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Title 29

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PART 1910 - OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS
Source:

39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A - General
Authority:

29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Order Numbers 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736),1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), 4-2010 (75 FR 55355), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable.

Sections 1910.6, 1910.7, 1910.8 and 1910.9 also issued under 29 CFR 1911. Section 1910.7(f) also issued under 31 U.S.C. 9701; 29 U.S.C. 9a; 5 U.S.C. 553; Public Law 106-113 (113 Stat. 1501A-222); Public Law 11-8 and 111-317; and OMB Circular A-25 (dated July 8, 1993) (58 FR 38142, July 15, 1993).

§ 1910.1 Purpose and scope.

(a) Section 6(a) of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1593) provides that “without regard to chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, or to the other subsections of this section, the Secretary shall, as soon as practicable during the period beginning with the effective date of this Act and ending 2 years after such date, by rule promulgate as an occupational safety or health standard any national concensus standard, and any established Federal standard, unless he determines that the promulgation of such a standard would not result in improved safety or health for specifically designated employees.” The legislative purpose of this provision is to establish, as rapidly as possible and without regard to the rule-making provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act, standards with which industries are generally familiar, and on whose adoption interested and affected persons have already had an opportunity to express their views. Such standards are either

(1) national concensus standards on whose adoption affected persons have reached substantial agreement, or

(2) Federal standards already established by Federal statutes or regulations.

(b) This part carries out the directive to the Secretary of Labor under section 6(a) of the Act. It contains occupational safety and health standards which have been found to be national consensus standards or established Federal standards.

§ 1910.2 Definitions.

As used in this part, unless the context clearly requires otherwise:

(a) Act means the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1590).

(b) Assistant Secretary of Labor means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health;

(c) Employer means a person engaged in a business affecting commerce who has employees, but does not include the United States or any State or political subdivision of a State;

(d) Employee means an employee of an employer who is employed in a business of his employer which affects commerce;

(e) Commerce means trade, traffic, commerce, transportation, or communication among the several States, or between a State and any place outside thereof, or within the District of Columbia, or a possession of the United States (other than the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands), or between points in the same State but through a point outside thereof;

(f) Standard means a standard which requires conditions, or the adoption or use of one or more practices, means, methods, operations, or processes, reasonably necessary or appropriate to provide safe or healthful employment and places of employment;

(g) National consensus standard means any standard or modification thereof which

(1) has been adopted and promulgated by a nationally recognized standards-producing organization under procedures whereby it can be determined by the Secretary of Labor or by the Assistant Secretary of Labor that persons interested and affected by the scope or provisions of the standard have reached substantial agreement on its adoption,

(2) was formulated in a manner which afforded an opportunity for diverse views to be considered, and

(3) has been designated as such a standard by the Secretary or the Assistant Secretary, after consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies; and

(h) Established Federal standard means any operative standard established by any agency of the United States and in effect on April 28, 1971, or contained in any Act of Congress in force on the date of enactment of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act.

§ 1910.3 Petitions for the issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard.

(a) Any interested person may petition in writing the Assistant Secretary of Labor to promulgate, modify, or revoke a standard. The petition should set forth the terms or the substance of the rule desired, the effects thereof if promulgated, and the reasons therefor.

(b)

(1) The relevant legislative history of the Act indicates congressional recognition of the American National Standards Institute and the National Fire Protection Association as the major sources of national consensus standards. National consensus standards adopted on May 29, 1971, pursuant to section 6(a) of the Act are from those two sources. However, any organization which deems itself a producer of national consensus standards, within the meaning of section 3(9) of the Act, is invited to submit in writing to the Assistant Secretary of Labor at any time prior to February 1, 1973, all relevant information which may enable the Assistant Secretary to determine whether any of its standards satisfy the requirements of the definition of “national consensus standard” in section 3(9) of the Act.

(2) Within a reasonable time after the receipt of a submission pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the Assistant Secretary of Labor shall publish or cause to be published in the Federal Register a notice of such submission, and shall afford interested persons a reasonable opportunity to present written data, views, or arguments with regard to the question whether any standards of the organization making the submission are national consensus standards.

§ 1910.4 Amendments to this part.

(a) The Assistant Secretary of Labor shall have all of the authority of the Secretary of Labor under sections 3(9) and 6(a) of the Act.

(b) The Assistant Secretary of Labor may at any time before April 28, 1973, on his own motion or upon the written petition of any person, by rule promulgate as a standard any national consensus standard and any established Federal standard, pursuant to and in accordance with section 6(a) of the Act, and, in addition, may modify or revoke any standard in this part 1910. In the event of conflict among any such standards, the Assistant Secretary of Labor shall take the action necessary to eliminate the conflict, including the revocation or modification of a standard in this part, so as to assure the greatest protection of the safety or health of the affected employees.

§ 1910.5 Applicability of standards.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the standards contained in this Part shall apply with respect to employments performed in a workplace in a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Wake Island, Outer Continental Shelf lands defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, and Johnston Island.

(b) None of the standards in this part shall apply to working conditions of employees with respect to which Federal agencies other than the Department of Labor, or State agencies acting under section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2021), exercise statutory authority to prescribe or enforce standards or regulations affecting occupational safety or health.

(c)

(1) If a particular standard is specifically applicable to a condition, practice, means, method, operation, or process, it shall prevail over any different general standard which might otherwise be applicable to the same condition, practice, means, method, operation, or process. For example, § 1915.23(c)(3) of this title prescribes personal protective equipment for certain ship repairmen working in specified areas. Such a standard shall apply, and shall not be deemed modified nor superseded by any different general standard whose provisions might otherwise be applicable, to the ship repairmen working in the areas specified in § 1915.23(c)(3).

(2) On the other hand, any standard shall apply according to its terms to any employment and place of employment in any industry, even though particular standards are also prescribed for the industry, as in subpart B or subpart R of this part, to the extent that none of such particular standards applies. To illustrate, the general standard regarding noise exposure in § 1910.95 applies to employments and places of employment in pulp, paper, and paperboard mills covered by § 1910.261.

(d) In the event a standard protects on its face a class of persons larger than employees, the standard shall be applicable under this part only to employees and their employment and places of employment.

(e) [Reserved]

(f) An employer who is in compliance with any standard in this part shall be deemed to be in compliance with the requirement of section 5(a)(1) of the Act, but only to the extent of the condition, practice, means, method, operation, or process covered by the standard.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 58 FR 35308, June 30, 1993; 85 FR 8732, Feb. 18, 2020]

§ 1910.6 Incorporation by reference.

(a)

(1) The standards of agencies of the U.S. Government, and organizations which are not agencies of the U.S. Government which are incorporated by reference in this part, have the same force and effect as other standards in this part. Only the mandatory provisions (i.e., provisions containing the word “shall” or other mandatory language) of standards incorporated by reference are adopted as standards under the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

(2) Any changes in the standards incorporated by reference in this part and an official historic file of such changes are available for inspection in the Docket Office at the national office of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210; telephone: 202-693-2350 (TTY number: 877-889-5627).

(3) The standards listed in this section are incorporated by reference into this part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, OSHA must publish a document in the Federal Register and the material must be available to the public.

(4) Copies of standards listed in this section and issued by private standards organizations are available for purchase from the issuing organizations at the addresses or through the other contact information listed below for these private standards organizations. In addition, these standards are available for inspection at any Regional Office of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), or at the OSHA Docket Office, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Room N-3508, Washington, DC 20210; telephone: 202-693-2350 (TTY number: 877-889-5627). They are also available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of these standards at NARA, telephone: 202-741-6030, or go to www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html.

(b) The following material is available for purchase from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 1014 Broadway, Cincinnati OH 45202:

(1) “Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice” (22nd ed., 1995), incorporation by reference (IBR) approved for § 1910.124(b)(4)(iii).

(2) Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1986-87 (1986), IBR approved for § 1910.120, PEL definition.

(c) The following material is available for purchase from the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE), 2950 Niles Road, Post Office Box 229, St. Joseph, MI 49085:

(1) ASAE Emblem for Identifying Slow Moving Vehicles, ASAE S276.2 (1968), IBR approved for § 1910.145(d)(10).

(2) [Reserved]

(d) The following material is available for purchase from the Agriculture Ammonia Institute-Rubber Manufacturers (AAI-RMA) Association, 1400 K St. NW, Washington DC 20005:

(1) AAI-RMA Specifications for Anhydrous Ammonia Hose, IBR approved for § 1910.111(b)(8)(i).

(2) [Reserved]

(e) Except as noted, copies of the standards listed below in this paragraph are available for purchase from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 West 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: 212-642-4900; fax: 212-398-0023; Web site: http://www.ansi.org.

(1-2) [Reserved]

(3) ANSI A11.1-65 (R 70) Practice for Industrial Lighting, IBR approved for §§ 1910.219(c)(5)(iii); 1910.261 (a)(3)(i), (c)(10), and (k)(21); and 1910.265(c)(2).

(4) ANSI A11.1-65 Practice for Industrial Lighting, IBR approved for §§ 1910.262(c)(6) and 1910.265(d)(2)(i)(a).

(5) [Reserved]

(6) ANSI A13.1-56 Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems, IBR approved for §§ 1910.253(d)(4)(ii); 1910.261(a)(3)(iii); 1910.262(c)(7).

(7) ANSI A14.1-68 Safety Code for Portable Wood Ladders, Supplemented by ANSI A14.1a-77, IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(iv) and (c)(3)(i).

(8) ANSI A14.2-56 Safety Code for Portable Metal Ladders, Supplemented by ANSI A14.2a-77, IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(v) and (c)(3)(i).

(9) ANSI A14.3-56 Safety Code for Fixed Ladders, IBR approved for §§ 1910.68(b)(4); and 1910.261 (a)(3)(vi) and (c)(3)(i).

(10) ANSI A17.1-65 Safety Code for Elevators, Dumbwaiters and Moving Walks, Including Supplements, A17.1a (1967); A17.1b (1968); A17.1c (1969); A17.1d (1970), IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(vii), (g)(11)(i), and (l)(4).

(11) ANSI A17.2-60 Practice for the Inspection of Elevators, Including Supplements, A17.2a (1965), A17.2b (1967), IBR approved for § 1910.261(a)(3)(viii).

(12) ANSI A90.1-69 Safety Standard for Manlifts, IBR approved for § 1910.68(b)(3).

(13) ANSI A92.2-69 Standard for Vehicle Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms, IBR approved for § 1910.67 (b)(1), (2), (c)(3), and (4) and 1910.268(s)(1)(v).

(14) ANSI A120.1-70 Safety Code for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance, IBR approved for § 1910.66 app. D (b) through (d).

(15) ANSI B7.1-70 Safety Code for the Use, Care and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, IBR approved for §§ 1910.215(b)(12) and 1910.218(j).

(16) ANSI B15.1-53 (R 58) Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus, IBR approved for §§ 1910.68(b)(4) and 1910.261 (a)(3)(ix), (b)(1), (e)(3), (e)(9), (f)(4), (j)(5)(iv), (k)(12), and (l)(3).

(17) ANSI B20.1-57 Safety Code for Conveyors, Cableways, and Related Equipment, IBR approved for §§ 1910.218(j)(3); 1910.261 (a)(3)(x), (b)(1), (c)(15)(iv), (f)(4), and (j)(2); 1910.265(c)(18)(i).

(18) ANSI B30.2-43 (R 52) Safety Code for Cranes, Derricks, and Hoists, IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(xi), (c)(2)(vi), and (c)(8) (i) and (iv).

(19) ANSI B30.2.0-67 Safety Code for Overhead and Gantry Cranes, IBR approved for §§ 1910.179(b)(2); 1910.261 (a)(3)(xii), (c)(2)(v), and (c)(8) (i) and (iv).

(20) ANSI B30.5-68 Safety Code for Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes, IBR approved for §§ 1910.180(b)(2) and 1910.261(a)(3)(xiii).

(21) ANSI B30.6-69 Safety Code for Derricks, IBR approved for §§ 1910.181(b)(2) and 1910.268(j)(4)(iv) (E) and (H).

(22) ANSI B31.1-55 Code for Pressure Piping, IBR approved for § 1910.261(g)(18)(iii).

(23) ANSI B31.1-67, IBR approved for § 1910.253(d)(1)(i)(A)

(24) ANSI B31.1a-63 Addenda to ANSI B31.1 (1955), IBR approved for § 1910.261(g)(18)(iii).

(25) ANSI B31.1-67 and Addenda B31.1 (1969) Code for Pressure Piping, IBR approved for §§ 1910.103(b)(1)(iii)(b); 1910.104(b)(5)(ii); 1910.218 (d)(4) and (e)(1)(iv); and 1910.261 (a)(3)(xiv) and (g)(18)(iii).

(26) ANSI B31.2-68 Fuel Gas Piping, IBR approved for § 1910.261(g)(18)(iii).

(27) ANSI B31.3-66 Petroleum Refinery Piping, IBR approved for § 1910.103(b)(3)(v)(b).

(28) ANSI B31.5-66 Addenda B31.5a (1968) Refrigeration Piping, IB approved for §§ 1910.103(b)(3)(v)(b) and 1910.111(b)(7)(iii).

(29) ANSI B56.1-69 Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks, IBR approved for §§ 1910.178(a) (2) and (3) and 1910.261 (a)(3)(xv), (b)(6), (m)(2), and (m)(5)(iii).

(30) ANSI B57.1-65 Compressed Gas Cylinder Valve Outlet and Inlet Connections, IBR approved for § 1910.253(b)(1)(iii).

(31) [Reserved]

(32) ANSI B175.1-1991, Safety Requirements for Gasoline-Powered Chain Saws 1910.266(e)(2)(i).

(33) [Reserved]

(34) ANSI C33.2-56 Safety Standard for Transformer-Type Arc Welding Machines, IBR approved for § 1910.254(b)(1).

(35) [Reserved]

(36) ANSI H23.1-70 Seamless Copper Water Tube Specification, IBR approved for § 1910.110(b) (8)(ii) and (13)(ii)(b)(1).

(37) ANSI H38.7-69 Specification for Aluminum Alloy Seamless Pipe and Seamless Extruded Tube, IBR approved for § 1910.110(b)(8)(i).

(38) ANSI J6.4-71 Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Blankets, IBR approved for § 1910.268 (f)(1) and (n)(11)(v).

(39) ANSI J6.6-71 Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves, IBR approved for § 1910.268 (f)(1) and (n)(11)(iv).

(40) ANSI K13.1-67 Identification of Gas Mask Canisters, IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(xvi) and (h)(2)(iii).

(41) ANSI K61.1-60 Safety Requirements for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, IBR approved for § 1910.111(b)(11)(i).

(42) ANSI K61.1-66 Safety Requirements for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, IBR approved for § 1910.111(b)(11)(i).

(43) ANSI O1.1-54 (R 61) Safety Code for Woodworking Machinery, IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(xvii), (e)(7), and (i)(2).

(44) ANSI S1.4-71 (R 76) Specification for Sound Level Meters, IBR approved for § 1910.95 appendixes D and I.

(45) ANSI S1.11-71 (R 76) Specification for Octave, Half-Octave and Third-Octave Band Filter Sets, IBR approved for § 1910.95 appendix D.

(46) ANSI S3.6-69 Specifications for Audiometers, IBR approved for § 1910.95(h)(2) and (5)(ii) and appendix D.

(47) ANSI Z4.1-68 Requirements for Sanitation in Places of Employment, IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(xviii) and (g)(15)(vi).

(48) [Reserved]

(49) ANSI Z9.1-51 Safety Code for Ventilation and Operation of Open Surface Tanks, IBR approved for 1910.261(a)(3)(xix), (g)(18)(v), and (h)(2)(i).

(50) ANSI Z9.1-71 Practices for Ventilation and Operation of Open-Surface Tanks, IBR approved for § 1910.124(b)(4)(iv).

(51) ANSI Z9.2-60 Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, IBR approved for §§ 1910.94(a)(4)(i) introductory text, (a)(6) introductory text, (b)(3)(ix), (b)(4)(i) and (ii), (c)(3)(i) introductory text, (c)(5)(iii)(b), and (c)(7)(iv)(a); 1910.261(a)(3)(xx), (g)(1)(i) and (iii), and (h)(2)(ii).

(52) ANSI Z9.2-79 Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, IBR approved for § 1910.124(b)(4)(i).

(53) ANSI Z12.12-68 Standard for the Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explosions, IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(xxi), (d)(1)(i), (f)(2)(iv), and (g)(1)(i).

(54) ANSI Z12.20-62 (R 69) Code for the Prevention of Dust Explosions in Woodworking and Wood Flour Manufacturing Plants, IBR approved for § 1910.265(c)(20)(i).

(55) ANSI Z21.30-64 Requirements for Gas Appliances and Gas Piping Installations, IBR approved for § 1910.265(c)(15).

(56) ANSI Z24.22-57 Method of Measurement of Real-Ear Attenuation of Ear Protectors at Threshold, IBR approved for § 1910.261(a)(3)(xxii).

(57) ANSI Z33.1-61 Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, IBR approved for §§ 1910.94(a)(4)(i); 1910.261 (a)(3)(xxiii) and (f)(5); and 1910.265(c)(20)(i).

(58) ANSI Z33.1-66 Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, IBR approved for § 1910.94(a)(2)(ii).

(59) ANSI Z35.1-1968, Specifications for Accident Prevention Signs; IBR approved for § 1910.261(c). Copies available for purchase from the IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: 1-877-413-5184; Web site: www.global.ihs.com.

(60) ANSI Z41-1999, American National Standard for Personal Protection - Protective Footwear; IBR approved for § 1910.136(b)(1)(ii). Copies of ANSI Z41-1999 are available for purchase only from the National Safety Council, P.O. Box 558, Itasca, IL 60143-0558; telephone: 1-800-621-7619; fax: 708-285-0797; Web site: http://www.nsc.org.

(61) ANSI Z41-1991, American National Standard for Personal Protection - Protective Footwear; IBR approved for § 1910.136(b)(1)(iii). Copies of ANSI Z41-1991 are available for purchase only from the National Safety Council, P.O. Box 558, Itasca, IL 60143-0558; telephone: 1-800-621-7619; fax: 708-285-0797; Web site: http://www.nsc.org.

(62-63) [Reserved]

(64) ANSI Z49.1-67 Safety in Welding and Cutting, IBR approved for § 1910.252(c)(1)(iv) (A) and (B).

(65) USAS Z53.1-1967 (also referred to as ANSI Z53.1-1967), Safety Color Code for Marking Physical Hazards, ANSI approved October 9, 1967; IBR approved for § 1910.97(a) and 1910.145(d). Copies available for purchase from the IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: 1-877-413-5184; Web site: www.global.ihs.com.

(66) ANSI Z535.1-2006 (R2011), Safety Colors, reaffirmed July 19, 2011; IBR approved for §§ 1910.97(a) and 1910.145(d). Copies available for purchase from the:

(i) American National Standards Institute's e-Standards Store, 25 W 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: 212-642-4980; Web site: http://webstore.ansi.org/;

(ii) IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: 877-413-5184; Web site: www.global.ihs.com; or

(iii) TechStreet Store, 3916 Ranchero Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48108; telephone: 877-699-9277; Web site: www.techstreet.com.

(67) ANSI Z535.2-2011, Environmental and Facility Safety Signs, published September 15, 2011; IBR approved for § 1910.261(c). Copies available for purchase from the:

(i) American National Standards Institute's e-Standards Store, 25 W 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: 212-642-4980; Web site: http://webstore.ansi.org/;

(ii) IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: 877-413-5184; Web site: www.global.ihs.com; or

(iii) TechStreet Store, 3916 Ranchero Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48108; telephone: 877-699-9277; Web site: www.techstreet.com.

(68) ANSI Z54.1-63 Safety Standard for Non-Medical X-Ray and Sealed Gamma Ray Sources, IBR approved for § 1910.252(d) (1)(vii) and (2)(ii).

(69) ANSI/ISEA Z87.1-2010, Occupational and Educational Personal Eye and Face Protection Devices, Approved April 13, 2010; IBR approved for § 1910.133(b). Copies are available for purchase from:

(i) American National Standards Institute's e-Standards Store, 25 W 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: (212) 642-4980; Web site: http://webstore.ansi.org/;

(ii) IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: (877) 413-5184; Web site: http://global.ihs.com; or

(iii) TechStreet Store, 3916 Ranchero Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48108; telephone: (877) 699-9277; Web site: http://techstreet.com.

(70) ANSI Z87.1-2003, Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Personal Protection Devices Approved June 19, 2003; IBR approved for §§ 1910.133(b). Copies available for purchase from the:

(i) American National Standards Institute's e-Standards Store, 25 W 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: (212) 642-4980; Web site: http://webstore.ansi.org/;

(ii) IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: (877) 413-5184; Web site: http://global.ihs.com; or

(iii) TechStreet Store, 3916 Ranchero Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48108; telephone: (877) 699-9277; Web site: http://techstreet.com.

(71) ANSI Z87.1-1989 (R-1998), Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection, Reaffirmation approved January 4, 1999; IBR approved for § 1910.133(b). Copies are available for purchase from:

(i) American National Standards Institute's e-Standards Store, 25 W 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: (212) 642-4980; Web site: http://webstore.ansi.org/;

(ii) IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: (877) 413-5184; Web site: http://global.ihs.com; or

(iii) TechStreet Store, 3916 Ranchero Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48108; telephone: (877) 699-9277; Web site: http://techstreet.com.

(72) ANSI Z88.2-1969, Practices for Respiratory Protection; IBR approved for §§ 1910.94(c)(6)(iii)(a), 1910.134(c); and 1910.261(a)(3)(xxvi), (b)(2), (f)(5), (g)(15)(v), (h)(2)(iii), (h)(2)(iv), and (i)(4).

(73) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-2009, American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection, approved January 26, 2009; IBR approved for § 1910.135(b)(1)(i). Copies of ANSI Z89.1-2009 are available for purchase only from the International Safety Equipment Association, 1901 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209-1762; telephone: 703-525-1695; fax: 703-528-2148; Web site: www.safetyequipment.org.

(74) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-2003, American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection; IBR approved for § 1910.135(b)(1)(ii). Copies of ANSI Z89.1-2003 are available for purchase only from the International Safety Equipment Association, 1901 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209-1762; telephone: 703-525-1695; fax: 703-528-2148; Web site: www.safetyequipment.org.

(75) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-1997, American National Standard for Personnel Protection - Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers - Requirements; IBR approved for § 1910.135(b)(1)(iii). Copies of ANSI Z89.1-1997 are available for purchase only from the International Safety Equipment Association, 1901 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209-1762; telephone: 703-525-1695; fax: 703-528-2148; Web site: www.safetyequipment.org.

(76) ANSI Z41.1-1967 Men's Safety Toe Footwear; IBR approved for § 1910.261(i)(4).

(77) ANSI Z87.1-1968 Practice of Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection; IBR approved for § 1910.261(a)(3)(xxv), (d)(1)(ii), (f)(5), (g)(1), (g)(15)(v), (g)(18)(ii), and (i)(4).

(78) ANSI Z89.1-1969 Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection; IBR approved for § 1910.261(a)(3)(xxvii), (b)(2), (g)(15)(v), and (i)(4).

(79) ANSI Z89.2-1971 Safety Requirements for Industrial Protective Helmets for Electrical Workers, Class B; IBR approved for § 1910.268(i)(1).

(f) The following material is available for purchase from the American Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L Street NW, Washington DC 20005:

(1) [Reserved]

(2) API 12B (May 1958) Specification for Bolted Production Tanks, 11th Ed., With Supplement No. 1, Mar. 1962, IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(i)(a)(3).

(3) API 12D (Aug. 1957) Specification for Large Welded Production Tanks, 7th Ed., IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(i)(a)(3).

(4) API 12F (Mar. 1961) Specification for Small Welded Production Tanks, 5th Ed., IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(i)(a)(3).

(5) API 620, Fourth Ed. (1970) Including appendix R, Recommended Rules for Design and Construction of Large Welded Low Pressure Storage Tanks, IBR approved for §§ 1910.103(c)(1)(i)(a); 1910.106(b)(1)(iv)(b)(1); and 1910.111(d)(1) (ii) and (iii).

(6) API 650 (1966) Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, 3rd Ed., IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(2).

(7) API 1104 (1968) Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities, IBR approved for § 1910.252(d)(1)(v).

(8) API 2000 (1968) Venting Atmospheric and Low Pressure Storage Tanks, IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(2)(iv)(b)(1).

(9) API 2201 (1963) Welding or Hot Tapping on Equipment Containing Flammables, IBR approved for § 1910.252(d)(1)(vi).

(g) The following material is available for purchase from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), United Engineering Center, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017:

(1) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, 1949, 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, and 1962 Ed., IBR approved for §§ 1910.110 (b)(10)(iii) (Table H-26), (d)(2) (Table H-31); (e)(3)(i) (Table H-32), (h)(2) (Table H-34); and 1910.111(b)(2)(vi);

(2) ASME Code for Pressure Vessels, 1968 Ed., IBR approved for §§ 1910.106(i)(3)(i); 1910.110(g)(2)(iii)(b)(2); and 1910.217(b)(12);

(3) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, 1968, IBR approved for §§ 1910.103; 1910.104(b)(4)(ii); 1910.106 (b)(1)(iv)(b)(2) and (i)(3)(ii); 1910.107; 1910.110(b)(11) (i)(b) and (iii)(a)(1); 1910.111(b)(2) (i), (ii), and (iv); and 1910.169(a)(2) (i) and (ii);

(4) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, Paragraph UG-84, 1968, IBR approved for § 1910.104 (b)(4)(ii) and (b)(5)(iii);

(5) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Including Addenda (1969), IBR approved for §§ 1910.261; 1910.262; 1910.263(i)(24)(ii);

(6) Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels for Petroleum Liquids and Gases of the API and the ASME, 1951 Ed., IBR approved for § 1910.110(b)(3)(iii); and

(7) ASME B56.6-1992 (with addenda), Safety Standard for Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks, IBR approved for § 1910.266(f)(4).

(h) Copies of the standards listed below in this paragraph (h) are available for purchase from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959; Telephone: 610-832-9585; Fax: 610-832-9555; Email: seviceastm.org; Web site: http://www.astm.org. Copies of historical standards or standards that ASTM does not have may be purchased from Information Handling Services, Global Engineering Documents, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; Telephone: 1-800-854-7179; Email: ; Web sites: http://global.ihs.com or http://www.store.ihs.com.

(1) ASTM A 47-68, Malleable Iron Castings, IBR approved for § 1910.111.

(2) ASTM A 53-69, Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe, IBR approved for §§ 1910.110 and 1910.111.

(3) ASTM A 126-66, Gray Iron Casting for Valves, Flanges and Pipe Fitting, IBR approved for § 1910.111.

(4) ASTM A 391-65 (ANSI G61.1-1968), Alloy Steel Chain, IBR approved for § 1910.184.

(5) ASTM A 395-68, Ductile Iron for Use at Elevated Temperatures, IBR approved for § 1910.111.

(6) ASTM B 88-66A, Seamless Copper Water Tube, IBR approved for § 1910.252.

(7) ASTM B 88-69, Seamless Copper Water Tube, IBR approved for § 1910.110.

(8) [Reserved]

(9) ASTM B 210-68, Aluminum-Alloy Drawn Seamless Tubes, IBR approved for § 1910.110.

(10) ASTM B 241-69, Standard Specifications for Aluminum-Alloy Seamless Pipe and Seamless Extruded Tube, IBR approved for § 1910.110.

(11) ASTM D 5-65, Test for Penetration by Bituminous Materials, IBR approved for § 1910.106.

(12) ASTM D 56-70, Test for Flash Point by Tag Closed Tester, IBR approved for § 1910.106.

(13) ASTM D 56-05, Standard Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester, Approved May 1, 2005, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.

(14) ASTM D 86-62, Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products, IBR approved for §§ 1910.106 and 1910.119.

(15) ASTM D 86-07a, Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure, Approved April 1, 2007, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.

(16) ASTM D 88-56, Test for Saybolt Viscosity, IBR approved for § 1910.106.

(17) ASTM D 93-71, Test for Flash Point by Pensky Martens, IBR approved for § 1910.106.

(18) ASTM D 93-08, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester, Approved Oct. 15, 2008, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.

(19) ASTM D 240-02 (Reapproved 2007), Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter, Approved May 1, 2007, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.

(20) ASTM D 323-68, Standard Test Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method), IBR approved for § 1910.106.

(21) ASTM D 445-65, Test for Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids, IBR approved for § 1910.106.

(22) ASTM D 1078-05, Standard Test Method for Distillation Range of Volatile Organic Liquids, Approved May 15, 2005, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.

(23) ASTM D 1692-68, Test for Flammability of Plastic Sheeting and Cellular Plastics, IBR approved for § 1910.103.

(24) ASTM D 2161-66, Conversion Tables for SUS, IBR approved for § 1910.106.

(25) ASTM D 3278-96 (Reapproved 2004) E1, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point of Liquids by Small Scale Closed-Cup Apparatus, Approved November 1, 2004, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.

(26) ASTM D 3828-07a, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester, Approved July 15, 2007, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.

(27) ASTM F-2412-2005, Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection, IBR approved for § 1910.136.

(28) ASTM F-2413-2005, Standard Specification for Performance Requirements for Protective Footwear, IBR approved for § 1910.136.

(i) The following material is available at the American Thoracic Society (ATS), 25 Broadway, 18th Floor New York, NY 10004; website: www.atsjournals.org/.

(1) Spirometric Reference Values from a Sample of the General U.S. Population. Hankinson JL, Odencrantz JR, Fedan KB. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 159:179-187, 1999, IBR approved for § 1910.1043(h).

(2) [Reserved]

(j) The following material is available for purchase from the American Welding Society (AWS), 550 NW, LeJeune Road, P.O. Box 351040, Miami FL 33135:

(1-2) [Reserved]

(3) AWS B3.0-41 Standard Qualification Procedure, IBR approved for § 1910.67(c)(5)(i).

(4) AWS D1.0-1966 Code for Welding in Building Construction, IBR approved for § 1910.27(b)(6).

(5) AWS D2.0-69 Specifications for Welding Highway and Railway Bridges, IBR approved for § 1910.67(c)(5)(iv).

(6) AWS D8.4-61 Recommended Practices for Automotive Welding Design, IBR approved for § 1910.67(c)(5)(ii).

(7) AWS D10.9-69 Standard Qualification of Welding Procedures and Welders for Piping and Tubing, IBR approved for § 1910.67(c)(5)(iii).

(k) The following material is available for purchase from the Department of Commerce:

(1) [Reserved]

(2) Publication “Model Performance Criteria for Structural Fire Fighters' Helmets,” IBR approved for § 1910.156(e)(5)(i).

(l) The following material is available for purchase from the Compressed Gas Association (CGA), 1235 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202:

(1) CGA C-6 (1968) Standards for Visual Inspection of Compressed Gas Cylinders, IBR approved for § 1910.101(a).

(2) CGA C-8 (1962) Standard for Requalification of ICC-3HT Cylinders, IBR approved for § 1910.101(a).

(3) CGA G-1-2009 Acetylene, Twelfth Edition, IBR approved for § 1910.102(a). Copies of CGA Pamphlet G-1-2009 are available for purchase from the: Compressed Gas Association, Inc., 4221 Walney Road, 5th Floor, Chantilly, VA 20151; telephone: (703) 788-2700; fax: (703) 961-1831; email: .

(4) CGA G-7.1 (1966) Commodity Specification, IBR approved for § 1910.134(d)(1).

(5) CGA G-8.1 (1964) Standard for the Installation of Nitrous Oxide Systems at Consumer Sites, IBR approved for § 1910.105.

(6) CGA P-1 (1965) Safe Handling of Compressed Gases, IBR approved for § 1910.101(b).

(7) CGA P-3 (1963) Specifications, Properties, and Recommendations for Packaging, Transportation, Storage and Use of Ammonium Nitrate, IBR approved for § 1910.109(i)(1)(ii)(b).

(8) CGA S-1.1 (1963) and 1965 Addenda. Safety Release Device Standards - Cylinders for Compressed Gases, IBR approved for §§ 1910.101(c); 1910.103(c)(1)(iv)(a)(2).

(9) CGA S-1.2 (1963) Safety Release Device Standards, Cargo and Portable Tanks for Compressed Gases, IBR approved for §§ 1910.101(c); 1910.103(c)(1)(iv)(a)(2).

(10) CGA S-1.3 (1959) Safety Release Device Standards-Compressed Gas Storage Containers, IBR approved for §§ 1910.103(c)(1)(iv)(a)(2); 1910.104(b)(6)(iii); and 1910.111(d)(4)(ii)(b).

(11) CGA 1957 Standard Hose Connection Standard, IBR approved for § 1910.253(e) (4)(v) and (5)(iii).

(12) CGA and RMA (Rubber Manufacturer's Association) Specification for Rubber Welding Hose (1958), IBR approved for § 1910.253(e)(5)(i).

(13) CGA 1958 Regulator Connection Standard, IBR approved for § 1910.253(e) (4)(iv) and (6).

(m) The following material is available for purchase from the Crane Manufacturer's Association of America, Inc. (CMAA), 1 Thomas Circle NW, Washington DC 20005:

(1) CMAA Specification 1B61, Specifications for Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes, IBR approved for § 1910.179(b)(6)(i).

(2) [Reserved]

(n) The following material is available for purchase from the General Services Administration:

(1) GSA Pub. GG-B-0067b, Air Compressed for Breathing Purposes, or Interim Federal Specifications, Apr. 1965, IBR approved for § 1910.134(d)(4).

(2) [Reserved]

(o) The following material is available for purchase from the Department of Health and Human Services:

(1) Publication No. 76-120 (1975), List of Personal Hearing Protectors and Attenuation Data, IBR approved for § 1910.95 App. B.

(2) [Reserved]

(p) The following material is available for purchase from the Institute of Makers of Explosives (IME), 420 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10017:

(1) IME Pamphlet No. 17, 1960, Safety in the Handling and Use of Explosives, IBR approved for §§ 1910.261 (a)(4)(iii) and (c)(14)(ii).

(2) [Reserved]

(q) The following material is available from the International Labour Organization (ILO), 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211 Genève 22, Switzerland; telephone: +41 (0) 22 799 6111; fax: +41 (0) 22 798 8685; website: www.ilo.org/.

(1) Guidelines for the Use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses, Revised Edition 2011, Occupational safety and health series; 22 (Rev.2011), IBR approved for § 1910.1001.

(2) [Reserved]

(r)

(1) The following materials are available for purchase from the International Standards Organization (ISO) through ANSI, 25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor, New York, NY 10036-7417; Telephone: 212-642-4980; Fax: 212-302-1286; Email: ; Web site: http://www.ansi.org.

(2) Documents not available in the ANSI store may be purchased from:

(i) Document Center Inc., 111 Industrial Road, Suite 9, Belmont, 94002; Telephone: 650-591-7600; Fax: 650-591-7617; Email: ; Web site: www.document-center.com.

(ii) DECO - Document Engineering Co., Inc., 15210 Stagg Street, Van Nuys, CA 91405; Telephone: 800-645-7732 or 818-782-1010; Fax: 818-782-2374; Email: ; Web site: www.doceng.com

(iii) Global Engineering Documents, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; Telephone: 1-800-854-7179 or 303-397-7956; Fax: 303-397-2740; Email: ; Web sites: http://global.ihs.com or http://www.store.ihs.com;

(iv) ILI Infodisk, Inc., 610 Winters Avenue, Paramus, NJ 07652; Telephone: 201-986-1131; Fax: 201-986-7886; Email: ; Web site: www.ili-info.com.

(v) Techstreet, a business of Thomson Reuters, 3916 Ranchero Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48108; Telephone: 800-699-9277 or 734-780-8000; Fax: 734-780-2046; Email: ; Web site: www.Techstreet.com.

(3) ISO 10156:1996 (E), Gases and Gas Mixtures - Determination of Fire Potential and Oxidizing Ability for the Selection of Cylinder Valve Outlets, Second Edition, Feb. 15, 1996, IBR approved for appendix B to § 1910.1200.

(4) ISO 10156-2:2005 (E), Gas cylinders - Gases and Gas Mixtures - Part 2: Determination of Oxidizing Ability of Toxic and Corrosive Gases and Gas Mixtures, First Edition, Aug. 1, 2005, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.

(5) ISO 13943:2000 (E/F), Fire Safety - Vocabulary, First Edition, April, 15, 2000, IBR approved for appendix B to § 1910.1200.

(s) The following material is available for purchase from the National Electrical Manufacturer's Association (NEMA):

(1) NEMA EW-1 (1962) Requirements for Electric Arc Welding Apparatus, IBR approved for §§ 1910.254(b)(1).

(2) [Reserved]

(t) The following material is available for purchase from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269; Telephone: 800-344-3555 or 617-770-3000; Fax: 1-800-593-6372 or 1-508-895-8301; Email: ; Web site: http://www.nfpa.org.

(1) NFPA 30 (1969) Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, IBR approved for § 1910.178(f)(1).

(2) NFPA 32-1970 Standard for Dry Cleaning Plants, IBR approved for § 1910.106(j)(6)(i).

(3) NFPA 33-1969 Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Material, IBR approved for § 1910.94(c)(2).

(4) NFPA 34-1966 Standard for Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible Liquids, IBR approved for § 1910.124(b)(4)(iv).

(5) NFPA 34-1995 Standard for Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible Liquids, IBR approved for § 1910.124(b)(4)(ii).

(6) NFPA 35-1970 Standard for the Manufacture of Organic Coatings, IBR approved for § 1910.106(j)(6)(ii).

(7) NFPA 36-1967 Standard for Solvent Extraction Plants, IBR approved for § 1910.106(j)(6)(iii).

(8) NFPA 37-1970 Standard for the Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines, IBR approved for §§ 1910.106(j)(6)(iv) and 1910.110 (b)(20)(iv)(c) and (e)(11).

(9) NFPA 51B-1962 Standard for Fire Protection in Use of Cutting and Welding Processes, IBR approved for § 1910.252(a)(1) introductory text.

(10) NFPA 54-1969 Standard for the Installation of Gas Appliances and Gas Piping, IBR approved for § 1910.110(b)(20)(iv)(a).

(11) NFPA 54A-1969 Standard for the Installation of Gas Piping and Gas Equipment on Industrial Premises and Certain Other Premises, IBR approved for § 1910.110(b)(20)(iv)(b).

(12) NFPA 58-1969 Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (ANSI Z106.1-1970), IBR approved for §§ 1910.110 (b)(3)(iv) and (i)(3) (i) and (ii); and 1910.178(f)(2).

(13) NFPA 59-1968 Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases at Utility Gas Plants, IBR approved for §§ 1910.110 (b)(3)(iv) and (i)(2)(iv).

(14) NFPA 62-1967 Standard for the Prevention of Dust Explosions in the Production, Packaging, and Handling of Pulverized Sugar and Cocoa, IBR approved for § 1910.263(k)(2)(i).

(15) NFPA 68-1954 Guide for Explosion Venting, IBR approved for § 1910.94(a)(2)(iii).

(16) [Reserved]

(17) NFPA 78-1968 Lightning Protection Code, IBR approved for § 1910.109(i)(6)(ii).

(18) NFPA 80-1968 Standard for Fire Doors and Windows, IBR approved for § 1910.106(d)(4)(i).

(19) NFPA 80-1970 Standard for the Installation of Fire Doors and Windows, IBR approved for § 1910.253(f)(6)(i)(I).

(20) NFPA 86A-1969 Standard for Oven and Furnaces Design, Location and Equipment, IBR approved for §§ 1910.107 (j)(1) and (l)(3) and 1910.108 (b)(2) and (d)(2).

(21) NFPA 91-1961 Standard for the Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying (ANSI Z33.1-61), IBR approved for § 1910.107(d)(1).

(22) NFPA 91-1969 Standards for Blower and Exhaust Systems, IBR approved for § 1910.108(b)(1).

(23) NFPA 96-1970 Standard for the Installation of Equipment for the Removal of Smoke and Grease Laden Vapors from Commercial Cooking Equipment, IBR approved for § 1910.110(b)(20)(iv)(d).

(24) NFPA 101-1970 Code for Life Safety From Fire in Buildings and Structures, IBR approved for § 1910.261(a)(4)(ii).

(25) NFPA 101-2009, Life Safety Code, 2009 edition, IBR approved for §§ 1910.34, 1910.35, 1910.36, and 1910.37.

(26) NFPA 203M-1970 Manual on Roof Coverings, IBR approved for § 1910.109(i)(1)(iii)(c).

(27) NFPA 251-1969 Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, IBR approved for §§ 1910.106 (d)(3)(ii) introductory text and (d)(4)(i).

(28) NFPA 302-1968 Fire Protection Standard for Motor-Craft (Pleasure and Commercial), IBR approved for § 1910.265(d)(2)(iv) introductory text.

(29) NFPA 385-1966 Recommended Regulatory Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, IBR approved for § 1910.106(g)(1)(i)(e)(1).

(30) NFPA 496-1967 Standard for Purged Enclosures for Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Locations, IBR approved for § 1910.103(c)(1)(ix)(e)(1).

(31) NFPA 505-1969 Standard for Type Designations, Areas of Use, Maintenance, and Operation of Powered Industrial Trucks, IBR approved for § 1910.110(e)(2)(iv).

(32) NFPA 566-1965 Standard for the Installation of Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites, IBR approved for §§ 1910.253 (b)(4)(iv) and (c)(2)(v).

(33) NFPA 656-1959 Code for the Prevention of Dust Ignition in Spice Grinding Plants, IBR approved for § 1910.263(k)(2)(i).

(34) NFPA 1971-1975 Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting, IBR approved for § 1910.156(e)(3)(ii) introductory text.

(35) NFPA 51A (2001) Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants, IBR approved for § 1910.102(b) and (c). Copies of NFPA 51A-2001 are available for purchase from the: National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471; telephone: 1-800-344-35557; e-mail: .

(36) NFPA 51A (2006) Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants, IBR approved for § 1910.102(b) and (c). Copies of NFPA 51A-2006 are available for purchase from the: National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471; telephone: 1-800-344-35557; e-mail: .

(37) NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol Products, 2007 Edition, Approved August 17, 2006, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.

(u) The following material is available for purchase from the National Food Plant Institute, 1700 K St. NW., Washington, DC 20006:

(1) Definition and Test Procedures for Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizer (Nov. 1964), IBR approved for § 1910.109 Table H-22, ftn. 3.

(2) [Reserved]

(v) The following material is available for purchase from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH):

(1) Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, 1978, IBR approved for § 1910.20(c)(13)(i) and appendix B.

(2) Development of Criteria for Fire Fighters Gloves; Vol. II, part II; Test Methods, 1976, IBR approved for § 1910.156(e)(4)(i) introductory text.

(3) NIOSH Recommendations for Occupational Safety and Health Standards (Sept. 1987), IBR approved for § 1910.120 PEL definition.

(w) The following material is available for purchase from the Public Health Service:

(1) U.S. Pharmacopeia, IBR approved for § 1910.134(d)(1).

(2) Publication No. 934 (1962), Food Service Sanitation Ordinance and Code, part V of the Food Service Sanitation Manual, IBR approved for § 1910.142(i)(1).

(x) The following material is available for purchase from the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 485 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10017:

(1) SAE J185, June 1988, Recommended Practice for Access Systems for Off-Road Machines, IBR approved for § 1910.266(f)(5)(i).

(2) SAE J231, January 1981, Minimum Performance Criteria for Falling Object Protective Structure (FOPS), IBR approved for § 1910.266(f)(3)(ii).

(3) SAE J386, June 1985, Operator Restraint Systems for Off-Road Work Machines, IBR approved for § 1910.266(d)(3)(iv).

(4) SAE J397, April 1988, Deflection Limiting Volume-ROPS/FOPS Laboratory Evaluation, IBR approved for § 1910.266(f)(3)(iv).

(5) SAE 765 (1961) SAE Recommended Practice: Crane Loading Stability Test Code, IBR approved for § 1910.180 (c)(1)(iii) and (e)(2)(iii)(a).

(6) SAE J1040, April 1988, Performance Criteria for Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) for Construction, Earthmoving, Forestry and Mining Machines, IBR approved for § 1910.266(f)(3)(ii).

(y) The following material is available for purchase from the Fertilizer Institute, 1015 18th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036:

(1) Standard M-1 (1953, 1955, 1957, 1960, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968), Superseded by ANSI K61.1-1972, IBR approved for § 1910.111(b)(1) (i) and (iii).

(2) [Reserved]

(z) The following material is available for purchase from Underwriters Laboratories (UL), 207 East Ohio Street, Chicago, IL 60611:

(1) UL 58-61 Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 5th Ed., IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(1).

(2) UL 80-63 Steel Inside Tanks for Oil-Burner Fuel, IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(1).

(3) UL 142-68 Steel Above Ground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(1).

(aa) The following material is available for purchase from the: International Code Council, Chicago District Office, 4051 W. Flossmoor Rd., Country Club Hills, IL 60478; telephone: 708-799-2300, x3-3801; facsimile: 001-708-799-4981; e-mail: .

(1) IFC-2009, International Fire Code, copyright 2009, IBR approved for §§ 1910.34, 1910.35, 1910.36, and 1910.37.

(2) [Reserved]

(bb)

(1) The following document is available for purchase from United Nations Publications, Customer Service, c/o National Book Network, 15200 NBN Way, PO Box 190, Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214; telephone: 1-888-254-4286; fax: 1-800-338-4550; email: . Other distributors of United Nations Publications include:

(i) Bernan, 15200 NBN Way, Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214; telephone: 1-800-865-3457; fax: 1-800-865-3450; email: customercare@bernan; Web site: http://www.bernan.com; and

(ii) Renouf Publishing Co. Ltd., 812 Proctor Avenue, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-2205; telephone: 1-888-551-7470; Fax: 1-888-551-7471; email: ; Web site: http://www.renoufbooks.com.

(2) UN ST/SG/AC.10/Rev.4, The UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria, Fourth Revised Edition, 2003, IBR approved for appendix B to § 1910.1200.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974]

§ 1910.7 Definition and requirements for a nationally recognized testing laboratory.

(a) Application. This section shall apply only when the term nationally recognized testing laboratory is used in other sections of this part.

(b) Laboratory requirements. The term nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) means an organization which is recognized by OSHA in accordance with appendix A of this section and which tests for safety, and lists or labels or accepts, equipment or materials and which meets all of the following criteria:

(1) For each specified item of equipment or material to be listed, labeled or accepted, the NRTL has the capability (including proper testing equipment and facilities, trained staff, written testing procedures, and calibration and quality control programs) to perform:

(i) Testing and examining of equipment and materials for workplace safety purposes to determine conformance with appropriate test standards; or

(ii) Experimental testing and examining of equipment and materials for workplace safety purposes to determine conformance with appropriate test standards or performance in a specified manner.

(2) The NRTL shall provide, to the extent needed for the particular equipment or materials listed, labeled, or accepted, the following controls or services:

(i) Implements control procedures for identifying the listed and labeled equipment or materials;

(ii) Inspects the run of production of such items at factories for product evaluation purposes to assure conformance with the test standards; and

(iii) Conducts field inspections to monitor and to assure the proper use of its identifying mark or labels on products;

(3) The NRTL is completely independent of employers subject to the tested equipment requirements, and of any manufacturers or vendors of equipment or materials being tested for these purposes; and,

(4) The NRTL maintains effective procedures for:

(i) Producing creditable findings or reports that are objective and without bias; and

(ii) Handling complaints and disputes under a fair and reasonable system.

(c) Test standards. An appropriate test standard referred to in § 1910.7(b)(1) (i) and (ii) is a document which specifies the safety requirements for specific equipment or class of equipment and is:

(1) Recognized in the United States as a safety standard providing an adequate level of safety, and

(2) Compatible with and maintained current with periodic revisions of applicable national codes and installation standards, and

(3) Developed by a standards developing organization under a method providing for input and consideration of views of industry groups, experts, users, consumers, governmental authorities, and others having broad experience in the safety field involved, or

(4) In lieu of paragraphs (c) (1), (2), and (3), the standard is currently designated as an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) safety-designated product standard or an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) test standard used for evaluation of products or materials.

(d) Alternative test standard. If a testing laboratory desires to use a test standard other than one allowed under paragraph (c) of this section, then the Assistant Secretary of Labor shall evaluate the proposed standard to determine that it provides an adequate level of safety before it is used.

(e) Implementation. A testing organization desiring recognition by OSHA as an NRTL shall request that OSHA evaluate its testing and control programs against the requirements in this section for any equipment or material it may specify. The recognition procedure shall be conducted in accordance with appendix A to this section.

(f) Fees.

(1) Each applicant for NRTL recognition and each NRTL must pay fees for services provided by OSHA in advance of the provision of those services. OSHA will assess fees for the following services:

(i) Processing of applications for initial recognition, expansion of recognition, or renewal of recognition, including on-site reviews; review and evaluation of the applications; and preparation of reports, evaluations and Federal Register notices; and

(ii) Audits of sites.

(2) The fee schedule established by OSHA reflects the full cost of performing the activities for each service listed in paragraph (f)(1) of this section. OSHA calculates the fees based on either the average or actual time required to perform the work necessary; the staff costs per hour (which include wages, fringe benefits, and expenses other than travel for personnel that perform or administer the activities covered by the fees); and the average or actual costs for travel when on-site reviews are involved. The formula for the fee calculation is as follows:

Activity Fee = [Average (or Actual) Hours to Complete the Activity × Staff Costs per Hour] + Average (or Actual) Travel Costs

(3)

(i) OSHA will review the full costs periodically and will propose a revised fee schedule, if warranted. In its review, OSHA will apply the formula established in paragraph (f)(2) of this section to the current estimated full costs for the NRTL Program. If a change is warranted, OSHA will follow the implementation shown in paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(ii) OSHA will publish all fee schedules in the Federal Register. Once published, a fee schedule remains in effect until it is superseded by a new fee schedule. Any member of the public may request a change to the fees included in the current fee schedule. Such a request must include appropriate documentation in support of the suggested change. OSHA will consider such requests during its annual review of the fee schedule.

(4) OSHA will implement periodic review, and fee assessment, collection, and payment, as follows:

Milestones/Dates Action required
I. Periodic Review of Fee Schedule
When review completed OSHA will publish any proposed new fee schedule in the Federal Register if OSHA determines that costs warrant changes in the fee schedule.
Fifteen days after publication Comments due on the proposed new fee schedule.
When OSHA approves the fee schedule OSHA will publish the final fee schedule in the Federal Register, making the fee schedule effective on a specific date.
II. Application Processing Fees
Time of application Applicant must pay the applicable fees in the fee schedule that are due when submitting an application; OSHA will not begin processing the application until it receives the fees.
Before assessment performed Applicant must pay the estimated staff time and travel costs for its assessment based on the fees in effect at the time of the assessment. Applicant also must pay the fees for the final report and Federal Register notice, and other applicable fees, as specified in the fee schedule. OSHA may cancel an application if the applicant does not pay these fees, or any balance of these fees, when due.
III. Audit Fees
Before audit performed NRTL must pay the estimated staff time and travel costs for its audit based on the fees in effect at the time of the audit. NRTL also must pay other applicable fees, as specified in the fee schedule. After the audit, OSHA adjusts the audit fees to account for the actual costs for travel and staff time.
On due date NRTL must pay the estimated audit fees, or any balance due, by the due date established by OSHA; OSHA will assess a late fee if NRTL does not pay audit fees (or any balance of fees due) by the due date. OSHA may still perform the audit when an NRTL does not pay the fees or does not pay them on time.
Thirty days after due date or, if earlier, date NRTL refuses to pay OSHA will begin processing a notice for publication in the Federal Register announcing its plan to revoke recognition for NRTLs that do not pay the estimated audit fees and any balance of audit fees due.

(5) OSHA will provide details about how to pay the fees through appropriate OSHA Program Directives, which will be available on the OSHA web site.

Appendix A to § 1910.7 - OSHA Recognition Process for Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories

Introduction

This appendix provides requirements and criteria which OSHA will use to evaluate and recognize a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL). This process will include the evaluation of the product evaluation and control programs being operated by the NRTL, as well as the NRTL's testing facilities being used in its program. In the evaluation of the NRTLs, OSHA will use either consensus-based standards currently in use nationally, or other standards or criteria which may be considered appropriate. This appendix implements the definition of NRTL in 29 CFR 1910.7 which sets out the criteria that a laboratory must meet to be recognized by OSHA (initially and on a continuing basis). The appendix is broader in scope, providing procedures for renewal, expansion and revocation of OSHA recognition. Except as otherwise provided, the burden is on the applicant to establish by a preponderance of the evidence that it is entitled to recognition as an NRTL. If further detailing of these requirements and criteria will assist the NRTLs or OSHA in this activity, this detailing will be done through appropriate OSHA Program Directives.

I. Procedures for Initial OSHA Recognition

A. Applications.

1. Eligibility. a. Any testing agency or organization considering itself to meet the definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory as specified in § 1910.7 may apply for OSHA recognition as an NRTL.

b. However, in determining eligibility for a foreign-based testing agency or organization, OSHA shall take into consideration the policy of the foreign government regarding both the acceptance in that country of testing data, equipment acceptances, and listings, and labeling, which are provided through nationally recognized testing laboratories recognized by the Assistant Secretary, and the accessibility to government recognition or a similar system in that country by U.S.-based safety-related testing agencies, whether recognized by the Assistant Secretary or not, if such recognition or a similar system is required by that country.

2. Content of application. a. The applicant shall provide sufficient information and detail demonstrating that it meets the requirements set forth in § 1910.7, in order for an informed decision concerning recognition to be made by the Assistant Secretary.

b. The applicant also shall identify the scope of the NRTL-related activity for which the applicant wishes to be recognized. This will include identifying the testing methods it will use to test or judge the specific equipment and materials for which recognition is being requested, unless such test methods are already specified in the test standard. If requested to do so by OSHA, the applicant shall provide documentation of the efficacy of these testing methods.

c. The applicant may include whatever enclosures, attachments, or exhibits the applicant deems appropriate. The application need not be submitted on a Federal form.

3. Filing office location. The application shall be filed with: NRTL Recognition Program, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210.

4. Amendments and withdrawals. a. An application may be revised by an applicant at any time prior to the completion of activity under paragraph I.B.4. of this appendix.

b. An application may be withdrawn by an applicant, without prejudice, at any time prior to the final decision by the Assistant Secretary in paragraph I.B.7.c. of this appendix.

B. Review and Decision Process; Issuance or Renewal.

1. Acceptance and on-site review. a. Applications submitted by eligible testing agencies will be accepted by OSHA, and their receipt acknowledged in writing. After receipt of an application, OSHA may request additional information if it believes information relevant to the requirements for recognition has been omitted.

b. OSHA shall, as necessary, conduct an on-site review of the testing facilities of the applicant, as well as the applicant's administrative and technical practices, and, if necessary, review any additional documentation underlying the application.

c. These on-site reviews will be conducted by qualified individuals technically expert in these matters, including, as appropriate, non-Federal consultants/contractors acceptable to OSHA. The protocol for each review will be based on appropriate national consensus standards or international guides, with such additions, changes, or deletions as may be considered necessary and appropriate in each case by OSHA. A written report shall be made of each on-site review and a copy shall be provided to the applicant.

2. Positive finding by staff. If, after review of the application, and additional information, and the on-site review report, the applicant appears to have met the requirements for recognition, a written recommendation shall be submitted by the responsible OSHA personnel to the Assistant Secretary that the application be approved, accompanied by a supporting explanation.

3. Negative finding by staff. - a. Notification to applicant. If, after review of the application, any additional information and the on-site review report, the applicant does not appear to have met the requirements for recognition, the responsible OSHA personnel shall notify the applicant in writing, listing the specific requirements of § 1910.7 and this appendix which the applicant has not met, and allow a reasonable period for response.

b. Revision of application. (i) After receipt of a notification of negative finding (i.e., for intended disapproval of the application), and within the response period provided, the applicant may:

(a) Submit a revised application for further review, which could result in a positive finding by the responsible OSHA personnel pursuant to subsection I.B.2. of this appendix; or

(b) Request that the original application be submitted to the Assistant Secretary with an attached statement of reasons, supplied by the applicant of why the application should be approved.

(ii) This procedure for applicant notification and potential revision shall be used only once during each recognition process.

4. Preliminary finding by Assistant Secretary. a. The Assistant Secretary, or a special designee for this purpose, will make a preliminary finding as to whether the applicant has or has not met the requirements for recognition, based on the completed application file, the written staff recommendation, and the statement of reasons supplied by the applicant if there remains a staff recommendation of disapproval.

b. Notification of this preliminary finding will be sent to the applicant and subsequently published in the Federal Register.

c. This preliminary finding shall not be considered an official decision by the Assistant Secretary or OSHA, and does not confer any change in status or any interim or temporary recognition for the applicant.

5. Public review and comment period - a. The Federal Register notice of preliminary finding will provide a period of not less than 30 calendar days for written comments on the applicant's fulfillment of the requirements for recognition. The application, supporting documents, staff recommendation, statement of applicant's reasons, and any comments received, will be available for public inspection in the OSHA Docket Office.

b. Any member of the public, including the applicant, may supply detailed reasons and evidence supporting or challenging the sufficiency of the applicant's having met the requirements of the definition in 29 CFR § 1910.7 and this appendix. Submission of pertinent documents and exhibits shall be made in writing by the close of the comment period.

6. Action after public comment - a. Final decision by Assistant Secretary. Where the public review and comment record supports the Assistant Secretary's preliminary finding concerning the application, i.e., absent any serious objections or substantive claims contrary to the preliminary finding having been received in writing from the public during the comment period, the Assistant Secretary will proceed to final written decision on the application. The reasons supporting this decision shall be derived from the evidence available as a result of the full application, the supporting documentation, the staff finding, and the written comments and evidence presented during the public review and comment period.

b. Public announcement. A copy of the Assistant Secretary's final decision will be provided to the applicant. Subsequently, a notification of the final decision shall be published in the Federal Register. The publication date will be the effective date of the recognition.

c. Review of final decision. There will be no further review activity available within the Department of Labor from the final decision of the Assistant Secretary.

7. Action after public objection - a. Review of negative information. At the discretion of the Assistant Secretary or his designee, OSHA may authorize Federal or contract personnel to initiate a special review of any information provided in the public comment record which appears to require resolution, before a final decision can be made.

b. Supplementation of record. The contents and results of special reviews will be made part of this record by the Assistant Secretary by either:

(i) Reopening the written comment period for public comments on these reviews; or

(ii) Convening an informal hearing to accept public comments on these reviews, conducted under applicable OSHA procedures for similar hearings.

c. Final decision by the Assistant Secretary. The Assistant Secretary shall issue a decision as to whether it has been demonstrated, based on a preponderance of the evidence, that the applicant meets the requirements for recognition. The reasons supporting this decision shall be derived from the evidence available as a result of the full application, the supporting documentation, the staff finding, the comments and evidence presented during the public review and comment period, and written to transcribed evidence received during any subsequent reopening of the written comment period or informal public hearing held.

d. Public announcement. A copy of the Assistant Secretary's final decision will be provided to the applicant, and a notification will be published in the Federal Register subsequently announcing the decision.

e. Review of final decision. There will be no further review activity available within the Department of Labor from the final decision of the Assistant Secretary.

C. Terms and Conditions of Recognition.

1. The following terms and conditions shall be part of every recognition:

a. Letter of recognition. The recognition by OSHA of any NRTL will be evidenced by a letter of recognition from OSHA. The letter will provide the specific details of the scope of the OSHA recognition, including the specific equipment or materials for which OSHA recognition has been granted, as well as any specific conditions imposed by OSHA.

b. Period of recognition. The recognition by OSHA of each NRTL will be valid for five years, unless terminated before the expiration of the period. The dates of the period of recognition will be stated in the recognition letter.

c. Constancy in operations. The recognized NRTL shall continue to satisfy all the requirements or limitations in the letter of recognition during the period of recognition.

d. Accurate publicity. The OSHA-recognized NRTL shall not engage in or permit others to engage in misrepresentation of the scope or conditions of its recognition.

2. [Reserved]

II. Supplementary Procedures.

A. Test standard changes.

A recognized NRTL may change a testing standard or elements incorporated in the standard such as testing methods or pass-fail criteria by notifying the Assistant Secretary of the change, certifying that the revised standard will be at least as effective as the prior standard, and providing the supporting data upon which its conclusions are based. The NRTL need not inform the Assistant Secretary of minor deviations from a test standard such as the use of new instrumentation that is more accurate or sensitive than originally called for in the standard. The NRTL also need not inform the Assistant Secretary of its adoption of revisions to third-party testing standards meeting the requirements of § 1910.7(c)(4), if such revisions have been developed by the standards developing organization, or of its adoption of revisions to other third-party test standards which the developing organization has submitted to OSHA. If, upon review, the Assistant Secretary or his designee determines that the proposed revised standard is not “substantially equivalent” to the previous version with regard to the level of safety obtained, OSHA will not accept the proposed testing standard by the recognized NRTL, and will initiate discontinuance of that aspect of OSHA-recognized activity by the NRTL by modification of the official letter of recognition. OSHA will publicly announce this action and the NRTL will be required to communicate this OSHA decision directly to affected manufacturers.

B. Expansion of current recognition

1. Eligibility. A recognized NRTL may apply to OSHA for an expansion of its current recognition to cover other categories of NRTL testing in addition to those included in the current recognition.

2. Procedure. a. OSHA will act upon and process the application for expansion in accordance with subsection I.B. of this appendix, except that the period for written comments, specified in paragraph 5.a of subsection I.B. of this appendix, will be not less than 15 calendar days.

b. In that process, OSHA may decide not to conduct an on-site review, where the substantive scope of the request to expand recognition is closely related to the current area of recognition.

c. The expiration date for each expansion of recognition shall coincide with the expiration date of the current basic recognition period.

C. Renewal of OSHA recognition

1. Eligibility. A recognized NRTL may renew its recognition by filing a renewal request at the address in paragraph I.A.3. of this appendix not less than nine months, nor more than one year, before the expiration date of its current recognition.

2. Procedure. a. OSHA will process the renewal request in accordance with subsection I.B. of this appendix, except that the period for written comments, specified in paragraph 5.a of subsection I.B. of this appendix, will be not less than 15 calendar days.

b. In that process, OSHA may determine not to conduct the on-site reviews in I.B.1.a. where appropriate.

c. When a recognized NRTL has filed a timely and sufficient renewal request, its current recognition will not expire until a final decision has been made by OSHA on the request.

d. After the first renewal has been granted to the NRTL, the NRTL shall apply for a continuation of its recognition status every five years by submitting a renewal request. In lieu of submitting a renewal request after the initial renewal, the NRTL may certify its continuing compliance with the terms of its letter of recognition and 29 CFR 1910.7.

3. Alternative procedure. After the initial recognition and before the expiration thereof, OSHA may (for good cause) determine that there is a sufficient basis to dispense with the renewal requirement for a given laboratory and will so notify the laboratory of such a determination in writing. In lieu of submitting a renewal request, any laboratory so notified shall certify its continuing compliance with the terms of its letter of recognition and 29 CFR 1910.7.

D. Voluntary termination of recognition.

At any time, a recognized NRTL may voluntarily terminate its recognition, either in its entirety or with respect to any area covered in its recognition, by giving written notice to OSHA. The written notice shall state the date as of which the termination is to take effect. The Assistant Secretary shall inform the public of any voluntary termination by Federal Register notice.

E. Revocation of recognition by OSHA.

1. Potential causes. If an NRTL either has failed to continue to substantially satisfy the requirements of § 1910.7 or this appendix, or has not been reasonably performing the NRTL testing requirements encompassed within its letter of recognition, or has materially misrepresented itself in its applications or misrepresented the scope or conditions of its recognition, the Assistant Secretary may revoke the recognition of a recognized NRTL, in whole or in part. OSHA may initiate revocation procedures on the basis of information provided by any interested person.

2. Procedure. a. Before proposing to revoke recognition, the Agency will notify the recognized NRTL in writing, giving it the opportunity to rebut or correct the alleged deficiencies which would form the basis of the proposed revocation, within a reasonable period.

b. If the alleged deficiencies are not corrected or reconciled within a reasonable period, OSHA will propose, in writing to the recognized NRTL, to revoke recognition. If deemed appropriate, no other announcement need be made by OSHA.

c. The revocation shall be effective in 60 days unless within that period the recognized NRTL corrects the deficiencies or requests a hearing in writing.

d. If a hearing is requested, it shall be held before an administrative law judge of the Department of Labor pursuant to the rules specified in 29 CFR part 1905, subpart C.

e. The parties shall be OSHA and the recognized NRTL. The Assistant Secretary may allow other interested persons to participate in these hearings if such participation would contribute to the resolution of issues germane to the proceeding and not cause undue delay.

f. The burden of proof shall be on OSHA to demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that the recognition should be revoked because the NRTL is not meeting the requirements for recognition, has not been reasonably performing the product testing functions as required by § 1910.7, this appendix A, or the letter of recognition, or has materially misrepresented itself in its applications or publicity.

3. Final decision. a. After the hearing, the Administrative Law Judge shall issue a decision stating the reasons based on the record as to whether it has been demonstrated, based on a preponderance of evidence, that the applicant does not continue to meet the requirements for its current recognition.

b. Upon issuance of the decision, any party to the hearing may file exceptions within 20 days pursuant to 29 CFR 1905.28. If no exceptions are filed, this decision is the final decision of the Assistant Secretary. If objections are filed, the Administrative Law Judge shall forward the decision, exceptions and record to the Assistant Secretary for the final decision on the proposed revocation.

c. The Assistant Secretary will review the record, the decision by the Administrative Law Judge, and the exceptions filed. Based on this, the Assistant Secretary shall issue the final decision as to whether it has been demonstrated, by a preponderance of evidence, that the recognized NRTL has not continued to meet the requirements for OSHA recognition. If the Assistant Secretary finds that the NRTL does not meet the NRTL recognition requirements, the recognition will be revoked.

4. Public announcement. A copy of the Assistant Secretary's final decision will be provided to the applicant, and a notification will be published in the Federal Register announcing the decision, and the availability of the complete record of this proceeding at OSHA. The effective date of any revocation will be the date the final decision copy is sent to the NRTL.

5. Review of final decision. There will be no further review activity available within the Department of Labor from the final decision of the Assistant Secretary.

[53 FR 12120, Apr. 12, 1988; 53 FR 16838, May 11, 1988, as amended at 54 FR 24333, June 7, 1989; 65 FR 46818, 46819, July 31, 2000; 76 FR 10515, Feb. 25, 2011; 85 FR 8732, Feb. 18, 2020]

§ 1910.8 OMB control numbers under the Paperwork Reduction Act.

The following sections or paragraphs each contain a collection of information requirement which has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under the control number listed.

29 CFR citation OMB control No.
1910.7 1218-0147
1910.23 1218-0199
1910.27 1218-0199
1910.28 1218-0199
1910.66 1218-0121
1910.67(b) 1218-0230
1910.68 1218-0226
1910.95 1218-0048
1910.111 1218-0208
1910.119 1218-0200
1910.120 1218-0202
1910.132 1218-0205
1910.134 1218-0099
1910.137 1218-0190
1910.142 1218-0096
1910.145 1218-0132
1910.146 1218-0203
1910.147 1218-0150
1910.156 1218-0075
1910.157(e)(3) 1218-0210
1910.157(f)(16) 1218-0218
1910.177(d)(3)(iv) 1218-0219
1910.179(j)(2)(iii) and (iv) 1218-0224
1910.179(m)(1) and (m)(2) 1218-0224
1910.180(d)(6) 1218-0221
1910.180(g)(1) and (g)(2)(ii) 1218-0221
1910.181(g)(1) and (g)(3) 1218-0222
1910.184(e)(4), (f)(4) and (i)(8)(ii) 1218-0223
1910.217(e)(1)(i) and (ii) 1218-0229
1910.217(g) 1218-0070
1910.217(h) 1218-0143
1910.218(a)(2)(i) and (ii) 1218-0228
1910.252(a)(2)(xiii)(c) 1218-0207
1910.255(e) 1218-0207
1910.266 1218-0198
1910.268 1218-0225
1910.269 1218-0190
1910.272 1218-0206
1910.302 1218-0256
1910.303 1218-0256
1910.304 1218-0256
1910.305 1218-0256
1910.306 1218-0256
1910.307 1218-0256
1910.308 1218-0256
1910.420 1218-0069
1910.421 1218-0069
1910.423 1218-0069
1910.430 1218-0069
1910.440 1218-0069
1910.1001 1218-0133
1910.1003 1218-0085
1910.1004 1218-0084
1910.1006 1218-0086
1910.1007 1218-0083
1910.1008 1218-0087
1910.1009 1218-0089
1910.1010 1218-0082
1910.1011 1218-0090
1910.1012 1218-0080
1910.1013 1218-0079
1910.1014 1218-0088
1910.1015 1218-0044
1910.1016 1218-0081
1910.1017 1218-0010
1910.1018 1218-0104
1910.1020 1218-0065
1910.1024 1218-0267
1910.1025 1218-0092
1910.1026 1218-0252
1910.1027 1218-0185
1910.1028 1218-0129
1910.1029 1218-0128
1910.1030 1218-0180
1910.1043 1218-0061
1910.1044 1218-0101
1910.1045 1218-0126
1910.1047 1218-0108
1910.1048 1218-0145
1910.1050 1218-0184
1910.1051 1218-0170
1910.1052 1218-0179
1910.1053 1218-0266
1910.1096 1218-0103
1910.1200 1218-0072
1910.1450 1218-0131

[61 FR 5508, Feb. 13, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 29668, June 2, 1997; 62 FR 42666, Aug. 8, 1997; 62 FR 43581, Aug. 14, 1997; 62 FR 65203, Dec. 11, 1997; 63 FR 13340, Mar. 19, 1998; 63 FR 17093, Apr. 8, 1998; 71 FR 38086, July 5, 2006; 72 FR 40075, July 23, 2007; 81 FR 48710, July 26, 2016; 82 FR 31253, July 6, 2017; 83 FR 9702, Mar. 7, 2018]

§ 1910.9 Compliance duties owed to each employee.

(a) Personal protective equipment. Standards in this part requiring the employer to provide personal protective equipment (PPE), including respirators and other types of PPE, because of hazards to employees impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the requirement. The employer must provide PPE to each employee required to use the PPE, and each failure to provide PPE to an employee may be considered a separate violation.

(b) Training. Standards in this part requiring training on hazards and related matters, such as standards requiring that employees receive training or that the employer train employees, provide training to employees, or institute or implement a training program, impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the requirement. The employer must train each affected employee in the manner required by the standard, and each failure to train an employee may be considered a separate violation.

[73 FR 75583, Dec. 12, 2008]

Subpart B - Adoption and Extension of Established Federal Standards
Authority:

Secs. 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Walsh-Healey Act, 41 U.S.C. 35 et seq.; Service Contract Act of 1965, 41 U.S.C. 351 et seq.; Sec.107, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (Construction Safety Act), 40 U.S.C. 333; Sec. 41, Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act, 33 U.S.C. 941; National Foundation of Arts and Humanities Act, 20 U.S.C. 951 et seq.; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 1911), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), or 6-96 (62 FR 111), as applicable.

§ 1910.11 Scope and purpose.

(a) The provisions of this subpart B adopt and extend the applicability of, established Federal standards in effect on April 28, 1971, with respect to every employer, employee, and employment covered by the Act.

(b) It bears emphasis that only standards (i.e., substantive rules) relating to safety or health are adopted by any incorporations by reference of standards prescribed elsewhere in this chapter or this title. Other materials contained in the referenced parties are not adopted. Illustrations of the types of materials which are not adopted are these. The incorporations by reference of parts 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918 in §§ 1910.13, 1910.14, 1910.15, and 1910.16 are not intended to include the discussion in those parts of the coverage of the Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act or the penalty provisions of the Act. Similarly, the incorporation by reference of part 1926 in § 1910.12 is not intended to include references to interpretative rules having relevance to the application of the Construction Safety Act, but having no relevance to the application to the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

§ 1910.12 Construction work.

(a) Standards. The standards prescribed in part 1926 of this chapter are adopted as occupational safety and health standards under section 6 of the Act and shall apply, according to the provisions thereof, to every employment and place of employment of every employee engaged in construction work. Each employer shall protect the employment and places of employment of each of his employees engaged in construction work by complying with the appropriate standards prescribed in this paragraph.

(b) Definition. For purposes of this section, Construction work means work for construction, alteration, and/or repair, including painting and decorating. See discussion of these terms in § 1926.13 of this title.

(c) Construction Safety Act distinguished. This section adopts as occupational safety and health standards under section 6 of the Act the standards which are prescribed in part 1926 of this chapter. Thus, the standards (substantive rules) published in subpart C and the following subparts of part 1926 of this chapter are applied. This section does not incorporate subparts A and B of part 1926 of this chapter. Subparts A and B have pertinence only to the application of section 107 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (the Construction Safety Act). For example, the interpretation of the term “subcontractor” in paragraph (c) of § 1926.13 of this chapter is significant in discerning the coverage of the Construction Safety Act and duties thereunder. However, the term “subcontractor” has no significance in the application of the Act, which was enacted under the Commerce Clause and which establishes duties for “employers” which are not dependent for their application upon any contractual relationship with the Federal Government or upon any form of Federal financial assistance.

(d) For the purposes of this part, to the extent that it may not already be included in paragraph (b) of this section, “construction work” includes the erection of new electric transmission and distribution lines and equipment, and the alteration, conversion, and improvement of the existing transmission and distribution lines and equipment.

§ 1910.15 Shipyard employment.

(a) Adoption and extension of established safety and health standards for shipyard employment. The standards prescribed by part 1915 (formerly parts 1501-1503) of this title and in effect on April 28, 1971 (as revised), are adopted as occupational safety or health standards under section 6(a) of the Act and shall apply, according to the provisions thereof, to every employment and place of employment of every employee engaged in ship repair, shipbreaking, and shipbuilding, or a related employment. Each employer shall protect the employment and places of employment of each of his employees engaged in ship repair, shipbreaking, and shipbuilding, or a related employment, by complying with the appropriate standards prescribed by this paragraph.

(b) Definitions. For purposes of this section:

(1) Ship repair means any repair of a vessel, including, but not restricted to, alterations, conversions, installations, cleaning, painting, and maintenance work;

(2) Shipbreaking means any breaking down of a vessel's structure for the purpose of scrapping the vessel, including the removal of gear, equipment, or any component of a vessel;

(3) Shipbuilding means the construction of a vessel, including the installation of machinery and equipment;

(4) Related employment means any employment performed as an incident to, or in conjunction with, ship repair, shipbreaking, and shipbuilding work, including, but not restricted to, inspection, testing, and employment as a watchman; and

(5) Vessel includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water, including special purpose floating structures not primarily designed for, or used as a means of, transportation on water.

[58 FR 35308, June 30, 1993]

§ 1910.16 Longshoring and marine terminals.

(a) Safety and health standards for longshoring.

(1) Part 1918 of this chapter shall apply exclusively, according to the provisions thereof, to all employment of every employee engaged in longshoring operations or related employment aboard any vessel. All cargo transfer accomplished with the use of shore-based material handling devices shall be governed by part 1917 of this chapter.

(2) Part 1910 does not apply to longshoring operations except for the following provisions:

(i) Access to employee exposure and medical records. Subpart Z, § 1910.1020;

(ii) Commercial diving operations. Subpart T;

(iii) Electrical. Subpart S when shore-based electrical installations provide power for use aboard vessels;

(iv) Hazard communication. Subpart Z, § 1910.1200;

(v) Ionizing radiation. Subpart Z, § 1910.1096;

(vi) Noise. Subpart G, § 1910.95;

(vii) Nonionizing radiation. Subpart G, § 1910.97;

Note to paragraph (a)(2)(vii):

Exposures to nonionizing radiation emissions from commercial vessel transmitters are considered hazardous under the following conditions: (1) where the radar is transmitting, the scanner is stationary, and the exposure distance is 18.7 feet (6 m.) or less; or (2) where the radar is transmitting, the scanner is rotating, and the exposure distance is 5.2 feet (1.8 m.) or less.

(viii) Respiratory protection. Subpart I, § 1910.134;

(ix) Toxic and hazardous substances. Subpart Z applies to marine cargo handling activities except for the following:

(A) When a substance or cargo is contained within a sealed, intact means of packaging or containment complying with Department of Transportation or International Maritime Organization requirements;[1]

(B) Bloodborne pathogens, § 1910.1030;

(C) Carbon monoxide, § 1910.1000 (See § 1918.94 (a)); and

(D) Hydrogen sulfide, § 1910.1000 (See § 1918.94 (f)).

(x) Powered industrial truck operator training, Subpart N, § 1910.178(l).

(b) Safety and health standards for marine terminals. Part 1917 of this chapter shall apply exclusively, according to the provisions thereof, to employment within a marine terminal, except as follows:

(1) The provisions of part 1917 of this chapter do not apply to the following:

(i) Facilities used solely for the bulk storage, handling, and transfer of flammable and combustible liquids and gases.

(ii) Facilities subject to the regulations of the Office of Pipeline Safety of the Research and Special Programs Administration, Department of Transportation (49 CFR chapter I, subchapter D), to the extent such regulations apply to specific working conditions.

(iii) Fully automated bulk coal handling facilities contiguous to electrical power generating plants.

(2) Part 1910 does not apply to marine terminals except for the following:

(i) Abrasive blasting. Subpart G, § 1910.94(a);

(ii) Access to employee exposure and medical records. Subpart Z, § 1910.1020;

(iii) Commercial diving operations. Subpart T;

(iv) Electrical. Subpart S;

(v) Grain handling facilities. Subpart R, § 1910.272;

(vi) Hazard communication. Subpart Z, § 1910.1200;

(vii) Ionizing radiation. Subpart Z, § 1910.1096;

(viii) Noise. Subpart G, § 1910.95;

(ix) Nonionizing radiation. Subpart G, § 1910.97.

(x) Respiratory protection. Subpart I, § 1910.134.

(xi) Safety requirements for scaffolding. Subpart D, § 1910.28;

(xii) Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels. Subpart N, § 1910.177;

(xiii) Toxic and hazardous substances. Subpart Z applies to marine cargo handling activities except for the following:

(A) When a substance or cargo is contained within a sealed, intact means of packaging or containment complying with Department of Transportation or International Maritime Organization requirements;[2]

(B) Bloodborne pathogens, § 1910.1030;

(C) Carbon monoxide, § 1910.1000 (See § 1917.24(a)); and

(D) Hydrogen sulfide, § 1910.1000 (See § 1917.73(a)(2)); and

(xiv) Powered industrial truck operator training, subpart N, § 1910.178(l).

(c) Definitions. For purposes of this section:

(1) Longshoring operation means the loading, unloading, moving, or handling of, cargo, ship's stores, gear, etc., into, in, on, or out of any vessel;

(2) Related employment means any employment performed as an incident to or in conjunction with, longshoring operations including, but not restricted to, securing cargo, rigging, and employment as a porter, checker, or watchman; and

(3) Vessel includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water, including special purpose floating structures not primarily designed for, or used as a means of, transportation on water.

(4) Marine terminal means wharves, bulkheads, quays, piers, docks and other berthing locations and adjacent storage or adjacent areas and structures associated with the primary movement of cargo or materials from vessel to shore or shore to vessel including structures which are devoted to receiving, handling, holding, consolidation and loading or delivery of waterborne shipments or passengers, including areas devoted to the maintenance of the terminal or equipment. The term does not include production or manufacturing areas having their own docking facilities and located at a marine terminal nor does the term include storage facilities directly associated with those production or manufacturing areas.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 48 FR 30908, July 5, 1983; 52 FR 36026, Sept. 25, 1987; 62 FR 40195, July 25, 1997; 63 FR 66270, Dec. 1, 1998]

§ 1910.17 Effective dates.

(a-b) [Reserved]

(c) Except whenever any employment or place of employment is, or becomes, subject to any safety and health standard prescribed in part 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, or 1926 of this title on a date before August 27, 1971, by virtue of the Construction Safety Act or the Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act, that occupational safety and health standard as incorporated by reference in this subpart shall also become effective under the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 on that date.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996]

§ 1910.18 Changes in established Federal standards.

Whenever an occupational safety and health standard adopted and incorporated by reference in this subpart B is changed pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act and the statute under which the standard was originally promulgated, and in accordance with part 1911 of this chapter, the standard shall be deemed changed for purposes of that statute and this subpart B, and shall apply under this subpart B. For the purposes of this section, a change in a standard includes any amendment, addition, or repeal, in whole or in part, of any standard.

§ 1910.19 Special provisions for air contaminants.

(a) Asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite dust. Section 1910.1001 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite dust in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite dust which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of any of those sections.

(b) Vinyl chloride. Section 1910.1017 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to vinyl chloride in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to vinyl chloride which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of any of those sections.

(c) Acrylonitrile. Section 1910.1045 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to acrylonitrile in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to acrylonitrile which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of any of those sections.

(d) [Reserved]

(e) Inorganic arsenic. Section 1910.1018 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to inorganic arsenic in every employment covered by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to inorganic arsenic which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of any of those sections.

(f) [Reserved]

(g) Lead. Section 1910.1025 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to lead in every employment and place of employment covered by §§ 1910.13, 1910.14, 1910.15, and 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to lead which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.

(h) Ethylene oxide. Section 1910.1047 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to ethylene oxide in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to ethylene oxide which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.

(i) 4,4′-Methylenedianiline (MDA). Section 1910.1050 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to MDA in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to MDA which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.

(j) Formaldehyde. Section 1910.1048 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to formaldehyde in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15 or § 1910.16 in lieu of any different standard on exposure to formaldehyde which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.

(k) Cadmium. Section 1910.1027 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to cadmium in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.16 in lieu of any different standard on exposures to cadmium that would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.

(l) 1,3-Butadiene (BD). Section 1910.1051 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to BD in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to BD which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.

(m) Methylene chloride (MC). Section 1910.1052 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to MC in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.16 in lieu of any different standard on exposure to MC which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of that section when it is not present in sealed, intact containers.

[43 FR 28473, June 30, 1978, as amended at 43 FR 45809, Oct. 3, 1978; 43 FR 53007, Nov. 14, 1978; 44 FR 5447, Jan. 26, 1979; 46 FR 32022, June 19, 1981; 49 FR 25796, June 22, 1984; 50 FR 51173, Dec. 13, 1985; 52 FR 46291, Dec. 4, 1987; 57 FR 35666, Aug. 10, 1992; 57 FR 42388, Sept. 14, 1992; 59 FR 41057, Aug. 10, 1994; 61 FR 56831, Nov. 4, 1996; 62 FR 1600, Jan. 10, 1997]

Subpart C [Reserved]
Subpart D - Walking-Working Surfaces
Authority:

29 U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), and 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

Source:

81 FR 82981, Nov. 18, 2016, unless otherwise noted.

§ 1910.21 Scope and definitions.

(a) Scope. This subpart applies to all general industry workplaces. It covers all walking-working surfaces unless specifically excluded by an individual section of this subpart.

(b) Definitions. The following definitions apply in this subpart:

Alternating tread-type stair means a type of stairway consisting of a series of treads that usually are attached to a center support in an alternating manner such that an employee typically does not have both feet on the same level while using the stairway.

Anchorage means a secure point of attachment for equipment such as lifelines, lanyards, deceleration devices, and rope descent systems.

Authorized means an employee who the employer assigns to perform a specific type of duty, or allows in a specific location or area.

Cage means an enclosure mounted on the side rails of a fixed ladder or fastened to a structure behind the fixed ladder that is designed to surround the climbing space of the ladder. A cage also is called a “cage guard” or “basket guard.”

Carrier means the track of a ladder safety system that consists of a flexible cable or rigid rail attached to the fixed ladder or immediately adjacent to it.

Combinationladder means a portable ladder that can be used as a stepladder, extension ladder, trestle ladder, or stairway ladder. The components of a combination ladder also may be used separately as a single ladder.

Dangerous equipment means equipment, such as vats, tanks, electrical equipment, machinery, equipment or machinery with protruding parts, or other similar units, that, because of their function or form, may harm an employee who falls into or onto the equipment.

Designated area means a distinct portion of a walking-working surface delineated by a warning line in which employees may perform work without additional fall protection.

Dockboard means a portable or fixed device that spans a gap or compensates for a difference in elevation between a loading platform and a transport vehicle. Dockboards include, but are not limited to, bridge plates, dock plates, and dock levelers.

Equivalent means alternative designs, equipment, materials, or methods, that the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees compared to the designs, equipment, materials, or methods specified in this subpart.

Extension ladder means a non-self-supporting portable ladder that is adjustable in length.

Failure means a load refusal, breakage, or separation of component parts. A load refusal is the point at which the ultimate strength of a component or object is exceeded.

Fall hazard means any condition on a walking-working surface that exposes an employee to a risk of harm from a fall on the same level or to a lower level.

Fall protection means any equipment, device, or system that prevents an employee from falling from an elevation or mitigates the effect of such a fall.

Fixed ladder means a ladder with rails or individual rungs that is permanently attached to a structure, building, or equipment. Fixed ladders include individual-rung ladders, but not ship stairs, step bolts, or manhole steps.

Grab bar means an individual horizontal or vertical handhold installed to provide access above the height of the ladder.

Guardrail system means a barrier erected along an unprotected or exposed side, edge, or other area of a walking-working surface to prevent employees from falling to a lower level.

Handrail means a rail used to provide employees with a handhold for support.

Hoist area means any elevated access opening to a walking-working surface through which equipment or materials are loaded or received.

Hole means a gap or open space in a floor, roof, horizontal walking-working surface, or similar surface that is at least 2 inches (5 cm) in its least dimension.

Individual-rung ladder means a ladder that has rungs individually attached to a building or structure. An individual-rung ladder does not include manhole steps.

Ladder means a device with rungs, steps, or cleats used to gain access to a different elevation.

Ladder safety system means a system designed to eliminate or reduce the possibility of falling from a ladder. A ladder safety system usually consists of a carrier, safety sleeve, lanyard, connectors, and body harness. Cages and wells are not ladder safety systems.

Low-slope roof means a roof that has a slope less than or equal to a ratio of 4 in 12 (vertical to horizontal).

Lower level means a surface or area to which an employee could fall. Such surfaces or areas include, but are not limited to, ground levels, floors, roofs, ramps, runways, excavations, pits, tanks, materials, water, equipment, and similar surfaces and structures, or portions thereof.

Manhole steps means steps that are individually attached to, or set into, the wall of a manhole structure.

Maximum intended load means the total load (weight and force) of all employees, equipment, vehicles, tools, materials, and other loads the employer reasonably anticipates to be applied to a walking-working surface at any one time.

Mobile means manually propelled or moveable.

Mobile ladder stand (ladder stand) means a mobile, fixed-height, self-supporting ladder that usually consists of wheels or casters on a rigid base and steps leading to a top step. A mobile ladder stand also may have handrails and is designed for use by one employee at a time.

Mobile ladder stand platform means a mobile, fixed-height, self-supporting unit having one or more standing platforms that are provided with means of access or egress.

Open riser means the gap or space between treads of stairways that do not have upright or inclined members (risers).

Opening means a gap or open space in a wall, partition, vertical walking-working surface, or similar surface that is at least 30 inches (76 cm) high and at least 18 inches (46 cm) wide, through which an employee can fall to a lower level.

Personal fall arrest system means a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a walking-working surface. It consists of a body harness, anchorage, and connector. The means of connection may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or a suitable combination of these.

Personal fall protection system means a system (including all components) an employer uses to provide protection from falling or to safely arrest an employee's fall if one occurs. Examples of personal fall protection systems include personal fall arrest systems, positioning systems, and travel restraint systems.

Platform means a walking-working surface that is elevated above the surrounding area.

Portable ladder means a ladder that can readily be moved or carried, and usually consists of side rails joined at intervals by steps, rungs, or cleats.

Positioning system (work-positioning system) means a system of equipment and connectors that, when used with a body harness or body belt, allows an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall or window sill, and work with both hands free. Positioning systems also are called “positioning system devices” and “work-positioning equipment.”

Qualified describes a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

Ramp means an inclined walking-working surface used to access another level.

Riser means the upright (vertical) or inclined member of a stair that is located at the back of a stair tread or platform and connects close to the front edge of the next higher tread, platform, or landing.

Rope descent system means a suspension system that allows an employee to descend in a controlled manner and, as needed, stop at any point during the descent. A rope descent system usually consists of a roof anchorage, support rope, a descent device, carabiner(s) or shackle(s), and a chair (seatboard). A rope descent system also is called controlled descent equipment or apparatus. Rope descent systems do not include industrial rope access systems.

Rung, step, or cleat means the cross-piece of a ladder on which an employee steps to climb up and down.

Runway means an elevated walking-working surface, such as a catwalk, a foot walk along shafting, or an elevated walkway between buildings.

Scaffold means any temporary elevated or suspended platform and its supporting structure, including anchorage points, used to support employees, equipment, materials, and other items. For purposes of this subpart, a scaffold does not include a crane-suspended or derrick-suspended personnel platform or a rope descent system.

Ship stair (ship ladder) means a stairway that is equipped with treads, stair rails, and open risers, and has a slope that is between 50 and 70 degrees from the horizontal.

Side-step ladder means a type of fixed ladder that requires an employee to step sideways from it in order to reach a walking-working surface, such as a landing.

Spiral stairs means a series of treads attached to a vertical pole in a winding fashion, usually within a cylindrical space.

Stair rail or stair rail system means a barrier erected along the exposed or open side of stairways to prevent employees from falling to a lower level.

Stairway (stairs) means risers and treads that connect one level with another, and includes any landings and platforms in between those levels. Stairways include standard, spiral, alternating tread-type, and ship stairs.

Standard stairs means a fixed or permanently installed stairway. Ship, spiral, and alternating tread-type stairs are not considered standard stairs.

Step bolt (pole step) means a bolt or rung attached at intervals along a structural member used for foot placement and as a handhold when climbing or standing.

Stepladder means a self-supporting, portable ladder that has a fixed height, flat steps, and a hinged back.

Stepstool means a self-supporting, portable ladder that has flat steps and side rails. For purposes of the final rule, stepstool includes only those ladders that have a fixed height, do not have a pail shelf, and do not exceed 32 inches (81 cm) in overall height to the top cap, although side rails may extend above the top cap. A stepstool is designed so an employee can climb and stand on all of the steps and the top cap.

Through ladder means a type of fixed ladder that allows the employee to step through the side rails at the top of the ladder to reach a walking-working surface, such as a landing.

Tieback means an attachment between an anchorage (e.g., structural member) and a supporting device (e.g., parapet clamp or cornice hook).

Toeboard means a low protective barrier that is designed to prevent materials, tools, and equipment from falling to a lower level, and protect employees from falling.

Travel restraint system means a combination of an anchorage, anchorage connector, lanyard (or other means of connection), and body support that an employer uses to eliminate the possibility of an employee going over the edge of a walking-working surface.

Tread means a horizontal member of a stair or stairway, but does not include landings or platforms.

Unprotected sides and edges mean any side or edge of a walking-working surface (except at entrances and other points of access) where there is no wall, guardrail system, or stair rail system to protect an employee from falling to a lower level.

Walking-working surface means any horizontal or vertical surface on or through which an employee walks, works, or gains access to a work area or workplace location.

Warning line means a barrier erected to warn employees that they are approaching an unprotected side or edge, and which designates an area in which work may take place without the use of other means of fall protection.

Well means a permanent, complete enclosure around a fixed ladder.

§ 1910.22 General requirements.

(a) Surface conditions. The employer must ensure:

(1) All places of employment, passageways, storerooms, service rooms, and walking-working surfaces are kept in a clean, orderly, and sanitary condition.

(2) The floor of each workroom is maintained in a clean and, to the extent feasible, in a dry condition. When wet processes are used, drainage must be maintained and, to the extent feasible, dry standing places, such as false floors, platforms, and mats must be provided.

(3) Walking-working surfaces are maintained free of hazards such as sharp or protruding objects, loose boards, corrosion, leaks, spills, snow, and ice.

(b) Loads. The employer must ensure that each walking-working surface can support the maximum intended load for that surface.

(c) Access and egress. The employer must provide, and ensure each employee uses, a safe means of access and egress to and from walking-working surfaces.

(d) Inspection, maintenance, and repair. The employer must ensure:

(1) Walking-working surfaces are inspected, regularly and as necessary, and maintained in a safe condition;

(2) Hazardous conditions on walking-working surfaces are corrected or repaired before an employee uses the walking-working surface again. If the correction or repair cannot be made immediately, the hazard must be guarded to prevent employees from using the walking-working surface until the hazard is corrected or repaired; and

(3) When any correction or repair involves the structural integrity of the walking-working surface, a qualified person performs or supervises the correction or repair.

§ 1910.23 Ladders.

(a) Application. The employer must ensure that each ladder used meets the requirements of this section. This section covers all ladders, except when the ladder is:

(1) Used in emergency operations such as firefighting, rescue, and tactical law enforcement operations, or training for these operations; or

(2) Designed into or is an integral part of machines or equipment.

(b) General requirements for all ladders. The employer must ensure:

(1) Ladder rungs, steps, and cleats are parallel, level, and uniformly spaced when the ladder is in position for use;

(2) Ladder rungs, steps, and cleats are spaced not less than 10 inches (25 cm) and not more than 14 inches (36 cm) apart, as measured between the centerlines of the rungs, cleats, and steps, except that:

(i) Ladder rungs and steps in elevator shafts must be spaced not less than 6 inches (15 cm) apart and not more than 16.5 inches (42 cm) apart, as measured along the ladder side rails; and

(ii) Fixed ladder rungs and steps on telecommunication towers must be spaced not more than 18 inches (46 cm) apart, measured between the centerlines of the rungs or steps;

(3) Steps on stepstools are spaced not less than 8 inches (20 cm) apart and not more than 12 inches (30 cm) apart, as measured between the centerlines of the steps;

(4) Ladder rungs, steps, and cleats have a minimum clear width of 11.5 inches (29 cm) on portable ladders and 16 inches (41 cm) (measured before installation of ladder safety systems) for fixed ladders, except that:

(i) The minimum clear width does not apply to ladders with narrow rungs that are not designed to be stepped on, such as those located on the tapered end of orchard ladders and similar ladders;

(ii) Rungs and steps of manhole entry ladders that are supported by the manhole opening must have a minimum clear width of 9 inches (23 cm);

(iii) Rungs and steps on rolling ladders used in telecommunication centers must have a minimum clear width of 8 inches (20 cm); and

(iv) Stepstools have a minimum clear width of 10.5 inches (26.7 cm);

(5) Wooden ladders are not coated with any material that may obscure structural defects;

(6) Metal ladders are made with corrosion-resistant material or protected against corrosion;

(7) Ladder surfaces are free of puncture and laceration hazards;

(8) Ladders are used only for the purposes for which they were designed;

(9) Ladders are inspected before initial use in each work shift, and more frequently as necessary, to identify any visible defects that could cause employee injury;

(10) Any ladder with structural or other defects is immediately tagged “Dangerous: Do Not Use” or with similar language in accordance with § 1910.145 and removed from service until repaired in accordance with § 1910.22(d), or replaced;

(11) Each employee faces the ladder when climbing up or down it;

(12) Each employee uses at least one hand to grasp the ladder when climbing up and down it; and

(13) No employee carries any object or load that could cause the employee to lose balance and fall while climbing up or down the ladder.

(c) Portable ladders. The employer must ensure:

(1) Rungs and steps of portable metal ladders are corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistant material, or otherwise treated to minimize the possibility of slipping;

(2) Each stepladder or combination ladder used in a stepladder mode is equipped with a metal spreader or locking device that securely holds the front and back sections in an open position while the ladder is in use;

(3) Ladders are not loaded beyond the maximum intended load;

Note to paragraph (c)(3):

The maximum intended load, as defined in § 1910.21(b), includes the total load (weight and force) of the employee and all tools, equipment, and materials being carried.

(4) Ladders are used only on stable and level surfaces unless they are secured or stabilized to prevent accidental displacement;

(5) No portable single rail ladders are used;

(6) No ladder is moved, shifted, or extended while an employee is on it;

(7) Ladders placed in locations such as passageways, doorways, or driveways where they can be displaced by other activities or traffic:

(i) Are secured to prevent accidental displacement; or

(ii) Are guarded by a temporary barricade, such as a row of traffic cones or caution tape, to keep the activities or traffic away from the ladder;

(8) The cap (if equipped) and top step of a stepladder are not used as steps;

(9) Portable ladders used on slippery surfaces are secured and stabilized;

(10) The top of a non-self-supporting ladder is placed so that both side rails are supported, unless the ladder is equipped with a single support attachment;

(11) Portable ladders used to gain access to an upper landing surface have side rails that extend at least 3 feet (0.9 m) above the upper landing surface (see Figure D-1 of this section);

(12) Ladders and ladder sections are not tied or fastened together to provide added length unless they are specifically designed for such use;

(13) Ladders are not placed on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height.

(d) Fixed ladders. The employer must ensure:

(1) Fixed ladders are capable of supporting their maximum intended load;

(2) The minimum perpendicular distance from the centerline of the steps or rungs, or grab bars, or both, to the nearest permanent object in back of the ladder is 7 inches (18 cm), except for elevator pit ladders, which have a minimum perpendicular distance of 4.5 inches (11 cm);

(3) Grab bars do not protrude on the climbing side beyond the rungs of the ladder that they serve;

(4) The side rails of through or side-step ladders extend at least 42 inches (1.1 m) above the top of the access level or landing platform served by the ladder. For parapet ladders, the access level is:

(i) The roof, if the parapet is cut to permit passage through the parapet; or

(ii) The top of the parapet, if the parapet is continuous;

(5) For through ladders, the steps or rungs are omitted from the extensions, and the side rails are flared to provide not less than 24 inches (61cm) and not more than 30 inches (76 cm) of clearance. When a ladder safety system is provided, the maximum clearance between side rails of the extension must not exceed 36 inches (91 cm);

(6) For side-step ladders, the side rails, rungs, and steps must be continuous in the extension (see Figure D-2 of this section);

(7) Grab bars extend 42 inches (1.1 m) above the access level or landing platforms served by the ladder;

(8) The minimum size (cross-section) of grab bars is the same size as the rungs of the ladder.

(9) When a fixed ladder terminates at a hatch (see Figure D-3 of this section), the hatch cover:

(i) Opens with sufficient clearance to provide easy access to or from the ladder; and

(ii) Opens at least 70 degrees from horizontal if the hatch is counterbalanced;

(10) Individual-rung ladders are constructed to prevent the employee's feet from sliding off the ends of the rungs (see Figure D-4 of this section);

(11) Fixed ladders having a pitch greater than 90 degrees from the horizontal are not used;

(12) The step-across distance from the centerline of the rungs or steps is:

(i) For through ladders, not less than 7 inches (18 cm) and not more than 12 inches (30 cm) to the nearest edge of the structure, building, or equipment accessed from the ladders;

(ii) For side-step ladders, not less than 15 inches (38 cm) and not more than 20 inches (51 cm) to the access points of the platform edge;

(13) Fixed ladders that do not have cages or wells have:

(i) A clear width of at least 15 inches (38 cm) on each side of the ladder centerline to the nearest permanent object; and

(ii) A minimum perpendicular distance of 30 inches (76 cm) from the centerline of the steps or rungs to the nearest object on the climbing side. When unavoidable obstructions are encountered, the minimum clearance at the obstruction may be reduced to 24 inches (61 cm), provided deflector plates are installed (see Figure D-5 of this section).

Note to paragraph (d):

Section 1910.28 establishes the employer's duty to provide fall protection for employees on fixed ladders, and § 1910.29 specifies the criteria for fall protection systems for fixed ladders.

(e) Mobile ladder stands and mobile ladder stand platforms -

(1) General requirements. The employer must ensure:

(i) Mobile ladder stands and platforms have a step width of at least 16 inches (41 cm);

(ii) The steps and platforms of mobile ladder stands and platforms are slip resistant. Slip-resistant surfaces must be either an integral part of the design and construction of the mobile ladder stand and platform, or provided as a secondary process or operation, such as dimpling, knurling, shotblasting, coating, spraying, or applying durable slip-resistant tapes;

(iii) Mobile ladder stands and platforms are capable of supporting at least four times their maximum intended load;

(iv) Wheels or casters under load are capable of supporting their proportional share of four times the maximum intended load, plus their proportional share of the unit's weight;

(v) Unless otherwise specified in this section, mobile ladder stands and platforms with a top step height of 4 feet (1.2 m) or above have handrails with a vertical height of 29.5 inches (75 cm) to 37 inches (94 cm), measured from the front edge of a step. Removable gates or non-rigid members, such as chains, may be used instead of handrails in special-use applications;

(vi) The maximum work-surface height of mobile ladder stands and platforms does not exceed four times the shortest base dimension, without additional support. For greater heights, outriggers, counterweights, or comparable means that stabilize the mobile ladder stands and platforms and prevent overturning must be used;

(vii) Mobile ladder stands and platforms that have wheels or casters are equipped with a system to impede horizontal movement when an employee is on the stand or platform; and

(viii) No mobile ladder stand or platform moves when an employee is on it.

(2) Design requirements for mobile ladder stands. The employer must ensure:

(i) Steps are uniformly spaced and arranged, with a rise of not more than 10 inches (25 cm) and a depth of not less than 7 inches (18 cm). The slope of the step stringer to which the steps are attached must not be more than 60 degrees, measured from the horizontal;

(ii) Mobile ladder stands with a top step height above 10 feet (3 m) have the top step protected on three sides by a handrail with a vertical height of at least 36 inches (91 cm); and top steps that are 20 inches (51 cm) or more, front to back, have a midrail and toeboard. Removable gates or non-rigid members, such as chains, may be used instead of handrails in special-use applications; and

(iii) The standing area of mobile ladder stands is within the base frame.

(3) Design requirements for mobile ladder stand platforms. The employer must ensure:

(i) Steps of mobile ladder stand platforms meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section. When the employer demonstrates that the requirement is not feasible, steeper slopes or vertical rung ladders may be used, provided the units are stabilized to prevent overturning;

(ii) Mobile ladder stand platforms with a platform height of 4 to 10 feet (1.2 m to 3 m) have, in the platform area, handrails with a vertical height of at least 36 inches (91 cm) and midrails; and

(iii) All ladder stand platforms with a platform height above 10 feet (3 m) have guardrails and toeboards on the exposed sides and ends of the platform.

(iv) Removable gates or non-rigid members, such as chains, may be used on mobile ladder stand platforms instead of handrails and guardrails in special-use applications.

[81 FR 82981, Nov. 18, 2016, as amended at 84 FR 68795, Dec. 17, 2019]

§ 1910.24 Step bolts and manhole steps.

(a) Step bolts. The employer must ensure:

(1) Each step bolt installed on or after January 17, 2017 in an environment where corrosion may occur is constructed of, or coated with, material that protects against corrosion;

(2) Each step bolt is designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent the employee's foot from slipping off the end of the step bolt;

(3) Step bolts are uniformly spaced at a vertical distance of not less than 12 inches (30 cm) and not more than 18 inches (46 cm) apart, measured center to center (see Figure D-6 of this section). The spacing from the entry and exit surface to the first step bolt may differ from the spacing between the other step bolts;

(4) Each step bolt has a minimum clear width of 4.5 inches (11 cm);

(5) The minimum perpendicular distance between the centerline of each step bolt to the nearest permanent object in back of the step bolt is 7 inches (18 cm). When the employer demonstrates that an obstruction cannot be avoided, the distance must be at least 4.5 inches (11 cm);

(6) Each step bolt installed before January 17, 2017 is capable of supporting its maximum intended load;

(7) Each step bolt installed on or after January 17, 2017 is capable of supporting at least four times its maximum intended load;

(8) Each step bolt is inspected at the start of the workshift and maintained in accordance with § 1910.22; and

(9) Any step bolt that is bent more than 15 degrees from the perpendicular in any direction is removed and replaced with a step bolt that meets the requirements of this section before an employee uses it.

(b) Manhole steps.

(1) The employer must ensure that each manhole step is capable of supporting its maximum intended load.

(2) The employer must ensure that each manhole step installed on or after January 17, 2017:

(i) Has a corrugated, knurled, dimpled, or other surface that minimizes the possibility of an employee slipping;

(ii) Is constructed of, or coated with, material that protects against corrosion if the manhole step is located in an environment where corrosion may occur;

(iii) Has a minimum clear step width of 10 inches (25 cm);

(iv) Is uniformly spaced at a vertical distance not more than 16 inches (41 cm) apart, measured center to center between steps. The spacing from the entry and exit surface to the first manhole step may differ from the spacing between the other steps.

(v) Has a minimum perpendicular distance between the centerline of the manhole step to the nearest permanent object in back of the step of at least 4.5 inches (11 cm); and

(vi) Is designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent the employee's foot from slipping or sliding off the end.

(3) The employer must ensure that each manhole step is inspected at the start of the work shift and maintained in accordance with § 1910.22.

§ 1910.25 Stairways.

(a) Application. This section covers all stairways (including standard, spiral, ship, and alternating tread-type stairs), except for articulated stairs (stairs that change pitch due to change in height at the point of attachment) such as those serving floating roof tanks, stairs on scaffolds, stairs designed into machines or equipment, and stairs on self-propelled motorized equipment.

(b) General requirements. The employer must ensure:

(1) Handrails, stair rail systems, and guardrail systems are provided in accordance with § 1910.28;

(2) Vertical clearance above any stair tread to any overhead obstruction is at least 6 feet, 8 inches (203 cm), as measured from the leading edge of the tread. Spiral stairs must meet the vertical clearance requirements in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(3) Stairs have uniform riser heights and tread depths between landings;

(4) Stairway landings and platforms are at least the width of the stair and at least 30 inches (76 cm) in depth, as measured in the direction of travel;

(5) When a door or a gate opens directly on a stairway, a platform is provided, and the swing of the door or gate does not reduce the platform's effective usable depth to:

(i) Less than 20 inches (51 cm) for platforms installed before January 17, 2017; and

(ii) Less than 22 inches (56 cm) for platforms installed on or after January 17, 2017 (see Figure D-7 of this section);

(6) Each stair can support at least five times the normal anticipated live load, but never less than a concentrated load of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) applied at any point;

(7) Standard stairs are used to provide access from one walking-working surface to another when operations necessitate regular and routine travel between levels, including access to operating platforms for equipment. Winding stairways may be used on tanks and similar round structures when the diameter of the tank or structure is at least 5 feet (1.5 m).

(8) Spiral, ship, or alternating tread-type stairs are used only when the employer can demonstrate that it is not feasible to provide standard stairs.

(9) When paragraph (b)(8) of this section allows the use of spiral, ship, or alternating tread-type stairs, they are installed, used, and maintained in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.

(c) Standard stairs. In addition to paragraph (b) of this section, the employer must ensure standard stairs:

(1) Are installed at angles between 30 to 50 degrees from the horizontal;

(2) Have a maximum riser height of 9.5 inches (24 cm);

(3) Have a minimum tread depth of 9.5 inches (24 cm); and

(4) Have a minimum width of 22 inches (56 cm) between vertical barriers (see Figure D-8 of this section).

(5) Exception to paragraphs (c)(2) and (3) of this section. The requirements of paragraphs (c)(2) and (3) do not apply to standard stairs installed prior to January 17, 2017. OSHA will deem those stairs in compliance if they meet the dimension requirements specified in Table D-1 of this section or they use a combination that achieves the angle requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(d) Spiral stairs. In addition to paragraph (b) of this section, the employer must ensure spiral stairs:

(1) Have a minimum clear width of 26 inches (66 cm);

(2) Have a maximum riser height of 9.5 inches (24 cm);

(3) Have a minimum headroom above spiral stair treads of at least 6 feet, 6 inches (2 m), measured from the leading edge of the tread;

(4) Have a minimum tread depth of 7.5 inches (19 cm), measured at a point 12 inches (30 cm) from the narrower edge;

(5) Have a uniform tread size;

(e) Ship stairs. In addition to paragraph (b) of this section, the employer must ensure ship stairs (see Figure D-9 of this section):

(1) Are installed at a slope of 50 to 70 degrees from the horizontal;

(2) Have open risers with a vertical rise between tread surfaces of 6.5 to 12 inches (17 to 30 cm);

(3) Have minimum tread depth of 4 inches (10 cm); and

(4) Have a minimum tread width of 18 inches (46 cm).

(f) Alternating tread-type stairs. In addition to paragraph (b) of this section, the employer must ensure alternating tread-type stairs:

(1) Have a series of treads installed at a slope of 50 to 70 degrees from the horizontal;

(2) Have a distance between handrails of 17 to 24 inches (51 to 61 cm);

(3) Have a minimum tread depth of 8.5 inches (22 cm); and

(4) Have open risers if the tread depth is less than 9.5 inches (24 cm);

(5) Have a minimum tread width of 7 inches (18 cm), measured at the leading edge of the tread (i.e., nosing).

[81 FR 82981, Nov. 18, 2016, as amended at 84 FR 68795, Dec. 17, 2019]

§ 1910.26 Dockboards.

The employer must ensure that each dockboard used meets the requirements of this section. The employer must ensure:

(a) Dockboards are capable of supporting the maximum intended load in accordance with § 1910.22(b);

(b)

(1) Dockboards put into initial service on or after January 17, 2017 are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent transfer vehicles from running off the dockboard edge;

(2) Exception to paragraph (b)(1) of this section. When the employer demonstrates there is no hazard of transfer vehicles running off the dockboard edge, the employer may use dockboards that do not have run-off protection.

(c) Portable dockboards are secured by anchoring them in place or using equipment or devices that prevent the dockboard from moving out of a safe position. When the employer demonstrates that securing the dockboard is not feasible, the employer must ensure there is sufficient contact between the dockboard and the surface to prevent the dockboard from moving out of a safe position;

(d) Measures, such as wheel chocks or sand shoes, are used to prevent the transport vehicle (e.g. a truck, semi-trailer, trailer, or rail car) on which a dockboard is placed, from moving while employees are on the dockboard; and

(e) Portable dockboards are equipped with handholds or other means to permit safe handling of dockboards.

§ 1910.27 Scaffolds and rope descent systems.

(a) Scaffolds. Scaffolds used in general industry must meet the requirements in 29 CFR part 1926, subpart L (Scaffolds).

(b) Rope descent systems -

(1) Anchorages.

(i) Before any rope descent system is used, the building owner must inform the employer, in writing that the building owner has identified, tested, certified, and maintained each anchorage so it is capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds (2,268 kg), in any direction, for each employee attached. The information must be based on an annual inspection by a qualified person and certification of each anchorage by a qualified person, as necessary, and at least every 10 years.

(ii) The employer must ensure that no employee uses any anchorage before the employer has obtained written information from the building owner that each anchorage meets the requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. The employer must keep the information for the duration of the job.

(iii) The requirements in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section must be implemented no later than November 20, 2017.

(2) Use of rope descent systems. The employer must ensure:

(i) No rope descent system is used for heights greater than 300 feet (91 m) above grade unless the employer demonstrates that it is not feasible to access such heights by any other means or that those means pose a greater hazard than using a rope descent system;

(ii) The rope descent system is used in accordance with instructions, warnings, and design limitations set by the manufacturer or under the direction of a qualified person;

(iii) Each employee who uses the rope descent system is trained in accordance with § 1910.30;

(iv) The rope descent system is inspected at the start of each workshift that it is to be used. The employer must ensure damaged or defective equipment is removed from service immediately and replaced;

(v) The rope descent system has proper rigging, including anchorages and tiebacks, with particular emphasis on providing tiebacks when counterweights, cornice hooks, or similar non-permanent anchorages are used;

(vi) Each employee uses a separate, independent personal fall arrest system that meets the requirements of subpart I of this part;

(vii) All components of each rope descent system, except seat boards, are capable of sustaining a minimum rated load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN). Seat boards must be capable of supporting a live load of 300 pounds (136 kg);

(viii) Prompt rescue of each employee is provided in the event of a fall;

(ix) The ropes of each rope descent system are effectively padded or otherwise protected, where they can contact edges of the building, anchorage, obstructions, or other surfaces, to prevent them from being cut or weakened;

(x) Stabilization is provided at the specific work location when descents are greater than 130 feet (39.6 m);

(xi) No employee uses a rope descent system when hazardous weather conditions, such as storms or gusty or excessive wind, are present;

(xii) Equipment, such as tools, squeegees, or buckets, is secured by a tool lanyard or similar method to prevent it from falling; and

(xiii) The ropes of each rope descent system are protected from exposure to open flames, hot work, corrosive chemicals, and other destructive conditions.

[81 FR 82981, Nov. 18, 2016, as amended at 84 FR 68796, Dec. 17, 2019]

§ 1910.28 Duty to have fall protection and falling object protection.

(a) General.

(1) This section requires employers to provide protection for each employee exposed to fall and falling object hazards. Unless stated otherwise, the employer must ensure that all fall protection and falling object protection required by this section meet the criteria in § 1910.29, except that personal fall protection systems required by this section meet the criteria of § 1910.140.

(2) This section does not apply:

(i) To portable ladders;

(ii) When employers are inspecting, investigating, or assessing workplace conditions or work to be performed prior to the start of work or after all work has been completed. This exemption does not apply when fall protection systems or equipment meeting the requirements of § 1910.29 have been installed and are available for workers to use for pre-work and post-work inspections, investigations, or assessments;

(iii) To fall hazards presented by the exposed perimeters of entertainment stages and the exposed perimeters of rail-station platforms;

(iv) To powered platforms covered by § 1910.66(j);

(v) To aerial lifts covered by § 1910.67(c)(2)(v);

(vi) To telecommunications work covered by § 1910.268(n)(7) and (8); and

(vii) To electric power generation, transmission, and distribution work covered by § 1910.269(g)(2)(i).

(b) Protection from fall hazards -

(1) Unprotected sides and edges.

(i) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, the employer must ensure that each employee on a walking-working surface with an unprotected side or edge that is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protected from falling by one or more of the following:

(A) Guardrail systems;

(B) Safety net systems; or

(C) Personal fall protection systems, such as personal fall arrest, travel restraint, or positioning systems.

(ii) When the employer can demonstrate that it is not feasible or creates a greater hazard to use guardrail, safety net, or personal fall protection systems on residential roofs, the employer must develop and implement a fall protection plan that meets the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.502(k) and training that meets the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.503(a) and (c).

Note to paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section:

There is a presumption that it is feasible and will not create a greater hazard to use at least one of the above-listed fall protection systems specified in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. Accordingly, the employer has the burden of establishing that it is not feasible or creates a greater hazard to provide the fall protection systems specified in paragraph (b)(1)(i) and that it is necessary to implement a fall protection plan that complies with § 1926.502(k) in the particular work operation, in lieu of implementing any of those systems.

(iii) When the employer can demonstrate that the use of fall protection systems is not feasible on the working side of a platform used at a loading rack, loading dock, or teeming platform, the work may be done without a fall protection system, provided:

(A) The work operation for which fall protection is infeasible is in process;

(B) Access to the platform is limited to authorized employees; and,

(C) The authorized employees are trained in accordance with § 1910.30.

(2) Hoist areas. The employer must ensure:

(i) Each employee in a hoist area is protected from falling 4 feet (1.2 m) or more to a lower level by:

(A) A guardrail system;

(B) A personal fall arrest system; or

(C) A travel restraint system.

(ii) When any portion of a guardrail system, gate, or chains is removed, and an employee must lean through or over the edge of the access opening to facilitate hoisting, the employee is protected from falling by a personal fall arrest system.

(iii) If grab handles are installed at hoist areas, they meet the requirements of § 1910.29(l).

(3) Holes. The employer must ensure:

(i) Each employee is protected from falling through any hole (including skylights) that is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level by one or more of the following:

(A) Covers;

(B) Guardrail systems;

(C) Travel restraint systems; or

(D) Personal fall arrest systems.

(ii) Each employee is protected from tripping into or stepping into or through any hole that is less than 4 feet (1.2 m) above a lower level by covers or guardrail systems.

(iii) Each employee is protected from falling into a stairway floor hole by a fixed guardrail system on all exposed sides, except at the stairway entrance. However, for any stairway used less than once per day where traffic across the stairway floor hole prevents the use of a fixed guardrail system (e.g., holes located in aisle spaces), the employer may protect employees from falling into the hole by using a hinged floor hole cover that meets the criteria in § 1910.29 and a removable guardrail system on all exposed sides, except at the entrance to the stairway.

(iv) Each employee is protected from falling into a ladderway floor hole or ladderway platform hole by a guardrail system and toeboards erected on all exposed sides, except at the entrance to the hole, where a self-closing gate or an offset must be used.

(v) Each employee is protected from falling through a hatchway and chute-floor hole by:

(A) A hinged floor-hole cover that meets the criteria in § 1910.29 and a fixed guardrail system that leaves only one exposed side. When the hole is not in use, the employer must ensure the cover is closed or a removable guardrail system is provided on the exposed sides;

(B) A removable guardrail system and toeboards on not more than two sides of the hole and a fixed guardrail system on all other exposed sides. The employer must ensure the removable guardrail system is kept in place when the hole is not in use; or

(C) A guardrail system or a travel restraint system when a work operation necessitates passing material through a hatchway or chute floor hole.

(4) Dockboards.

(i) The employer must ensure that each employee on a dockboard is protected from falling 4 feet (1.2 m) or more to a lower level by a guardrail system or handrails.

(ii) A guardrail system or handrails are not required when:

(A) Dockboards are being used solely for materials-handling operations using motorized equipment;

(B) Employees engaged in these operations are not exposed to fall hazards greater than 10 feet (3 m); and

(C) Those employees have been trained in accordance with § 1910.30.

(5) Runways and similar walkways.

(i) The employer must ensure each employee on a runway or similar walkway is protected from falling 4 feet (1.2 m) or more to a lower level by a guardrail system.

(ii) When the employer can demonstrate that it is not feasible to have guardrails on both sides of a runway used exclusively for a special purpose, the employer may omit the guardrail on one side of the runway, provided the employer ensures:

(A) The runway is at least 18 inches (46 cm) wide; and

(B) Each employee is provided with and uses a personal fall arrest system or travel restraint system.

(6) Dangerous equipment. The employer must ensure:

(i) Each employee less than 4 feet (1.2 m) above dangerous equipment is protected from falling into or onto the dangerous equipment by a guardrail system or a travel restraint system, unless the equipment is covered or guarded to eliminate the hazard.

(ii) Each employee 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above dangerous equipment must be protected from falling by:

(A) Guardrail systems;

(B) Safety net systems;

(C) Travel restraint systems; or

(D) Personal fall arrest systems.

(7) Openings. The employer must ensure that each employee on a walking-working surface near an opening, including one with a chute attached, where the inside bottom edge of the opening is less than 39 inches (99 cm) above that walking-working surface and the outside bottom edge of the opening is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protected from falling by the use of:

(i) Guardrail systems;

(ii) Safety net systems;

(iii) Travel restraint systems; or,

(iv) Personal fall arrest systems.

(8) Repair pits, service pits, and assembly pits less than 10 feet in depth. The use of a fall protection system is not required for a repair pit, service pit, or assembly pit that is less than 10 feet (3 m) deep, provided the employer:

(i) Limits access within 6 feet (1.8 m) of the edge of the pit to authorized employees trained in accordance with § 1910.30;

(ii) Applies floor markings at least 6 feet (1.8 m) from the edge of the pit in colors that contrast with the surrounding area; or places a warning line at least 6 feet (1.8 m) from the edge of the pit as well as stanchions that are capable of resisting, without tipping over, a force of at least 16 pounds (71 N) applied horizontally against the stanchion at a height of 30 inches (76 cm); or places a combination of floor markings and warning lines at least 6 feet (1.8 m) from the edge of the pit. When two or more pits in a common area are not more than 15 feet (4.5m) apart, the employer may comply by placing contrasting floor markings at least 6 feet (1.8 m) from the pit edge around the entire area of the pits; and

(iii) Posts readily visible caution signs that meet the requirements of § 1910.145 and state “Caution - Open Pit.”

(9) Fixed ladders (that extend more than 24 feet (7.3 m) above a lower level).

(i) For fixed ladders that extend more than 24 feet (7.3 m) above a lower level, the employer must ensure:

(A) Existing fixed ladders. Each fixed ladder installed before November 19, 2018 is equipped with a personal fall arrest system, ladder safety system, cage, or well;

(B) New fixed ladders. Each fixed ladder installed on and after November 19, 2018, is equipped with a personal fall arrest system or a ladder safety system;

(C) Replacement. When a fixed ladder, cage, or well, or any portion of a section thereof, is replaced, a personal fall arrest system or ladder safety system is installed in at least that section of the fixed ladder, cage, or well where the replacement is located; and

(D) Final deadline. On and after November 18, 2036, all fixed ladders are equipped with a personal fall arrest system or a ladder safety system.

(ii) When a one-section fixed ladder is equipped with a personal fall protection or a ladder safety system or a fixed ladder is equipped with a personal fall arrest or ladder safety system on more than one section, the employer must ensure:

(A) The personal fall arrest system or ladder safety system provides protection throughout the entire vertical distance of the ladder, including all ladder sections; and

(B) The ladder has rest platforms provided at maximum intervals of 150 feet (45.7 m).

(iii) The employer must ensure ladder sections having a cage or well:

(A) Are offset from adjacent sections; and

(B) Have landing platforms provided at maximum intervals of 50 feet (15.2 m).

(iv) The employer may use a cage or well in combination with a personal fall arrest system or ladder safety system provided that the cage or well does not interfere with the operation of the system.

(10) Outdoor advertising (billboards).

(i) The requirements in paragraph (b)(9) of this section, and other requirements in subparts D and I of this part, apply to fixed ladders used in outdoor advertising activities.

(ii) When an employee engaged in outdoor advertising climbs a fixed ladder before November 19, 2018 that is not equipped with a cage, well, personal fall arrest system, or a ladder safety system the employer must ensure the employee:

(A) Receives training and demonstrates the physical capability to perform the necessary climbs in accordance with § 1910.29(h);

(B) Wears a body harness equipped with an 18-inch (46 cm) rest lanyard;

(C) Keeps both hands free of tools or material when climbing on the ladder; and

(D) Is protected by a fall protection system upon reaching the work position.

(11) Stairways. The employer must ensure:

(i) Each employee exposed to an unprotected side or edge of a stairway landing that is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protected by a guardrail or stair rail system;

(ii) Each flight of stairs having at least 3 treads and at least 4 risers is equipped with stair rail systems and handrails as follows:

(iii) Each ship stairs and alternating tread type stairs is equipped with handrails on both sides.

(12) Scaffolds and rope descent systems. The employer must ensure:

(i) Each employee on a scaffold is protected from falling in accordance 29 CFR part 1926, subpart L; and

(ii) Each employee using a rope descent system 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protected from falling by a personal fall arrest system.

(13) Work on low-slope roofs.

(i) When work is performed less than 6 feet (1.6 m) from the roof edge, the employer must ensure each employee is protected from falling by a guardrail system, safety net system, travel restraint system, or personal fall arrest system.

(ii) When work is performed at least 6 feet (1.6 m) but less than 15 feet (4.6 m) from the roof edge, the employer must ensure each employee is protected from falling by using a guardrail system, safety net system, travel restraint system, or personal fall arrest system. The employer may use a designated area when performing work that is both infrequent and temporary.

(iii) When work is performed 15 feet (4.6 m) or more from the roof edge, the employer must:

(A) Protect each employee from falling by a guardrail system, safety net system, travel restraint system, or personal fall arrest system or a designated area. The employer is not required to provide any fall protection, provided the work is both infrequent and temporary; and

(B) Implement and enforce a work rule prohibiting employees from going within 15 feet (4.6 m) of the roof edge without using fall protection in accordance with paragraphs (b)(13)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(14) Slaughtering facility platforms.

(i) The employer must protect each employee on the unprotected working side of a slaughtering facility platform that is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level from falling by using:

(A) Guardrail systems; or

(B) Travel restraint systems.

(ii) When the employer can demonstrate the use of a guardrail or travel restraint system is not feasible, the work may be done without those systems provided:

(A) The work operation for which fall protection is infeasible is in process;

(B) Access to the platform is limited to authorized employees; and

(C) The authorized employees are trained in accordance with § 1910.30.

(15) Walking-working surfaces not otherwise addressed. Except as provided elsewhere in this section or by other subparts of this part, the employer must ensure each employee on a walking-working surface 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protected from falling by:

(i) Guardrail systems;

(ii) Safety net systems; or

(iii) Personal fall protection systems, such as personal fall arrest, travel restraint, or positioning systems.

(c) Protection from falling objects. When an employee is exposed to falling objects, the employer must ensure that each employee wears head protection that meets the requirements of subpart I of this part. In addition, the employer must protect employees from falling objects by implementing one or more of the following:

(1) Erecting toeboards, screens, or guardrail systems to prevent objects from falling to a lower level;

(2) Erecting canopy structures and keeping potential falling objects far enough from an edge, hole, or opening to prevent them from falling to a lower level; or

(3) Barricading the area into which objects could fall, prohibiting employees from entering the barricaded area, and keeping objects far enough from an edge or opening to prevent them from falling to a lower level.

§ 1910.29 Fall protection systems and falling object protection - criteria and practices.

(a) General requirements. The employer must:

(1) Ensure each fall protection system and falling object protection, other than personal fall protection systems, that this part requires meets the requirements in this section. The employer must ensure each personal fall protection system meets the requirements in subpart I of this part; and

(2) Provide and install all fall protection systems and falling object protection this subpart requires, and comply with the other requirements in this subpart before any employee begins work that necessitates fall or falling object protection.

(b) Guardrail systems. The employer must ensure guardrail systems meet the following requirements:

(1) The top edge height of top rails, or equivalent guardrail system members, are 42 inches (107 cm), plus or minus 3 inches (8 cm), above the walking-working surface. The top edge height may exceed 45 inches (114 cm), provided the guardrail system meets all other criteria of paragraph (b) of this section (see Figure D-11 of this section).

(2) Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, or equivalent intermediate members are installed between the walking-working surface and the top edge of the guardrail system as follows when there is not a wall or parapet that is at least 21 inches (53 cm) high:

(i) Midrails are installed at a height midway between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking-working surface;

(ii) Screens and mesh extend from the walking-working surface to the top rail and along the entire opening between top rail supports;

(iii) Intermediate vertical members (such as balusters) are installed no more than 19 inches (48 cm) apart; and

(iv) Other equivalent intermediate members (such as additional midrails and architectural panels) are installed so that the openings are not more than 19 inches (48 cm) wide.

(3) Guardrail systems are capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds (890 N) applied in a downward or outward direction within 2 inches (5 cm) of the top edge, at any point along the top rail.

(4) When the 200-pound (890-N) test load is applied in a downward direction, the top rail of the guardrail system must not deflect to a height of less than 39 inches (99 cm) above the walking-working surface.

(5) Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, and other equivalent intermediate members are capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 150 pounds (667 N) applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the intermediate member.

(6) Guardrail systems are smooth-surfaced to protect employees from injury, such as punctures or lacerations, and to prevent catching or snagging of clothing.

(7) The ends of top rails and midrails do not overhang the terminal posts, except where the overhang does not pose a projection hazard for employees.

(8) Steel banding and plastic banding are not used for top rails or midrails.

(9) Top rails and midrails are at least 0.25-inches (0.6 cm) in diameter or in thickness.

(10) When guardrail systems are used at hoist areas, a removable guardrail section, consisting of a top rail and midrail, are placed across the access opening between guardrail sections when employees are not performing hoisting operations. The employer may use chains or gates instead of a removable guardrail section at hoist areas if the employer demonstrates the chains or gates provide a level of safety equivalent to guardrails.

(11) When guardrail systems are used around holes, they are installed on all unprotected sides or edges of the hole.

(12) For guardrail systems used around holes through which materials may be passed:

(i) When materials are being passed through the hole, not more than two sides of the guardrail system are removed; and

(ii) When materials are not being passed through the hole, the hole must be guarded by a guardrail system along all unprotected sides or edges or closed over with a cover.

(13) When guardrail systems are used around holes that serve as points of access (such as ladderways), the guardrail system opening:

(i) Has a self-closing gate that slides or swings away from the hole, and is equipped with a top rail and midrail or equivalent intermediate member that meets the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section; or

(ii) Is offset to prevent an employee from walking or falling into the hole;

(14) Guardrail systems on ramps and runways are installed along each unprotected side or edge.

(15) Manila or synthetic rope used for top rails or midrails are inspected as necessary to ensure that the rope continues to meet the strength requirements in paragraphs (b)(3) and (5) of this section.

Note to paragraph (b) of this section:

The criteria and practices requirements for guardrail systems on scaffolds are contained in 29 CFR part 1926, subpart L.

(c) Safety net systems. The employer must ensure each safety net system meets the requirements in 29 CFR part 1926, subpart M.

(d) Designated areas.

(1) When the employer uses a designated area, the employer must ensure:

(i) Employees remain within the designated area while work operations are underway; and

(ii) The perimeter of the designated area is delineated with a warning line consisting of a rope, wire, tape, or chain that meets the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section.

(2) The employer must ensure each warning line:

(i) Has a minimum breaking strength of 200 pounds (0.89 kN);

(ii) Is installed so its lowest point, including sag, is not less than 34 inches (86 cm) and not more than 39 inches (99 cm) above the walking-working surface;

(iii) Is supported in such a manner that pulling on one section of the line will not result in slack being taken up in adjacent sections causing the line to fall below the limits specified in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section;

(iv) Is clearly visible from a distance of 25 feet (7.6 m) away, and anywhere within the designated area;

(v) Is erected as close to the work area as the task permits; and

(vi) Is erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) from the roof edge for work that is both temporary and infrequent, or not less than 15 feet (4.6 m) for other work.

(3) When mobile mechanical equipment is used to perform work that is both temporary and infrequent in a designated area, the employer must ensure the warning line is erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) from the unprotected side or edge that is parallel to the direction in which the mechanical equipment is operated, and not less than 10 feet (3 m) from the unprotected side or edge that is perpendicular to the direction in which the mechanical equipment is operated.

(e) Covers. The employer must ensure each cover for a hole in a walking-working surface:

(1) Is capable of supporting without failure, at least twice the maximum intended load that may be imposed on the cover at any one time; and

(2) Is secured to prevent accidental displacement.

(f) Handrails and stair rail systems. The employer must ensure:

(1) Height criteria.

(i) Handrails are not less than 30 inches (76 cm) and not more than 38 inches (97 cm), as measured from the leading edge of the stair tread to the top surface of the handrail (see Figure D-12 of this section).

(ii) The height of stair rail systems meets the following:

(A) The height of stair rail systems installed before January 17, 2017 is not less than 30 inches (76 cm) from the leading edge of the stair tread to the top surface of the top rail; and

(B) The height of stair rail systems installed on or after January 17, 2017 is not less than 42 inches (107 cm) from the leading edge of the stair tread to the top surface of the top rail.

(iii) The top rail of a stair rail system may serve as a handrail only when:

(A) The height of the stair rail system is not less than 36 inches (91 cm) and not more than 38 inches (97 cm) as measured at the leading edge of the stair tread to the top surface of the top rail (see Figure D-13 of this section); and

(B) The top rail of the stair rail system meets the other handrail requirements in paragraph (f) of this section.

(2) Finger clearance. The minimum clearance between handrails and any other object is 2.25 inches (5.7 cm).

(3) Surfaces. Handrails and stair rail systems are smooth-surfaced to protect employees from injury, such as punctures or lacerations, and to prevent catching or snagging of clothing.

(4) Openings in stair rails. No opening in a stair rail system exceeds 19 inches (48 cm) at its least dimension.

(5) Handhold. Handrails have the shape and dimension necessary so that employees can grasp the handrail firmly.

(6) Projection hazards. The ends of handrails and stair rail systems do not present any projection hazards.

(7) Strength criteria. Handrails and the top rails of stair rail systems are capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds (890 N) applied in any downward or outward direction within 2 inches (5 cm) of any point along the top edge of the rail.

Figure D-13 - Combination Handrail and Stair Rail

(g) Cages, wells, and platforms used with fixed ladders. The employer must ensure:

(1) Cages and wells installed on fixed ladders are designed, constructed, and maintained to permit easy access to, and egress from, the ladder that they enclose (see Figures D-14 and D-15 of this section);

(2) Cages and wells are continuous throughout the length of the fixed ladder, except for access, egress, and other transfer points;

(3) Cages and wells are designed, constructed, and maintained to contain employees in the event of a fall, and to direct them to a lower landing; and

(4) Platforms used with fixed ladders provide a horizontal surface of at least 24 inches by 30 inches (61 cm by 76 cm).

Note to paragraph (g):

Section 1910.28 establishes the requirements that employers must follow on the use of cages and wells as a means of fall protection.

(h) Outdoor advertising. This paragraph (h) applies only to employers engaged in outdoor advertising operations (see § 1910.28(b)(10)). Employers must ensure that each employee who climbs a fixed ladder without fall protection:

(1) Is physically capable, as demonstrated through observations of actual climbing activities or by a physical examination, to perform the duties that may be assigned, including climbing fixed ladders without fall protection;

(2) Has successfully completed a training or apprenticeship program that includes hands-on training on the safe climbing of ladders and is retrained as necessary to maintain the necessary skills;

(3) Has the skill to climb ladders safely, as demonstrated through formal classroom training or on-the-job training, and performance observation; and

(4) Performs climbing duties as a part of routine work activity.

(i) Ladder safety systems. The employer must ensure:

(1) Each ladder safety system allows the employee to climb up and down using both hands and does not require that the employee continuously hold, push, or pull any part of the system while climbing;

(2) The connection between the carrier or lifeline and the point of attachment to the body harness or belt does not exceed 9 inches (23 cm);

(3) Mountings for rigid carriers are attached at each end of the carrier, with intermediate mountings spaced, as necessary, along the entire length of the carrier so the system has the strength to stop employee falls;

(4) Mountings for flexible carriers are attached at each end of the carrier and cable guides for flexible carriers are installed at least 25 feet (7.6 m) apart but not more than 40 feet (12.2 m) apart along the entire length of the carrier;

(5) The design and installation of mountings and cable guides does not reduce the design strength of the ladder; and

(6) Ladder safety systems and their support systems are capable of withstanding, without failure, a drop test consisting of an 18-inch (41-cm) drop of a 500-pound (227-kg) weight.

(j) Personal fall protection systems. Body belts, harnesses, and other components used in personal fall arrest systems, work positioning systems, and travel restraint systems must meet the requirements of § 1910.140.

(k) Protection from falling objects.

(1) The employers must ensure toeboards used for falling object protection:

(i) Are erected along the exposed edge of the overhead walking-working surface for a length that is sufficient to protect employees below.

(ii) Have a minimum vertical height of 3.5 inches (9 cm) as measured from the top edge of the toeboard to the level of the walking-working surface.

(iii) Do not have more than a 0.25-inch (0.5-cm) clearance or opening above the walking-working surface.

(iv) Are solid or do not have any opening that exceeds 1 inch (3 cm) at its greatest dimension.

(v) Have a minimum height of 2.5 inches (6 cm) when used around vehicle repair, service, or assembly pits. Toeboards may be omitted around vehicle repair, service, or assembly pits when the employer can demonstrate that a toeboard would prevent access to a vehicle that is over the pit.

(vi) Are capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds (222 N) applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the toeboard.

(2) The employer must ensure:

(i) Where tools, equipment, or materials are piled higher than the top of the toeboard, paneling or screening is installed from the toeboard to the midrail of the guardrail system and for a length that is sufficient to protect employees below. If the items are piled higher than the midrail, the employer also must install paneling or screening to the top rail and for a length that is sufficient to protect employees below; and

(ii) All openings in guardrail systems are small enough to prevent objects from falling through the opening.

(3) The employer must ensure canopies used for falling object protection are strong enough to prevent collapse and to prevent penetration by falling objects.

(l) Grab handles. The employer must ensure each grab handle:

(1) Is not less than 12 inches (30 cm) long;

(2) Is mounted to provide at least 3 inches (8 cm) of clearance from the framing or opening; and

(3) Is capable of withstanding a maximum horizontal pull-out force equal to two times the maximum intended load or 200 pounds (890 N), whichever is greater.

[81 FR 82981, Nov. 18, 2016, as amended at 84 FR 68796, Dec. 17, 2019]

§ 1910.30 Training requirements.

(a) Fall hazards.

(1) Before any employee is exposed to a fall hazard, the employer must provide training for each employee who uses personal fall protection systems or who is required to be trained as specified elsewhere in this subpart. Employers must ensure employees are trained in the requirements of this paragraph on or before May 17, 2017.

(2) The employer must ensure that each employee is trained by a qualified person.

(3) The employer must train each employee in at least the following topics:

(i) The nature of the fall hazards in the work area and how to recognize them;

(ii) The procedures to be followed to minimize those hazards;

(iii) The correct procedures for installing, inspecting, operating, maintaining, and disassembling the personal fall protection systems that the employee uses; and

(iv) The correct use of personal fall protection systems and equipment specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, including, but not limited to, proper hook-up, anchoring, and tie-off techniques, and methods of equipment inspection and storage, as specified by the manufacturer.

(b) Equipment hazards.

(1) The employer must train each employee on or before May 17, 2017 in the proper care, inspection, storage, and use of equipment covered by this subpart before an employee uses the equipment.

(2) The employer must train each employee who uses a dockboard to properly place and secure it to prevent unintentional movement.

(3) The employer must train each employee who uses a rope descent system in proper rigging and use of the equipment in accordance with § 1910.27.

(4) The employer must train each employee who uses a designated area in the proper set-up and use of the area.

(c) Retraining. The employer must retrain an employee when the employer has reason to believe the employee does not have the understanding and skill required by paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. Situations requiring retraining include, but are not limited to, the following:

(1) When changes in the workplace render previous training obsolete or inadequate;

(2) When changes in the types of fall protection systems or equipment to be used render previous training obsolete or inadequate; or

(3) When inadequacies in an affected employee's knowledge or use of fall protection systems or equipment indicate that the employee no longer has the requisite understanding or skill necessary to use equipment or perform the job safely.

(d) Training must be understandable. The employer must provide information and training to each employee in a manner that the employee understands.

Subpart E - Exit Routes and Emergency Planning
Authority:

29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), 5-2007 (72 FR 31160), or 4-2010 (75 FR 55355), as applicable; and 29 CFR 1911.

§ 1910.33 Table of contents.

This section lists the sections and paragraph headings contained in §§ 1910.34 through 1910.39.

§ 1910.34 Coverage and definitions.

(a) Every employer is covered.

(b) Exit routes are covered.

(c) Definitions.

§ 1910.35 Compliance with Alternate Exit Route Codes.

§ 1910.36 Design and construction requirements for exit routes.

(a) Basic requirements.

(b) The number of exit routes must be adequate.

(c) Exit discharge.

(d) An exit door must be unlocked.

(e) A side-hinged exit door must be used.

(f) The capacity of an exit route must be adequate.

(g) An exit route must meet minimum height and width requirements.

(h) An outdoor exit route is permitted.

§ 1910.37 Maintenance, safeguards, and operational features for exit routes.

(a) The danger to employees must be minimized.

(b) Lighting and marking must be adequate and appropriate.

(c) The fire retardant properties of paints or solutions must be maintained.

(d) Exit routes must be maintained during construction, repairs, or alterations.

(e) An employee alarm system must be operable.

§ 1910.38 Emergency action plans.

(a) Application.

(b) Written and oral emergency action plans.

(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan.

(d) Employee alarm system.

(e) Training.

(f) Review of emergency action plan.

§ 1910.39 Fire prevention plans.

(a) Application.

(b) Written and oral fire prevention plans.

(c) Minimum elements of a fire prevention plan.

(d) Employee information.

[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002, as amended at 76 FR 33606, June 8, 2011]

§ 1910.34 Coverage and definitions.

(a) Every employer is covered. Sections 1910.34 through 1910.39 apply to workplaces in general industry except mobile workplaces such as vehicles or vessels.

(b) Exits routes are covered. The rules in §§ 1910.34 through 1910.39 cover the minimum requirements for exit routes that employers must provide in their workplace so that employees may evacuate the workplace safely during an emergency. Sections 1910.34 through 1910.39 also cover the minimum requirements for emergency action plans and fire prevention plans.

(c) Definitions.

Electroluminescent means a light-emitting capacitor. Alternating current excites phosphor atoms when placed between the electrically conductive surfaces to produce light. This light source is typically contained inside the device.

Exit means that portion of an exit route that is generally separated from other areas to provide a protected way of travel to the exit discharge. An example of an exit is a two-hour fire resistance-rated enclosed stairway that leads from the fifth floor of an office building to the outside of the building.

Exit access means that portion of an exit route that leads to an exit. An example of an exit access is a corridor on the fifth floor of an office building that leads to a two-hour fire resistance-rated enclosed stairway (the Exit).

Exit discharge means the part of the exit route that leads directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside. An example of an exit discharge is a door at the bottom of a two-hour fire resistance-rated enclosed stairway that discharges to a place of safety outside the building.

Exit route means a continuous and unobstructed path of exit travel from any point within a workplace to a place of safety (including refuge areas). An exit route consists of three parts: The exit access; the exit; and, the exit discharge. (An exit route includes all vertical and horizontal areas along the route.)

High hazard area means an area inside a workplace in which operations include high hazard materials, processes, or contents.

Occupant load means the total number of persons that may occupy a workplace or portion of a workplace at any one time. The occupant load of a workplace is calculated by dividing the gross floor area of the workplace or portion of the workplace by the occupant load factor for that particular type of workplace occupancy. Information regarding the “Occupant load” is located in NFPA 101-2009, Life Safety Code, and in IFC-2009, International Fire Code (incorporated by reference, see § 1910.6).

Refuge area means either:

(1) A space along an exit route that is protected from the effects of fire by separation from other spaces within the building by a barrier with at least a one-hour fire resistance-rating; or

(2) A floor with at least two spaces, separated from each other by smoke-resistant partitions, in a building protected throughout by an automatic sprinkler system that complies with § 1910.159 of this part.

Self-luminous means a light source that is illuminated by a self-contained power source (e.g., tritium) and that operates independently from external power sources. Batteries are not acceptable self-contained power sources. The light source is typically contained inside the device.

[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002, as amended at 76 FR 33606, June 8, 2011]

§ 1910.35 Compliance with alternate exit-route codes.

OSHA will deem an employer demonstrating compliance with the exit-route provisions of NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, 2009 edition, or the exit-route provisions of the International Fire Code, 2009 edition, to be in compliance with the corresponding requirements in §§ 1910.34, 1910.36, and 1910.37 (incorporated by reference, see section § 1910.6).

[76 FR 33606, June 8, 2011]

§ 1910.36 Design and construction requirements for exit routes.

(a) Basic requirements. Exit routes must meet the following design and construction requirements:

(1) An exit route must be permanent. Each exit route must be a permanent part of the workplace.

(2) An exit must be separated by fire resistant materials. Construction materials used to separate an exit from other parts of the workplace must have a one-hour fire resistance-rating if the exit connects three or fewer stories and a two-hour fire resistance-rating if the exit connects four or more stories.

(3) Openings into an exit must be limited. An exit is permitted to have only those openings necessary to allow access to the exit from occupied areas of the workplace, or to the exit discharge. An opening into an exit must be protected by a self-closing fire door that remains closed or automatically closes in an emergency upon the sounding of a fire alarm or employee alarm system. Each fire door, including its frame and hardware, must be listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Section 1910.155(c)(3)(iv)(A) of this part defines “listed” and § 1910.7 of this part defines a “nationally recognized testing laboratory.”

(b) The number of exit routes must be adequate -

(1) Two exit routes. At least two exit routes must be available in a workplace to permit prompt evacuation of employees and other building occupants during an emergency, except as allowed in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. The exit routes must be located as far away as practical from each other so that if one exit route is blocked by fire or smoke, employees can evacuate using the second exit route.

(2) More than two exit routes. More than two exit routes must be available in a workplace if the number of employees, the size of the building, its occupancy, or the arrangement of the workplace is such that all employees would not be able to evacuate safely during an emergency.

(3) A single exit route. A single exit route is permitted where the number of employees, the size of the building, its occupancy, or the arrangement of the workplace is such that all employees would be able to evacuate safely during an emergency.

Note to paragraph (b) of this section:

For assistance in determining the number of exit routes necessary for your workplace, consult NFPA 101-2009, Life Safety Code, or IFC-2009, International Fire Code (incorporated by reference, see § 1910.6).

(c) Exit discharge.

(1) Each exit discharge must lead directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside.

(2) The street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space to which an exit discharge leads must be large enough to accommodate the building occupants likely to use the exit route.

(3) Exit stairs that continue beyond the level on which the exit discharge is located must be interrupted at that level by doors, partitions, or other effective means that clearly indicate the direction of travel leading to the exit discharge.

(d) An exit door must be unlocked.

(1) Employees must be able to open an exit route door from the inside at all times without keys, tools, or special knowledge. A device such as a panic bar that locks only from the outside is permitted on exit discharge doors.

(2) Exit route doors must be free of any device or alarm that could restrict emergency use of the exit route if the device or alarm fails.

(3) An exit route door may be locked from the inside only in mental, penal, or correctional facilities and then only if supervisory personnel are continuously on duty and the employer has a plan to remove occupants from the facility during an emergency.

(e) A side-hinged exit door must be used.

(1) A side-hinged door must be used to connect any room to an exit route.

(2) The door that connects any room to an exit route must swing out in the direction of exit travel if the room is designed to be occupied by more than 50 people or if the room is a high hazard area (i.e., contains contents that are likely to burn with extreme rapidity or explode).

(f) The capacity of an exit route must be adequate.

(1) Exit routes must support the maximum permitted occupant load for each floor served.

(2) The capacity of an exit route may not decrease in the direction of exit route travel to the exit discharge.

Note to paragraph (f) of this section:

Information regarding the “Occupant load” is located in NFPA 101-2009, Life Safety Code, and in IFC-2009, International Fire Code (incorporated by reference, see § 1910.6).

(g) An exit route must meet minimum height and width requirements.

(1) The ceiling of an exit route must be at least seven feet six inches (2.3 m) high. Any projection from the ceiling must not reach a point less than six feet eight inches (2.0 m) from the floor.

(2) An exit access must be at least 28 inches (71.1 cm) wide at all points. Where there is only one exit access leading to an exit or exit discharge, the width of the exit and exit discharge must be at least equal to the width of the exit access.

(3) The width of an exit route must be sufficient to accommodate the maximum permitted occupant load of each floor served by the exit route.

(4) Objects that project into the exit route must not reduce the width of the exit route to less than the minimum width requirements for exit routes.

(h) An outdoor exit route is permitted. Each outdoor exit route must meet the minimum height and width requirements for indoor exit routes and must also meet the following requirements:

(1) The outdoor exit route must have guardrails to protect unenclosed sides if a fall hazard exists;

(2) The outdoor exit route must be covered if snow or ice is likely to accumulate along the route, unless the employer can demonstrate that any snow or ice accumulation will be removed before it presents a slipping hazard;

(3) The outdoor exit route must be reasonably straight and have smooth, solid, substantially level walkways; and

(4) The outdoor exit route must not have a dead-end that is longer than 20 feet (6.2 m).

[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002, as amended at 76 FR 33606, June 8, 2011]

§ 1910.37 Maintenance, safeguards, and operational features for exit routes.

(a) The danger to employees must be minimized.

(1) Exit routes must be kept free of explosive or highly flammable furnishings or other decorations.

(2) Exit routes must be arranged so that employees will not have to travel toward a high hazard area, unless the path of travel is effectively shielded from the high hazard area by suitable partitions or other physical barriers.

(3) Exit routes must be free and unobstructed. No materials or equipment may be placed, either permanently or temporarily, within the exit route. The exit access must not go through a room that can be locked, such as a bathroom, to reach an exit or exit discharge, nor may it lead into a dead-end corridor. Stairs or a ramp must be provided where the exit route is not substantially level.

(4) Safeguards designed to protect employees during an emergency (e.g., sprinkler systems, alarm systems, fire doors, exit lighting) must be in proper working order at all times.

(b) Lighting and marking must be adequate and appropriate.

(1) Each exit route must be adequately lighted so that an employee with normal vision can see along the exit route.

(2) Each exit must be clearly visible and marked by a sign reading “Exit.”

(3) Each exit route door must be free of decorations or signs that obscure the visibility of the exit route door.

(4) If the direction of travel to the exit or exit discharge is not immediately apparent, signs must be posted along the exit access indicating the direction of travel to the nearest exit and exit discharge. Additionally, the line-of-sight to an exit sign must clearly be visible at all times.

(5) Each doorway or passage along an exit access that could be mistaken for an exit must be marked “Not an Exit” or similar designation, or be identified by a sign indicating its actual use (e.g., closet).

(6) Each exit sign must be illuminated to a surface value of at least five foot-candles (54 lux) by a reliable light source and be distinctive in color. Self-luminous or electroluminescent signs that have a minimum luminance surface value of at least .06 footlamberts (0.21 cd/m2) are permitted.

(7) Each exit sign must have the word “Exit” in plainly legible letters not less than six inches (15.2 cm) high, with the principal strokes of the letters in the word “Exit” not less than three-fourths of an inch (1.9 cm) wide.

(c) The fire retardant properties of paints or solutions must be maintained. Fire retardant paints or solutions must be renewed as often as necessary to maintain their fire retardant properties.

(d) Exit routes must be maintained during construction, repairs, or alterations.

(1) During new construction, employees must not occupy a workplace until the exit routes required by this subpart are completed and ready for employee use for the portion of the workplace they occupy.

(2) During repairs or alterations, employees must not occupy a workplace unless the exit routes required by this subpart are available and existing fire protections are maintained, or until alternate fire protection is furnished that provides an equivalent level of safety.

(3) Employees must not be exposed to hazards of flammable or explosive substances or equipment used during construction, repairs, or alterations, that are beyond the normal permissible conditions in the workplace, or that would impede exiting the workplace.

(e) An employee alarm system must be operable. Employers must install and maintain an operable employee alarm system that has a distinctive signal to warn employees of fire or other emergencies, unless employees can promptly see or smell a fire or other hazard in time to provide adequate warning to them. The employee alarm system must comply with § 1910.165.

[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002]

§ 1910.38 Emergency action plans.

(a) Application. An employer must have an emergency action plan whenever an OSHA standard in this part requires one. The requirements in this section apply to each such emergency action plan.

(b) Written and oral emergency action plans. An emergency action plan must be in writing, kept in the workplace, and available to employees for review. However, an employer with 10 or fewer employees may communicate the plan orally to employees.

(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan. An emergency action plan must include at a minimum:

(1) Procedures for reporting a fire or other emergency;

(2) Procedures for emergency evacuation, including type of evacuation and exit route assignments;

(3) Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate critical plant operations before they evacuate;

(4) Procedures to account for all employees after evacuation;

(5) Procedures to be followed by employees performing rescue or medical duties; and

(6) The name or job title of every employee who may be contacted by employees who need more information about the plan or an explanation of their duties under the plan.

(d) Employee alarm system. An employer must have and maintain an employee alarm system. The employee alarm system must use a distinctive signal for each purpose and comply with the requirements in § 1910.165.

(e) Training. An employer must designate and train employees to assist in a safe and orderly evacuation of other employees.

(f) Review of emergency action plan. An employer must review the emergency action plan with each employee covered by the plan:

(1) When the plan is developed or the employee is assigned initially to a job;

(2) When the employee's responsibilities under the plan change; and

(3) When the plan is changed.

[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002]

§ 1910.39 Fire prevention plans.

(a) Application. An employer must have a fire prevention plan when an OSHA standard in this part requires one. The requirements in this section apply to each such fire prevention plan.

(b) Written and oral fire prevention plans. A fire prevention plan must be in writing, be kept in the workplace, and be made available to employees for review. However, an employer with 10 or fewer employees may communicate the plan orally to employees.

(c) Minimum elements of a fire prevention plan. A fire prevention plan must include:

(1) A list of all major fire hazards, proper handling and storage procedures for hazardous materials, potential ignition sources and their control, and the type of fire protection equipment necessary to control each major hazard;

(2) Procedures to control accumulations of flammable and combustible waste materials;

(3) Procedures for regular maintenance of safeguards installed on heat-producing equipment to prevent the accidental ignition of combustible materials;

(4) The name or job title of employees responsible for maintaining equipment to prevent or control sources of ignition or fires; and

(5) The name or job title of employees responsible for the control of fuel source hazards.

(d) Employee information. An employer must inform employees upon initial assignment to a job of the fire hazards to which they are exposed. An employer must also review with each employee those parts of the fire prevention plan necessary for self-protection.

[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002]

Appendix to Subpart E of Part 1910 - Exit Routes, Emergency Action Plans, and Fire Prevention Plans

This appendix serves as a nonmandatory guideline to assist employers in complying with the appropriate requirements of subpart E.

§ 1910.38 Employee emergency plans.

1. Emergency action plan elements. The emergency action plan should address emergencies that the employer may reasonably expect in the workplace. Examples are: fire; toxic chemical releases; hurricanes; tornadoes; blizzards; floods; and others. The elements of the emergency action plan presented in paragraph 1910.38(c) can be supplemented by the following to more effectively achieve employee safety and health in an emergency. The employer should list in detail the procedures to be taken by those employees who have been selected to remain behind to care for essential plant operations until their evacuation becomes absolutely necessary. Essential plant operations may include the monitoring of plant power supplies, water supplies, and other essential services which cannot be shut down for every emergency alarm. Essential plant operations may also include chemical or manufacturing processes which must be shut down in stages or steps where certain employees must be present to assure that safe shut down procedures are completed.

The use of floor plans or workplace maps which clearly show the emergency escape routes should be included in the emergency action plan. Color coding will aid employees in determining their route assignments.

The employer should also develop and explain in detail what rescue and medical first aid duties are to be performed and by whom. All employees are to be told what actions they are to take in these emergency situations that the employer anticipates may occur in the workplace.

2. Emergency evacuation. At the time of an emergency, employees should know what type of evacuation is necessary and what their role is in carrying out the plan. In some cases where the emergency is very grave, total and immediate evacuation of all employees is necessary. In other emergencies, a partial evacuation of nonessential employees with a delayed evacuation of others may be necessary for continued plant operation. In some cases, only those employees in the immediate area of the fire may be expected to evacuate or move to a safe area such as when a local application fire suppression system discharge employee alarm is sounded. Employees must be sure that they know what is expected of them in all such emergency possibilities which have been planned in order to provide assurance of their safety from fire or other emergency.

The designation of refuge or safe areas for evacuation should be determined and identified in the plan. In a building divided into fire zones by fire walls, the refuge area may still be within the same building but in a different zone from where the emergency occurs.

Exterior refuge or safe areas may include parking lots, open fields or streets which are located away from the site of the emergency and which provide sufficient space to accommodate the employees. Employees should be instructed to move away from the exit discharge doors of the building, and to avoid congregating close to the building where they may hamper emergency operations.

3. Emergency action plan training. The employer should assure that an adequate number of employees are available at all times during working hours to act as evacuation wardens so that employees can be swiftly moved from the danger location to the safe areas. Generally, one warden for each twenty employees in the workplace should be able to provide adequate guidance and instruction at the time of a fire emergency. The employees selected or who volunteer to serve as wardens should be trained in the complete workplace layout and the various alternative escape routes from the workplace. All wardens and fellow employees should be made aware of handicapped employees who may need extra assistance, such as using the buddy system, and of hazardous areas to be avoided during emergencies. Before leaving, wardens should check rooms and other enclosed spaces in the workplace for employees who may be trapped or otherwise unable to evacuate the area.

After the desired degree of evacuation is completed, the wardens should be able to account for or otherwise verify that all employees are in the safe areas.

In buildings with several places of employment, employers are encouraged to coordinate their plans with the other employers in the building. A building-wide or standardized plan for the whole building is acceptable provided that the employers inform their respective employees of their duties and responsibilities under the plan. The standardized plan need not be kept by each employer in the multi-employer building, provided there is an accessible location within the building where the plan can be reviewed by affected employees. When multi-employer building-wide plans are not feasible, employers should coordinate their plans with the other employers within the building to assure that conflicts and confusion are avoided during times of emergencies. In multi-story buildings where more than one employer is on a single floor, it is essential that these employers coordinate their plans with each other to avoid conflicts and confusion.

4. Fire prevention housekeeping. The standard calls for the control of accumulations of flammable and combustible waste materials.

It is the intent of this standard to assure that hazardous accumulations of combustible waste materials are controlled so that a fast developing fire, rapid spread of toxic smoke, or an explosion will not occur. This does not necessarily mean that each room has to be swept each day. Employers and employees should be aware of the hazardous properties of materials in their workplaces, and the degree of hazard each poses. Certainly oil soaked rags have to be treated differently than general paper trash in office areas. However, large accumulations of waste paper or corrugated boxes, etc., can pose a significant fire hazard. Accumulations of materials which can cause large fires or generate dense smoke that are easily ignited or may start from spontaneous combustion, are the types of materials with which this standard is concerned. Such combustible materials may be easily ignited by matches, welder's sparks, cigarettes and similar low level energy ignition sources.

5. Maintenance of equipment under the fire prevention plan. Certain equipment is often installed in workplaces to control heat sources or to detect fuel leaks. An example is a temperature limit switch often found on deep-fat food fryers found in restaurants. There may be similar switches for high temperature dip tanks, or flame failure and flashback arrester devices on furnaces and similar heat producing equipment. If these devices are not properly maintained or if they become inoperative, a definite fire hazard exists. Again employees and supervisors should be aware of the specific type of control devices on equipment involved with combustible materials in the workplace and should make sure, through periodic inspection or testing, that these controls are operable. Manufacturers' recommendations should be followed to assure proper maintenance procedures.

[45 FR 60714, Sept. 12, 1980]

Subpart F - Powered Platforms, Manlifts, and Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms
Authority:

29 U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

§ 1910.66 Powered platforms for building maintenance.

(a) Scope. This section covers powered platform installations permanently dedicated to interior or exterior building maintenance of a specific structure or group of structures. This section does not apply to suspended scaffolds (swinging scaffolds) used to service buildings on a temporary basis and covered under subpart D of this part, nor to suspended scaffolds used for construction work and covered under subpart L of 29 CFR part 1926. Building maintenance includes, but is not limited to, such tasks as window cleaning, caulking, metal polishing and reglazing.

(b) Application -

(1) New installations. This section applies to all permanent installations completed after July 23, 1990. Major modifications to existing installations completed after that date are also considered new installations under this section.

(2) Existing installations.

(i) Permanent installations in existence and/or completed before July 23, 1990 shall comply with paragraphs (g), (h), (i), (j) and appendix C to subpart I of this part.

(ii) In addition, permanent installations completed after August 27, 1971, and in existence and/or completed before July 23, 1990, shall comply with appendix D of this section.

(c) Assurance.

(1) Building owners of new installations shall inform the employer before each use in writing that the installation meets the requirements of paragraphs (e)(1) and (f)(1) of this section and the additional design criteria contained in other provisions of paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section relating to: required load sustaining capabilities of platforms, building components, hoisting and supporting equipment; stability factors for carriages, platforms and supporting equipment; maximum horizontal force for movement of carriages and davits; design of carriages, hoisting machines, wire rope and stabilization systems; and design criteria for electrical wiring and equipment.

(2) Building owners shall base the information required in paragraph (c)(1) of this section on the results of a field test of the installation before being placed into service and following any major alteration to an existing installation, as required in paragraph (g)(1) of this section. The assurance shall also be based on all other relevant available information, including, but not limited to, test data, equipment specifications and verification by a registered professional engineer.

(3) Building owners of all installations, new and existing, shall inform the employer in writing that the installation has been inspected, tested, and maintained in compliance with the requirements of paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section and that all anchorages meet the requirements of § 1910.140(c)(13).

(4) The employer shall not permit employees to use the installation prior to receiving assurance from the building owner that the installation meets the requirements contained in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(3) of this section.

(d) Definitions.

Anemometer means an instrument for measuring wind velocity.

Angulated roping means a suspension method where the upper point of suspension is inboard from the attachments on the suspended unit, thus causing the suspended unit to bear against the face of the building.

Building face roller means a rotating cylindrical member designed to ride on the face of the building wall to prevent the platform from abrading the face of the building and to assist in stabilizing the platform.

Building maintenance means operations such as window cleaning, caulking, metal polishing, reglazing, and general maintenance on building surfaces.

Cable means a conductor, or group of conductors, enclosed in a weatherproof sheath, that may be used to supply electrical power and/or control current for equipment or to provide voice communication circuits.

Carriage means a wheeled vehicle used for the horizontal movement and support of other equipment.

Certification means a written, signed and dated statement confirming the performance of a requirement of this section.

Combination cable means a cable having both steel structural members capable of supporting the platform, and copper or other electrical conductors insulated from each other and the structural members by nonconductive barriers.

Competent person means a person who, because of training and experience, is capable of identifying hazardous or dangerous conditions in powered platform installations and of training employees to identify such conditions.

Continuous pressure means the need for constant manual actuation for a control to function.

Control means a mechanism used to regulate or guide the operation of the equipment.

Davit means a device, used singly or in pairs, for suspending a powered platform from work, storage and rigging locations on the building being serviced. Unlike outriggers, a davit reacts its operating load into a single roof socket or carriage attachment.

Equivalent means alternative designs, materials or methods which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in the standard.

Ground rigging means a method of suspending a working platform starting from a safe surface to a point of suspension above the safe surface.

Ground rigged davit means a davit which cannot be used to raise a suspended working platform above the building face being serviced.

Guide button means a building face anchor designed to engage a guide track mounted on a platform.

Guide roller means a rotating cylindrical member, operating separately or as part of a guide assembly, designed to provide continuous engagement between the platform and the building guides or guideways.

Guide shoe means a device attached to the platform designed to provide a sliding contact between the platform and the building guides.

Hoisting machine means a device intended to raise and lower a suspended or supported unit.

Hoist rated load means the hoist manufacturer's maximum allowable operating load.

Installation means all the equipment and all affected parts of a building which are associated with the performance of building maintenance using powered platforms.

Interlock means a device designed to ensure that operations or motions occur in proper sequence.

Intermittent stabilization means a method of platform stabilization in which the angulated suspension wire rope(s) are secured to regularly spaced building anchors.

Lanyard means a flexible line of rope, wire rope or strap which is used to secure the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline or anchorage.

Lifeline means a component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.

Live load means the total static weight of workers, tools, parts, and supplies that the equipment is designed to support.

Obstruction detector means a control that will stop the suspended or supported unit in the direction of travel if an obstruction is encountered, and will allow the unit to move only in a direction away from the obstruction.

Operating control means a mechanism regulating or guiding the operation of equipment that ensures a specific operating mode.

Operating device means a device actuated manually to activate a control.

Outrigger means a device, used singly or in pairs, for suspending a working platform from work, storage, and rigging locations on the building being serviced. Unlike davits, an outrigger reacts its operating moment load as at least two opposing vertical components acting into two or more distinct roof points and/or attachments.

Platform rated load means the combined weight of workers, tools, equipment and other material which is permitted to be carried by the working platform at the installation, as stated on the load rating plate.

Poured socket means the method of providing wire rope terminations in which the ends of the rope are held in a tapered socket by means of poured spelter or resins.

Primary brake means a brake designed to be applied automatically whenever power to the prime mover is interrupted or discontinued.

Prime mover means the source of mechanical power for a machine.

Rated load means the manufacturer's recommended maximum load.

Rated strength means the strength of wire rope, as designated by its manufacturer or vendor, based on standard testing procedures or acceptable engineering design practices.

Rated working load means the combined static weight of men, materials, and suspended or supported equipment.

Registered professional engineer means a person who has been duly and currently registered and licensed by an authority within the United States or its territories to practice the profession of engineering.

Roof powered platform means a working platform where the hoist(s) used to raise or lower the platform is located on the roof.

Roof rigged davit means a davit used to raise the suspended working platform above the building face being serviced. This type of davit can also be used to raise a suspended working platform which has been ground-rigged.

Rope means the equipment used to suspend a component of an equipment installation, i.e., wire rope.

Safe surface means a horizontal surface intended to be occupied by personnel, which is so protected by a fall protection system that it can be reasonably assured that said occupants will be protected against falls.

Secondary brake means a brake designed to arrest the descent of the suspended or supported equipment in the event of an overspeed condition.

Self powered platform means a working platform where the hoist(s) used to raise or lower the platform is mounted on the platform.

Speed reducer means a positive type speed reducing machine.

Stability factor means the ratio of the stabilizing moment to the overturning moment.

Stabilizer tie means a flexible line connecting the building anchor and the suspension wire rope supporting the platform.

Supported equipment means building maintenance equipment that is held or moved to its working position by means of attachment directly to the building or extensions of the building being maintained.

Suspended equipment means building maintenance equipment that is suspended and raised or lowered to its working position by means of ropes or combination cables attached to some anchorage above the equipment.

Suspended scaffold (swinging scaffold) means a scaffold supported on wire or other ropes, used for work on, or for providing access to, vertical sides of structures on a temporary basis. Such scaffold is not designed for use on a specific structure or group of structures.

Tail line means the nonsupporting end of the wire rope used to suspend the platform.

Tie-in guides means the portion of a building that provides continuous positive engagement between the building and a suspended or supported unit during its vertical travel on the face of the building.

Traction hoist means a type of hoisting machine that does not accumulate the suspension wire rope on the hoisting drum or sheave, and is designed to raise and lower a suspended load by the application of friction forces between the suspension wire rope and the drum or sheave.

Transportable outriggers means outriggers designed to be moved from one work location to another.

Trolley carriage means a carriage suspended from an overhead track structure.

Verified means accepted by design, evaluation, or inspection by a registered professional engineer.

Weatherproof means so constructed that exposure to adverse weather conditions will not affect or interfere with the proper use or functions of the equipment or component.

Winding drum hoist means a type of hoisting machine that accumulates the suspension wire rope on the hoisting drum.

Working platform means suspended or supported equipment intended to provide access to the face of a building and manned by persons engaged in building maintenance.

Wrap means one complete turn of the suspension wire rope around the surface of a hoist drum.

(e) Powered platform installations - Affected parts of buildings -

(1) General requirements. The following requirements apply to affected parts of buildings which utilize working platforms for building maintenance.

(i) Structural supports, tie-downs, tie-in guides, anchoring devices and any affected parts of the building included in the installation shall be designed by or under the direction of a registered professional engineer experienced in such design;

(ii) Exterior installations shall be capable of withstanding prevailing climatic conditions;

(iii) The building installation shall provide safe access to, and egress from, the equipment and sufficient space to conduct necessary maintenance of the equipment;

(iv) The affected parts of the building shall have the capability of sustaining all the loads imposed by the equipment; and,

(v) The affected parts of the building shall be designed so as to allow the equipment to be used without exposing employees to a hazardous condition.

(2) Tie-in guides.

(i) The exterior of each building shall be provided with tie-in guides unless the conditions in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) or (e)(2)(iii) of this section are met.

Note:

See figure 1 in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical continuous stabilization system utilizing tie-in guides.

(ii) If angulated roping is employed, tie-in guides required in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section may be eliminated for not more than 75 feet (22.9 m) of the uppermost elevation of the building, if infeasible due to exterior building design, provided an angulation force of at least 10 pounds (44.4 n) is maintained under all conditions of loading.

(iii) Tie-in guides required in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section may be eliminated if one of the guide systems in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(A), (e)(2)(iii)(B) or (e)(2)(iii)(C) of this section is provided, or an equivalent.

(A) Intermittent stabilization system. The system shall keep the equipment in continuous contact with the building facade, and shall prevent sudden horizontal movement of the platform. The system may be used together with continuous positive building guide systems using tie-in guides on the same building, provided the requirements for each system are met.

(1) The maximum vertical interval between building anchors shall be three floors or 50 feet (15.3 m), whichever is less.

(2) Building anchors shall be located vertically so that attachment of the stabilizer ties will not cause the platform suspension ropes to angulate the platform horizontally across the face of the building. The anchors shall be positioned horizontally on the building face so as to be symmetrical about the platform suspension ropes.

(3) Building anchors shall be easily visible to employees and shall allow a stabilizer tie attachment for each of the platform suspension ropes at each vertical interval. If more than two suspension ropes are used on a platform, only the two building-side suspension ropes at the platform ends shall require a stabilizer attachment.

(4) Building anchors which extend beyond the face of the building shall be free of sharp edges or points. Where cables, suspension wire ropes and lifelines may be in contact with the building face, external building anchors shall not interfere with their handling or operation.

(5) The intermittent stabilization system building anchors and components shall be capable of sustaining without failure at least four times the maximum anticipated load applied or transmitted to the components and anchors. The minimum design wind load for each anchor shall be 300 (1334 n) pounds, if two anchors share the wind load.

(6) The building anchors and stabilizer ties shall be capable of sustaining anticipated horizontal and vertical loads from winds specified for roof storage design which may act on the platform and wire ropes if the platform is stranded on a building face. If the building anchors have different spacing than the suspension wire rope or if the building requires different suspension spacings on one platform, one building anchor and stabilizer tie shall be capable of sustaining the wind loads.

Note:

See figure 2 in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical intermittent stabilization system.

(B) Button guide stabilization system.

(1) Guide buttons shall be coordinated with platform mounted equipment of paragraph (f)(5)(vi) of this section.

(2) Guide buttons shall be located horizontally on the building face so as to allow engagement of each of the guide tracks mounted on the platform.

(3) Guide buttons shall be located in vertical rows on the building face for proper engagement of the guide tracks mounted on the platform.

(4) Two guide buttons shall engage each guide track at all times except for the initial engagement.

(5) Guide buttons which extend beyond the face of the building shall be free of sharp edges or points. Where cables, ropes and lifelines may be in contact with the building face, guide buttons shall not interfere with their handling or operation.

(6) Guide buttons, connections and seals shall be capable of sustaining without damage at least the weight of the platform, or provision shall be made in the guide tracks or guide track connectors to prevent the platform and its attachments from transmitting the weight of the platform to the guide buttons, connections and seals. In either case, the minimum design load shall be 300 pounds (1334 n) per building anchor.

Note:

See paragraph (f)(5)(vi) of this section for relevant equipment provisions.

Note:

See figure 3 in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical button guide stabilization system.

(C) System utilizing angulated roping and building face rollers. The system shall keep the equipment in continuous contact with the building facade, and shall prevent sudden horizontal movement of the platform. This system is acceptable only where the suspended portion of the equipment in use does not exceed 130 feet (39.6 m) above a safe surface or ground level, and where the platform maintains no less than 10 pounds (44.4 n) angulation force on the building facade.

(iv) Tie-in guides for building interiors (atriums) may be eliminated when a registered professional engineer determines that an alternative stabilization system, including systems in paragraphs (e)(2)(iii) (A), (B) and (C), or a platform tie-off at each work station will provide equivalent safety.

(3) Roof guarding.

(i) Employees working on roofs while performing building maintenance shall be protected by a perimeter guarding system which meets the requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of § 1910.23 of this part.

(ii) The perimeter guard shall not be more than six inches (152 mm) inboard of the inside face of a barrier, i.e. the parapet wall, or roof edge curb of the building being serviced; however, the perimeter guard location shall not exceed an 18 inch (457 mm) setback from the exterior building face.

(4) Equipment stops. Operational areas for trackless type equipment shall be provided with structural stops, such as curbs, to prevent equipment from traveling outside its intended travel areas and to prevent a crushing or shearing hazard.

(5) Maintenance access. Means shall be provided to traverse all carriages and their suspended equipment to a safe area for maintenance and storage.

(6) Elevated track.

(i) An elevated track system which is located four feet (1.2 m) or more above a safe surface, and traversed by carriage supported equipment, shall be provided with a walkway and guardrail system; or

(ii) The working platform shall be capable of being lowered, as part of its normal operation, to the lower safe surface for access and egress of the personnel and shall be provided with a safe means of access and egress to the lower safe surface.

(7) Tie-down anchors. Imbedded tie-down anchors, fasteners, and affected structures shall be resistant to corrosion.

(8) Cable stabilization.

(i) Hanging lifelines and all cables not in tension shall be stabilized at each 200 foot (61 m) interval of vertical travel of the working platform beyond an initial 200 foot (61 m) distance.

(ii) Hanging cables, other than suspended wire ropes, which are in constant tension shall be stabilized when the vertical travel exceeds an initial 600 foot (183 m) distance, and at further intervals of 600 feet (183 m) or less.

(9) Emergency planning. A written emergency action plan shall be developed and implemented for each kind of working platform operation. This plan shall explain the emergency procedures which are to be followed in the event of a power failure, equipment failure or other emergencies which may be encountered. The plan shall also explain that employees inform themselves about the building emergency escape routes, procedures and alarm systems before operating a platform. Upon initial assignment and whenever the plan is changed the employer shall review with each employee those parts of the plan which the employee must know to protect himself or herself in the event of an emergency.

(10) Building maintenance. Repairs or major maintenance of those building portions that provide primary support for the suspended equipment shall not affect the capability of the building to meet the requirements of this standard.

(11) Electrical requirements. The following electrical requirements apply to buildings which utilize working platforms for building maintenance.

(i) General building electrical installations shall comply with §§ 1910.302 through 1910.308 of this part, unless otherwise specified in this section;

(ii) Building electrical wiring shall be of such capacity that when full load is applied to the equipment power circuit not more than a five percent drop from building service-vault voltage shall occur at any power circuit outlet used by equipment regulated by this section;

(iii) The equipment power circuit shall be an independent electrical circuit that shall remain separate from all other equipment within or on the building, other than power circuits used for hand tools that will be used in conjunction with the equipment. If the building is provided with an emergency power system, the equipment power circuit may also be connected to this system;

(iv) The power circuit shall be provided with a disconnect switch that can be locked in the “OFF” and “ON” positions. The switch shall be conveniently located with respect to the primary operating area of the equipment to allow the operators of the equipment access to the switch;

(v) The disconnect switch for the power circuit shall be locked in the “ON” position when the equipment is in use; and

(vi) An effective two-way voice communication system shall be provided between the equipment operators and persons stationed within the building being serviced. The communications facility shall be operable and shall be manned at all times by persons stationed within the building whenever the platform is being used.

(f) Powered platform installations - Equipment -

(1) General requirements. The following requirements apply to equipment which are part of a powered platform installation, such as platforms, stabilizing components, carriages, outriggers, davits, hoisting machines, wire ropes and electrical components.

(i) Equipment installations shall be designed by or under the direction of a registered professional engineer experienced in such design;

(ii) The design shall provide for a minimum live load of 250 pounds (113.6 kg) for each occupant of a suspended or supported platform;

(iii) Equipment that is exposed to wind when not in service shall be designed to withstand forces generated by winds of at least 100 miles per hour (44.7 m/s) at 30 feet (9.2 m) above grade; and

(iv) Equipment that is exposed to wind when in service shall be designed to withstand forces generated by winds of at least 50 miles per hour (22.4 m/s) for all elevations.

(2) Construction requirements. Bolted connections shall be self-locking or shall otherwise be secured to prevent loss of the connections by vibration.

(3) Suspension methods. Elevated building maintenance equipment shall be suspended by a carriage, outriggers, davits or an equivalent method.

(i) Carriages. Carriages used for suspension of elevated building maintenance equipment shall comply with the following:

(A) The horizontal movement of a carriage shall be controlled so as to ensure its safe movement and allow accurate positioning of the platform for vertical travel or storage;

(B) Powered carriages shall not exceed a traversing speed of 50 feet per minute (0.3 m/s);

(C) The initiation of a traversing movement for a manually propelled carriage on a smooth level surface shall not require a person to exert a horizontal force greater than 40 pounds (444.8 n);

(D) Structural stops and curbs shall be provided to prevent the traversing of the carriage beyond its designed limits of travel;

(E) Traversing controls for a powered carriage shall be of a continuous pressure weatherproof type. Multiple controls when provided shall be arranged to permit operation from only one control station at a time. An emergency stop device shall be provided on each end of a powered carriage for interrupting power to the carriage drive motors;

(F) The operating controls(s) shall be so connected that in the case of suspended equipment, traversing of a carriage is not possible until the suspended portion of the equipment is located at its uppermost designed position for traversing; and is free of contact with the face of the building or building guides. In addition, all protective devices and interlocks are to be in the proper position to allow traversing of the carriage;

(G) Stability for underfoot supported carriages shall be obtained by gravity, by an attachment to a structural support, or by a combination of gravity and a structural support. The use of flowing counterweights to achieve stability is prohibited.

(1) The stability factor against overturning shall not be less than two for horizontal traversing of the carriage, including the effects of impact and wind.

(2) The carriages and their anchorages shall be capable of resisting accidental over-tensioning of the wire ropes suspending the working platform, and this calculated value shall include the effect of one and one-half times the stall capacity of the hoist motor. All parts of the installation shall be capable of withstanding without damage to any part of the installation the forces resulting from the stall load of the hoist and one half the wind load.

(3) Roof carriages which rely on having tie-down devices secured to the building to develop the required stability against overturning shall be provided with an interlock which will prevent vertical platform movement unless the tie-down is engaged;

(H) An automatically applied braking or locking system, or equivalent, shall be provided that will prevent unintentional traversing of power traversed or power assisted carriages;

(I) A manual or automatic braking or locking system or equivalent, shall be provided that will prevent unintentional traversing of manually propelled carriages;

(J) A means to lock out the power supply for the carriage shall be provided;

(K) Safe access to and egress from the carriage shall be provided from a safe surface. If the carriage traverses an elevated area, any operating area on the carriage shall be protected by a guardrail system in compliance with the provisions of paragraph (f)(5)(i)(F) of this section. Any access gate shall be self-closing and self-latching, or provided with an interlock;

(L) Each carriage work station position shall be identified by location markings and/or position indicators; and

(M) The motors shall stall if the load on the hoist motors is at any time in excess of three times that necessary for lifting the working platform with its rated load.

(ii) Transportable outriggers.

(A) Transportable outriggers may be used as a method of suspension for ground rigged working platforms where the point of suspension does not exceed 300 feet (91.5 m) above a safe surface. Tie-in guide system(s) shall be provided which meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

(B) Transportable outriggers shall be used only with self-powered, ground rigged working platforms.

(C) Each transportable outrigger shall be secured with a tie-down to a verified anchorage on the building during the entire period of its use. The anchorage shall be designed to have a stability factor of not less than four against overturning or upsetting of the outrigger.

(D) Access to and egress from the working platform shall be from and to a safe surface below the point of suspension.

(E) Each transportable outrigger shall be designed for lateral stability to prevent roll-over in the event an accidental lateral load is applied to the outrigger. The accidental lateral load to be considered in this design shall be not less than 70 percent of the rated load of the hoist.

(F) Each transportable outrigger shall be designed to support an ultimate load of not less than four times the rated load of the hoist.

(G) Each transportable outrigger shall be so located that the suspension wire ropes for two point suspended working platforms are hung parallel.

(H) A transportable outrigger shall be tied-back to a verified anchorage on the building with a rope equivalent in strength to the suspension rope.

(I) The tie-back rope shall be installed parallel to the centerline of the outrigger.

(iii) Davits.

(A) Every davit installation, fixed or transportable, rotatable or non-rotatable shall be designed and installed to insure that it has a stability factor against overturning of not less than four.

(B) The following requirements apply to roof rigged davit systems:

(1) Access to and egress from the working platform shall be from a safe surface. Access or egress shall not require persons to climb over a building's parapet or guard railing; and

(2) The working platform shall be provided with wheels, casters or a carriage for traversing horizontally.

(C) The following requirements apply to ground rigged davit systems:

(1) The point of suspension shall not exceed 300 feet (91.5 m) above a safe surface. Guide system(s) shall be provided which meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(2) of this section;

(2) Access and egress to and from the working platform shall only be from a safe surface below the point of suspension.

(D) A rotating davit shall not require a horizontal force in excess of 40 pounds (177.9 n) per person to initiate a rotating movement.

(E) The following requirements shall apply to transportable davits:

(1) A davit or part of a davit weighing more than 80 pounds (36 kg) shall be provided with a means for its transport, which shall keep the center of gravity of the davit at or below 36 inches (914 mm) above the safe surface during transport;

(2) A davit shall be provided with a pivoting socket or with a base that will allow the insertion or removal of a davit at a position of not more than 35 degrees above the horizontal, with the complete davit inboard of the building face being serviced; and

(3) Means shall be provided to lock the davit to its socket or base before it is used to suspend the platform.

(4) Hoisting machines.

(i) Raising and lowering of suspended or supported equipment shall be performed only by a hoisting machine.

(ii) Each hoisting machine shall be capable of arresting any overspeed descent of the load.

(iii) Each hoisting machine shall be powered only by air, electric or hydraulic sources.

(iv) Flammable liquids shall not be carried on the working platform.

(v) Each hoisting machine shall be capable of raising or lowering 125 percent of the rated load of the hoist.

(vi) Moving parts of a hoisting machine shall be enclosed or guarded in compliance with paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of § 1910.212 of this part.

(vii) Winding drums, traction drums and sheaves and directional sheaves used in conjunction with hoisting machines shall be compatible with, and sized for, the wire rope used.

(viii) Each winding drum shall be provided with a positive means of attaching the wire rope to the drum. The attachment shall be capable of developing at least four times the rated load of the hoist.

(ix) Each hoisting machine shall be provided with a primary brake and at least one independent secondary brake, each capable of stopping and holding not less than 125 percent of the lifting capacity of the hoist.

(A) The primary brake shall be directly connected to the drive train of the hoisting machine, and shall not be connected through belts, chains, clutches, or set screw type devices. The brake shall automatically set when power to the prime mover is interrupted.

(B)

(1) The secondary brake shall be an automatic emergency type of brake that, if actuated during each stopping cycle, shall not engage before the hoist is stopped by the primary brake.

(2) When a secondary brake is actuated, it shall stop and hold the platform within a vertical distance of 24 inches (609.6 mm).

(x) Any component of a hoisting machine which requires lubrication for its protection and proper functioning shall be provided with a means for that lubrication to be applied.

(5) Suspended equipment -

(i) General requirements.

(A) Each suspended unit component, except suspension ropes and guardrail systems, shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least four times the maximum intended live load applied or transmitted to that component.

(B) Each suspended unit component shall be constructed of materials that will withstand anticipated weather conditions.

(C) Each suspended unit shall be provided with a load rating plate, conspicuously located, stating the unit weight and rated load of the suspended unit.

(D) When the suspension points on a suspended unit are not at the unit ends, the unit shall be capable of remaining continuously stable under all conditions of use and position of the live load, and shall maintain at least a 1.5 to 1 stability factor against unit upset.

(E) Guide rollers, guide shoes or building face rollers shall be provided, and shall compensate for variations in building dimensions and for minor horizontal out-of-level variations of each suspended unit.

(F) Each working platform of a suspended unit shall be secured to the building facade by one or more of the following methods, or by an equivalent method:

(1) Continuous engagement to building anchors as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section;

(2) Intermittent engagement to building anchors as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(A) of this section;

(3) Button guide engagement as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(B) of this section; or

(4) Angulated roping and building face rollers as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(C) of this section.

(G) Each working platform of a suspended unit shall be provided with a guardrail system on all sides which shall meet the following requirements:

(1) The system shall consist of a top guardrail, midrail, and a toeboard;

(2) The top guardrail shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) high and shall be able to withstand at least a 100-pound (444 n) force in any downward or outward direction;

(3) The midrail shall be able to withstand at least a 75-pound (333 n) force in any downward or outward direction; and

(4) The areas between the guardrail and toeboard on the ends and outboard side, and the area between the midrail and toeboard on the inboard side, shall be closed with a material that is capable of withstanding a load of 100 pounds (45.4 KG.) applied horizontally over any area of one square foot (.09 m2). The material shall have all openings small enough to reject passage of life lines and potential falling objects which may be hazardous to persons below.

(5) Toeboards shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds (222 n) applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along the toeboard.

(6) Toeboards shall be three and one-half inches (9 cm) minimum in length from their top edge to the level of the platform floor.

(7) Toeboards shall be securely fastened in place at the outermost edge of the platform and have no more than one-half inch (1.3 cm) clearance above the platform floor.

(8) Toeboards shall be solid or with an opening not over one inch (2.5 cm) in the greatest dimension.

(ii) Two and four-point suspended working platforms.

(A) The working platform shall be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) wide and shall be provided with a minimum of a 12 inch (305 mm) wide passage at or past any obstruction on the platform.

(B) The flooring shall be of a slip-resistant type and shall contain no opening that would allow the passage of life lines, cables and other potential falling objects. If a larger opening is provided, it shall be protected by placing a material under the opening which shall prevent the passage of life lines, cables and potential falling objects.

(C) The working platfrom shall be provided with a means of suspension that will restrict the platform's inboard to outboard roll about its longitudinal axis to a maximum of 15 degrees from a horizontal plane when moving the live load from the inboard to the outboard side of the platform.

(D) Any cable suspended from above the platform shall be provided with a means for storage to prevent accumulation of the cable on the floor of the platform.

(E) All operating controls for the vertical travel of the platform shall be of the continuous-pressure type, and shall be located on the platform.

(F) Each operating station of every working platform shall be provided with a means of interrupting the power supply to all hoist motors to stop any further powered ascent or descent of the platform.

(G) The maximum rated speed of the platform shall not exceed 50 feet per minute (0.3 ms) with single speed hoists, nor 75 feet per minute (0.4 ms) with multi-speed hoists.

(H) Provisions shall be made for securing all tools, water tanks, and other accessories to prevent their movement or accumulation on the floor of the platform.

(I) Portable fire extinguishers conforming to the provisions of §§ 1910.155 and 1910.157 of this part shall be provided and securely attached on all working platforms.

(J) Access to and egress from a working platfrom, except for those that land directly on a safe surface, shall be provided by stairs, ladders, platforms and runways conforming to the provisions of subpart D of this part. Access gates shall be self-closing and self-latching.

(K) Means of access to or egress from a working platform which is 48 inches (1.2 m) or more above a safe surface shall be provided with a guardrail system or ladder handrails that conform to the provisions of subpart D of this part.

(L) The platform shall be provided with a secondary wire rope suspension system if the platform contains overhead structures which restrict the emergency egress of employees. A horizontal lifeline or a direct connection anchorage shall be provided as part of a personal fall arrest system that meets the requirements of subpart I of this part for each employee on such a platform.

(M) A vertical lifeline shall be provided as part of a personal fall arrest system that meets the requirements of subpart I of this part for each employee on a working platform suspended by two or more wire ropes, if the failure of one wire rope or suspension attachment will cause the platform to upset. If a secondary wire rope suspension is used, vertical lifelines are not required for the personal fall arrest system, provided that each employee is attached to a horizontal lifeline anchored to the platform.

(N) An emergency electric operating device shall be provided on roof powered platforms near the hoisting machine for use in the event of failure of the normal operating device located on the working platform, or failure of the cable connected to the platform. The emergency electric operating device shall be mounted in a secured compartment, and the compartment shall be labeled with instructions for use. A means for opening the compartment shall be mounted in a break-glass receptable located near the emergency electric operating device or in an equivalent secure and accessible location.

(iii) Single point suspended working platforms. (A) The requirements of paragraphs (f)(5)(ii)

(A) through (K) of this section shall also apply to a single point working platform.

(B) Each single point suspended working platform shall be provided with a secondary wire rope suspension system which will prevent the working platform from falling should there be a failure of the primary means of support, or if the platform contains overhead structures which restrict the egress of the employees. A horizontal life line or a direct connection anchorage shall be provided as part of a personal fall arrest system that meets the requirements of subpart I of this part for each employee on the platform.

(iv) Ground-rigged working platforms. (A) Groundrigged working platforms shall comply with all the requirements of paragraphs (f)(5)(ii)

(A) through (M) of this section.

(B) After each day's use, the power supply within the building shall be disconnected from a ground-rigged working platform, and the platform shall be either disengaged from its suspension points or secured and stored at grade.

(v) Intermittently stabilized platforms. (A) The platform shall comply with paragraphs (F)(5)(ii)

(A) through (M) of this section.

(B) Each stabilizer tie shall be equipped with a “quick connect-quick disconnect” device which cannot be accidently disengaged, for attachment to the building anchor, and shall be resistant to adverse environmental conditions.

(C) The platform shall be provided with a stopping device that will interrupt the hoist power supply in the event the platform contacts a stabilizer tie during its ascent.

(D) Building face rollers shall not be placed at the anchor setting if exterior anchors are used on the building face.

(E) Stabilizer ties used on intermittently stabilized platforms shall allow for the specific attachment length needed to effect the predetermined angulation of the suspended wire rope. The specific attachment length shall be maintained at all building anchor locations.

(F) The platform shall be in continuous contact with the face of the building during ascent and descent.

(G) The attachment and removal of stabilizer ties shall not require the horizontal movement of the platform.

(H) The platform-mounted equipment and its suspension wire ropes shall not be physically damaged by the loads from the stabilizer tie or its building anchor. The platform, platform mounted equipment and wire ropes shall be able to withstand a load that is at least twice the ultimate strength of the stabilizer tie.

Note:

See figure II in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical intermittent stabilization system.

(vi) Button-guide stabilized platforms. (A) The platform shall comply with paragraphs (f)(5)(ii)

(A) through (M) of this section.

(B) Each guide track on the platform shall engage a minimum of two guide buttons during any vertical travel of the platform following the initial button engagement.

(C) Each guide track on a platform that is part of a roof rigged system shall be provided with a storage position on the platform.

(D) Each guide track on the platform shall be sufficiently maneuverable by platform occupants to permit easy engagement of the guide buttons, and easy movement into and out of its storage position on the platform.

(E) Two guide tracks shall be mounted on the platform and shall provide continuous contact with the building face.

(F) The load carrying components of the button guide stabilization system which transmit the load into the platform shall be capable of supporting the weight of the platform, or provision shall be made in the guide track connectors or platform attachments to prevent the weight of the platform from being transmitted to the platform attachments.

Note:

See figure III in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical button guide stabilization system.

(6) Supported equipment.

(i) Supported equipment shall maintain a vertical position in respect to the face of the building by means other than friction.

(ii) Cog wheels or equivalent means shall be incorporated to provide climbing traction between the supported equipment and the building guides. Additional guide wheels or shoes shall be incorporated as may be necessary to ensure that the drive wheels are continuously held in positive engagement with the building guides.

(iii) Launch guide mullions indexed to the building guides and retained in alignment with the building guides shall be used to align drive wheels entering the building guides.

(iv) Manned platforms used on supported equipment shall comply with the requirements of paragraphs (f)(5)(ii)(A), (f)(5)(ii)(B), and (f)(5)(ii) (D) through (K) of this section covering suspended equipment.

(7) Suspension wire ropes and rope connections.

(i) Each specific installation shall use suspension wire ropes or combination cable and connections meeting the specification recommended by the manufacturer of the hoisting machine used. Connections shall be capable of developing at least 80 percent of the rated breaking strength of the wire rope.

(ii) Each suspension rope shall have a “Design Factor” of at least 10. The “Design Factor” is the ratio of the rated strength of the suspension wire rope to the rated working load, and shall be calculated using the following formula:

Where:

F = Design factor

S = Manufacturer's rated strength of one suspension rope

N = Number of suspension ropes under load

W = Rated working load on all ropes at any point of travel

(iii) Suspension wire rope grade shall be at least improved plow steel or equivalent.

(iv) Suspension wire ropes shall be sized to conform with the required design factor, but shall not be less than5/16 inch (7.94 mm) in diameter.

(v) No more than one reverse bend in six wire rope lays shall be permitted.

(vi) A corrosion-resistant tag shall be securely attached to one of the wire rope fastenings when a suspension wire rope is to be used at a specific location and will remain in that location. This tag shall bear the following wire rope data:

(A) The diameter (inches and/or mm);

(B) Construction classification;

(C) Whether non-preformed or preformed;

(D) The grade of material;

(E) The manufacturer's rated strength;

(F) The manufacturer's name;

(G) The month and year the ropes were installed; and

(H) The name of the person or company which installed the ropes.

(vii) A new tag shall be installed at each rope renewal.

(viii) The original tag shall be stamped with the date of the resocketing, or the original tag shall be retained and a supplemental tag shall be provided when ropes are resocketed. The supplemental tag shall show the date of resocketing and the name of the person or company that resocketed the rope.

(ix) Winding drum type hoists shall contain at least three wraps of the suspension wire rope on the drum when the suspended unit has reached the lowest possible point of its vertical travel.

(x) Traction drum and sheave type hoists shall be provided with a wire rope of sufficient length to reach the lowest possible point of vertical travel of the suspended unit, and an additional length of the wire rope of at least four feet (1.2 m).

(xi) The lengthening or repairing of suspension wire ropes is prohibited.

(xii) Babbitted fastenings for suspension wire rope are prohibited.

(8) Control circuits, power circuits and their components.

(i) Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply with subpart S of this part, except as otherwise required by this section.

(ii) Electrical runway conductor systems shall be of a type designed for use in exterior locations, and shall be located so that they do not come into contact with accumulated snow or water.

(iii) Cables shall be protected against damage resulting from overtensioning or from other causes.

(iv) Devices shall be included in the control system for the equipment which will provide protection against electrical overloads, three phase reversal and phase failure. The control system shall have a separate method, independent of the direction control circuit, for breaking the power circuit in case of an emergency or malfunction.

(v) Suspended or supported equipment shall have a control system which will require the operator of the equipment to follow predetermined procedures.

(vi) The following requirements shall apply to electrical protection devices:

(A) On installations where the carriage does not have a stability factor of at least four against overturning, electrical contact(s) shall be provided and so connected that the operating devices for the suspended or supported equipment shall be operative only when the carriage is located and mechanically retained at an established operating point.

(B) Overload protection shall be provided in the hoisting or suspension system to protect against the equipment operating in the “up” direction with a load in excess of 125 percent of the rated load of the platform; and

(C) An automatic detector shall be provided for each suspension point that will interrupt power to all hoisting motors for travel in the “down” direction, and apply the primary brakes if any suspension wire rope becomes slack. A continuous-pressure rigging-bypass switch designed for use during rigging is permitted. This switch shall only be used during rigging.

(vii) Upper and lower directional switches designed to prevent the travel of suspended units beyond safe upward and downward levels shall be provided.

(viii) Emergency stop switches shall be provided on remote controlled, roof-powered manned platforms adjacent to each control station on the platform.

(ix) Cables which are in constant tension shall have overload devices which will prevent the tension in the cable from interfering with the load limiting device required in paragraph (f)(8)(vi)(B) of this section, or with the platform roll limiting device required in paragraph (f)(5)(ii)(C) of this section. The setting of these devices shall be coordinated with other overload settings at the time of design of the system, and shall be clearly indicated on or near the device. The device shall interrupt the equipment travel in the “down” direction.

(g) Inspection and tests -

(1) Installations and alterations. All completed building maintenance equipment installations shall be inspected and tested in the field before being placed in initial service to determine that all parts of the installation conform to applicable requirements of this standard, and that all safety and operating equipment is functioning as required. A similar inspection and test shall be made following any major alteration to an existing installation. No hoist in an installation shall be subjected to a load in excess of 125 percent of its rated load.

(2) Periodic inspections and tests.

(i) Related building supporting structures shall undergo periodic inspection by a competent person at intervals not exceeding 12 months.

(ii) All parts of the equipment including control systems shall be inspected, and, where necessary, tested by a competent person at intervals specified by the manufacturer/supplier, but not to exceed 12 months, to determine that they are in safe operating condition. Parts subject to wear, such as wire ropes, bearings, gears, and governors shall be inspected and/or tested to determine that they have not worn to such an extent as to affect the safe operation of the installation.

(iii) The building owner shall keep a certification record of each inspection and test required under paragraphs (g)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section. The certification record shall include the date of the inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection, and the number, or other identifier, of the building support structure and equipment which was inspected. This certification record shall be kept readily available for review by the Assistant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant Secretary's representative and by the employer.

(iv) Working platforms and their components shall be inspected by the employer for visible defects before every use and after each occurrence which could affect the platform's structural integrity.

(3) Maintenance inspections and tests.

(i) A maintenance inspection and, where necessary, a test shall be made of each platform installation every 30 days, or where the work cycle is less than 30 days such inspection and/or test shall be made prior to each work cycle. This inspection and test shall follow procedures recommended by the manufacturer, and shall be made by a competent person.

(ii) The building owner shall keep a certification record of each inspection and test performed under paragraph (g)(3)(i) of this section. The certification record shall include the date of the inspection and test, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and/or test, and an identifier for the platform installation which was inspected. The certification record shall be kept readily available for review by the Assistant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant Secretary's representative and by the employer.

(4) Special inspection of governors and secondary brakes.

(i) Governors and secondary brakes shall be inspected and tested at intervals specified by the manufacturer/supplier but not to exceed every 12 months.

(ii) The results of the inspection and test shall confirm that the initiating device for the secondary braking system operates at the proper overspeed.

(iii) The results of the inspection and test shall confirm that the secondary brake is functioning properly.

(iv) If any hoisting machine or initiating device for the secondary brake system is removed from the equipment for testing, all reinstalled and directly related components shall be reinspected prior to returning the equipment installation to service.

(v) Inspection of governors and secondary brakes shall be performed by a competent person.

(vi) The secondary brake governor and actuation device shall be tested before each day's use. Where testing is not feasible, a visual inspection of the brake shall be made instead to ensure that it is free to operate.

(5) Suspension wire rope maintenance, inspection and replacement.

(i) Suspension wire rope shall be maintained and used in accordance with procedures recommended by the wire rope manufacturer.

(ii) Suspension wire rope shall be inspected by a competent person for visible defects and gross damage to the rope before every use and after each occurrence which might affect the wire rope's integrity.

(iii) A thorough inspection of suspension wire ropes in service shall be made once a month. Suspension wire ropes that have been inactive for 30 days or longer shall have a thorough inspection before they are placed into service. These thorough inspections of suspension wire ropes shall be performed by a competent person.

(iv) The need for replacement of a suspension wire rope shall be determined by inspection and shall be based on the condition of the wire rope. Any of the following conditions or combination of conditions will be cause for removal of the wire rope:

(A) Broken wires exceeding three wires in one strand or six wires in one rope lay;

(B) Distortion of rope structure such as would result from crushing or kinking;

(C) Evidence of heat damage;

(D) Evidence of rope deterioration from corrosion;

(E) A broken wire within 18 inches (460.8 mm) of the end attachments;

(F) Noticeable rusting and pitting;

(G) Evidence of core failure (a lengthening of rope lay, protrusion of the rope core and a reduction in rope diameter suggests core failure); or

(H) More than one valley break (broken wire).

(I) Outer wire wear exceeds one-third of the original outer wire diameter.

(J) Any other condition which the competent person determines has significantly affected the integrity of the rope.

(v) The building owner shall keep a certification record of each monthly inspection of a suspension wire rope as required in paragraph (g)(5)(iii) of this section. The record shall include the date of the inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection, and a number, or other identifier, of the wire rope which was inspected. This record of inspection shall be made available for review by the Assistant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant Secretary's representative and by the employer.

(6) Hoist inspection. Before lowering personnel below the top elevation of the building, the hoist shall be tested each day in the lifting direction with the intended load to make certain it has sufficient capacity to raise the personnel back to the boarding level.

(h) Maintenance -

(1) General maintenance. All parts of the equipment affecting safe operation shall be maintained in proper working order so that they may perform the functions for which they were intended. The equipment shall be taken out of service when it is not in proper working order.

(2) Cleaning.

(i) Control or power contactors and relays shall be kept clean.

(ii) All other parts shall be kept clean if their proper functioning would be affected by the presence of dirt or other contaminants.

(3) Periodic resocketing of wire rope fastenings.

(i) Hoisting ropes utilizing poured socket fastenings shall be resocketed at the non-drum ends at intervals not exceeding 24 months. In resocketing the ropes, a sufficient length shall be cut from the end of the rope to remove damaged or fatigued portions.

(ii) Resocketed ropes shall conform to the requirements of paragraph (f)(7) of this section.

(iii) Limit switches affected by the resocketed ropes shall be reset, if necessary.

(4) Periodic reshackling of suspension wire ropes. The hoisting ropes shall be reshackled at the nondrum ends at intervals not exceeding 24 months. When reshackling the ropes, a sufficient length shall be cut from the end of the rope to remove damaged or fatigued portions.

(5) Roof systems. Roof track systems, tie-downs, or similar equipment shall be maintained in proper working order so that they perform the function for which they were intended.

(6) Building face guiding members. T-rails, indented mullions, or equivalent guides located in the face of a building shall be maintained in proper working order so that they perform the functions for which they were intended. Brackets for cable stabilizers shall similarly be maintained in proper working order.

(7) Inoperative safety devices. No person shall render a required safety device or electrical protective device inoperative, except as necessary for tests, inspections, and maintenance. Immediately upon completion of such tests, inspections and maintenance, the device shall be restored to its normal operating condition.

(i) Operations -

(1) Training.

(i) Working platforms shall be operated only by persons who are proficient in the operation, safe use and inspection of the particular working platform to be operated.

(ii) All employees who operate working platforms shall be trained in the following:

(A) Recognition of, and preventive measures for, the safety hazards associated with their individual work tasks.

(B) General recognition and prevention of safety hazards associated with the use of working platforms, including the provisions in the section relating to the particular working platform to be operated.

(C) Emergency action plan procedures required in paragraph (e)(9) of this section.

(D) Work procedures required in paragraph (i)(1)(iv) of this section.

(E) Personal fall arrest system inspection, care, use and system performance.

(iii) Training of employees in the operation and inspection of working platforms shall be done by a competent person.

(iv) Written work procedures for the operation, safe use and inspection of working platforms shall be provided for employee training. Pictorial methods of instruction, may be used, in lieu of written work procedures, if employee communication is improved using this method. The operating manuals supplied by manufacturers for platform system components can serve as the basis for these procedures.

(v) The employer shall certify that employees have been trained in operating and inspecting a working platform by preparing a certification record which includes the identity of the person trained, the signature of the employer or the person who conducted the training and the date that training was completed. The certification record shall be prepared at the completion of the training required in paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section, and shall be maintained in a file for the duration of the employee's employment. The certification record shall be kept readily available for review by the Assistant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant Secretary's representative.

(2) Use.

(i) Working platforms shall not be loaded in excess of the rated load, as stated on the platform load rating plate.

(ii) Employees shall be prohibited from working on snow, ice, or other slippery material covering platforms, except for the removal of such materials.

(iii) Adequate precautions shall be taken to protect the platform, wire ropes and life lines from damage due to acids or other corrosive substances, in accordance with the recommendations of the corrosive substance producer, supplier, platform manufacturer or other equivalent information sources. Platform members which have been exposed to acids or other corrosive substances shall be washed down with a neutralizing solution, at a frequency recommended by the corrosive substance producer or supplier.

(iv) Platform members, wire ropes and life lines shall be protected when using a heat producing process. Wire ropes and life lines which have been contacted by the heat producing process shall be considered to be permanently damaged and shall not be used.

(v) The platform shall not be operated in winds in excess of 25 miles per hour (40.2 km/hr) except to move it from an operating to a storage position. Wind speed shall be determined based on the best available information, which includes on-site anemometer readings and local weather forecasts which predict wind velocities for the area.

(vi) On exterior installations, an anemometer shall be mounted on the platform to provide information of on-site wind velocities prior to and during the use of the platform. The anemometer may be a portable (hand held) unit which is temporarily mounted during platform use.

(vii) Tools, materials and debris not related to the work in progress shall not be allowed to accumulate on platforms. Stabilizer ties shall be located so as to allow unencumbered passage along the full length of the platform and shall be of such length so as not to become entangled in rollers, hoists or other machinery.

(j) Personal fall protection. Employees on working platforms shall be protected by a personal fall arrest system meeting the requirements of subpart I of this part and as otherwise provided by this standard.

Appendix A to § 1910.66, Guidelines (Advisory)

1. Use of the Appendix. Appendix A provides examples of equipment and methods to assist the employer in meeting the requirements of the indicated provision of the standard. Employers may use other equipment or procedures which conform to the requirements of the standard. This appendix neither adds to nor detracts from the mandatory requirements set forth in § 1910.66.

2. Assurance. Paragraph (c) of the standard requires the building owner to inform the employer in writing that the powered platform installation complies with certain requirements of the standard, since the employer may not have the necessary information to make these determinations. The employer, however, remains responsible for meeting these requirements which have not been set off in paragraph (c)(1).

3. Design Requirements. The design requirements for each installation should be based on the limitations (stresses, deflections, etc.), established by nationally recognized standards as promulgated by the following organizations, or to equivalent standards:

AA - The Aluminum Association, 818 Connecticut Avenue, NW., Washington, DC, 20006

Aluminum Construction Manual

Specifications For Aluminum Structures

Aluminum Standards and Data

AGMA - American Gear Manufacturers Association, 101 North Fort Meyer Dr., Suite 1000, Arlington, VA 22209

AISC - American Institute of Steel Construction, 400 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611

ANSI - American National Standards Institute, Inc., 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018

ASCE - American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017

ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017

ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103

AWS - American Welding Society, Inc., Box 351040, 550 NW. LeJeunne Road, Miami, FL 33126

JIC - Joint Industrial Council, 2139 Wisconsin Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20007

NEMA - National Electric Manufacturers Association, 2101 L Street, NW., Washington, DC 20037

4. Tie-in-guides. Indented mullions, T-rails or other equivalent guides are acceptable as tie-in guides in a building face for a continuous stabilization system. Internal guides are embedded in other building members with only the opening exposed (see Figure 1 of appendix B). External guides, however, are installed external to the other building members and so are fully exposed. The minimum opening for tie-in guides is three-quarters of an inch (19 mm), and the minimum inside dimensions are one-inch (25 mm) deep and two inches (50 mm) wide.

Employers should be aware of the hazards associated with tie-in guides in a continuous stabilization system which was not designed properly. For example, joints in these track systems may become extended or discontinuous due to installation or building settlement. If this alignment problem is not corrected, the system could jam when a guide roller or guide shoe strikes a joint and this would cause a hazardous situation for employees. In another instance, faulty design will result in guide rollers being mounted in a line so they will jam in the track at the slightest misalignment.

5. Building anchors (intermittent stabilization system). In the selection of the vertical distance between building anchors, certain factors should be given consideration. These factors include building height and architectural design, platform length and weight, wire rope angulation, and the wind velocities in the building area. Another factor to consider is the material of the building face, since this material may be adversely affected by the building rollers.

External or indented type building anchors are acceptable. Receptacles in the building facade used for the indented type should be kept clear of extraneous materials which will hinder their use. During the inspection of the platform installation, evidence of a failure or abuse of the anchors should be brought to the attention of the employer.

6. Stabilizer tie length. A stabilizer tie should be long enough to provide for the planned angulation of the suspension cables. However, the length of the tie should not be excessive and become a problem by possibly becoming entangled in the building face rollers or parts of the platform machinery.

The attachment length may vary due to material elongation and this should be considered when selecting the material to be used. Consideration should also be given to the use of ties which are easily installed by employees, since this will encourage their use.

7. Intermittent stabilization system. Intermittent stabilization systems may use different equipment, tie-in devices and methods to restrict the horizontal movement of a powered platform with respect to the face of the building. One acceptable method employs corrosion-resistant building anchors secured in the face of the building in vertical rows every third floor or 50 feet (15.3 m), whichever is less. The anchors are spaced horizontally to allow a stabilization attachment (stabilizer tie) for each of the two platform suspension wire ropes. The stabilizer tie consists of two parts. One part is a quick connect-quick disconnect device which utilizes a corrosion-resistant yoke and retainer spring that is designed to fit over the building anchors. The second part of the stabilizer tie is a lanyard which is used to maintain a fixed distance between the suspension wire rope and the face of the building.

In this method, as the suspended powered platform descends past the elevation of each anchor, the descent is halted and each of the platform occupants secures a stabilizer tie between a suspension wire rope and a building anchor. The procedure is repeated as each elevation of a building anchor is reached during the descent of the powered platform.

As the platform ascends, the procedure is reversed; that is, the stabilizer ties are removed as each elevation of a building anchor is reached. The removal of each stabilizer tie is assured since the platform is provided with stopping devices which will interrupt power to its hoist(s) in the event either stopping device contacts a stabilizer during the ascent of the platform.

Figure 2 of appendix B illustrates another type of acceptable intermittent stabilization system which utilizes retaining pins as the quick connect-quick disconnect device in the stabilizer tie.

8. Wire Rope Inspection. The inspection of the suspension wire rope is important since the rope gradually loses strength during its useful life. The purpose of the inspection is to determine whether the wire rope has sufficient integrity to support a platform with the required design factor.

If there is any doubt concerning the condition of a wire rope or its ability to perform the required work, the rope should be replaced. The cost of wire rope replacement is quite small if compared to the cost in terms of human injuries, equipment down time and replacement.

No listing of critical inspection factors, which serve as a basis for wire rope replacement in the standard, can be a substitute for an experienced inspector of wire rope. The listing serves as a user's guide to the accepted standards by which ropes must be judged.

Rope life can be prolonged if preventive maintenance is performed regularly. Cutting off an appropriate length of rope at the end termination before the core degrades and valley breaks appear minimizes degradation at these sections.

9. General Maintenance. In meeting the general maintenance requirement in paragraph (h)(1) of the standard, the employer should undertake the prompt replacement of broken, worn and damaged parts, switch contacts, brushes, and short flexible conductors of electrical devices. The components of the electrical service system and traveling cables should be replaced when damaged or significantly abraded. In addition, gears, shafts, bearings, brakes and hoisting drums should be kept in proper alignment.

10. Training. In meeting the training requirement of paragraph (i)(1) of the standard, employers should use both on the job training and formal classroom training. The written work procedures used for this training should be obtained from the manufacturer, if possible, or prepared as necessary for the employee's information and use.

Employees who will operate powered platforms with intermittent stabilization systems should receive instruction in the specific ascent and descent procedures involving the assembly and disassembly of the stabilizer ties.

An acceptable training program should also include employee instruction in basic inspection procedures for the purpose of determining the need for repair and replacement of platform equipment. In addition, the program should cover the inspection, care and use of the personal fall protection equipment required in paragraph (j)(1) of the standard.

In addition, the training program should also include emergency action plan elements. OSHA brochure #1B3088 (Rev.) 1985, “How to Prepare for Workplace Emergencies,” details the basic steps needed to prepare to handle emergencies in the workplace.

Following the completion of a training program, the employee should be required to demonstrate competency in operating the equipment safely. Supplemental training of the employee should be provided by the employer, as necessary, if the equipment used or other working conditions should change.

An employee who is required to work with chemical products on a platform should receive training in proper cleaning procedures, and in the hazards, care and handling of these products. In addition, the employee should be supplied with the appropriate personal protective equipment, such as gloves and eye and face protection.

11. Suspension and Securing of Powered Platforms (Equivalency). One acceptable method of demonstrating the equivalency of a method of suspending or securing a powered platform, as required in paragraphs (e)(2)(iii), (f)(3) and (f)(5)(i)(F), is to provide an engineering analysis by a registered professional engineer. The analysis should demonstrate that the proposed method will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than any one of the methods specified in the standard.

Appendix B to § 1910.66 - Exhibits (Advisory)

The three drawings in appendix B illustrate typical platform stabilization systems which are addressed in the standard. The drawings are to be used for reference purposes only, and do not illustrate all the mandatory requirements for each system.

Appendix C to § 1910.66 [Reserved]

Appendix D to § 1910.66 - Existing Installations (Mandatory)

Use of the Appendix

Appendix D sets out the mandatory building and equipment requirements for applicable permanent installations completed after August 27, 1971, and no later than July 23, 1990 which are exempt from the paragraphs (a), (b)(1), (b)(2), (c), (d), (e), and (f) of this standard. The requirements in appendix D are essentially the same as unrevised building and equipment provisions which previously were designated as 29 CFR 1910.66 (a), (b), (c) and (d) and which were effective on August 27, 1971.

Note:

All existing installations subject to this appendix shall also comply with paragraphs (g), (h), (i), (j) and appendix C of the standard 29 CFR 1910.66.

(a) Definitions applicable to this appendix - (1) Angulated roping. A system of platform suspension in which the upper wire rope sheaves or suspension points are closer to the plane of the building face than the corresponding attachment points on the platform, thus causing the platform to press against the face of the building during its vertical travel.

(2) ANSI. American National Standards Institute.

(3) Babbitted fastenings. The method of providing wire rope attachments in which the ends of the wire strands are bent back and are held in a tapered socket by means of poured molten babbitt metal.

(4) Brake - disc type. A brake in which the holding effect is obtained by frictional resistance between one or more faces of discs keyed to the rotating member to be held and fixed discs keyed to the stationary or housing member (pressure between the discs being applied axially).

(5) Brake - self-energizing band type. An essentially undirectional brake in which the holding effect is obtained by the snubbing action of a flexible band wrapped about a cylindrical wheel or drum affixed to the rotating member to be held, the connections and linkages being so arranged that the motion of the brake wheel or drum will act to increase the tension or holding force of the band.

(6) Brake - shoe type. A brake in which the holding effect is obtained by applying the direct pressure of two or more segmental friction elements held to a stationary member against a cylindrical wheel or drum affixed to the rotating member to be held.

(7) Building face rollers. A specialized form of guide roller designed to contact a portion of the outer face or wall structure of the building, and to assist in stabilizing the operators' platform during vertical travel.

(8) Continuous pressure. Operation by means of buttons or switches, any one of which may be used to control the movement of the working platform or roof car, only as long as the button or switch is manually maintained in the actuating position.

(9) Control. A system governing starting, stopping, direction, acceleration, speed, and retardation of moving members.

(10) Controller. A device or group of devices, usually contained in a single enclosure, which serves to control in some predetermined manner the apparatus to which it is connected.

(11) Electrical ground. A conducting connection between an electrical circuit or equipment and the earth, or some conducting body which serves in place of the earth.

(12) Guide roller. A rotating, bearing-mounted, generally cylindrical member, operating separately or as part of a guide shoe assembly, attached to the platform, and providing rolling contact with building guideways, or other building contact members.

(13) Guide shoe. An assembly of rollers, slide members, or the equivalent, attached as a unit to the operators' platform, and designed to engage with the building members provided for the vertical guidance of the operators' platform.

(14) Interlock. A device actuated by the operation of some other device with which it is directly associated, to govern succeeding operations of the same or allied devices.

(15) Operating device. A pushbutton, lever, or other manual device used to actuate a control.

(16) Powered platform. Equipment to provide access to the exterior of a building for maintenance, consisting of a suspended power-operated working platform, a roof car, or other suspension means, and the requisite operating and control devices.

(17) Rated load. The combined weight of employees, tools, equipment, and other material which the working platform is designed and installed to lift.

(18) Relay, direction. An electrically energized contactor responsive to an initiating control circuit, which in turn causes a moving member to travel in a particular direction.

(19) Relay, potential for vertical travel. An electrically energized contactor responsive to initiating control circuit, which in turn controls the operation of a moving member in both directions. This relay usually operates in conjunction with direction relays, as covered under the definition, “relay, direction.”

(20) Roof car. A structure for the suspension of a working platform, providing for its horizontal movement to working positions.

(21) Roof-powered platform. A powered platform having the raising and lowering mechanism located on a roof car.

(22) Self-powered platform. A powered platform having the raising and lowering mechanism located on the working platform.

(23) Traveling cable. A cable made up of electrical or communication conductors or both, and providing electrical connection between the working platform and the roof car or other fixed point.

(24) Weatherproof. Equipment so constructed or protected that exposure to the weather will not interfere with its proper operation.

(25) Working platform. The suspended structure arranged for vertical travel which provides access to the exterior of the building or structure.

(26) Yield point. The stress at which the material exhibits a permanent set of 0.2 percent.

(27) Zinced fastenings. The method of providing wire rope attachments in which the splayed or fanned wire ends are held in a tapered socket by means of poured molten zinc.

(b) General requirements. (1) Design requirements. All powered platform installations for exterior building maintenance completed as of August 27, 1971, but no later than [insert date, 180 days after the effective date], shall meet all of the design, construction and installation requirements of part II and III of the “American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance ANSI A120.1-1970” and of this appendix. References shall be made to appropriate parts of ANSI A120.1-1970 for detail specifications for equipment and special installations.

(2) Limitation. The requirements of this appendix apply only to electric powered platforms. It is not the intent of this appendix to prohibit the use of other types of power. Installation of powered platforms using other types of power is permitted, provided such platforms have adequate protective devices for the type of power used, and otherwise provide for reasonable safety of life and limb to users of equipment and to others who may be exposed.

(3) Types of powered platforms. (i) For the purpose of applying this appendix, powered platforms are divided into two basic types, Type F and Type T.

(ii) Powered platforms designated as Type F shall meet all the requirements in part II of ANSI A 120.1-1970, American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance. A basic requirement of Type F equipment is that the work platform is suspended by at least four wire ropes and designed so that failure of any one wire rope will not substantially alter the normal position of the working platform. Another basic requirement of Type F equipment is that only one layer of hoisting rope is permitted on winding drums. Type F powered platforms may be either roof-powered or self-powered.

(iii) Powered platforms designated as Type T shall meet all the requirements in part III of ANSI A120.1-1970 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance, except for section 28, Safety Belts and Life Lines. A basic requirement of Type T equipment is that the working platform is suspended by at least two wire ropes. Failure of one wire rope would not permit the working platform to fall to the ground, but would upset its normal position. Type T powered platforms may be either roof-powered or self-powered.

(iv) The requirements of this section apply to powered platforms with winding drum type hoisting machines. It is not the intent of this section to prohibit powered platforms using other types of hoisting machines such as, but not limited to, traction drum hoisting machines, air powered machines, hydraulic powered machines, and internal combustion machines. Installation of powered platforms with other types of hoisting machines is permitted, provided adequate protective devices are used, and provided reasonable safety of life and limb to users of the equipment and to others who may be exposed is assured.

(v) Both Type F and Type T powered platforms shall comply with the requirements of appendix C of this standard.

(c) Type F powered platforms - (1) Roof car, general. (i) A roof car shall be provided whenever it is necessary to move the working platform horizontally to working or storage positions.

(ii) The maximum rated speed at which a power traversed roof car may be moved in a horizontal direction shall be 50 feet per minute.

(2) Movement and positioning of roof car. (i) Provision shall be made to protect against having the roof car leave the roof or enter roof areas not designed for travel.

(ii) The horizontal motion of the roof cars shall be positively controlled so as to insure proper movement and positioning of the roof car.

(iii) Roof car positioning devices shall be provided to insure that the working platform is placed and retained in proper position for vertical travel and during storage.

(iv) Mechanical stops shall be provided to prevent the traversing of the roof car beyond its normal limits of travel. Such stops shall be capable of withstanding a force equal to 100 percent of the inertial effect of the roof car in motion with traversing power applied.

(v)(a) The operating device of a power-operated roof car for traversing shall be located on the roof car, the working platform, or both, and shall be of the continuous pressure weather-proof electric type. If more than one operating device is provided, they shall be so arranged that traversing is possible only from one operating device at a time.

(b) The operating device shall be so connected that it is not operable until:

(1) The working platform is located at its uppermost position of travel and is not in contact with the building face or fixed vertical guides in the face of the building; and

(2) All protective devices and interlocks are in a position for traversing.

(3) Roof car stability. Roof car stability shall be determined by either paragraph (c)(3) (i) or (ii) of this appendix, whichever is greater.

(i) The roof car shall be continuously stable, considering overturning moment as determined by 125 percent rated load, plus maximum dead load and the prescribed wind loading.

(ii) The roof car and its anchorages shall be capable of resisting accidental over-tensioning of the wire ropes suspending the working platform and this calculated value shall include the effect of one and one-half times the value. For this calculation, the simultaneous effect of one-half wind load shall be included, and the design stresses shall not exceed those referred to in paragraph (b)(1) of this appendix.

(iii) If the load on the motors is at any time in excess of three times that required for lifting the working platform with its rated load the motor shall stall.

(4) Access to the roof car. Safe access to the roof car and from the roof car to the working platform shall be provided. If the access to the roof car at any point of its travel is not over the roof area or where otherwise necessary for safety, then self-closing, self-locking gates shall be provided. Access to and from roof cars must comply with the requirements of subpart D of this part.

(5) Means for maintenance, repair, and storage. Means shall be provided to run the roof car away from the roof perimeter, where necessary, and to provide a safe area for maintenance, repairs, and storage. Provisions shall be made to secure the machine in the stored position. For stored machines subject to wind forces, see special design and anchorage requirements for “wind forces” in part II, section 10.5.1.1 of ANSI A120.1-1970 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance.

(6) General requirements for working platforms. The working platform shall be of girder or truss construction and shall be adequate to support its rated load under any position of loading, and comply with the provisions set forth in section 10 of ANSI A120.1-1970, American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance.

(7) Load rating plate. Each working platform shall bear a manufacturer's load rating plate, conspicuously posted; stating the maximum permissible rated load. Load rating plates shall be made of noncorrosive material and shall have letters and figures stamped, etched, or cast on the surface. The minimum height of the letters and figures shall be one-fourth inch.

(8) Minimum size. The working platform shall have a minimum net width of 24 inches.

(9) Guardrails. Working platforms shall be furnished with permanent guard rails not less than 36 inches high, and not more than 42 inches high at the front (building side). At the rear, and on the sides, the rail shall not be less than 42 inches high. An intermediate guardrail shall be provided around the entire platform between the top guardrail and the toeboard.

(10) Toeboards. A four-inch toeboard shall be provided along all sides of the working platform.

(11) Open spaces between guardrails and toeboards. The spaces between the intermediate guardrail and platform toeboard on the building side of the working platform, and between the top guardrail and the toeboard on other sides of the platform, shall be filled with metalic mesh or similar material that will reject a ball one inch in diameter. The installed mesh shall be capable of withstanding a load of 100 pounds applied horizontally over any area of 144 square inches. If the space between the platform and the building face does not exceed eight inches, and the platform is restrained by guides, the mesh may be omitted on the front side.

(12) Flooring. The platform flooring shall be of the nonskid type, and if of open construction, shall reject a9/16-inch diameter ball, or be provided with a screen below the floor to reject a9/16-inch diameter ball.

(13) Access gates. Where access gates are provided, they shall be self-closing and self-locking.

(14) Operating device for vertical movement of the working platform. (i) The normal operating device for the working platform shall be located on the working platform and shall be of the continuous pressure weatherproof electric type.

(ii) The operating device shall be operable only when all electrical protective devices and interlocks on the working platform are in position for normal service and, the roof car, if provided, is at an established operating point.

(15) Emergency electric operative device. (i) In addition, on roof-powered platforms, an emergency electric operating device shall be provided near the hoisting machine for use in the event of failure of the normal operating device for the working platform, or failure of the traveling cable system. The emergency operating device shall be mounted in a locked compartment and shall have a legend mounted thereon reading: “For Emergency Operation Only. Establish Communication With Personnel on Working Platform Before Use.”

(ii) A key for unlocking the compartment housing the emergency operating device shall be mounted in a break-glass receptacle located near the emergency operating device.

(16) Manual cranking for emergency operation. Emergency operation of the main drive machine may be provided to allow manual cranking. This provision for manual operation shall be designed so that not more than two persons will be required to perform this operation. The access to this provision shall include a means to automatically make the machine inoperative electrically while under the emergency manual operation. The design shall be such that the emergency brake is operative at or below governor tripping speed during manual operation.

(17) Arrangement and guarding of hoisting equipment. (i) Hoisting equipment shall consist of a power-driven drum or drum contained in the roof car (roof-powered platforms) or contained on the working platform (self-powered platform).

(ii) The hoisting equipment shall be power-operated in both up and down directions.

(iii) Guard or other protective devices shall be installed wherever rotating shafts or other mechanisms or gears may expose personnel to a hazard.

(iv) Friction devices or clutches shall not be used for connecting the main driving mechanism to the drum or drums. Belt or chain-driven machines are prohibited.

(18) Hoisting motors. (i) Hoisting motors shall be electric and of weather-proof construction.

(ii) Hoisting motors shall be in conformance with applicable provisions of paragraph (c)(22) of this appendix, Electric Wiring and Equipment.

(iii) Hoisting motors shall be directly connected to the hoisting machinery. Motor couplings, if used, shall be of steel construction.

(19) Brakes. The hoisting machine(s) shall have two independent braking means, each designed to stop and hold the working platform with 125 percent of rated load.

(20) Hoisting ropes and rope connections. (i) Working platforms shall be suspended by wire ropes of either 6 × 19 or 6 × 37 classification, preformed or nonpreformed.

(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) The minimum factor of safety shall be 10, and shall be calculated by the following formula:

F = S × N/W

Where

S = Manufacturer's rated breaking strength of one rope.

N = Number of ropes under load.

W = Maximum static load on all ropes with the platform and its rated load at any point of its travel.

(iv) Hoisting ropes shall be sized to conform with the required factor of safety, but in no case shall the size be less than5/16 inch diameter.

(v) Winding drums shall have at least three turns of rope remaining when the platform has landed at the lowest possible point of its travel.

(vi) The lengthening or repairing of wire rope by the joining of two or more lengths is prohibited.

(vii) The nondrum ends of the hoisting ropes shall be provided with individual shackle rods which will permit individual adjustment of rope lengths, if required.

(viii) More than two reverse bends in each rope is prohibited.

(21) Rope tag data. (i) A metal data tag shall be securely attached to one of the wire rope fastenings. This data tag shall bear the following wire rope data:

(a) The diameter in inches.

(b) Construction classification.

(c) Whether nonpreformed or preformed.

(d) The grade of material used.

(e) The manufacturer's rated breaking strength.

(f) Name of the manufacturer of the rope.

(g) The month and year the ropes were installed.

(22) Electrical wiring and equipment. (i) All electrical equipment and wiring shall conform to the requirements of subpart S of this Part, except as modified by ANSI A120.1 - 1970 “American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance” (see § 1910.6). For detail design specifications for electrical equipment, see part 2, ANSI A120.1-1970.

(ii) All motors and operation and control equipment shall be supplied from a single power source.

(iii) The power supply for the powered platform shall be an independent circuit supplied through a fused disconnect switch.

(iv) Electrical conductor parts of the power supply system shall be protected against accidental contact.

(v) Electrical grounding shall be provided.

(a) Provisions for electrical grounding shall be included with the power-supply system.

(b) Controller cabinets, motor frames, hoisting machines, the working platform, roof car and roof car track system, and noncurrent carrying parts of electrical equipment, where provided, shall be grounded.

(c) The controller, where used, shall be so designed and installed that a single ground or short circuit will not prevent both the normal and final stopping device from stopping the working platform.

(d) Means shall be provided on the roof car and working platform for grounding portable electric tools.

(e) The working platform shall be grounded through a grounding connection in a traveling cable. Electrically powered tools utilized on the working platform shall be grounded.

(vi) Electrical receptacles located on the roof or other exterior location shall be of a weatherproof type and shall be located so as not to be subject to contact with water or accumulated snow. The receptacles shall be grounded and the electric cable shall include a grounding conductor. The receptacle and plug shall be a type designed to avoid hazard to persons inserting or withdrawing the plug. Provision shall be made to prevent application of cable strain directly to the plug and receptacle.

(vii) Electric runway conductor systems shall be of the type designed for use in exterior locations and shall be located so as not to be subject to contact with water or accumulated snow. The conductors, collectors, and disconnecting means shall conform to the same requirements as those for cranes and hoists in subpart S of this Part. A grounded conductor shall parallel the power conductors and be so connected that it cannot be opened by the disconnecting means. The system shall be designed to avoid hazard to persons in the area.

(viii) Electrical protective devices and interlocks of the weatherproof type shall be provided.

(ix) Where the installation includes a roof car, electric contact(s) shall be provided and so connected that the operating devices for the working platform shall be operative only when the roof car is located and mechanically retained at an established operating point.

(x) Where the powered platform includes a powered-operated roof car, the operating device for the roof car shall be inoperative when the roof car is mechanically retained at an established operating point.

(xi) An electric contact shall be provided and so connected that it will cause the down direction relay for vertical travel to open if the tension in the traveling cable exceeds safe limits.

(xii) An automatic overload device shall be provided to cut off the electrical power to the circuit in all hoisting motors for travel in the up direction, should the load applied to the hoisting ropes at either end of the working platform exceed 125 percent of its normal tension with rated load, as shown on the manufacturer's data plate on the working platform.

(xiii) An automatic device shall be provided for each hoisting rope which will cut off the electrical power to the hoisting motor or motors in the down direction and apply the brakes if any hoisting rope becomes slack.

(xiv) Upper and lower directional limit devices shall be provided to prevent the travel of the working platform beyond the normal upper and lower limits of travel.

(xv) Operation of a directional limit device shall prevent further motion in the appropriate direction, if the normal limit of travel has been reached.

(xvi) Directional limit devices, if driven from the hoisting machine by chains, tapes, or cables, shall incorporate a device to disconnect the electric power from the hoisting machine and apply both the primary and secondary brakes in the event of failure of the driving means.

(xvii) Final terminal stopping devices of the working platform:

(a) Final terminal stopping devices for the working platform shall be provided as a secondary means of preventing the working platform from over-traveling at the terminals.

(b) The device shall be set to function as close to each terminal landing as practical, but in such a way that under normal operating conditions it will not function when the working platform is stopped by the normal terminal stopping device.

(c) Operation of the final terminal stopping device shall open the potential relay for vertical travel, thereby disconnecting the electric power from the hoisting machine, and applying both the primary and secondary brakes.

(d) The final terminal stopping device for the upper limit of travel shall be mounted so that it is operated directly by the motion of the working platform itself.

(xviii) Emergency stop switches shall be provided in or adjacent to each operating device.

(xix) Emergency stop switches shall:

(a) Have red operating buttons or handles.

(b) Be conspicuously and permanently marked “Stop.”

(c) Be the manually opened and manually closed type.

(d) Be positively opened with the opening not solely dependent on springs.

(xx) The manual operation of an emergency stop switch associated with an operating device for the working platform shall open the potential relay for vertical travel, thereby disconnecting the electric power from the hoisting machine and applying both the primary and secondary brakes.

(xxi) The manual operation of the emergency stop switch associated with the operating device for a power-driven roof car shall cause the electrical power to the traverse machine to be interrupted, and the traverse machine brake to apply.

(23) Requirements for emergency communications. (i) Communication equipment shall be provided for each powered platform for use in an emergency.

(ii) Two-way communication shall be established between personnel on the roof and personnel on the stalled working platform before any emergency operation of the working platform is undertaken by personnel on the roof.

(iii) The equipment shall permit two-way voice communication between the working platform and

(a) Designated personnel continuously available while the powered platform is in use; and

(b) Designated personnel on roof-powered platforms, undertaking emergency operation of the working platform by means of the emergency operating device located near the hoisting machine.

(iv) The emergency communication equipment shall be one of the following types:

(a) Telephone connected to the central telephone exchange system; or

(b) Telephones on a limited system or an approved two-way radio system, provided designated personnel are available to receive a message during the time the powered platform is in use.

(d) Type T powered platforms - (1) Roof car. The requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(5) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.

(2) Working platform. The requirements of paragraphs (c)(6) through (c)(16) of this appendix apply to Type T powered platforms.

(i) The working platform shall be suspended by at least two wire ropes.

(ii) The maximum rated speed at which the working platform of self-powered platforms may be moved in a vertical direction shall not exceed 35 feet per minute.

(3) Hoisting equipment. The requirements of paragraphs (c) (17) and (18) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.

(4) Brakes. Brakes requirements of paragraph (c)(19) of this appendix shall apply.

(5) Hoisting ropes and rope connections. (i) Paragraphs (c)(20) (i) through (vi) and (viii) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.

(ii) Adjustable shackle rods in subparagraph (c)(20)(vii) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms, if the working platform is suspended by more than two wire ropes.

(6) Electrical wiring and equipment. (i) The requirements of paragraphs (c)(22) (i) through (vi) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms. “Circuit protection limitation,” “powered platform electrical service system,” all operating services and control equipment shall comply with the specifications contained in part 2, section 26, ANSI A120.1-1970.

(ii) For electrical protective devices the requirements of paragraphs (c)(22) (i) through (viii) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms. Requirements for the “circuit potential limitation” shall be in accordance with specifications contained in part 2, section 26, of ANSI A120.1-1970.

(7) Emergency communications. All the requirements of paragraph (c)(23) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.

[54 FR 31456, July 28, 1989, as amended at 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996; 72 FR 7190, Feb. 14, 2007; 81 FR 82998, Nov. 18, 2016]

§ 1910.67 Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms.

(a) Definitions applicable to this section -

(1) Aerial device. Any vehicle - mounted device, telescoping or articulating, or both, which is used to position personnel.

(2) Aerial ladder. An aerial device consisting of a single- or multiple-section extensible ladder.

(3) Articulating boom platform. An aerial device with two or more hinged boom sections.

(4) Extensible boom platform. An aerial device (except ladders) with a telescopic or extensible boom. Telescopic derricks with personnel platform attachments shall be considered to be extensible boom platforms when used with a personnel platform.

(5) Insulated aerial device. An aerial device designed for work on energized lines and apparatus.

(6) Mobile unit. A combination of an aerial device, its vehicle, and related equipment.

(7) Platform. Any personnel-carrying device (basket or bucket) which is a component of an aerial device.

(8) Vehicle. Any carrier that is not manually propelled.

(9) Vertical tower. An aerial device designed to elevate a platform in a substantially vertical axis.

(b) General requirements.

(1) Unless otherwise provided in this section, aerial devices (aerial lifts) acquired on or after July 1, 1975, shall be designed and constructed in conformance with the applicable requirements of the American National Standard for “Vehicle Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms,” ANSI A92.2 - 1969, including appendix, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6. Aerial lifts acquired for use before July 1, 1975 which do not meet the requirements of ANSI A92.2 - 1969, may not be used after July 1, 1976, unless they shall have been modified so as to conform with the applicable design and construction requirements of ANSI A92.2 - 1969. Aerial devices include the following types of vehicle-mounted aerial devices used to elevate personnel to jobsites above ground:

(i) Extensible boom platforms,

(ii) aerial ladders,

(iii) articulating boom platforms,

(iv) vertical towers, and

(v) a combination of any of the above. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP), or other material; may be powered or manually operated; and are deemed to be aerial lifts whether or not they are capable of rotating about a substantially vertical axis.

(2) Aerial lifts may be “field modified” for uses other than those intended by the manufacturer, provided the modification has been certified in writing by the manufacturer or by any other equivalent entity, such as a nationally recognized testing laboratory, to be in conformity with all applicable provisions of ANSI A92.2 - 1969 and this section, and to be at least as safe as the equipment was before modification.

(3) The requirements of this section do not apply to firefighting equipment or to the vehicles upon which aerial devices are mounted, except with respect to the requirement that a vehicle be a stable support for the aerial device.

(4) For operations near overhead electric lines, see § 1910.333(c)(3).

(c) Specific requirements -

(1) Ladder trucks and tower trucks. Before the truck is moved for highway travel, aerial ladders shall be secured in the lower traveling position by the locking device above the truck cab, and the manually operated device at the base of the ladder, or by other equally effective means (e.g., cradles which prevent rotation of the ladder in combination with positive acting linear actuators).

(2) Extensible and articulating boom platforms.

(i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such controls are in safe working condition.

(ii) Only trained persons shall operate an aerial lift.

(iii) Belting off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from an aerial lift shall not be permitted.

(iv) Employees shall always stand firmly on the floor of the basket, and shall not sit or climb on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position.

(v) A personal fall arrest or travel restraint system that meets the requirements in subpart I of this part shall be worn and attached to the boom or basket when working from an aerial lift.

(vi) Boom and basket load limits specified by the manufacturer shall not be exceeded.

(vii) The brakes shall be set and outriggers, when used, shall be positioned on pads or a solid surface. Wheel chocks shall be installed before using an aerial lift on an incline.

(viii) An aerial lift truck may not be moved when the boom is elevated in a working position with men in the basket, except for equipment which is specifically designed for this type of operation in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section.

(ix) Articulating boom and extensible boom platforms, primarily designed as personnel carriers, shall have both platform (upper) and lower controls. Upper controls shall be in or beside the platform within easy reach of the operator. Lower controls shall provide for overriding the upper controls. Controls shall be plainly marked as to their function. Lower level controls shall not be operated unless permission has been obtained from the employee in the lift, except in case of emergency.

(x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial lift.

(xi) The insulated portion of an aerial lift shall not be altered in any manner that might reduce its insulating value.

(xii) Before moving an aerial lift for travel, the boom(s) shall be inspected to see that it is properly cradled and outriggers are in stowed position, except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(viii) of this section.

(3) Electrical tests. Electrical tests shall be made in conformance with the requirements of ANSI A92.2 - 1969, Section 5. However, equivalent DC voltage tests may be used in lieu of the AC voltage test specified in A92.2 - 1969. DC voltage tests which are approved by the equipment manufacturer or equivalent entity shall be considered an equivalent test for the purpose of this paragraph (c)(3).

(4) Bursting safety factor. All critical hydraulic and pneumatic components shall comply with the provisions of the American National Standards Institute standard, ANSI A92.2 - 1969, Section 4.9 Bursting Safety Factor. Critical components are those in which a failure would result in a free fall or free rotation of the boom. All noncritical components shall have a bursting safety factor of at least two to one.

(5) Welding standards.” All welding shall conform to the following American Welding Society (AWS) Standards which are incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6, as applicable:

(i) Standard Qualification Procedure, AWS B3.0 - 41.

(ii) Recommended Practices for Automotive Welding Design, AWS D8.4-61.

(iii) Standard Qualification of Welding Procedures and Welders for Piping and Tubing, AWS D10.9-69.

(iv) Specifications for Welding Highway and Railway Bridges, AWS D2.0-69.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 13439, Mar. 26, 1975; 55 FR 32014, Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996; 79 FR 37190, July 1, 2014; 81 FR 82999, Nov. 18, 2016]

§ 1910.68 Manlifts.

(a) Definitions applicable to this section -

(1) Handhold (Handgrip). A handhold is a device attached to the belt which can be grasped by the passenger to provide a means of maintaining balance.

(2) Open type. One which has a handgrip surface fully exposed and capable of being encircled by the passenger's fingers.

(3) Closed type. A cup-shaped device, open at the top in the direction of travel of the step for which it is to be used, and closed at the bottom, into which the passenger may place his fingers.

(4) Limit switch. A device, the purpose of which is to cut off the power to the motor and apply the brake to stop the carrier in the event that a loaded step passes the terminal landing.

(5) Manlift. A device consisting of a power-driven endless belt moving in one direction only, and provided with steps or platforms and handholds attached to it for the transportation of personnel from floor to floor.

(6) Rated speed. Rated speed is the speed for which the device is designed and installed.

(7) Split-rail switch. An electric limit switch operated mechanically by the rollers on the manlift steps. It consists of an additional hinged or “split” rail, mounted on the regular guide rail, over which the step rollers pass. It is springloaded in the “split” position. If the step supports no load, the rollers will “bump” over the switch; if a loaded step should pass over the section, the split rail will be forced straight, tripping the switch and opening the electrical circuit.

(8) Step (platform). A step is a passenger carrying unit.

(9) Travel. The travel is the distance between the centers of the top and bottom pulleys.

(b) General requirements -

(1) Application. This section applies to the construction, maintenance, inspection, and operation of manlifts in relation to accident hazards. Manlifts covered by this section consist of platforms or brackets and accompanying handholds mounted on, or attached to an endless belt, operating vertically in one direction only and being supported by, and driven through pulleys, at the top and bottom. These manlifts are intended for conveyance of persons only. It is not intended that this section cover moving stairways, elevators with enclosed platforms (“Paternoster” elevators), gravity lifts, nor conveyors used only for conveying material. This section applies to manlifts used to carry only personnel trained and authorized by the employer in their use.

(2) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to provide reasonable safety for life and limb.

(3) Design requirements. All new manlift installations and equipment installed after the effective date of these regulations shall meet the design requirements of the “American National Safety Standard for Manlifts ANSI A90.1-1969”, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6, and the requirements of this section.

(4) Reference to other codes and subparts. The following codes and subparts of this part are applicable to this section: Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus, ANSI B15.1-1953 (R 1958); Safety Code for Fixed Ladders, ANSI A14.3-1956; and subparts D, O, and S. The preceding ANSI standards are incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.

(5) Floor openings -

(i) Allowable size. Floor openings for both the “up” and “down” runs shall be not less than 28 inches nor more than 36 inches in width for a 12-inch belt; not less than 34 inches nor more than 38 inches for a 14-inch belt; and not less than 36 inches nor more than 40 inches for a 16-inch belt and shall extend not less than 24 inches, nor more than 28 inches from the face of the belt.

(ii) Uniformity. All floor openings for a given manlift shall be uniform in size and shall be approximately circular, and each shall be located vertically above the opening below it.

(6) Landing -

(i) Vertical clearance. The clearanace between the floor or mounting platform and the lower edge for the conical guard above it required by subparagraph (7) of this paragraph shall not be less than 7 feet 6 inches. Where this clearance cannot be obtained no access to the manlift shall be provided and the manlift runway shall be enclosed where it passes through such floor.

(ii) Clear landing space. The landing space adjacent to the floor openings shall be free from obstruction and kept clear at all times. This landing space shall be at least 2 feet in width from the edge of the floor opening used for mounting and dismounting.

(iii) Lighting and landing. Adequate lighting, not less than 5-foot candles, shall be provided at each floor landing at all times when the lift is in operation.

(iv) Landing surface. The landing surfaces at the entrances and exits to the manlift shall be constructed and maintained as to provide safe footing at all times.

(v) Emergency landings. Where there is a travel of 50 feet or more between floor landings, one or more emergency landings shall be provided so that there will be a landing (either floor or emergency) for every 25 feet or less of manlift travel.

(a) Emergency landings shall be accessible from both the “up” and “down” rungs of the manlift and shall give access to the ladder required in subparagraph (12) of this paragraph.

(b) Emergency landings shall be completely enclosed with a standard railing and toeboard.

(c) Platforms constructed to give access to bucket elevators or other equipment for the purpose of inspection, lubrication, and repair may also serve as emergency landings under this rule. All such platforms will then be considered part of the emergency landing and shall be provided with standard railings and toeboards.

(7) Guards on underside of floor openings -

(i) Fixed type. On the ascending side of the manlift floor openings shall be provided with a bevel guard or cone meeting the following requirements:

(a) The cone shall make an angle of not less than 45° with the horizontal. An angle of 60° or greater shall be used where ceiling heights permit.

(b) The lower edge of this guard shall extend at least 42 inches outward from any handhold on the belt. It shall not extend beyond the upper surface of the floor above.

(c) The cone shall be made of not less than No. 18 U.S. gauge sheet steel or material of equivalent strength or stiffness. The lower edge shall be rolled to a minimum diameter of one-half inch and the interior shall be smooth with no rivets, bolts or screws protruding.

(ii) Floating type. In lieu of the fixed guards specified in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph a floating type safety cone may be used, such floating cones to be mounted on hinges at least 6 inches below the underside of the floor and so constructed as to actuate a limit switch should a force of 2 pounds be applied on the edge of the cone closest to the hinge. The depth of this floating cone need not exceed 12 inches.

(8) Protection of entrances and exits -

(i) Guard rail requirement. The entrances and exits at all floor landings affording access to the manlift shall be guarded by a maze (staggered railing) or a handrail equipped with self-closing gates.

(ii) Construction. The rails shall be standard guardrails with toeboards that meet the requirements in subpart D of this part.

(iii) Gates. Gates, if used, shall open outward and shall be self-closing. Corners of gates shall be rounded.

(iv) Maze. Maze or staggered openings shall offer no direct passage between enclosure and outer floor space.

(v) Except where building layout prevents, entrances at all landings shall be in the same relative position.

(9) Guards for openings -

(i) Construction. The floor opening at each landing shall be guarded on sides not used for entrance or exit by a wall, a railing and toeboard or by panels of wire mesh of suitable strength.

(ii) Height and location. Such rails or guards shall be at least 42 inches in height on the up-running side and 66 inches on the down-running side.

(10) Bottom arrangement -

(i) Bottom landing. At the bottom landing the clear area shall be not smaller than the area enclosed by the guardrails on the floors above, and any wall in front of the down-running side of the belt shall be not less than 48 inches from the face of the belt. This space shall not be encroached upon by stairs or ladders.

(ii) Location of lower pulley. The lower (boot) pulley shall be installed so that it is supported by the lowest landing served. The sides of the pulley support shall be guarded to prevent contact with the pulley or the steps.

(iii) Mounting platform. A mounting platform shall be provided in front or to one side of the uprun at the lowest landing, unless the floor level is such that the following requirement can be met: The floor or platform shall be at or above the point at which the upper surface of the ascending step completes its turn and assumes a horizontal position.

(iv) Guardrails. To guard against persons walking under a descending step, the area on the downside of the manlift shall be guarded in accordance with subparagraph (8) of this paragraph. To guard against a person getting between the mounting platform and an ascending step, the area between the belt and the platform shall be protected by a guardrail.

(11) Top arrangements -

(i) Clearance from floor. A top clearance shall be provided of at least 11 feet above the top terminal landing. This clearance shall be maintained from a plane through each face of the belt to a vertical cylindrical plane having a diameter 2 feet greater than the diameter of the floor opening, extending upward from the top floor to the ceiling on the up-running side of the belt. No encroachment of structural or machine supporting members within this space will be permitted.

(ii) Pulley clearance.

(a) There shall be a clearance of at least 5 feet between the center of the head pulley shaft and any ceiling obstruction.

(b) The center of the head pulley shaft shall be not less than 6 feet above the top terminal landing.

(iii) Emergency grab rail. An emergency grab bar or rail and platform shall be provided at the head pulley when the distance to the head pulley is over 6 feet above the top landing, otherwise only a grab bar or rail is to be provided to permit the rider to swing free should the emergency stops become inoperative.

(12) Emergency exit ladder. A fixed metal ladder accessible from both the “up” and “down” run of the manlift shall be provided for the entire travel of the manlift. Such ladders shall meet the requirements in subpart D of this part.

(13) Superstructure bracing. Manlift rails shall be secured in such a manner as to avoid spreading, vibration, and misalinement.

(14) Illumination -

(i) General. Both runs of the manlift shall be illuminated at all times when the lift is in operation. An intensity of not less than 1-foot candle shall be maintained at all points. (However, see subparagraph (6)(iii) of this paragraph for illumination requirements at landings.)

(ii) Control of illumination. Lighting of manlift runways shall be by means of circuits permanently tied in to the building circuits (no switches), or shall be controlled by switches at each landing. Where separate switches are provided at each landing, any switch shall turn on all lights necessary to illuminate the entire runway.

(15) Weather protection. The entire manlift and its driving mechanism shall be protected from the weather at all times.

(c) Mechanical requirements -

(1) Machines, general -

(i) Brakes. Brakes provided for stopping and holding a manlift shall be inherently self-engaging, by requiring power or force from an external source to cause disengagement. The brake shall be electrically released, and shall be applied to the motor shaft for direct-connected units or to the input shaft for belt-driven units. The brake shall be capable of stopping and holding the manlift when the descending side is loaded with 250 lb on each step.

(ii) Belt.

(a) The belts shall be of hard-woven canvas, rubber-coated canvas, leather, or other material meeting the strength requirements of paragraph (b)(3) of this section and having a coefficient of friction such that when used in conjunction with an adequate tension device it will meet the brake test specified in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph.

(b) The width of the belt shall be not less than 12 inches for a travel not exceeding 100 feet, not less than 14 inches for a travel greater than 100 feet but not exceeding 150 feet and 16 inches for a travel exceeding 150 feet.

(c) A belt that has become torn while in use on a manlift shall not be spliced and put back in service.

(2) Speed -

(i) Maximum speed. No manlift designed for a speed in excess of 80 feet per minute shall be installed.

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) Platforms or steps -

(i) Minimum depth. Steps or platforms shall be not less than 12 inches nor more than 14 inches deep, measured from the belt to the edge of the step or platform.

(ii) Width. The width of the step or platform shall be not less than the width of the belt to which it is attached.

(iii) Distance between steps. The distance between steps shall be equally spaced and not less than 16 feet measured from the upper surface of one step to the upper surface of the next step above it.

(iv) Angle of step. The surface of the step shall make approximately a right angle with the “up” and “down” run of the belt, and shall travel in the approximate horizontal position with the “up” and “down” run of the belt.

(v) Surfaces. The upper or working surfaces of the step shall be of a material having inherent nonslip characteristics (coefficient of friction not less than 0.5) or shall be covered completely by a nonslip tread securely fastened to it.

(vi) Strength of step supports. When subjected to a load of 400 pounds applied at the approximate center of the step, step frames, or supports and their guides shall be of adequate strength to:

(a) Prevent the disengagement of any step roller.

(b) Prevent any appreciable misalinement.

(c) Prevent any visible deformation of the steps or its support.

(vii) Prohibition of steps without handholds. No steps shall be provided unless there is a corresponding handhold above or below it meeting the requirements of paragraph (c)(4) of this section. If a step is removed for repairs or permanently, the handholds immediately above and below it shall be removed before the lift is again placed in service.

(4) Handholds -

(i) Location. Handholds attached to the belt shall be provided and installed so that they are not less than 4 feet nor more than 4 feet 8 inches above the step tread. These shall be so located as to be available on the both “up” and “down” run of the belt.

(ii) Size. The grab surface of the handhold shall be not less than 41/2 inches in width, not less than 3 inches in depth, and shall provide 2 inches of clearance from the belt. Fastenings for handholds shall be located not less than 1 inch from the edge of the belt.

(iii) Strength. The handhold shall be capable of withstanding, without damage, a load of 300 pounds applied parallel to the run of the belt.

(iv) Prohibition of handhold without steps. No handhold shall be provided without a corresponding step. If a handhold is removed permanently or temporarily, the corresponding step and handhold for the opposite direction of travel shall also be removed before the lift is again placed in service.

(v) Type. All handholds shall be of the closed type.

(5) Up limit stops -

(i) Requirements. Two separate automatic stop devices shall be provided to cut off the power and apply the brake when a loaded step passes the upper terminal landing. One of these shall consist of a split-rail switch mechanically operated by the step roller and located not more than 6 inches above the top terminal landing. The second automatic stop device may consist of any of the following:

(a) Any split-rail switch placed 6 inches above and on the side opposite the first limit switch.

(b) An electronic device.

(c) A switch actuated by a lever, rod, or plate, the latter to be placed on the “up” side of the head pulley so as to just clear a passing step.

(ii) Manual reset location. After the manlift has been stopped by a stop device it shall be necessary to reset the automatic stop manually. The device shall be so located that a person resetting it shall have a clear view of both the “up” and “down” runs of the manlift. It shall not be possible to reset the device from any step or platform.

(iii) Cut-off point. The initial limit stop device shall function so that the manlift will be stopped before the loaded step has reached a point 24 inches above the top terminal landing.

(iv) Electrical requirements.

(a) Where such switches open the main motor circuit directly they shall be of the multipole type.

(b) Where electronic devices are used they shall be so designed and installed that failure will result in shutting off the power to the driving motor.

(c) Where flammable vapors or combustible dusts may be present, electrical installations shall be in accordance with the requirements of subpart S of this part for such locations.

(d) Unless of the oil-immersed type controller contacts carrying the main motor current shall be copper to carbon or equal, except where the circuit is broken at two or more points simultaneously.

(6) Emergency stop -

(i) General. An emergency stop means shall be provided.

(ii) Location. This stop means shall be within easy reach of the ascending and descending runs of the belt.

(iii) Operation. This stop means shall be so connected with the control lever or operating mechanism that it will cut off the power and apply the brake when pulled in the direction of travel.

(iv) Rope. If rope is used, it shall be not less than three-eights inch in diameter. Wire rope, unless marlin-covered, shall not be used.

(7) Instruction and warning signs -

(i) Instruction signs at landings or belts. Signs of conspicuous and easily read style giving instructions for the use of the manlift shall be posted at each landing or stenciled on the belt.

(a) [Reserved]

(b) The instructions shall read approximately as follows:

Face the Belt.

Use the Handholds.

To Stop - Pull Rope.

(ii) Top floor warning sign and light.

(a) At the top floor an illuminated sign shall be displayed bearing the following wording:

“TOP FLOOR - GET OFF”

Signs shall be in block letters not less than 2 inches in height. This sign shall be located within easy view of an ascending passenger and not more than 2 feet above the top terminal landing.

(b) In addition to the sign required by paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(a) of this section, a red warning light of not less than 40- watt rating shall be provided immediately below the upper landing terminal and so located as to shine in the passenger's face.

(iii) Visitor warning. A conspicuous sign having the following legend - AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY - shall be displayed at each landing.

(d) Operating rules -

(1) Proper use of manlifts. No freight, packaged goods, pipe, lumber, or construction materials of any kind shall be handled on any manlift.

(2) [Reserved]

(e) Periodic inspection -

(1) Frequency. All manlifts shall be inspected by a competent designated person at intervals of not more than 30 days. Limit switches shall be checked weekly. Manlifts found to be unsafe shall not be operated until properly repaired.

(2) Items covered. This periodic inspection shall cover but is not limited to the following items:

Steps.

Step Fastenings.

Rails.

Rail Supports and Fastenings.

Rollers and Slides.

Belt and Belt Tension.

Handholds and Fastenings.

Floor Landings.

Guardrails.

Lubrication.

Limit Switches.

Warning Signs and Lights.

Illumination.

Drive Pulley.

Bottom (boot) Pulley and Clearance.

Pulley Supports.

Motor.

Driving Mechanism.

Brake.

Electrical Switches.

Vibration and Misalignment.

“Skip” on up or down run when mounting step (indicating worn gears).

(3) Inspection record. A certification record shall be kept of each inspection which includes the date of the inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and the serial number, or other identifier, of the manlift which was inspected. This record of inspection shall be made available to the Assistant Secretary of Labor or a duly authorized representative.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 51 FR 34560, Sept. 29, 1986; 54 FR 24334, June 7, 1989; 55 FR 32014, Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996; 72 FR 71068, Dec. 14, 2007; 81 FR 82999, Nov. 18, 2016]

Subpart G - Occupational Health and Environmental Control
Authority:

29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 50017), 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), 4-2010 (75 FR 55355), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

§ 1910.94 Ventilation.

(a) Abrasive blasting -

(1) Definitions applicable to this paragraph -

(i) Abrasive. A solid substance used in an abrasive blasting operation.

(ii) Abrasive-blasting respirator. A respirator constructed so that it covers the wearer's head, neck, and shoulders to protect the wearer from rebounding abrasive.

(iii) Blast cleaning barrel. A complete enclosure which rotates on an axis, or which has an internal moving tread to tumble the parts, in order to expose various surfaces of the parts to the action of an automatic blast spray.

(iv) Blast cleaning room. A complete enclosure in which blasting operations are performed and where the operator works inside of the room to operate the blasting nozzle and direct the flow of the abrasive material.

(v) Blasting cabinet. An enclosure where the operator stands outside and operates the blasting nozzle through an opening or openings in the enclosure.

(vi) Clean air. Air of such purity that it will not cause harm or discomfort to an individual if it is inhaled for extended periods of time.

(vii) Dust collector. A device or combination of devices for separating dust from the air handled by an exhaust ventilation system.

(viii) Exhaust ventilation system. A system for removing contaminated air from a space, comprising two or more of the following elements

(a) enclosure or hood,

(b) duct work,

(c) dust collecting equipment,

(d) exhauster, and

(e) discharge stack.

(ix) Particulate-filter respirator. An air purifying respirator, commonly referred to as a dust or a fume respirator, which removes most of the dust or fume from the air passing through the device.

(x) Respirable dust. Airborne dust in sizes capable of passing through the upper respiratory system to reach the lower lung passages.

(xi) Rotary blast cleaning table. An enclosure where the pieces to be cleaned are positioned on a rotating table and are passed automatically through a series of blast sprays.

(xii) Abrasive blasting. The forcible application of an abrasive to a surface by pneumatic pressure, hydraulic pressure, or centrifugal force.

(2) Dust hazards from abrasive blasting.

(i) Abrasives and the surface coatings on the materials blasted are shattered and pulverized during blasting operations and the dust formed will contain particles of respirable size. The composition and toxicity of the dust from these sources shall be considered in making an evaluation of the potential health hazards.

(ii) The concentration of respirable dust or fume in the breathing zone of the abrasive-blasting operator or any other worker shall be kept below the levels specified in § 1910.1000.

(iii) Organic abrasives which are combustible shall be used only in automatic systems. Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be present, the construction of the equipment, including the exhaust system and all electric wiring, shall conform to the requirements of American National Standard Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, Z33.1-1961 (NFPA 91-1961), which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6, and subpart S of this part. The blast nozzle shall be bonded and grounded to prevent the build up of static charges. Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be present, the abrasive blasting enclosure, the ducts, and the dust collector shall be constructed with loose panels or explosion venting areas, located on sides away from any occupied area, to provide for pressure relief in case of explosion, following the principles set forth in the National Fire Protection Association Explosion Venting Guide, NFPA 68-1954, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.

(3) Blast-cleaning enclosures.

(i) Blast-cleaning enclosures shall be exhaust ventilated in such a way that a continuous inward flow of air will be maintained at all openings in the enclosure during the blasting operation.

(a) All air inlets and access openings shall be baffled or so arranged that by the combination of inward air flow and baffling the escape of abrasive or dust particules into an adjacent work area will be minimized and visible spurts of dust will not be observed.

(b) The rate of exhaust shall be sufficient to provide prompt clearance of the dust-laden air within the enclosure after the cessation of blasting.

(c) Before the enclosure is opened, the blast shall be turned off and the exhaust system shall be run for a sufficient period of time to remove the dusty air within the enclosure.

(d) Safety glass protected by screening shall be used in observation windows, where hard deep-cutting abrasives are used.

(e) Slit abrasive-resistant baffles shall be installed in multiple sets at all small access openings where dust might escape, and shall be inspected regularly and replaced when needed.

(1) Doors shall be flanged and tight when closed.

(2) Doors on blast-cleaning rooms shall be operable from both inside and outside, except that where there is a small operator access door, the large work access door may be closed or opened from the outside only.

(ii) [Reserved]

(4) Exhaust ventilation systems.

(i) The construction, installation, inspection, and maintenance of exhaust systems shall conform to the principles and requirements set forth in American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960, and ANSI Z33.1-1961, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.

(a) When dust leaks are noted, repairs shall be made as soon as possible.

(b) The static pressure drop at the exhaust ducts leading from the equipment shall be checked when the installation is completed and periodically thereafter to assure continued satisfactory operation. Whenever an appreciable change in the pressure drop indicates a partial blockage, the system shall be cleaned and returned to normal operating condition.

(ii) In installations where the abrasive is recirculated, the exhaust ventilation system for the blasting enclosure shall not be relied upon for the removal of fines from the spent abrasive instead of an abrasive separator. An abrasive separator shall be provided for the purpose.

(iii) The air exhausted from blast-cleaning equipment shall be discharged through dust collecting equipment. Dust collectors shall be set up so that the accumulated dust can be emptied and removed without contaminating other working areas.

(5) Personal protective equipment.

(i) Employers must use only respirators approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under 42 CFR part 84 to protect employees from dusts produced during abrasive-blasting operations.

(ii) Abrasive-blasting respirators shall be worn by all abrasive-blasting operators:

(a) When working inside of blast-cleaning rooms, or

(b) When using silica sand in manual blasting operations where the nozzle and blast are not physically separated from the operator in an exhaust ventilated enclosure, or

(c) Where concentrations of toxic dust dispersed by the abrasive blasting may exceed the limits set in § 1910.1000 and the nozzle and blast are not physically separated from the operator in an exhaust-ventilated enclosure.

(iii) Properly fitted particulate-filter respirators, commonly referred to as dust-filter respirators, may be used for short, intermittent, or occasional dust exposures such as cleanup, dumping of dust collectors, or unloading shipments of sand at a receiving point when it is not feasible to control the dust by enclosure, exhaust ventilation, or other means. The respirators used must be approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 for protection against the specific type of dust encountered.

(a) Dust-filter respirators may be used to protect the operator of outside abrasive-blasting operations where nonsilica abrasives are used on materials having low toxicities.

(b) Dust-filter respirators shall not be used for continuous protection where silica sand is used as the blasting abrasive, or toxic materials are blasted.

(iv) For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134.

(v) Operators shall be equipped with heavy canvas or leather gloves and aprons or equivalent protection to protect them from the impact of abrasives. Safety shoes shall be worn to protect against foot injury where heavy pieces of work are handled.

(a) Protective footwear must comply with the requirements specified by 29 CFR 1910.136(b)(1).

(b) Equipment for protection of the eyes and face shall be supplied to the operator when the respirator design does not provide such protection and to any other personnel working in the vicinity of abrasive blasting operations. This equipment shall conform to the requirements of § 1910.133.

(6) Air supply and air compressors. Air for abrasive-blasting respirators must be free of harmful quantities of dusts, mists, or noxious gases, and must meet the requirements for supplied-air quality and use specified in 29 CFR 1910.134(i).

(7) Operational procedures and general safety. Dust shall not be permitted to accumulate on the floor or on ledges outside of an abrasive-blasting enclosure, and dust spills shall be cleaned up promptly. Aisles and walkways shall be kept clear of steel shot or similar abrasive which may create a slipping hazard.

(8) Scope. This paragraph (a) applies to all operations where an abrasive is forcibly applied to a surface by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, or by centrifugal force. It does not apply to steam blasting, or steam cleaning, or hydraulic cleaning methods where work is done without the aid of abrasives.

(b) Grinding, polishing, and buffing operations -

(1) Definitions applicable to this paragraph -

(i) Abrasive cutting-off wheels. Organic-bonded wheels, the thickness of which is not more than one forty-eighth of their diameter for those up to, and including, 20 inches in diameter, and not more than one-sixtieth of their diameter for those larger than 20 inches in diameter, used for a multitude of operations variously known as cutting, cutting off, grooving, slotting, coping, and jointing, and the like. The wheels may be “solid” consisting of organic-bonded abrasive material throughout, “steel centered” consisting of a steel disc with a rim of organic-bonded material moulded around the periphery, or of the “inserted tooth” type consisting of a steel disc with organic-bonded abrasive teeth or inserts mechanically secured around the periphery.

(ii) Belts. All power-driven, flexible, coated bands used for grinding, polishing, or buffing purposes.

(iii) Branch pipe. The part of an exhaust system piping that is connected directly to the hood or enclosure.

(iv) Cradle. A movable fixture, upon which the part to be ground or polished is placed.

(v) Disc wheels. All power-driven rotatable discs faced with abrasive materials, artificial or natural, and used for grinding or polishing on the side of the assembled disc.

(vi) Entry loss. The loss in static pressure caused by air flowing into a duct or hood. It is usually expressed in inches of water gauge.

(vii) Exhaust system. A system consisting of branch pipes connected to hoods or enclosures, one or more header pipes, an exhaust fan, means for separating solid contaminants from the air flowing in the system, and a discharge stack to outside.

(viii) Grinding wheels. All power-driven rotatable grinding or abrasive wheels, except disc wheels as defined in this standard, consisting of abrasive particles held together by artificial or natural bonds and used for peripheral grinding.

(ix) Header pipe (main pipe). A pipe into which one or more branch pipes enter and which connects such branch pipes to the remainder of the exhaust system.

(x) Hoods and enclosures. The partial or complete enclosure around the wheel or disc through which air enters an exhaust system during operation.

(xi) Horizontal double-spindle disc grinder. A grinding machine carrying two power-driven, rotatable, coaxial, horizontal spindles upon the inside ends of which are mounted abrasive disc wheels used for grinding two surfaces simultaneously.

(xii) Horizontal single-spindle disc grinder. A grinding machine carrying an abrasive disc wheel upon one or both ends of a power-driven, rotatable single horizontal spindle.

(xiii) Polishing and buffing wheels. All power-driven rotatable wheels composed all or in part of textile fabrics, wood, felt, leather, paper, and may be coated with abrasives on the periphery of the wheel for purposes of polishing, buffing, and light grinding.

(xiv) Portable grinder. Any power-driven rotatable grinding, polishing, or buffing wheel mounted in such manner that it may be manually manipulated.

(xv) Scratch brush wheels. All power-driven rotatable wheels made from wire or bristles, and used for scratch cleaning and brushing purposes.

(xvi) Swing-frame grinder. Any power-driven rotatable grinding, polishing, or buffing wheel mounted in such a manner that the wheel with its supporting framework can be manipulated over stationary objects.

(xvii) Velocity pressure (vp). The kinetic pressure in the direction of flow necessary to cause a fluid at rest to flow at a given velocity. It is usually expressed in inches of water gauge.

(xviii) Vertical spindle disc grinder. A grinding machine having a vertical, rotatable power-driven spindle carrying a horizontal abrasive disc wheel.

(2) Application. Wherever dry grinding, dry polishing or buffing is performed, and employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, exceeds the permissible exposure limits prescribed in § 1910.1000 or other sections of this part, a local exhaust ventilation system shall be provided and used to maintain employee exposures within the prescribed limits.

(3) Hood and branch pipe requirements.

(i) Hoods connected to exhaust systems shall be used, and such hoods shall be designed, located, and placed so that the dust or dirt particles shall fall or be projected into the hoods in the direction of the air flow. No wheels, discs, straps, or belts shall be operated in such manner and in such direction as to cause the dust and dirt particles to be thrown into the operator's breathing zone.

(ii) Grinding wheels on floor stands, pedestals, benches, and special-purpose grinding machines and abrasive cutting-off wheels shall have not less than the minimum exhaust volumes shown in Table G-4 with a recommended minimum duct velocity of 4,500 feet per minute in the branch and 3,500 feet per minute in the main. The entry losses from all hoods except the vertical-spindle disc grinder hood, shall equal 0.65 velocity pressure for a straight takeoff and 0.45 velocity pressure for a tapered takeoff. The entry loss for the vertical-spindle disc grinder hood is shown in figure G-1 (following § 1910.94(b)).

Table G-4 - Grinding and Abrasive Cutting-Off Wheels

Wheel diameter (inches) Wheel width (inches) Minimum exhaust volume (feet3/min.)
To 9 1 1/2 220
Over 9 to 16 2 390
Over 16 to 19 3 500
Over 19 to 24 4 610
Over 24 to 30 5 880
Over 30 to 36 6 1,200

For any wheel wider than wheel diameters shown in Table G-4, increase the exhaust volume by the ratio of the new width to the width shown.

Example:

If wheel width = 41/2 inches, then

4.5 ÷ 4 × 610 = 686 (rounded to 690).

(iii) Scratch-brush wheels and all buffing and polishing wheels mounted on floor stands, pedestals, benches, or special-purpose machines shall have not less than the minimum exhaust volume shown in Table G-5.

Table G-5 - Buffing and Polishing Wheels

Wheel diameter (inches) Wheel width (inches) Minimum exhaust volume (feet3/min.)
To 9 2 300
Over 9 to 16 3 500
Over 16 to 19 4 610
Over 19 to 24 5 740
Over 24 to 30 6 1,040
Over 30 to 36 6 1,200

(iv) Grinding wheels or discs for horizontal single-spindle disc grinders shall be hooded to collect the dust or dirt generated by the grinding operation and the hoods shall be connected to branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table G-6.

Table G-6 - Horizontal Single-Spindle Disc Grinder

Disc diameter (inches) Exhaust volume (ft.3/min.)
Up to 12 220
Over 12 to 19 390
Over 19 to 30 610
Over 30 to 36 880

(v) Grinding wheels or discs for horizontal double-spindle disc grinders shall have a hood enclosing the grinding chamber and the hood shall be connected to one or more branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table G-7.

Table G-7 - Horizontal Double-Spindle Disc Grinder

Disc diameter (inches) Exhaust volume (ft.3/min.)
Up to 19 610
Over 19 to 25 880
Over 25 to 30 1,200
Over 30 to 53 1,770
Over 53 to 72 6,280

(vi) Grinding wheels or discs for vertical single-spindle disc grinders shall be encircled with hoods to remove the dust generated in the operation. The hoods shall be connected to one or more branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table G-8.

Table G-8 - Vertical Spindle Disc Grinder

Disc diameter (inches) One-half or more of disc covered Disc not covered
Number1 Exhaust foot3/min.) Number1 Exhaust foot3/min.
Up to 20 1 500 2 780
Over 20 to 30 2 780 2 1,480
Over 30 to 53 2 1,770 4 3,530
Over 53 to 72 2 3,140 5 6,010

(vii) Grinding and polishing belts shall be provided with hoods to remove dust and dirt generated in the operations and the hoods shall be connected to branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table G-9.

Table G-9 - Grinding and Polishing Belts

Belts width (inches) Exhaust volume (ft.3/min.)
Up to 3 220
Over 3 to 5 300
Over 5 to 7 390
Over 7 to 9 500
Over 9 to 11 610
Over 11 to 13 740

(viii) Cradles and swing-frame grinders. Where cradles are used for handling the parts to be ground, polished, or buffed, requiring large partial enclosures to house the complete operation, a minimum average air velocity of 150 feet per minute shall be maintained over the entire opening of the enclosure. Swing-frame grinders shall also be exhausted in the same manner as provided for cradles. (See fig. G-3)

(ix) Where the work is outside the hood, air volumes must be increased as shown in American Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960 (section 4, exhaust hoods).

(4) Exhaust systems.

(i) Exhaust systems for grinding, polishing, and buffing operations should be designed in accordance with American Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.

(ii) Exhaust systems for grinding, polishing, and buffing operations shall be tested in the manner described in American Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.

(iii) All exhaust systems shall be provided with suitable dust collectors.

(5) Hood and enclosure design.

(i)

(a) It is the dual function of grinding and abrasive cutting-off wheel hoods to protect the operator from the hazards of bursting wheels, as well as to provide a means for the removal of dust and dirt generated. All hoods shall be not less in structural strength than specified in Tables O-1 and O-9 of § 1910.215.

(b) Due to the variety of work and types of grinding machines employed, it is necessary to develop hoods adaptable to the particular machine in question, and such hoods shall be located as close as possible to the operation.

(ii) Exhaust hoods for floor stands, pedestals, and bench grinders shall be designed in accordance with figure G-2. The adjustable tongue shown in the figure shall be kept in working order and shall be adjusted within one-fourth inch of the wheel periphery at all times.

(iii) Swing-frame grinders shall be provided with exhaust booths as indicated in figure G-3.

(iv) Portable grinding operations, whenever the nature of the work permits, shall be conducted within a partial enclosure. The opening in the enclosure shall be no larger than is actually required in the operation and an average face air velocity of not less than 200 feet per minute shall be maintained.

(v) Hoods for polishing and buffing and scratch-brush wheels shall be constructed to conform as closely to figure G-4 as the nature of the work will permit.

(vi) Cradle grinding and polishing operations shall be performed within a partial enclosure similar to figure G-5. The operator shall be positioned outside the working face of the opening of the enclosure. The face opening of the enclosure should not be any greater in area than that actually required for the performance of the operation and the average air velocity into the working face of the enclosure shall not be less than 150 feet per minute.

(vii) Hoods for horizontal single-spindle disc grinders shall be constructed to conform as closely as possible to the hood shown in figure G-6. It is essential that there be a space between the back of the wheel and the hood, and a space around the periphery of the wheel of at least 1 inch in order to permit the suction to act around the wheel periphery. The opening on the side of the disc shall be no larger than is required for the grinding operation, but must never be less than twice the area of the branch outlet.

(viii) Horizontal double-spindle disc grinders shall have a hood encircling the wheels and grinding chamber similar to that illustrated in figure G-7. The openings for passing the work into the grinding chamber should be kept as small as possible, but must never be less than twice the area of the branch outlets.

(ix) Vertical-spindle disc grinders shall be encircled with a hood so constructed that the heavy dust is drawn off a surface of the disc and the lighter dust exhausted through a continuous slot at the top of the hood as shown in figure G-1.

(x) Grinding and polishing belt hoods shall be constructed as close to the operation as possible. The hood should extend almost to the belt, and 1-inch wide openings should be provided on either side. Figure G-8 shows a typical hood for a belt operation.

Dia D. inches Exhaust E Volume Exhausted at 4,500 ft/min ft3/min Note
Min. Max. No Pipes Dia.
20 1 4 1/4 500 When one-half or more of the disc can be hooded, use exhaust ducts as shown at the left.
Over 20 30 2 4 780
Over 30 72 2 6 1,770
Over 53 72 2 8 3,140
20 2 4 780 When no hood can be used over disc, use exhaust ducts as shown at left.
Over 20 20 2 4 780
Over 30 30 2 5 1/2 1,480
Over 53 53 4 6 3,530
72 5 7 6,010
Wheel dimension, inches Exhaust outlet, inches E Volume of air at 4,500 ft/min
Diameter Width, Max
Min=d Max=D
9 1 1/2 3 220
Over 9 16 2 4 390
Over 16 19 3 4 1/2 500
Over 19 24 4 5 610
Over 24 30 5 6 880
Over 30 36 6 7 1,200

Standard Buffing and Polishing Hood

Wheel dimension, inches Exhaust outlet, inches E Volume of air at 4,500 ft/min
Diameter Width, Max
Min=d Max=D
9 2 3 1/2 300
Over 9 16 3 4 500
Over 16 19 4 5 610
Over 19 24 5 5 1/2 740
Over 24 30 6 6 1/2 1.040
Over 30 36 6 7 1.200
Dia D, inches Exhaust E, dia. inches Volume exhausted at 4,500 ft/min ft3/min
Min. Max.
12 3 220
Over 12 19 4 390
Over 19 30 5 610
Over 30 36 6 880
Disc dia. inches Exhaust E Volume exhaust at 4,500 ft/min. ft3/min Note
Min. Max. No Pipes Dia.
19 1 5 610
Over 19 25 1 6 880 When width “W” permits, exhaust ducts should be as near heaviest grinding as possible.
Over 25 30 1 7 1,200
Over 30 53 2 6 1,770
Over 53 72 4 8 6,280
Belt width W. Inches Exhaust volume. ft.1/min
Up to 3 220
3 to 5 300
5 to 7 390
7 to 9 500
9 to 11 610
11 to 13 740

(6) Scope. This paragraph (b), prescribes the use of exhaust hood enclosures and systems in removing dust, dirt, fumes, and gases generated through the grinding, polishing, or buffing of ferrous and nonferrous metals.

(c) Spray finishing operations -

(1) Definitions applicable to this paragraph -

(i) Spray-finishing operations. Spray-finishing operations are employment of methods wherein organic or inorganic materials are utilized in dispersed form for deposit on surfaces to be coated, treated, or cleaned. Such methods of deposit may involve either automatic, manual, or electrostatic deposition but do not include metal spraying or metallizing, dipping, flow coating, roller coating, tumbling, centrifuging, or spray washing and degreasing as conducted in self-contained washing and degreasing machines or systems.

(ii) Spray booth. Spray booths are defined and described in § 1910.107(a).

(iii) Spray room. A spray room is a room in which spray-finishing operations not conducted in a spray booth are performed separately from other areas.

(iv) Minimum maintained velocity. Minimum maintained velocity is the velocity of air movement which must be maintained in order to meet minimum specified requirements for health and safety.

(2) Location and application. Spray booths or spray rooms are to be used to enclose or confine all operations. Spray-finishing operations shall be located as provided in sections 201 through 206 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969.

(3) Design and construction of spray booths.

(i) Spray booths shall be designed and constructed in accordance with § 1910.107(b)(1) through (b)(4) and (b)(6) through (b)(10). For a more detailed discussion of fundamentals relating to this subject, see ANSI Z9.2-1960, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.

(a) Lights, motors, electrical equipment, and other sources of ignition shall conform to the requirements of § 1910.107(b)(10) and (c).

(b) In no case shall combustible material be used in the construction of a spray booth and supply or exhaust duct connected to it.

(ii) Unobstructed walkways shall not be less than 61/2 feet high and shall be maintained clear of obstruction from any work location in the booth to a booth exit or open booth front. In booths where the open front is the only exit, such exits shall be not less than 3 feet wide. In booths having multiple exits, such exits shall not be less than 2 feet wide, provided that the maximum distance from the work location to the exit is 25 feet or less. Where booth exits are provided with doors, such doors shall open outward from the booth.

(iii) Baffles, distribution plates, and dry-type overspray collectors shall conform to the requirements of § 1910.107(b)(4) and (b)(5).

(a) Overspray filters shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the requirements of § 1910.107(b)(5), and shall only be in a location easily accessible for inspection, cleaning, or replacement.

(b) Where effective means, independent of the overspray filters, are installed which will result in design air distribution across the booth cross section, it is permissible to operate the booth without the filters in place.

(iv)

(a) For wet or water-wash spray booths, the water-chamber enclosure, within which intimate contact of contaminated air and cleaning water or other cleaning medium is maintained, if made of steel, shall be 18 gage or heavier and adequately protected against corrosion.

(b) Chambers may include scrubber spray nozzles, headers, troughs, or other devices. Chambers shall be provided with adequate means for creating and maintaining scrubbing action for removal of particulate matter from the exhaust air stream.

(v) Collecting tanks shall be of welded steel construction or other suitable non-combustible material. If pits are used as collecting tanks, they shall be concrete, masonry, or other material having similar properties.

(a) Tanks shall be provided with weirs, skimmer plates, or screens to prevent sludge and floating paint from entering the pump suction box. Means for automatically maintaining the proper water level shall also be provided. Fresh water inlets shall not be submerged. They shall terminate at least one pipe diameter above the safety overflow level of the tank.

(b) Tanks shall be so constructed as to discourage accumulation of hazardous deposits.

(vi) Pump manifolds, risers, and headers shall be adequately sized to insure sufficient water flow to provide efficient operation of the water chamber.

(4) Design and construction of spray rooms.

(i) Spray rooms, including floors, shall be constructed of masonry, concrete, or other noncombustible material.

(ii) Spray rooms shall have noncombustible fire doors and shutters.

(iii) Spray rooms shall be adequately ventilated so that the atmosphere in the breathing zone of the operator shall be maintained in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (c)(6)(ii) of this section.

(iv) Spray rooms used for production spray-finishing operations shall conform to the requirements for spray booths.

(5) Ventilation.

(i) Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with provisions of § 1910.107(d), and in accordance with the following:

(a) Where a fan plenum is used to equalize or control the distribution of exhaust air movement through the booth, it shall be of sufficient strength or rigidity to withstand the differential air pressure or other superficially imposed loads for which the equipment is designed and also to facilitate cleaning. Construction specifications shall be at least equivalent to those of paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section.

(b) [Reserved]

(ii) Inlet or supply ductwork used to transport makeup air to spray booths or surrounding areas shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.

(a) If negative pressure exists within inlet ductwork, all seams and joints shall be sealed if there is a possibility of infiltration of harmful quantities of noxious gases, fumes, or mists from areas through which ductwork passes.

(b) Inlet ductwork shall be sized in accordance with volume flow requirements and provide design air requirements at the spray booth.

(c) Inlet ductwork shall be adequately supported throughout its length to sustain at least its own weight plus any negative pressure which is exerted upon it under normal operating conditions.

(iii)

(a) Exhaust ductwork shall be adequately supported throughout its length to sustain its weight plus any normal accumulation in interior during normal operating conditions and any negative pressure exerted upon it.

(b) Exhaust ductwork shall be sized in accordance with good design practice which shall include consideration of fan capacity, length of duct, number of turns and elbows, variation in size, volume, and character of materials being exhausted. See American National Standard Z9.2-1960 for further details and explanation concerning elements of design.

(c) Longitudinal joints in sheet steel ductwork shall be either lock-seamed, riveted, or welded. For other than steel construction, equivalent securing of joints shall be provided.

(d) Circumferential joints in ductwork shall be substantially fastened together and lapped in the direction of airflow. At least every fourth joint shall be provided with connecting flanges, bolted together, or of equivalent fastening security.

(e) Inspection or clean-out doors shall be provided for every 9 to 12 feet of running length for ducts up to 12 inches in diameter, but the distance between cleanout doors may be greater for larger pipes. A clean-out door or doors shall be provided for servicing the fan, and where necessary, a drain shall be provided.

(f) Where ductwork passes through a combustible roof or wall, the roof or wall shall be protected at the point of penetration by open space or fire-resistive material between the duct and the roof or wall. When ducts pass through firewalls, they shall be provided with automatic fire dampers on both sides of the wall, except that three-eighth-inch steel plates may be used in lieu of automatic fire dampers for ducts not exceeding 18 inches in diameter.

(g) Ductwork used for ventilating any process covered in this standard shall not be connected to ducts ventilating any other process or any chimney or flue used for conveying any products of combustion.

(6) Velocity and air flow requirements.

(i) Except where a spray booth has an adequate air replacement system, the velocity of air into all openings of a spray booth shall be not less than that specified in Table G-10 for the operating conditions specified. An adequate air replacement system is one which introduces replacement air upstream or above the object being sprayed and is so designed that the velocity of air in the booth cross section is not less than that specified in Table G-10 when measured upstream or above the object being sprayed.

Table G-10 - Minimum Maintained Velocities Into Spray Booths

Operating conditions for objects completely inside booth Crossdraft, f.p.m. Airflow velocities, f.p.m.
Design Range
Electrostatic and automatic airless operation contained in booth without operator Negligible 50 large booth 50-75
100 small booth 75-125
Air-operated guns, manual or automatic Up to 50 100 large booth 75-125
150 small booth 125-175
Air-operated guns, manual or automatic Up to 100 150 large booth 125-175
200 small booth 150-250

(ii) In addition to the requirements in paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section the total air volume exhausted through a spray booth shall be such as to dilute solvent vapor to at least 25 percent of the lower explosive limit of the solvent being sprayed. An example of the method of calculating this volume is given below.

Example:

To determine the lower explosive limits of the most common solvents used in spray finishing, see Table G-11. Column 1 gives the number of cubic feet of vapor per gallon of solvent and column 2 gives the lower explosive limit (LEL) in percentage by volume of air. Note that the quantity of solvent will be diminished by the quantity of solids and nonflammables contained in the finish.

To determine the volume of air in cubic feet necessary to dilute the vapor from 1 gallon of solvent to 25 percent of the lower explosive limit, apply the following formula:

Dilution volume required per gallon of solvent = 4 (100−LEL) (cubic feet of vapor per gallon) ÷ LEL

Using toluene as the solvent.

(1) LEL of toluene from Table G-11, column 2, is 1.4 percent.

(2) Cubic feet of vapor per gallon from Table G-11, column 1, is 30.4 cubic feet per gallon.

(3) Dilution volume required=

4 (100−1.4) 30.4 ÷ 1.4 = 8,564 cubic feet.

(4) To convert to cubic feet per minute of required ventilation, multiply the dilution volume required per gallon of solvent by the number of gallons of solvent evaporated per minute.

Table G-11 - Lower Explosive Limit of Some Commonly Used Solvents

Solvent Cubic feet per gallon of vapor of liquid at 70 °F. Lower explosive limit in percent by volume of air at 70 °F
Column 1 Column 2
Acetone 44.0 2.6
Amyl Acetate (iso) 21.6 1 1.0
Amyl Alcohol (n) 29.6 1.2
Amyl Alcohol (iso) 29.6 1.2
Benzene 36.8 1 1.4
Butyl Acetate (n) 24.8 1.7
Butyl Alcohol (n) 35.2 1.4
Butyl Cellosolve 24.8 1.1
Cellosolve 33.6 1.8
Cellosolve Acetate 23.2 1.7
Cyclohexanone 31.2 1 1.1
1,1 Dichloroethylene 42.4 5.9
1,2 Dichloroethylene 42.4 9.7
Ethyl Acetate 32.8 2.5
Ethyl Alcohol 55.2 4.3
Ethyl Lactate 28.0 1 1.5
Methyl Acetate 40.0 3.1
Methyl Alcohol 80.8 7.3
Methyl Cellosolve 40.8 2.5
Methyl Ethyl Ketone 36.0 1.8
Methyl n-Propyl Ketone 30.4 1.5
Naphtha (VM&P) (76° Naphtha) 22.4 0.9
Naphtha (100 °Flash) Safety Solvent - Stoddard Solvent 23.2 1.0
Propyl Acetate (n) 27.2 2.8
Propyl Acetate (iso) 28.0 1.1
Propyl Alcohol (n) 44.8 2.1
Propyl Alcohol (iso) 44.0 2.0
Toluene 30.4 1.4
Turpentine 20.8 0.8
Xylene (o) 26.4 1.0

(iii)

(a) When an operator is in a booth downstream from the object being sprayed, an air-supplied respirator or other type of respirator must be used by employees that has been approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 for the material being sprayed.

(b) Where downdraft booths are provided with doors, such doors shall be closed when spray painting.

(7) Make-up air.

(i) Clean fresh air, free of contamination from adjacent industrial exhaust systems, chimneys, stacks, or vents, shall be supplied to a spray booth or room in quantities equal to the volume of air exhausted through the spray booth.

(ii) Where a spray booth or room receives make-up air through self-closing doors, dampers, or louvers, they shall be fully open at all times when the booth or room is in use for spraying. The velocity of air through such doors, dampers, or louvers shall not exceed 200 feet per minute. If the fan characteristics are such that the required air flow through the booth will be provided, higher velocities through the doors, dampers, or louvers may be used.

(iii)

(a) Where the air supply to a spray booth or room is filtered, the fan static pressure shall be calculated on the assumption that the filters are dirty to the extent that they require cleaning or replacement.

(b) The rating of filters shall be governed by test data supplied by the manufacturer of the filter. A pressure gage shall be installed to show the pressure drop across the filters. This gage shall be marked to show the pressure drop at which the filters require cleaning or replacement. Filters shall be replaced or cleaned whenever the pressure drop across them becomes excessive or whenever the air flow through the face of the booth falls below that specified in Table G-10.

(iv)

(a) Means for heating make-up air to any spray booth or room, before or at the time spraying is normally performed, shall be provided in all places where the outdoor temperature may be expected to remain below 55 °F. for appreciable periods of time during the operation of the booth except where adequate and safe means of radiant heating for all operating personnel affected is provided. The replacement air during the heating seasons shall be maintained at not less than 65 °F. at the point of entry into the spray booth or spray room. When otherwise unheated make-up air would be at a temperature of more than 10 °F. below room temperature, its temperature shall be regulated as provided in section 3.6.3 of ANSI Z9.2-1960.

(b) As an alternative to an air replacement system complying with the preceding section, general heating of the building in which the spray room or booth is located may be employed provided that all occupied parts of the building are maintained at not less than 65 °F. when the exhaust system is in operation or the general heating system supplemented by other sources of heat may be employed to meet this requirement.

(c) No means of heating make-up air shall be located in a spray booth.

(d) Where make-up air is heated by coal or oil, the products of combustion shall not be allowed to mix with the make-up air, and the products of combustion shall be conducted outside the building through a flue terminating at a point remote from all points where make-up air enters the building.

(e) Where make-up air is heated by gas, and the products of combustion are not mixed with the make-up air but are conducted through an independent flue to a point outside the building remote from all points where make-up air enters the building, it is not necessary to comply with paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(f) of this section.

(f) Where make-up air to any manually operated spray booth or room is heated by gas and the products of combustion are allowed to mix with the supply air, the following precautions must be taken:

(1) The gas must have a distinctive and strong enough odor to warn workmen in a spray booth or room of its presence if in an unburned state in the make-up air.

(2) The maximum rate of gas supply to the make-up air heater burners must not exceed that which would yield in excess of 200 p.p.m. (parts per million) of carbon monoxide or 2,000 p.p.m. of total combustible gases in the mixture if the unburned gas upon the occurrence of flame failure were mixed with all of the make-up air supplied.

(3) A fan must be provided to deliver the mixture of heated air and products of combustion from the plenum chamber housing the gas burners to the spray booth or room.

(8) Scope. Spray booths or spray rooms are to be used to enclose or confine all spray finishing operations covered by this paragraph (c). This paragraph does not apply to the spraying of the exteriors of buildings, fixed tanks, or similar structures, nor to small portable spraying apparatus not used repeatedly in the same location.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 23073, May 28, 1975; 40 FR 24522, June 9, 1975; 43 FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5322, Feb. 10, 1984; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 58 FR 35308, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 9236, Mar. 7, 1996;