hazard to human health; or

(iv) In the absence of the above, a chemcial inventory or any other record which reveals where and when used and the identity (e.g., chemical, common, or trade name) of a toxic substance or harmful physical agent.

(6)

(i) Employee medical record means a record concerning the health status of an employee which is made or maintained by a physician, nurse, or other health care personnel or technician, including:

(A) Medical and employment questionnaires or histories (including job description and occupational exposures),

(B) The results of medical examinations (pre-employment, pre-assignment, periodic, or episodic) and laboratory tests (including chest and other X-ray examinations taken for the purposes of establishing a base-line or detecting occupational illness, and all biological monitoring not defined as an “employee exposure record”),

(C) Medical opinions, diagnoses, progress notes, and recommendations,

(D) First aid records,

(E) Descriptions of treatments and prescriptions, and

(F) Employee medical complaints.

(ii) “Employee medical record” does not include medical information in the form of:

(A) Physical specimens (e.g., blood or urine samples) which are routinely discarded as a part of normal medical practice; or

(B) Records concerning health insurance claims if maintained separately from the employer's medical program and its records, and not accessible to the employer by employee name or other direct personal identifier (e.g., social security number, payroll number, etc.); or

(C) Records created solely in preparation for litigation which are privileged from discovery under the applicable rules of procedure or evidence; or

(D) Records concerning voluntary employee assistance programs (alcohol, drug abuse, or personal counseling programs) if maintained separately from the employer's medical program and its records.

(7) Employer means a current employer, a former employer, or a successor employer.

(8) Exposure or exposed means that an employee is subjected to a toxic substance or harmful physical agent in the course of employment through any route of entry (inhalation, ingestion, skin contact or absorption, etc.), and includes past exposure and potential (e.g., accidental or possible) exposure, but does not include situations where the employer can demonstrate that the toxic substance or harmful physical agent is not used, handled, stored, generated, or present in the workplace in any manner different from typical non-occupational situations.

(9) Health Professional means a physician, occupational health nurse, industrial hygienist, toxicologist, or epidemiologist, providing medical or other occupational health services to exposed employees.

(10) Record means any item, collection, or grouping of information regardless of the form or process by which it is maintained (e.g., paper document, microfiche, microfilm, X-ray film, or automated data processing).

(11) Specific chemical identity means the chemical name, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number, or any other information that reveals the precise chemical designation of the substance.

(12)

(i) Specific written consent means a written authorization containing the following:

(A) The name and signature of the employee authorizing the release of medical information,

(B) The date of the written authorization,

(C) The name of the individual or organization that is authorized to release the medical information,

(D) The name of the designated representative (individual or organization) that is authorized to receive the released information,

(E) A general description of the medical information that is authorized to be released,

(F) A general description of the purpose for the release of the medical information, and

(G) A date or condition upon which the written authorization will expire (if less than one year).

(ii) A written authorization does not operate to authorize the release of medical information not in existence on the date of written authorization, unless the release of future information is expressly authorized, and does not operate for more than one year from the date of written authorization.

(iii) A written authorization may be revoked in writing prospectively at any time.

(13) Toxic substance or harmful physical agent means any chemical substance, biological agent (bacteria, virus, fungus, etc.), or physical stress (noise, heat, cold, vibration, repetitive motion, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, hypo-or hyperbaric pressure, etc.) which:

(i) Is listed in the latest printed edition of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6; or

(ii) Has yielded positive evidence of an acute or chronic health hazard in testing conducted by, or known to, the employer; or

(iii) Is the subject of a material safety data sheet kept by or known to the employer indicating that the material may pose a hazard to human health.

(14) Trade secret means any confidential formula, pattern, process, device, or information or compilation of information that is used in an employer's business and that gives the employer an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it.

(d) Preservation of records.

(1) Unless a specific occupational safety and health standard provides a different period of time, each employer shall assure the preservation and retention of records as follows:

(i) Employee medical records. The medical record for each employee shall be preserved and maintained for at least the duration of employment plus thirty (30) years, except that the following types of records need not be retained for any specified period:

(A) Health insurance claims records maintained separately from the employer's medical program and its records,

(B) First aid records (not including medical histories) of one-time treatment and subsequent observation of minor scratches, cuts, burns, splinters, and the like which do not involve medical treatment, loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, or transfer to another job, if made on-site by a non-physician and if maintained separately from the employer's medical program and its records, and

(C) The medical records of employees who have worked for less than (1) year for the employer need not be retained beyond the term of employment if they are provided to the employee upon the termination of employment.

(ii) Employee exposure records. Each employee exposure record shall be preserved and maintained for at least thirty (30) years, except that:

(A) Background data to environmental (workplace) monitoring or measuring, such as laboratory reports and worksheets, need only be retained for one (1) year as long as the sampling results, the collection methodology (sampling plan), a description of the analytical and mathematical methods used, and a summary of other background data relevant to interpretation of the results obtained, are retained for at least thirty (30) years; and

(B) Material safety data sheets and paragraph (c)(5)(iv) records concerning the identity of a substance or agent need not be retained for any specified period as long as some record of the identity (chemical name if known) of the substance or agent, where it was used, and when it was used is retained for at least thirty (30) years; 1 and

(C) Biological monitoring results designated as exposure records by specific occupational safety and health standards shall be preserved and maintained as required by the specific standard.

(iii) Analyses using exposure or medical records. Each analysis using exposure or medial records shall be preserved and maintained for at least thirty (30) years.

(2) Nothing in this section is intended to mandate the form, manner, or process by which an employer preserves a record as long as the information contained in the record is preserved and retrievable, except that chest X-ray films shall be preserved in their original state.

(e) Access to records -

(1) General.

(i) Whenever an employee or designated representative requests access to a record, the employer shall assure that access is provided in a reasonable time, place, and manner. If the employer cannot reasonably provide access to the record within fifteen (15) working days, the employer shall within the fifteen (15) working days apprise the employee or designated representative requesting the record of the reason for the delay and the earliest date when the record can be made available.

(ii) The employer may require of the requester only such information as should be readily known to the requester and which may be necessary to locate or identify the records being requested (e.g. dates and locations where the employee worked during the time period in question).

(iii) Whenever an employee or designated representative requests a copy of a record, the employer shall assure that either:

(A) A copy of the record is provided without cost to the employee or representative,

(B) The necessary mechanical copying facilities (e.g., photocopying) are made available without cost to the employee or representative for copying the record, or

(C) The record is loaned to the employee or representative for a reasonable time to enable a copy to be made.

(iv) In the case of an original X-ray, the employer may restrict access to on-site examination or make other suitable arrangements for the temporary loan of the X-ray.

(v) Whenever a record has been previously provided without cost to an employee or designated representative, the employer may charge reasonable, non-discriminatory administrative costs (i.e., search and copying expenses but not including overhead expenses) for a request by the employee or designated representative for additional copies of the record, except that

(A) An employer shall not charge for an initial request for a copy of new information that has been added to a record which was previously provided; and

(B) An employer shall not charge for an initial request by a recognized or certified collective bargaining agent for a copy of an employee exposure record or an analysis using exposure or medical records.

(vi) Nothing in this section is intended to preclude employees and collective bargaining agents from collectively bargaining to obtain access to information in addition to that available under this section.

(2) Employee and designated representative access -

(i) Employee exposure records.

(A) Except as limited by paragraph (f) of this section, each employer shall, upon request, assure the access to each employee and designated representative to employee exposure records relevant to the employee. For the purpose of this section, an exposure record relevant to the employee consists of:

(1) A record which measures or monitors the amount of a toxic substance or harmful physical agent to which the employee is or has been exposed;

(2) In the absence of such directly relevant records, such records of other employees with past or present job duties or working conditions related to or similar to those of the employee to the extent necessary to reasonably indicate the amount and nature of the toxic substances or harmful physical agents to which the employee is or has been subjected, and

(3) Exposure records to the extent necessary to reasonably indicate the amount and nature of the toxic substances or harmful physical agents at workplaces or under working conditions to which the employee is being assigned or transferred.

(B) Requests by designated representatives for unconsented access to employee exposure records shall be in writing and shall specify with reasonable particularity:

(1) The records requested to be disclosed; and

(2) The occupational health need for gaining access to these records.

(ii) Employee medical records.

(A) Each employer shall, upon request, assure the access of each employee to employee medical records of which the employee is the subject, except as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(D) of this section.

(B) Each employer shall, upon request, assure the access of each designated representative to the employee medical records of any employee who has given the designated representative specific written consent. appendix A to this section contains a sample form which may be used to establish specific written consent for access to employee medical records.

(C) Whenever access to employee medical records is requested, a physician representing the employer may recommend that the employee or designated representative:

(1) Consult with the physician for the purposes of reviewing and discussing the records requested,

(2) Accept a summary of material facts and opinions in lieu of the records requested, or

(3) Accept release of the requested records only to a physician or other designated representative.

(D) Whenever an employee requests access to his or her employee medical records, and a physician representing the employer believes that direct employee access to information contained in the records regarding a specific diagnosis of a terminal illness or a psychiatric condition could be detrimental to the employee's health, the employer may inform the employee that access will only be provided to a designated representative of the employee having specific written consent, and deny the employee's request for direct access to this information only. Where a designated representative with specific written consent requests access to information so withheld, the employer shall assure the access of the designated representative to this information, even when it is known that the designated representative will give the information to the employee.

(E) A physician, nurse, or other responsible health care personnel maintaining medical records may delete from requested medical records the identity of a family member, personal friend, or fellow employee who has provided confidential information concerning an employee's health status.

(iii) Analyses using exposure or medical records.

(A) Each employee shall, upon request, assure the access of each employee and designated representative to each analysis using exposure or medical records concerning the employee's working conditions or workplace.

(B) Whenever access is requested to an analysis which reports the contents of employee medical records by either direct identifier (name, address, social security number, payroll number, etc.) or by information which could reasonably be used under the circumstances indirectly to identify specific employees (exact age, height, weight, race, sex, date of initial employment, job title, etc.), the employer shall assure that personal identifiers are removed before access is provided. If the employer can demonstrate that removal of personal identifiers from an analysis is not feasible, access to the personally identifiable portions of the analysis need not be provided.

(3) OSHA access.

(i) Each employer shall, upon request, and without derogation of any rights under the Constitution or the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, 29 U.S.C. 651 et seq., that the employer chooses to exercise, assure the prompt access of representatives of the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health to employee exposure and medical records and to analyses using exposure or medical records. Rules of agency practice and procedure governing OSHA access to employee medical records are contained in 29 CFR 1913.10.

(ii) Whenever OSHA seeks access to personally identifiable employee medical information by presenting to the employer a written access order pursuant to 29 CFR 1913.10(d), the employer shall prominently post a copy of the written access order and its accompanying cover letter for at least fifteen (15) working days.

(f) Trade secrets.

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section, nothing in this section precludes an employer from deleting from records requested by a health professional, employee, or designated representative any trade secret data which discloses manufacturing processes, or discloses the percentage of a chemical substance in mixture, as long as the health professional, employee, or designated representative is notified that information has been deleted. Whenever deletion of trade secret information substantially impairs evaluation of the place where or the time when exposure to a toxic substance or harmful physical agent occurred, the employer shall provide alternative information which is sufficient to permit the requesting party to identify where and when exposure occurred.

(2) The employer may withhold the specific chemical identity, including the chemical name and other specific identification of a toxic substance from a disclosable record provided that:

(i) The claim that the information withheld is a trade secret can be supported;

(ii) All other available information on the properties and effects of the toxic substance is disclosed;

(iii) The employer informs the requesting party that the specific chemical identity is being withheld as a trade secret; and

(iv) The specific chemical identity is made available to health professionals, employees and designated representatives in accordance with the specific applicable provisions of this paragraph.

(3) Where a treating physician or nurse determines that a medical emergency exists and the specific chemical identity of a toxic substance is necessary for emergency or first-aid treatment, the employer shall immediately disclose the specific chemical identity of a trade secret chemical to the treating physician or nurse, regardless of the existence of a written statement of need or a confidentiality agreement. The employer may require a written statement of need and confidentiality agreement, in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs (f)(4) and (f)(5), as soon as circumstances permit.

(4) In non-emergency situations, an employer shall, upon request, disclose a specific chemical identity, otherwise permitted to be withheld under paragraph (f)(2) of this section, to a health professional, employee, or designated representative if:

(i) The request is in writing;

(ii) The request describes with reasonable detail one or more of the following occupational health needs for the information:

(A) To assess the hazards of the chemicals to which employees will be exposed;

(B) To conduct or assess sampling of the workplace atmosphere to determine employee exposure levels;

(C) To conduct pre-assignment or periodic medical surveillance of exposed employees;

(D) To provide medical treatment to exposed employees;

(E) To select or assess appropriate personal protective equipment for exposed employees;

(F) To design or assess engineering controls or other protective measures for exposed employees; and

(G) To conduct studies to determine the health effects of exposure.

(iii) The request explains in detail why the disclosure of the specific chemical identity is essential and that, in lieu thereof, the disclosure of the following information would not enable the health professional, employee or designated representative to provide the occupational health services described in paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section:

(A) The properties and effects of the chemical;

(B) Measures for controlling workers' exposure to the chemical;

(C) Methods of monitoring and analyzing worker exposure to the chemical; and,

(D) Methods of diagnosing and treating harmful exposures to the chemical;

(iv) The request includes a description of the procedures to be used to maintain the confidentiality of the disclosed information; and,

(v) The health professional, employee, or designated representative and the employer or contractor of the services of the health professional or designated representative agree in a written confidentiality agreement that the health professional, employee or designated representative will not use the trade secret information for any purpose other than the health need(s) asserted and agree not to release the information under any circumstances other than to OSHA, as provided in paragraph (f)(7) of this section, except as authorized by the terms of the agreement or by the employer.

(5) The confidentiality agreement authorized by paragraph (f)(4)(iv) of this section:

(i) May restrict the use of the information to the health purposes indicated in the written statement of need;

(ii) May provide for appropriate legal remedies in the event of a breach of the agreement, including stipulation of a reasonable pre-estimate of likely damages; and,

(iii) May not include requirements for the posting of a penalty bond.

(6) Nothing in this section is meant to preclude the parties from pursuing non-contractual remedies to the extent permitted by law.

(7) If the health professional, employee or designated representative receiving the trade secret information decides that there is a need to disclose it to OSHA, the employer who provided the information shall be informed by the health professional prior to, or at the same time as, such disclosure.

(8) If the employer denies a written request for disclosure of a specific chemical identity, the denial must:

(i) Be provided to the health professional, employee or designated representative within thirty days of the request;

(ii) Be in writing;

(iii) Include evidence to support the claim that the specific chemical identity is a trade secret;

(iv) State the specific reasons why the request is being denied; and,

(v) Explain in detail how alternative information may satisfy the specific medical or occupational health need without revealing the specific chemical identity.

(9) The health professional, employee, or designated representative whose request for information is denied under paragraph (f)(4) of this section may refer the request and the written denial of the request to OSHA for consideration.

(10) When a heath professional employee, or designated representative refers a denial to OSHA under paragraph (f)(9) of this section, OSHA shall consider the evidence to determine if:

(i) The employer has supported the claim that the specific chemical identity is a trade secret;

(ii) The health professional employee, or designated representative has supported the claim that there is a medical or occupational health need for the information; and

(iii) The health professional, employee or designated representative has demonstrated adequate means to protect the confidentiality.

(11)

(i) If OSHA determines that the specific chemical identity requested under paragraph (f)(4) of this section is not a bona fide trade secret, or that it is a trade secret but the requesting health professional, employee or designated representatives has a legitimate medical or occupational health need for the information, has executed a written confidentiality agreement, and has shown adequate means for complying with the terms of such agreement, the employer will be subject to citation by OSHA.

(ii) If an employer demonstrates to OSHA that the execution of a confidentiality agreement would not provide sufficient protection against the potential harm from the unauthorized disclosure of a trade secret specific chemical identity, the Assistant Secretary may issue such orders or impose such additional limitations or conditions upon the disclosure of the requested chemical information as may be appropriate to assure that the occupational health needs are met without an undue risk of harm to the employer.

(12) Notwithstanding the existence of a trade secret claim, an employer shall, upon request, disclose to the Assistant Secretary any information which this section requires the employer to make available. Where there is a trade secret claim, such claim shall be made no later than at the time the information is provided to the Assistant Secretary so that suitable determinations of trade secret status can be made and the necessary protections can be implemented.

(13) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as requiring the disclosure under any circumstances of process or percentage of mixture information which is trade secret.

(g) Employee information.

(1) Upon an employee's first entering into employment, and at least annually thereafter, each employer shall inform current employees covered by this section of the following:

(i) The existence, location, and availability of any records covered by this section;

(ii) The person responsible for maintaining and providing access to records; and

(iii) Each employee's rights of access to these records.

(2) Each employer shall keep a copy of this section and its appendices, and make copies readily available, upon request, to employees. The employer shall also distribute to current employees any informational materials concerning this section which are made available to the employer by the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health.

(h) Transfer of records.

(1) Whenever an employer is ceasing to do business, the employer shall transfer all records subject to this section to the successor employer. The successor employer shall receive and maintain these records.

(2) Whenever an employer is ceasing to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and maintain the records subject to this standard, the employer shall notify affected current employees of their rights of access to records at least three

(3) months prior to the cessation of the employer's business.

(i) Appendices. The information contained in appendices A and B to this section is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed by this section nor detract from any existing obligation.

Appendix A to § 1910.1020 - Sample Authorization Letter for the Release of Employee Medical Record Information to a Designated Representative (Non-Mandatory)

I, _____ (full name of worker/patient), hereby authorize ______ (individual or organization holding the medical records) to release to ______ (individual or organization authorized to receive the medical information), the following medical information from my personal medical records:

(Describe generally the information desired to be released)

I give my permission for this medical information to be used for the following purpose:

but I do not give permission for any other use or re-disclosure of this information.

Note:

Several extra lines are provided below so that you can place additional restrictions on this authorization letter if you want to. You may, however, leave these lines blank. On the other hand, you may want to (1) specify a particular expiration date for this letter (if less than one year); (2) describe medical information to be created in the future that you intend to be covered by this authorization letter; or (3) describe portions of the medical information in your records which you do not intend to be released as a result of this letter.)

Full name of Employee or Legal Representative

Signature of Employee or Legal Representative

Date of Signature

Appendix B to § 1910.1020 - Availability of NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) (Non-Mandatory)

The final regulation, 29 CFR 1910.20, applies to all employee exposure and medical records, and analyses thereof, of employees exposed to toxic substances or harmful physical agents (paragraph (b)(2)). The term toxic substance or harmful physical agent is defined by paragraph (c)(13) to encompass chemical substances, biological agents, and physical stresses for which there is evidence of harmful health effects. The regulation uses the latest printed edition of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) as one of the chief sources of information as to whether evidence of harmful health effects exists. If a substance is listed in the latest printed RTECS, the regulation applies to exposure and medical records (and analyses of these records) relevant to employees exposed to the substance.

It is appropriate to note that the final regulation does not require that employers purchase a copy of RTECS, and many employers need not consult RTECS to ascertain whether their employee exposure or medical records are subject to the rule. Employers who do not currently have the latest printed edition of the NIOSH RTECS, however, may desire to obtain a copy. The RTECS is issued in an annual printed edition as mandated by section 20(a)(6) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (29 U.S.C. 669(a)(6)).

The Introduction to the 1980 printed edition describes the RTECS as follows:

“The 1980 edition of the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, formerly known as the Toxic Substances list, is the ninth revision prepared in compliance with the requirements of Section 20(a)(6) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-596). The original list was completed on June 28, 1971, and has been updated annually in book format. Beginning in October 1977, quarterly revisions have been provided in microfiche. This edition of the Registry contains 168,096 listings of chemical substances: 45,156 are names of different chemicals with their associated toxicity data and 122,940 are synonyms. This edition includes approximately 5,900 new chemical compounds that did not appear in the 1979 Registry. (p. xi)

“The Registry's purposes are many, and it serves a variety of users. It is a single source document for basic toxicity information and for other data, such as chemical identifiers ad information necessary for the preparation of safety directives and hazard evaluations for chemical substances. The various types of toxic effects linked to literature citations provide researchers and occupational health scientists with an introduction to the toxicological literature, making their own review of the toxic hazards of a given substance easier. By presenting data on the lowest reported doses that produce effects by several routes of entry in various species, the Registry furnishes valuable information to those responsible for preparing safety data sheets for chemical substances in the workplace. Chemical and production engineers can use the Registry to identify the hazards which may be associated with chemical intermediates in the development of final products, and thus can more readily select substitutes or alternative processes which may be less hazardous. Some organizations, including health agencies and chemical companies, have included the NIOSH Registry accession numbers with the listing of chemicals in their files to reference toxicity information associated with those chemicals. By including foreign language chemical names, a start has been made toward providing rapid identification of substances produced in other countries. (p. xi)

“In this edition of the Registry, the editors intend to identify “all known toxic substances” which may exist in the environment and to provide pertinent data on the toxic effects from known doses entering an organism by any route described. (p xi)

“It must be reemphasized that the entry of a substance in the Registry does not automatically mean that it must be avoided. A listing does mean, however, that the substance has the documented potential of being harmful if misused, and care must be exercised to prevent tragic consequences. Thus, the Registry lists many substances that are common in everyday life and are in nearly every household in the United States. One can name a variety of such dangerous substances: prescription and non-prescription drugs; food additives; pesticide concentrates, sprays, and dusts; fungicides; herbicides; paints; glazes, dyes; bleaches and other household cleaning agents; alkalies; and various solvents and diluents. The list is extensive because chemicals have become an integral part of our existence.”

The RTECS printed edition may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402 (202-783-3238).

Some employers may desire to subscribe to the quarterly update to the RTECS which is published in a microfiche edition. An annual subscription to the quarterly microfiche may be purchased from the GPO (Order the “Microfiche Edition, Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances”). Both the printed edition and the microfiche edition of RTECS are available for review at many university and public libraries throughout the country. The latest RTECS editions may also be examined at the OSHA Technical Data Center, Room N2439 - Rear, United States Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210 (202-523-9700), or at any OSHA Regional or Area Office (See, major city telephone directories under United States Government-Labor Department).

[53 FR 38163, Sept. 29, 1988; 53 FR 49981, Dec. 13, 1988, as amended at 54 FR 24333, June 7, 1989; 55 FR 26431, June 28, 1990; 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996. Redesignated at 61 FR 31430, June 20, 1996, as amended at 71 FR 16673, Apr. 3, 2006; 76 FR 33608, June 8, 2011]

§ 1910.1024 Beryllium.

(a) Scope and application.

(1) This standard applies to occupational exposure to beryllium in all forms, compounds, and mixtures in general industry, except those articles and materials exempted by paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this standard.

(2) This standard does not apply to articles, as defined in the Hazard Communication standard (HCS) (§ 1910.1200(c)), that contain beryllium and that the employer does not process.

(3) This standard does not apply to materials containing less than 0.1% beryllium by weight where the employer has objective data demonstrating that employee exposure to beryllium will remain below the action level as an 8-hour TWA under any foreseeable conditions.

(b) Definitions. As used in this standard:

Action level means a concentration of airborne beryllium of 0.1 micrograms per cubic meter of air (µg/m3) calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

Airborne exposure and airborne exposure to beryllium mean the exposure to airborne beryllium that would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, United States Department of Labor, or designee.

Beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) means the measurement of blood lymphocyte proliferation in a laboratory test when lymphocytes are challenged with a soluble beryllium salt.

Beryllium sensitization means a response in the immune system of a specific individual who has been exposed to beryllium. There are no associated physical or clinical symptoms and no illness or disability with beryllium sensitization alone, but the response that occurs through beryllium sensitization can enable the immune system to recognize and react to beryllium. While not every beryllium-sensitized person will develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD), beryllium sensitization is essential for development of CBD.

Beryllium work area means any work area where materials that contain at least 0.1 percent beryllium by weight are processed either:

(1) During any of the operations listed in Appendix A of this standard; or

(2) Where employees are, or can reasonably be expected to be, exposed to airborne beryllium at or above the action level.

CBD diagnostic center means a medical diagnostic center that has a pulmonologist or pulmonary specialist on staff and on-site facilities to perform a clinical evaluation for the presence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The CBD diagnostic center must have the capacity to perform pulmonary function testing (as outlined by the American Thoracic Society criteria), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial biopsy. The CBD diagnostic center must also have the capacity to transfer BAL samples to a laboratory for appropriate diagnostic testing within 24 hours. The pulmonologist or pulmonary specialist must be able to interpret the biopsy pathology and the BAL diagnostic test results.

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) means a chronic granulomatous lung disease caused by inhalation of airborne beryllium by an individual who is beryllium sensitized.

Confirmed positive means the person tested has had two abnormal BeLPT test results, an abnormal and a borderline test result, or three borderline test results, obtained from tests conducted within a three-year period. It also means the result of a more reliable and accurate test indicating a person has been identified as having beryllium sensitization.

Contaminated with beryllium and beryllium-contaminated mean contaminated with dust, fumes, mists, or solutions containing beryllium in concentrations greater than or equal to 0.1 percent by weight.

Dermal contact with beryllium means skin exposure to:

(1) Soluble beryllium compounds containing beryllium in concentrations greater than or equal to 0.1 percent by weight;

(2) Solutions containing beryllium in concentrations greater than or equal to 0.1 percent by weight; or

(3) Visible dust, fumes, or mists containing beryllium in concentrations greater than or equal to 0.1 percent by weight. The handling of beryllium materials in non-particulate solid form that are free from visible dust containing beryllium in concentrations greater than or equal to 0.1 percent by weight is not considered dermal contact under the standard.

Director means the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee.

Emergency means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment, which may or does result in an uncontrolled and unintended release of airborne beryllium that presents a significant hazard.

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter means a filter that is at least 99.97 percent efficient in removing particles 0.3 micrometers in diameter.

Objective data means information, such as air monitoring data from industry-wide surveys or calculations based on the composition of a substance, demonstrating airborne exposure to beryllium associated with a particular product or material or a specific process, task, or activity. The data must reflect workplace conditions closely resembling or with a higher airborne exposure potential than the processes, types of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions in the employer's current operations.

Physician or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP) means an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows the individual to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide some or all of the health care services required by paragraph (k) of this standard.

Regulated area means an area, including temporary work areas where maintenance or non-routine tasks are performed, where an employee's airborne exposure exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, either the time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) or short term exposure limit (STEL).

This standard means this beryllium standard, 29 CFR 1910.1024.

(c) Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) -

(1) Time-weighted average (TWA) PEL. The employer must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium in excess of 0.2 µg/m3 calculated as an 8-hour TWA.

(2) Short-term exposure limit (STEL). The employer must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium in excess of 2.0 µg/m3 as determined over a sampling period of 15 minutes.

(d) Exposure assessment -

(1) General. The employer must assess the airborne exposure of each employee who is or may reasonably be expected to be exposed to airborne beryllium in accordance with either the performance option in paragraph (d)(2) or the scheduled monitoring option in paragraph (d)(3) of this standard.

(2) Performance option. The employer must assess the 8-hour TWA exposure and the 15-minute short-term exposure for each employee on the basis of any combination of air monitoring data and objective data sufficient to accurately characterize airborne exposure to beryllium.

(3) Scheduled monitoring option.

(i) The employer must perform initial monitoring to assess the 8-hour TWA exposure for each employee on the basis of one or more personal breathing zone air samples that reflect the airborne exposure of employees on each shift, for each job classification, and in each work area.

(ii) The employer must perform initial monitoring to assess the short-term exposure from 15-minute personal breathing zone air samples measured in operations that are likely to produce airborne exposure above the STEL for each work shift, for each job classification, and in each work area.

(iii) Where several employees perform the same tasks on the same shift and in the same work area, the employer may sample a representative fraction of these employees in order to meet the requirements of this paragraph (d)(3). In representative sampling, the employer must sample the employee(s) expected to have the highest airborne exposure to beryllium.

(iv) If initial monitoring indicates that airborne exposure is below the action level and at or below the STEL, the employer may discontinue monitoring for those employees whose airborne exposure is represented by such monitoring.

(v) Where the most recent exposure monitoring indicates that airborne exposure is at or above the action level but at or below the TWA PEL, the employer must repeat such monitoring within six months of the most recent monitoring.

(vi) Where the most recent exposure monitoring indicates that airborne exposure is above the TWA PEL, the employer must repeat such monitoring within three months of the most recent 8-hour TWA exposure monitoring.

(vii) Where the most recent (non-initial) exposure monitoring indicates that airborne exposure is below the action level, the employer must repeat such monitoring within six months of the most recent monitoring until two consecutive measurements, taken 7 or more days apart, are below the action level, at which time the employer may discontinue 8-hour TWA exposure monitoring for those employees whose exposure is represented by such monitoring, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(4) of this standard.

(viii) Where the most recent exposure monitoring indicates that airborne exposure is above the STEL, the employer must repeat such monitoring within three months of the most recent short-term exposure monitoring until two consecutive measurements, taken 7 or more days apart, are below the STEL, at which time the employer may discontinue short-term exposure monitoring for those employees whose exposure is represented by such monitoring, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(4) of this standard.

(4) Reassessment of exposure. The employer must reassess airborne exposure whenever a change in the production, process, control equipment, personnel, or work practices may reasonably be expected to result in new or additional airborne exposure at or above the action level or STEL, or when the employer has any reason to believe that new or additional airborne exposure at or above the action level or STEL has occurred.

(5) Methods of sample analysis. The employer must ensure that all air monitoring samples used to satisfy the monitoring requirements of paragraph (d) of this standard are evaluated by a laboratory that can measure beryllium to an accuracy of plus or minus 25 percent within a statistical confidence level of 95 percent for airborne concentrations at or above the action level.

(6) Employee notification of assessment results.

(i) Within 15 working days after completing an exposure assessment in accordance with paragraph (d) of this standard, the employer must notify each employee whose airborne exposure is represented by the assessment of the results of that assessment individually in writing or post the results in an appropriate location that is accessible to each of these employees.

(ii) Whenever an exposure assessment indicates that airborne exposure is above the TWA PEL or STEL, the employer must describe in the written notification the corrective action being taken to reduce airborne exposure to or below the exposure limit(s) exceeded where feasible corrective action exists but had not been implemented when the monitoring was conducted.

(7) Observation of monitoring.

(i) The employer must provide an opportunity to observe any exposure monitoring required by this standard to each employee whose airborne exposure is measured or represented by the monitoring and each employee's representative(s).

(ii) When observation of monitoring requires entry into an area where the use of personal protective clothing or equipment (which may include respirators) is required, the employer must provide each observer with appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment at no cost to the observer and must ensure that each observer uses such clothing and equipment.

(iii) The employer must ensure that each observer follows all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(e) Beryllium work areas and regulated areas -

(1) Establishment.

(i) The employer must establish and maintain a beryllium work area wherever the criteria for a “beryllium work area” set forth in paragraph (b) of this standard are met.

(ii) The employer must establish and maintain a regulated area wherever employees are, or can reasonably be expected to be, exposed to airborne beryllium at levels above the TWA PEL or STEL.

(2) Demarcation.

(i) The employer must identify each beryllium work area through signs or any other methods that adequately establish and inform each employee of the boundaries of each beryllium work area.

(ii) The employer must identify each regulated area in accordance with paragraph (m)(2) of this standard.

(3) Access. The employer must limit access to regulated areas to:

(i) Persons the employer authorizes or requires to be in a regulated area to perform work duties;

(ii) Persons entering a regulated area as designated representatives of employees for the purpose of exercising the right to observe exposure monitoring procedures under paragraph (d)(7) of this standard; and

(iii) Persons authorized by law to be in a regulated area.

(4) Provision of personal protective clothing and equipment, including respirators. The employer must provide and ensure that each employee entering a regulated area uses:

(i) Respiratory protection in accordance with paragraph (g) of this standard; and

(ii) Personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance with paragraph (h) of this standard.

(f) Methods of compliance -

(1) Written exposure control plan.

(i) The employer must establish, implement, and maintain a written exposure control plan, which must contain:

(A) A list of operations and job titles reasonably expected to involve airborne exposure to or dermal contact with beryllium;

(B) A list of operations and job titles reasonably expected to involve airborne exposure at or above the action level;

(C) A list of operations and job titles reasonably expected to involve airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL;

(D) Procedures for minimizing cross-contamination, including the transfer of beryllium between surfaces, equipment, clothing, materials, and articles within beryllium work areas;

(E) Procedures for keeping surfaces as free as practicable of beryllium;

(F) Procedures for minimizing the migration of beryllium from beryllium work areas to other locations within or outside the workplace;

(G) A list of engineering controls, work practices, and respiratory protection required by paragraph (f)(2) of this standard;

(H) A list of personal protective clothing and equipment required by paragraph (h) of this standard; and

(I) Procedures for removing, laundering, storing, cleaning, repairing, and disposing of beryllium-contaminated personal protective clothing and equipment, including respirators.

(ii) The employer must review and evaluate the effectiveness of each written exposure control plan at least annually and update it, as necessary, when:

(A) Any change in production processes, materials, equipment, personnel, work practices, or control methods results, or can reasonably be expected to result, in new or additional airborne exposure to beryllium;

(B) The employer is notified that an employee is eligible for medical removal in accordance with paragraph (l)(1) of this standard, referred for evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center, or shows signs or symptoms associated with exposure to beryllium; or

(C) The employer has any reason to believe that new or additional airborne exposure is occurring or will occur.

(iii) The employer must make a copy of the written exposure control plan accessible to each employee who is, or can reasonably be expected to be, exposed to airborne beryllium in accordance with OSHA's Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records (Records Access) standard (§ 1910.1020(e)).

(2) Engineering and work practice controls.

(i) The employer must use engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee airborne exposure to beryllium to or below the PEL and STEL, unless the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible. Wherever the employer demonstrates that it is not feasible to reduce airborne exposure to or below the PELs with engineering and work practice controls, the employer must implement and maintain engineering and work practice controls to reduce airborne exposure to the lowest levels feasible and supplement these controls using respiratory protection in accordance with paragraph (g) of this standard.

(ii) For each operation in a beryllium work area that releases airborne beryllium, the employer must ensure that at least one of the following is in place to reduce airborne exposure:

(A) Material and/or process substitution;

(B) Isolation, such as ventilated partial or full enclosures;

(C) Local exhaust ventilation, such as at the points of operation, material handling, and transfer; or

(D) Process control, such as wet methods and automation.

(iii) An employer is exempt from using the controls listed in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this standard to the extent that:

(A) The employer can establish that such controls are not feasible; or

(B) The employer can demonstrate that airborne exposure is below the action level, using no fewer than two representative personal breathing zone samples taken at least 7 days apart, for each affected operation.

(3) Prohibition of rotation. The employer must not rotate employees to different jobs to achieve compliance with the PELs.

(g) Respiratory protection -

(1) General. The employer must provide respiratory protection at no cost to the employee and ensure that each employee uses respiratory protection:

(i) During periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls where airborne exposure exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL;

(ii) During operations, including maintenance and repair activities and non-routine tasks, when engineering and work practice controls are not feasible and airborne exposure exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL;

(iii) During operations for which an employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work practice controls when such controls are not sufficient to reduce airborne exposure to or below the TWA PEL or STEL;

(iv) During emergencies; and

(v) When an employee who is eligible for medical removal under paragraph (l)(1) chooses to remain in a job with airborne exposure at or above the action level, as permitted by paragraph (l)(2)(ii) of this standard.

(2) Respiratory protection program. Where this standard requires an employer to provide respiratory protection, the selection and use of such respiratory protection must be in accordance with the Respiratory Protection standard (§ 1910.134).

(3) The employer must provide at no cost to the employee a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative pressure respirator when:

(i) Respiratory protection is required by this standard;

(ii) An employee entitled to such respiratory protection requests a PAPR; and

(iii) The PAPR provides adequate protection to the employee in accordance with paragraph (g)(2) of this standard.

(h) Personal protective clothing and equipment -

(1) Provision and use. The employer must provide at no cost, and ensure that each employee uses, appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance with the written exposure control plan required under paragraph (f)(1) of this standard and OSHA's Personal Protective Equipment standards (subpart I of this part):

(i) Where airborne exposure exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL; or

(ii) Where there is a reasonable expectation of dermal contact with beryllium.

(2) Removal and storage.

(i) The employer must ensure that each employee removes all beryllium-contaminated personal protective clothing and equipment at the end of the work shift, at the completion of all tasks involving beryllium, or when personal protective clothing or equipment becomes visibly contaminated with beryllium, whichever comes first.

(ii) The employer must ensure that each employee removes beryllium-contaminated personal protective clothing and equipment as specified in the written exposure control plan required by paragraph (f)(1) of this standard.

(iii) The employer must ensure that each employee stores and keeps beryllium-contaminated personal protective clothing and equipment separate from street clothing and that storage facilities prevent cross-contamination as specified in the written exposure control plan required by paragraph (f)(1) of this standard.

(iv) The employer must ensure that no employee removes beryllium-contaminated personal protective clothing or equipment from the workplace, except for employees authorized to do so for the purposes of laundering, cleaning, maintaining or disposing of beryllium-contaminated personal protective clothing and equipment at an appropriate location or facility away from the workplace.

(v) When personal protective clothing or equipment required by this standard is removed from the workplace for laundering, cleaning, maintenance or disposal, the employer must ensure that personal protective clothing and equipment are stored and transported in sealed bags or other closed containers that are impermeable and are labeled in accordance with paragraph (m)(3) of this standard and the HCS (§ 1910.1200).

(3) Cleaning and replacement.

(i) The employer must ensure that all reusable personal protective clothing and equipment required by this standard is cleaned, laundered, repaired, and replaced as needed to maintain its effectiveness.

(ii) The employer must ensure that beryllium is not removed from beryllium-contaminated personal protective clothing and equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means that disperses beryllium into the air.

(iii) The employer must inform in writing the persons or the business entities who launder, clean, or repair the personal protective clothing or equipment required by this standard of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to beryllium and that the personal protective clothing and equipment must be handled in accordance with this standard.

(i) Hygiene areas and practices -

(1) General. For each employee working in a beryllium work area or who can reasonably be expected to have dermal contact with beryllium, the employer must:

(i) Provide readily accessible washing facilities in accordance with this standard and the Sanitation standard (§ 1910.141) to remove beryllium from the hands, face, and neck; and

(ii) Ensure that employees who have dermal contact with beryllium wash any exposed skin at the end of the activity, process, or work shift and prior to eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, applying cosmetics, or using the toilet.

(2) Change rooms. In addition to the requirements of paragraph (i)(1)(i) of this standard, the employer must provide employees who are required to use personal protective clothing or equipment under paragraph (h)(1)(ii) of this standard with a designated change room in accordance with this standard and the Sanitation standard (§ 1910.141) where employees are required to remove their personal clothing.

(3) Showers.

(i) The employer must provide showers in accordance with the Sanitation standard (§ 1910.141) where:

(A) Airborne exposure exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL; and

(B) Employee's hair or body parts other than hands, face, and neck can reasonably be expected to become contaminated with beryllium.

(ii) Employers required to provide showers under paragraph (i)(3)(i) of this standard must ensure that each employee showers at the end of the work shift or work activity if:

(A) The employee reasonably could have had airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL; and

(B) The employee's hair or body parts other than hands, face, and neck could reasonably have become contaminated with beryllium.

(4) Eating and drinking areas. Wherever the employer allows employees to consume food or beverages at a worksite where beryllium is present, the employer must ensure that:

(i) Beryllium-contaminated surfaces in eating and drinking areas are as free as practicable of beryllium;

(ii) No employees enter any eating or drinking area with beryllium-contaminated personal protective clothing or equipment unless, prior to entry, it is cleaned, as necessary, to be as free as practicable of beryllium by methods that do not disperse beryllium into the air or onto an employee's body; and

(iii) Eating and drinking facilities provided by the employer are in accordance with the Sanitation standard (§ 1910.141).

(5) Prohibited activities. The employer must ensure that no employees eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in regulated areas.

(j) Housekeeping -

(1) General.

(i) The employer must maintain all surfaces in beryllium work areas and regulated areas as free as practicable of beryllium and in accordance with the written exposure control plan required under paragraph (f)(1) and the cleaning methods required under paragraph (j)(2) of this standard; and

(ii) The employer must ensure that all spills and emergency releases of beryllium are cleaned up promptly and in accordance with the written exposure control plan required under paragraph (f)(1) and the cleaning methods required under paragraph (j)(2) of this standard.

(2) Cleaning methods.

(i) The employer must ensure that surfaces in beryllium work areas and regulated areas are cleaned by HEPA-filtered vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood and level of airborne exposure.

(ii) The employer must not allow dry sweeping or brushing for cleaning surfaces in beryllium work areas or regulated areas unless HEPA-filtered vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood and level of airborne exposure are not safe or effective.

(iii) The employer must not allow the use of compressed air for cleaning beryllium-contaminated surfaces unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system designed to capture the particulates made airborne by the use of compressed air.

(iv) Where employees use dry sweeping, brushing, or compressed air to clean beryllium-contaminated surfaces, the employer must provide, and ensure that each employee uses, respiratory protection and personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance with paragraphs (g) and (h) of this standard.

(v) The employer must ensure that cleaning equipment is handled and maintained in a manner that minimizes the likelihood and level of airborne exposure and the re-entrainment of airborne beryllium in the workplace.

(3) Disposal, recycling, and reuse.

(i) Except for intra-plant transfers, when the employer transfers materials that contain at least 0.1 percent beryllium by weight or are contaminated with beryllium for disposal, recycling, or reuse, the employer must label the materials in accordance with paragraph (m)(3) of this standard;

(ii) Except for intra-plant transfers, materials designated for disposal that contain at least 0.1 percent beryllium by weight or are contaminated with beryllium must be cleaned to be as free as practicable of beryllium or placed in enclosures that prevent the release of beryllium-containing particulate or solutions under normal conditions of use, storage, or transport, such as bags or containers; and

(iii) Except for intra-plant transfers, materials designated for recycling or reuse that contain at least 0.1 percent beryllium by weight or are contaminated with beryllium must be cleaned to be as free as practicable of beryllium or placed in enclosures that prevent the release of beryllium-containing particulate or solutions under normal conditions of use, storage, or transport, such as bags or containers.

(k) Medical surveillance -

(1) General.

(i) The employer must make medical surveillance required by this paragraph available at no cost to the employee, and at a reasonable time and place, to each employee:

(A) Who is or is reasonably expected to be exposed at or above the action level for more than 30 days per year;

(B) Who shows signs or symptoms of CBD or other beryllium-related health effects;

(C) Who is exposed to beryllium during an emergency; or

(D) Whose most recent written medical opinion required by paragraph (k)(6) or (k)(7) of this standard recommends periodic medical surveillance.

(ii) The employer must ensure that all medical examinations and procedures required by this standard are performed by, or under the direction of, a licensed physician.

(2) Frequency. The employer must provide a medical examination:

(i) Within 30 days after determining that:

(A) An employee meets the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(A), unless the employee has received a medical examination, provided in accordance with this standard, within the last two years; or

(B) An employee meets the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(B) of this standard.

(ii) At least every two years thereafter for each employee who continues to meet the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(A), (B), or (D) of this standard.

(iii) At the termination of employment for each employee who meets any of the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this standard at the time the employee's employment terminates, unless an examination has been provided in accordance with this standard during the six months prior to the date of termination. Each employee who meets the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(C) of this standard and who has not received an examination since exposure to beryllium during the emergency must be provided an examination at the time the employee's employment terminates.

(iv) For an employee who meets the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(C) of this standard:

(A) If that employee has not received a medical examination within the previous two years pursuant to paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this standard, then within 30 days after the employee meets the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(C) of this standard; or

(B) If that employee has received a medical examination within the previous two years pursuant to paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this standard, then at least one year but no more than two years after the employee meets the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(C) of this standard.

(3) Contents of examination.

(i) The employer must ensure that the PLHCP conducting the examination advises the employee of the risks and benefits of participating in the medical surveillance program and the employee's right to opt out of any or all parts of the medical examination.

(ii) The employer must ensure that the employee is offered a medical examination that includes:

(A) A medical and work history, with emphasis on past and present airborne exposure to or dermal contact with beryllium, smoking history, and any history of respiratory system dysfunction;

(B) A physical examination with emphasis on the respiratory system;

(C) A physical examination for skin rashes;

(D) Pulmonary function tests, performed in accordance with the guidelines established by the American Thoracic Society including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1);

(E) A standardized BeLPT or equivalent test, upon the first examination and at least every two years thereafter, unless the employee is confirmed positive. If the results of the BeLPT are other than normal, a follow-up BeLPT must be offered within 30 days, unless the employee has been confirmed positive. Samples must be analyzed in a laboratory certified under the College of American Pathologists/Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) guidelines to perform the BeLPT.

(F) A low dose computed tomography (LDCT) scan, when recommended by the PLHCP after considering the employee's history of exposure to beryllium along with other risk factors, such as smoking history, family medical history, sex, age, and presence of existing lung disease; and

(G) Any other test deemed appropriate by the PLHCP.

(4) Information provided to the PLHCP. The employer must ensure that the examining PLHCP (and the agreed-upon CBD diagnostic center, if an evaluation is required under paragraph (k)(7) of this standard) has a copy of this standard and must provide the following information, if known:

(i) A description of the employee's former and current duties that relate to the employee's airborne exposure to and dermal contact with beryllium;

(ii) The employee's former and current levels of airborne exposure;

(iii) A description of any personal protective clothing and equipment, including respirators, used by the employee, including when and for how long the employee has used that personal protective clothing and equipment; and

(iv) Information from records of employment-related medical examinations previously provided to the employee, currently within the control of the employer, after obtaining written consent from the employee.

(5) Licensed physician's written medical report for the employee. The employer must ensure that the employee receives a written medical report from the licensed physician within 45 days of the examination (including any follow-up BeLPT required under paragraph (k)(3)(ii)(E) of this standard) and that the PLHCP explains the results of the examination to the employee. The written medical report must contain:

(i) A statement indicating the results of the medical examination, including the licensed physician's opinion as to whether the employee has:

(A) Any detected medical condition, such as CBD or beryllium sensitization (i.e., the employee is confirmed positive, as defined in paragraph (b) of this standard), that may place the employee at increased risk from further airborne exposure, and

(B) Any medical conditions related to airborne exposure that require further evaluation or treatment.

(ii) Any recommendations on:

(A) The employee's use of respirators, protective clothing, or equipment; or

(B) Limitations on the employee's airborne exposure to beryllium.

(iii) If the employee is confirmed positive or diagnosed with CBD or if the licensed physician otherwise deems it appropriate, the written report must also contain a referral for an evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center.

(iv) If the employee is confirmed positive or diagnosed with CBD the written report must also contain a recommendation for continued periodic medical surveillance.

(v) If the employee is confirmed positive or diagnosed with CBD the written report must also contain a recommendation for medical removal from airborne exposure to beryllium, as described in paragraph (l) of this standard.

(6) Licensed physician's written medical opinion for the employer.

(i) The employer must obtain a written medical opinion from the licensed physician within 45 days of the medical examination (including any follow-up BeLPT required under paragraph (k)(3)(ii)(E) of this standard). The written medical opinion must contain only the following:

(A) The date of the examination;

(B) A statement that the examination has met the requirements of this standard;

(C) Any recommended limitations on the employee's use of respirators, protective clothing, or equipment; and

(D) A statement that the PLHCP has explained the results of the medical examination to the employee, including any tests conducted, any medical conditions related to airborne exposure that require further evaluation or treatment, and any special provisions for use of personal protective clothing or equipment;

(ii) If the employee provides written authorization, the written opinion must also contain any recommended limitations on the employee's airborne exposure to beryllium.

(iii) If the employee is confirmed positive or diagnosed with CBD or if the licensed physician otherwise deems it appropriate, and the employee provides written authorization, the written opinion must also contain a referral for an evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center.

(iv) If the employee is confirmed positive or diagnosed with CBD and the employee provides written authorization, the written opinion must also contain a recommendation for continued periodic medical surveillance.

(v) If the employee is confirmed positive or diagnosed with CBD and the employee provides written authorization, the written opinion must also contain a recommendation for medical removal from airborne exposure to beryllium, as described in paragraph (l) of this standard.

(vi) The employer must ensure that each employee receives a copy of the written medical opinion described in paragraph (k)(6) of this standard within 45 days of any medical examination (including any follow-up BeLPT required under paragraph (k)(3)(ii)(E) of this standard) performed for that employee.

(7) CBD diagnostic center.

(i) The employer must provide an evaluation at no cost to the employee at a CBD diagnostic center that is mutually agreed upon by the employer and the employee. The evaluation at the CBD diagnostic center must be scheduled within 30 days, and must occur within a reasonable time, of:

(A) The employer's receipt of a physician's written medical opinion to the employer that recommends referral to a CBD diagnostic center; or

(B) The employee presenting to the employer a physician's written medical report indicating that the employee has been confirmed positive or diagnosed with CBD, or recommending referral to a CBD diagnostic center.

(ii) The employer must ensure that, as part of the evaluation, the employee is offered any tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician at the CBD diagnostic center, such as pulmonary function testing (as outlined by the American Thoracic Society criteria), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial biopsy. If any of the tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician are not available at the CBD diagnostic center, they may be performed at another location that is mutually agreed upon by the employer and the employee.

(iii) The employer must ensure that the employee receives a written medical report from the CBD diagnostic center that contains all the information required in paragraph (k)(5)(i), (ii), (iv), and (v) of this standard and that the PLHCP explains the results of the examination to the employee within 30 days of the examination.

(iv) The employer must obtain a written medical opinion from the CBD diagnostic center within 30 days of the medical examination. The written medical opinion must contain only the information in paragraph (k)(6)(i), as applicable, unless the employee provides written authorization to release additional information. If the employee provides written authorization, the written opinion must also contain the information from paragraphs (k)(6)(ii), (iv), and (v), if applicable.

(v) The employer must ensure that each employee receives a copy of the written medical opinion from the CBD diagnostic center described in paragraph (k)(7) of this standard within 30 days of any medical examination performed for that employee.

(vi) After an employee has received the initial clinical evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center described in paragraphs (k)(7)(i) and (ii) of this standard, the employee may choose to have any subsequent medical examinations for which the employee is eligible under paragraph (k) of this standard performed at a CBD diagnostic center mutually agreed upon by the employer and the employee, and the employer must provide such examinations at no cost to the employee.

(l) Medical removal.

(1) An employee is eligible for medical removal, if the employee works in a job with airborne exposure at or above the action level and either:

(i) The employee provides the employer with:

(A) A written medical report indicating a confirmed positive finding or CBD diagnosis; or

(B) A written medical report recommending removal from airborne exposure to beryllium in accordance with paragraph (k)(5)(v) or (k)(7)(iii) of this standard; or

(ii) The employer receives a written medical opinion recommending removal from airborne exposure to beryllium in accordance with paragraph (k)(6)(v) or (k)(7)(iv) of this standard.

(2) If an employee is eligible for medical removal, the employer must provide the employee with the employee's choice of:

(i) Removal as described in paragraph (l)(3) of this standard; or

(ii) Remaining in a job with airborne exposure at or above the action level, provided that the employer provides, and ensures that the employee uses, respiratory protection that complies with paragraph (g) of this standard whenever airborne exposures are at or above the action level.

(3) If the employee chooses removal:

(i) If a comparable job is available where airborne exposures to beryllium are below the action level, and the employee is qualified for that job or can be trained within one month, the employer must remove the employee to that job. The employer must maintain for six months from the time of removal the employee's base earnings, seniority, and other rights and benefits that existed at the time of removal.

(ii) If comparable work is not available, the employer must maintain the employee's base earnings, seniority, and other rights and benefits that existed at the time of removal for six months or until such time that comparable work described in paragraph (l)(3)(i) becomes available, whichever comes first.

(4) The employer's obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to a removed employee shall be reduced to the extent that the employee receives compensation for earnings lost during the period of removal from a publicly or employer-funded compensation program, or receives income from another employer made possible by virtue of the employee's removal.

(m) Communication of hazards -

(1) General.

(i) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors, and employers must comply with all requirements of the HCS (§ 1910.1200) for beryllium.

(ii) In classifying the hazards of beryllium, at least the following hazards must be addressed: Cancer; lung effects (CBD and acute beryllium disease); beryllium sensitization; skin sensitization; and skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritation.

(iii) Employers must include beryllium in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS. Employers must ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of beryllium and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of the HCS (§ 1910.1200) and paragraph (m)(4) of this standard.

(2) Warning signs.

(i) Posting. The employer must provide and display warning signs at each approach to a regulated area so that each employee is able to read and understand the signs and take necessary protective steps before entering the area.

(ii) Sign specification.

(A) The employer must ensure that the warning signs required by paragraph (m)(2)(i) of this standard are legible and readily visible.

(B) The employer must ensure each warning sign required by paragraph (m)(2)(i) of this standard bears the following legend:

DANGER

REGULATED AREA

BERYLLIUM

MAY CAUSE CANCER

CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT IN THIS AREA

(3) Warning labels. Consistent with the HCS (§ 1910.1200), the employer must label each immediate container of clothing, equipment, and materials contaminated with beryllium, and must, at a minimum, include the following on the label:

DANGER

CONTAINS BERYLLIUM

MAY CAUSE CANCER

CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS

AVOID CREATING DUST

DO NOT GET ON SKIN

(4) Employee information and training.

(i) For each employee who has, or can reasonably be expected to have, airborne exposure to or dermal contact with beryllium:

(A) The employer must provide information and training in accordance with the HCS (§ 1910.1200(h));

(B) The employer must provide initial training to each employee by the time of initial assignment; and

(C) The employer must repeat the training required under this standard annually for each employee.

(ii) The employer must ensure that each employee who is, or can reasonably be expected to be, exposed to airborne beryllium can demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the following:

(A) The health hazards associated with airborne exposure to and dermal contact with beryllium, including the signs and symptoms of CBD;

(B) The written exposure control plan, with emphasis on the location(s) of beryllium work areas, including any regulated areas, and the specific nature of operations that could result in airborne exposure, especially airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL;

(C) The purpose, proper selection, fitting, proper use, and limitations of personal protective clothing and equipment, including respirators;

(D) Applicable emergency procedures;

(E) Measures employees can take to protect themselves from airborne exposure to and dermal contact with beryllium, including personal hygiene practices;

(F) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by paragraph (k) of this standard including risks and benefits of each test to be offered;

(G) The purpose and a description of the medical removal protection provided under paragraph (l) of this standard;

(H) The contents of the standard; and

(I) The employee's right of access to records under the Records Access standard (§ 1910.1020).

(iii) When a workplace change (such as modification of equipment, tasks, or procedures) results in new or increased airborne exposure that exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, either the TWA PEL or the STEL, the employer must provide additional training to those employees affected by the change in airborne exposure.

(iv) Employee information. The employer must make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available at no cost to each employee and designated employee representative(s).

(n) Recordkeeping -

(1) Air monitoring data.

(i) The employer must make and maintain a record of all exposure measurements taken to assess airborne exposure as prescribed in paragraph (d) of this standard.

(ii) This record must include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement for each sample taken;

(B) The task that is being monitored;

(C) The sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) The number, duration, and results of samples taken;

(E) The type of personal protective clothing and equipment, including respirators, worn by monitored employees at the time of monitoring; and

(F) The name and job classification of each employee represented by the monitoring, indicating which employees were actually monitored.

(iii) The employer must ensure that exposure records are maintained and made available in accordance with the Records Access standard (§ 1910.1020).

(2) Objective data.

(i) Where an employer uses objective data to satisfy the exposure assessment requirements under paragraph (d)(2) of this standard, the employer must make and maintain a record of the objective data relied upon.

(ii) This record must include at least the following information:

(A) The data relied upon;

(B) The beryllium-containing material in question;

(C) The source of the objective data;

(D) A description of the process, task, or activity on which the objective data were based; and

(E) Other data relevant to the process, task, activity, material, or airborne exposure on which the objective data were based.

(iii) The employer must ensure that objective data are maintained and made available in accordance with the Records Access standard (§ 1910.1020).

(3) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer must make and maintain a record for each employee covered by medical surveillance under paragraph (k) of this standard.

(ii) The record must include the following information about each employee:

(A) Name and job classification;

(B) A copy of all licensed physicians' written medical opinions for each employee; and

(C) A copy of the information provided to the PLHCP as required by paragraph (k)(4) of this standard.

(iii) The employer must ensure that medical records are maintained and made available in accordance with the Records Access standard (§ 1910.1020).

(4) Training.

(i) At the completion of any training required by this standard, the employer must prepare a record that indicates the name and job classification of each employee trained, the date the training was completed, and the topic of the training.

(ii) This record must be maintained for three years after the completion of training.

(5) Access to records. Upon request, the employer must make all records maintained as a requirement of this standard available for examination and copying to the Assistant Secretary, the Director, each employee, and each employee's designated representative(s) in accordance the Records Access standard (§ 1910.1020).

(6) Transfer of records. The employer must comply with the requirements involving transfer of records set forth in the Records Access standard (§ 1910.1020).

(o) Dates -

(1) Effective date. This standard shall become effective March 10, 2017.

(2) Compliance dates.

(i) Obligations contained in paragraphs (c), (d), (g), (k), and (l) of this standard: March 12, 2018;

(ii) Change rooms and showers required by paragraph (i) of this standard: March 11, 2019;

(iii) Engineering controls required by paragraph (f) of this standard: March 10, 2020; and

(iv) All other obligations of this standard: December 12, 2018.

(p) Appendix. Table A.1 in this appendix sets forth the operations that, where performed under the circumstances described in the column heading above the particular operations, trigger the requirement for a beryllium work area.