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Title 24

Displaying title 24, up to date as of 9/16/2021. Title 24 was last amended 9/13/2021.

Title 24

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Subpart I - Consumer Complaint Handling and Remedial Actions
Source:

78 FR 60200, Oct. 1, 2013, unless otherwise noted.

§ 3282.401 Purpose and scope.

(a) Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to establish a system of protections provided by the Act with respect to imminent safety hazards and failures to conform to the construction and safety standards with a minimum of formality and delay, while protecting the rights of all parties.

(b) Scope. This subpart sets out the procedures to be followed by manufacturers, retailers, and distributors, SAAs, primary inspection agencies, and the Secretary to assure that notification and correction are provided with respect to manufactured homes when required under this subpart. Notification and correction may be required with respect to manufactured homes that have been sold or otherwise released by the manufacturer to another party.

§ 3282.402 General provisions.

(a) Purchaser's rights. Nothing in this subpart shall limit the rights of the purchaser under any contract or applicable law.

(b) Manufacturer's liability limited. A manufacturer is not responsible for failures that occur in any manufactured home or component as the result of normal wear and aging, consumer abuse, or neglect of maintenance. The life of a component warranty may be one of the indicators used to establish normal wear and aging. A failure of any component may not be attributed by the manufacturer to normal wear and aging under this subpart during the term of any applicable warranty provided by the original manufacturer of the affected component.

§ 3282.403 Consumer complaint and information referral.

(a) Retailer responsibilities. When a retailer receives a consumer complaint or other information about a home in its possession, or that it has sold or leased, that likely indicates a noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard, the retailer must forward the complaint or information to the manufacturer of the manufactured home in question as early as possible, in accordance with § 3282.256.

(b) SAA and HUD responsibilities.

(1) When an SAA or the Secretary receives a consumer complaint or other information that likely indicates a noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard in a manufactured home, the SAA or HUD must:

(i) Forward the complaint or information to the manufacturer of the home in question as early as possible; and

(ii) Send a copy of the complaint or other information to the SAA of the State where the manufactured home was manufactured or to the Secretary if there is no such SAA.

(2) When it appears from the complaint or other information that an imminent safety hazard or serious defect may be involved, the SAA of the State where the home was manufactured must also send a copy of the complaint or other information to the Secretary.

(c) Manufacturer responsibilities. Whenever the manufacturer receives information from any source that the manufacturer believes in good faith relates to a noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard in any of its manufactured homes, the manufacturer must, for each such occurrence, make the determinations required by § 3282.404.

§ 3282.404 Manufacturers' determinations and related concurrences.

(a) Initial determination.

(1) Not later than 30 days after a manufacturer receives information that it believes in good faith may indicate a noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard, the manufacturer must make a specific initial determination that there is a noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard, or that the information requires no further action under this subpart. If a manufacturer makes a final determination of noncompliance for an individual home (see § 3282.412(b)) and a class of homes is not involved, no further action is needed by the manufacturer other than to keep a record of its determination as required by § 3282.417. If the manufacturer determines that it is not the cause of the problem, but a problem still exists, the manufacturer must forward the information in its possession to the appropriate retailer (see § 3282.254), and, if known, to the installer (see §§ 3286.115 and 3286.811) for their consideration. Alternatively, the manufacturer, retailer, or installer may choose to submit the issue for resolution under dispute resolution (see 24 CFR part 3288).

(2) When a manufacturer makes an initial determination that there is a serious defect or an imminent safety hazard, the manufacturer must immediately notify the Secretary, the SAA in the state of manufacture, and the manufacturer's IPIA.

(3) In making the determination of noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard, or that no further action is required under this subpart, the manufacturer must review the information it received and carry out investigations, including, a review of service records, IPIA inspection records, and, as appropriate, inspections of homes in the class. The manufacturer must review the information, the known facts, and the circumstances relating to the complaint or information, including service records, approved designs, and audit findings, as applicable, to decide what investigations are reasonable.

(b) Class determination.

(1) When the manufacturer makes an initial determination of defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard, the manufacturer must also make a good-faith determination of the class that includes each manufactured home in which the same defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard exists or likely exists. Multiple occurrences of defects may be considered the same defect if they have the same cause, are related to a specific workstation description, or are related to the same failure to follow the manufacturer's approved quality assurance manual. Good faith may be used as a defense to the imposition of a penalty, but does not relieve the manufacturer of its responsibilities for notification or correction under this subpart I. The manufacturer must make this class determination not later than 20 days after making a determination of defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard.

(2) Paragraph (c) of this section sets out methods for a manufacturer to use in determining the class of manufactured homes. If the manufacturer can identify the precise manufactured homes affected by the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard, the class of manufactured homes may include only those manufactured homes actually affected by the same defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard. The manufacturer is also permitted to exclude from the class those manufactured homes for which the manufacturer has information that indicates the homes were not affected by the same cause. If it is not possible to identify the precise manufactured homes affected, the class must include every manufactured home in the group of homes that is identifiable, since the same defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard exists or likely exists in some homes in that group of manufactured homes.

(3) For purposes related to this section, a defect, a serious defect, or an imminent safety hazard likely exists in a manufactured home if the cause of the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard is such that the same defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard would likely have been introduced systematically into more than one manufactured home. Indications that the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard would likely have been introduced systematically may include, but are not limited to, complaints that can be traced to the same faulty design or faulty construction, problems known to exist in supplies of components or parts, information related to the performance of a particular employee or use of a particular process, and information signaling a failure to follow quality control procedures with respect to a particular aspect of the manufactured home.

(4) If the manufacturer must determine the class of homes pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section, the manufacturer must obtain from the IPIA, and the IPIA must provide, either:

(i) The IPIA's written concurrence on the methods used by the manufacturer to identify the homes that should be included in the class of homes; or

(ii) The IPIA's written statement explaining why it believes the manufacturer's methods for determining the class of homes were inappropriate or inadequate.

(c) Methods for determining class.

(1) In making a class determination under paragraph (b) of this section, a manufacturer is responsible for carrying out reasonable investigations. In carrying out investigations, the manufacturer must review the information, the known facts, and the relevant circumstances, and generally must establish the cause of the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard. Based on the results of such investigations and all information received or developed, the manufacturer must use an appropriate method or appropriate methods to determine the class of manufactured homes in which the same defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard exists or likely exists.

(2) Methods that may be used in determining the class of manufactured homes include, but are not limited to:

(i) Inspection of the manufactured home in question, including its design, to determine whether the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard resulted from the design itself;

(ii) Physical inspection of manufactured homes of the same design or construction, as appropriate, that were produced before and after a home in question;

(iii) Inspection of the service records of a home in question and of homes of the same design or construction, as appropriate, produced before and after that home, if it is clear that the cause of the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard is such that the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard would be visible to and reportable by consumers or retailers;

(iv) Inspection of manufacturer quality control records to determine whether quality control procedures were followed and, if not, the time frame during which they were not;

(v) Inspection of IPIA records to determine whether the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard was either detected or specifically found not to exist in some manufactured homes;

(vi) Identification of the cause as relating to a particular employee whose work, or to a process whose use, would have been common to the production of the manufacturer's homes for a period of time; and

(vii) Inspection of records relating to components supplied by other parties and known to contain or suspected of containing a defect, a serious defect, or an imminent safety hazard.

(3) When the Secretary or an SAA decides the method chosen by the manufacturer to conduct an investigation in order to make a class determination is not the most appropriate method, the Secretary or SAA must explain in writing to the manufacturer why the chosen method is not the most appropriate.

(d) Documentation required. The manufacturer must comply with the recordkeeping requirements in § 3282.417 as applicable to its determinations and any IPIA concurrence or statement that it does not concur.

§ 3282.405 Notification pursuant to manufacturer's determination.

(a) General requirement. Every manufacturer of manufactured homes must provide notification, as set out in this section, with respect to any manufactured home produced by the manufacturer in which the manufacturer determines, in good faith, that there exists or likely exists in more than one home, the same defect introduced systematically, a serious defect, or an imminent safety hazard.

(b) Requirements by category.

(1) Noncompliance. A manufacturer must provide notification of a noncompliance only when ordered to do so by the Secretary or an SAA, pursuant to §§ 3282.412 and 3282.413.

(2) Defects. When a manufacturer has made a class determination in accordance with § 3282.404 that a defect exists or likely exists in more than one home, the manufacturer must prepare a plan for notification in accordance with § 3282.408, and must provide notification with respect to each manufactured home in the class of manufactured homes.

(3) Serious defects and imminent safety hazards. When a manufacturer has made an initial determination in accordance with § 3282.404(a) that a serious defect or imminent safety hazard exists or likely exists, the manufacturer must prepare a plan for notification in accordance with § 3282.408, must provide notification with respect to all manufactured homes in which the serious defect or imminent safety hazard exists or likely exists, and must correct the home or homes in accordance with § 3282.406.

(c) Plan for notification required.

(1) If a manufacturer determines that it is responsible for providing notification under this section, the manufacturer must prepare and receive approval on a plan for notification as set out in § 3282.408, unless the manufacturer meets alternative requirements established in § 3282.407.

(2) If the Secretary or SAA orders a manufacturer to provide notification in accordance with the procedures in §§ 3282.412 and 3282.413, the Secretary or SAA has the option of requiring a manufacturer to prepare and receive approval on a plan for notification.

(d) Method of notification. When a manufacturer provides notification as required under this section, notification must be:

(1) By certified mail or other more expeditious means that provides a receipt to each retailer or distributor to whom any manufactured home in the class of homes containing the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard was delivered;

(2) By certified mail or other more expeditious means that provides a receipt to the first purchaser of each manufactured home in the class of manufactured homes containing the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard, and, to the extent feasible, to any subsequent owner to whom any warranty provided by the manufacturer or required by federal, state, or local law on such manufactured home has been transferred, except that notification need not be sent to any person known by the manufacturer not to own the manufactured home in question if the manufacturer has a record of a subsequent owner of the manufactured home; and

(3) By certified mail or other more expeditious means that provides a receipt to each other person who is a registered owner of a manufactured home in the class of homes containing the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard and whose name has been ascertained pursuant to § 3282.211 or is known to the manufacturer.

§ 3282.406 Required manufacturer correction.

(a) Correction of noncompliances and defects.

(1) Section 3282.415 sets out requirements with respect to a manufacturer's correction of any noncompliance or defect that exists in each manufactured home that has been sold or otherwise released to a retailer but that has not yet been sold to a purchaser.

(2) In accordance with section 623 of the Act and Part 3288, “Manufactured Home Dispute Resolution Program,” of this chapter, the manufacturer, retailer, or installer of a manufactured home deemed responsible for correction of repairs or defects must correct, at its expense, each failure in the performance, construction, components, or material of the home that renders the home or any part of the home not fit for the ordinary use for which it was intended and that is reported during the one-year period beginning on the date of installation of the home (see § 3286.115).

(b) Correction of serious defects and imminent safety hazards.

(1) A manufacturer required to furnish notification under § 3282.405 or § 3282.413 must correct, at its expense, any serious defect or imminent safety hazard that can be related to an error in design or assembly of the manufactured home by the manufacturer, including an error in design or assembly of any component or system incorporated into the manufactured home by the manufacturer.

(2) If, while making corrections under any of the provisions of this subpart, the manufacturer creates an imminent safety hazard or serious defect, the manufacturer shall correct the imminent safety hazard or serious defect.

(3) Each serious defect or imminent safety hazard corrected under this paragraph (b) must be brought into compliance with applicable construction and safety standards or, where those standards are not specific, with the manufacturer's approved design.

(c) Inclusion in plan.

(1) In the plan required by § 3282.408, the manufacturer must provide for correction of those homes that are required to be corrected pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section.

(2) If the Secretary or SAA orders a manufacturer to provide correction in accordance with the procedures in § 3282.413, the Secretary or SAA has the option of requiring a manufacturer to prepare and receive approval on a plan for correction.

(d) Corrections by owners. A manufacturer that is required to make corrections under paragraph (b) of this section, or that elects to make corrections in accordance with § 3282.407, must reimburse any owner of an affected manufactured home who choses to make the correction before the manufacturer did so, for the reasonable cost of correction.

(e) Correction of appliances, components, or systems.

(1) If any appliance, component, or system in a manufactured home is covered by a product warranty, the manufacturer, retailer, or installer that is responsible under this section for correcting a noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard in the appliance, component, or system may seek the required correction directly from the producer. The SAA that approves any plan of notification required pursuant to § 3282.408 or the Secretary, as applicable, may establish reasonable time limits for the manufacturer of the home and the producer of the appliance, component, or system to agree on who is to make the correction and for completing the correction.

(2) Nothing in this section shall prevent the manufacturer, retailer, or installer from seeking indemnification from the producer of the appliance, component, or system for correction work done on any appliance, component, or system.

§ 3282.407 Voluntary compliance with the notification and correction requirements under the Act.

A manufacturer that takes corrective action that complies with one of the following three alternatives to the requirement in § 3282.408 for preparing a plan will be deemed to have provided any notification required by § 3282.405:

(a) Voluntary action - one home. When a manufacturer has made a determination that only one manufactured home is involved, the manufacturer is not required to provide notification pursuant to § 3282.405 or to prepare or submit a plan if:

(1) The manufacturer has made a determination of defect; or

(2) The manufacturer has made a determination of serious defect or imminent safety hazard and corrects the home within the 20-day period. The manufacturer must maintain, in the plant where the manufactured home was manufactured, a complete record of the correction. The record must describe briefly the facts of the case and any known cause of the serious defect or imminent safety hazard, state what corrective actions were taken, and be maintained in the service records in a form that will allow the Secretary or an SAA to review all such corrections.

(b) Voluntary action - multiple homes. Regardless of whether a plan has been submitted under § 3282.408, the manufacturer may act prior to obtaining approval of the plan. Such action is subject to review and disapproval by the SAA of the state where the home was manufactured or by the Secretary, unless the manufacturer obtains the written agreement of the SAA or the Secretary that the corrective action is adequate. If such an agreement is obtained, the correction must be accepted as adequate by all SAAs and the Secretary, if the manufacturer makes the correction as agreed to and any imminent safety hazard or serious defect is eliminated.

(c) Waiver.

(1) A manufacturer may obtain a waiver of the notification requirements in § 3282.405 and the plan requirements in § 3282.408 either from the SAA of the state of manufacture, when all of the manufactured homes that would be covered by the plan were manufactured in that state, or from the Secretary. As of the date of a request for a waiver, the notification and plan requirements are deferred pending timely submission of any additional documentation as the SAA or the Secretary may require and final resolution of the waiver request. If a waiver request is not granted, the plan required by § 3282.408 must be submitted within 5 days after the expiration of the time frame established in § 3282.408, if the manufacturer is notified that the request was not granted.

(2) The waiver may be approved if, not later than 20 days after making the determination that notification is required, the manufacturer presents evidence that it, in good faith, believes would show to the satisfaction of the SAA or the Secretary that:

(i) The manufacturer has identified all homes that would be covered by the plan in accordance with § 3282.408;

(ii) The manufacturer will correct, at its expense, all of the identified homes, either within 60 days of being informed that the request for waiver has been granted or within another time limit approved in the waiver;

(iii) The proposed repairs are adequate to remove the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard that gave rise to the determination that correction is required; and

(3) The manufacturer must correct all affected manufactured homes within 60 days of being informed that the request for waiver has been granted or within the time limit approved in the waiver, as applicable. The manufacturer must record the known cause of the problem and the correction in the service records, in an approved form that will allow the Secretary or SAA to review the cause and correction.

§ 3282.408 Plan of notification required.

(a) Manufacturer's plan required. Except as provided in § 3282.407, if a manufacturer determines that it is responsible for providing notification under § 3282.405, the manufacturer must prepare a plan in accordance with this section and § 3282.409. The manufacturer must, as soon as practical, but not later than 20 days after making the determination of defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard, submit the plan for approval to one of the following, as appropriate:

(1) The SAA of the State of manufacture, when all of the manufactured homes covered by the plan were manufactured in that State; or

(2) The Secretary, when the manufactured homes were manufactured in more than one State or there is no SAA in the State of manufacture.

(b) Implementation of plan. Upon approval of the plan, including any changes for cause required by the Secretary or SAA after consultation with the manufacturer, the manufacturer must carry out the approved plan within the agreed time limits.

§ 3282.409 Contents of plan.

(a) Purpose of plan. This section sets out the requirements that must be met by a manufacturer in preparing any plan it is required to submit under § 3282.408. The underlying requirement is that the plan show how the manufacturer will fulfill its responsibilities with respect to notification and correction.

(b) Contents of plan. The plan must:

(1) Identify, by serial number and other appropriate identifying criteria, all manufactured homes for which notification is to be provided, as determined pursuant to § 3282.404;

(2) Include a copy of the notice that the manufacturer proposes to use to provide the notification required by § 3282.405;

(3) Provide for correction of those manufactured homes that are required to be corrected pursuant to § 3282.406(b);

(4) Include the IPIA's written concurrence or statement on the methods used by the manufacturer to identify the homes that should be included in the class of homes, as required pursuant to § 3282.404(b); and

(5) Include a deadline for completion of all notifications and corrections.

(c) Contents of notice. Except as otherwise agreed by the Secretary or the SAA reviewing the plan under § 3282.408, the notice to be approved as part of the plan must include the following:

(1) An opening statement that reads: “This notice is sent to you in accordance with the requirements of the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act.”

(2) The following statement: “[choose one, as appropriate: Manufacturer's name, or the Secretary, or the (insert State) SAA] has determined that [insert identifying criteria of manufactured home] may not comply with an applicable Federal Manufactured Home Construction or Safety Standard.”

(3) Except when the manufacturer is providing notice pursuant to an approved plan or agreement with the Secretary or an SAA under § 3282.408, each applicable statement must read as follows:

(i) “An imminent safety hazard may exist in (identifying criteria of manufactured home).”

(ii) “A serious defect may exist in (identifying criteria of manufactured home).”

(iii) “A defect may exist in (identifying criteria of manufactured home).”

(4) A clear description of the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard and an explanation of the risk to the occupants, which must include:

(i) The location of the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard in the manufactured home;

(ii) A description of any hazards, malfunctions, deterioration, or other consequences that may reasonably be expected to result from the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard;

(iii) A statement of the conditions that may cause such consequences to arise; and

(iv) Precautions, if any, that the owner can, should, or must take to reduce the chance that the consequences will arise before the manufactured home is repaired;

(5) A statement of whether there will be any warning that a dangerous occurrence may take place and what that warning would be, and of any signs that the owner might see, hear, smell, or feel that might indicate danger or deterioration of the manufactured home as a result of the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard;

(6) A statement that the manufacturer will correct the manufactured home, if the manufacturer will correct the manufactured home under this subpart or otherwise;

(7) A statement in accordance with whichever of the following is appropriate:

(i) Where the manufacturer will correct the manufactured home at no cost to the owner, the statement must indicate how and when the correction will be done, how long the correction will take, and any other information that may be helpful to the owner; or

(ii) When the manufacturer does not bear the cost of repair, the notification must include a detailed description of all parts and materials needed to make the correction; a description of all steps to be followed in making the correction, including appropriate illustrations; and an estimate of the cost of the purchaser or owner of the correction;

(8) A statement informing the owner that the owner may submit a complaint to the SAA or Secretary if the owner believes that:

(i) The notification or the remedy described therein is inadequate;

(ii) The manufacturer has failed or is unable to remedy the problem in accordance with its notification; or

(iii) The manufacturer has failed or is unable to remedy the problem within a reasonable time after the owner's first attempt to obtain remedy; and

(9) A statement that any actions taken by the manufacturer under the Act in no way limit the rights of the owner or any other person under any contract or other applicable law and that the owner may have further rights under contract or other applicable law.

§ 3282.410 Implementation of plan.

(a) Deadline for notifications.

(1) The manufacturer must complete the notifications carried out under a plan approved by an SAA or the Secretary under § 3282.408 on or before the deadline approved by the SAA or Secretary. In approving each deadline, an SAA or the Secretary will allow a reasonable time to complete all notifications, taking into account the number of manufactured homes involved and the difficulty of completing the notifications.

(2) The manufacturer must, at the time of dispatch, furnish to the SAA or the Secretary a true or representative copy of each notice, bulletin, and other written communication sent to retailers, distributors, or owners of manufactured homes regarding any serious defect or imminent safety hazard that may exist in any homes produced by the manufacturer, or regarding any noncompliance or defect for which the SAA or Secretary requires, under § 3282.413(c), the manufacturer to submit a plan for providing notification.

(b) Deadline for corrections. A manufacturer that is required to correct a serious defect or imminent safety hazard pursuant to § 3282.406(b) must complete implementation of the plan required by § 3282.408 on or before the deadline approved by the SAA or the Secretary. The deadline must be no later than 60 days after approval of the plan. In approving the deadline, the SAA or the Secretary will allow a reasonable amount of time to complete the plan, taking into account the seriousness of the problem, the number of manufactured homes involved, the immediacy of any risk, and the difficulty of completing the action. The seriousness and immediacy of any risk posed by the serious defect or imminent safety hazard will be given greater weight than other considerations.

(c) Extensions. An SAA that approved a plan or the Secretary may grant an extension of the deadlines included in a plan, if the manufacturer requests such an extension in writing and shows good cause for the extension, if the SAA or the Secretary decides that the extension is justified and not contrary to the public interest. When the Secretary grants an extension for completion of any corrections, the Secretary will notify the manufacturer and must publish notice of such extension in the Federal Register. When an SAA grants an extension for completion of any corrections, the SAA must notify the Secretary and the manufacturer.

(d) Recordkeeping. The manufacturer must provide the report and maintain the records that are required by § 3282.417 for all notification and correction actions.

§ 3282.411 SAA initiation of remedial action.

(a) SAA review of information. Whenever an SAA has information indicating the possible existence of a noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard in a manufactured home, the SAA may initiate administrative review of the need for notification and correction. An SAA initiates administrative review by either:

(1) Referring the matter to another SAA in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section or to the Secretary; or

(2) Taking action itself, in accordance with § 3282.412, when it appears that all of the homes affected by the noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard were manufactured in the SAA's State.

(b) SAA referral of matter. If at any time it appears that the affected manufactured homes were manufactured in more than one State, an SAA that decides to initiate such administrative review must refer the matter to the Secretary for possible action pursuant to § 3282.412. If it appears that all of the affected manufactured homes were manufactured in another State, an SAA that decides to initiate administrative review must refer the matter to the SAA in the State of manufacture or to the Secretary, for possible action pursuant to § 3282.412.

§ 3282.412 Preliminary and final administrative determinations.

(a) Grounds for issuance of preliminary determination. The Secretary or, in accordance with § 3282.411, an SAA in the State of manufacture, may issue a Notice of Preliminary Determination when:

(1) The manufacturer has not provided to the Secretary or SAA the necessary information to make a determination that:

(i) A noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard possibly exists; or

(ii) A manufacturer had information that likely indicates a noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard for which the manufacturer failed to make the determinations required under § 3282.404;

(2) The Secretary or SAA has information that indicates a noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard possibly exists, and, in the case of the SAA, the SAA believes that:

(i) The affected manufactured home has been sold or otherwise released by a manufacturer to a retailer or distributor, but there is no completed sale of the home to a purchaser;

(ii) Based on the same factors that are established for a manufacturer's class determination in § 3282.404(b), the information indicates a class of homes in which a noncompliance or defect possibly exists; or

(iii) The information indicates one or more homes in which a serious defect or an imminent safety hazard possibly exists;

(3) The Secretary or SAA is reviewing a plan under § 3282.408 and the Secretary or SAA disagree with the manufacturer on proposed changes to the plan;

(4) The Secretary or SAA believes that the manufacturer has failed to fulfill the requirements of a waiver granted under § 3282.407(c); or

(5) There is information that a manufacturer failed to make the determinations required under § 3282.404.

(b) Additional requirements - SAA issuance.

(1) An SAA that receives information that indicates a serious defect or an imminent safety hazard possibly exists in a home manufactured in that SAA's State must notify the Secretary about that information.

(2) An SAA that issues a preliminary determination must provide a copy of the preliminary determination to the Secretary at the time of its issuance. Failure to comply with this requirement does not affect the validity of the preliminary determination.

(c) Additional requirements - Secretary issuance. The Secretary will notify the SAA of each State where the affected homes were manufactured, and, to the extent reasonable, the SAA of each State where the homes are located, of the issuance of a preliminary determination. Failure to comply with this requirement does not affect the validity of the preliminary determination.

(d) Notice of Preliminary Determination.

(1) The Notice of Preliminary Determination must be sent by certified mail or express delivery and must:

(i) Include the factual basis for the determination;

(ii) Include the criteria used to identify any class of homes in which the noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard possibly exists;

(iii) If applicable, indicate that the manufacturer may be required to make corrections on a home or in a class of homes; and

(iv) If the preliminary determination is that the manufacturer failed to make an initial determination required under § 3282.404(a), include an allegation that the manufacturer failed to act in good faith.

(2) The Notice of Preliminary Determination must inform the manufacturer that the preliminary determination will become final unless the manufacturer requests a hearing or presentation of views under subpart D of this part.

(e) Presentation of views.

(1) If a manufacturer elects to exercise its right to a hearing or presentation of views, the Secretary or the SAA, as applicable, must receive the manufacturer's request for a hearing or presentation of views:

(i) Within 15 days of delivery of the Notice of Preliminary Determination of serious defect, defect, or noncompliance; or

(ii) Within 5 days of delivery of the Notice of Preliminary Determination of imminent safety hazard.

(2) A Formal or an Informal Presentation of Views will be held in accordance with § 3282.152 promptly upon receipt of a manufacturer's request under paragraph (c) of this section.

(f) Issuance of Final Determination.

(1) The SAA or the Secretary, as appropriate, may make a Final Determination that is based on the allegations in the preliminary determination and adverse to the manufacturer if:

(i) The manufacturer fails to respond to the Notice of Preliminary Determination within the time period established in paragraph (c)(2) of this section; or

(ii) The SAA or the Secretary decides that the views and evidence presented by the manufacturer or others are insufficient to rebut the preliminary determination.

(2) At the time that the SAA or Secretary makes a Final Determination that an imminent safety hazard, serious defect, defect, or noncompliance exists, the SAA or Secretary, as appropriate, must issue an order in accordance with § 3282.413.

§ 3282.413 Implementation of Final Determination.

(a) Issuance of orders.

(1) The SAA or the Secretary, as appropriate, must issue an order directing the manufacturer to furnish notification if:

(i) The SAA makes a Final Determination that a defect or noncompliance exists in a class of homes;

(ii) The Secretary makes a Final Determination that an imminent safety hazard, serious defect, defect, or noncompliance exists; or

(iii) The SAA makes a Final Determination that an imminent safety hazard or a serious defect exists in any home, and the SAA has received the Secretary's concurrence on the issuance of the Final Determination and order.

(2) The SAA or the Secretary, as appropriate, must issue an order directing the manufacturer to make corrections in any affected manufactured home if:

(i) The SAA or the Secretary makes a Final Determination that a defect or noncompliance exists in a manufactured home that has been sold or otherwise released by a manufacturer to a retailer or distributor but for which the sale to a purchaser has not been completed;

(ii) The Secretary makes a Final Determination that an imminent safety hazard or serious defect exists; or

(iii) The SAA makes a Final Determination that an imminent safety hazard or serious defect exists in any home, and the SAA has received the Secretary's concurrence on the issuance of the Final Determination and order.

(3) Only the Secretary may issue an order directing a manufacturer to repurchase or replace any manufactured home already sold to a purchaser, unless the Secretary authorizes an SAA to issue such an order.

(4) An SAA that has a concurrence or authorization from the Secretary on any order issued under this section must have the Secretary's concurrence on any subsequent changes to the order. An SAA that has issued a Preliminary Determination must have the Secretary's concurrence on any waiver of notification or any settlement when the concerns addressed in the Preliminary Determination involve a serious defect or an imminent safety hazard.

(5) If an SAA or the Secretary makes a Final Determination that the manufacturer failed to make, in good faith, an initial determination required under § 3282.404(a):

(i) The SAA may impose any penalties or take any action applicable under State law and may refer the matter to the Secretary for appropriate action; and

(ii) The Secretary may take any action permitted by law.

(b) Decision to order replacement or repurchase. The SAA or the Secretary will order correction of any manufactured home covered by an order issued in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section, unless any requirements and factors applicable under § 3282.414 and § 3282.415 indicate that the SAA or the Secretary should order replacement or repurchase of the home.

(c) Time for compliance with order.

(1) The SAA or the Secretary may require the manufacturer to submit a plan for providing any notification and any correction, replacement, or repurchase remedy that results from an order under this section. The manufacturer's plan must include the method and date by which notification and any corrective action will be provided.

(2) The manufacturer must provide any such notification and correction, replacement, or repurchase remedy as early as practicable, but not later than:

(i) Thirty days after issuance of the order, in the case of a Final Determination of imminent safety hazard or when the SAA or Secretary has ordered replacement or repurchase of a home pursuant to § 3282.414; or

(ii) Sixty days after issuance of the order, in the case of a Final Determination of serious defect, defect, or noncompliance.

(3) Subject to the requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this section, the SAA that issued the order or the Secretary may grant an extension of the deadline for compliance with an order if:

(i) The manufacturer requests such an extension in writing and shows good cause for the extension; and

(ii) The SAA or the Secretary is satisfied that the extension is justified in the public interest.

(4) When the SAA grants an extension, it must notify the manufacturer and forward to the Secretary a draft of a notice of the extension for the Secretary to publish in the Federal Register. When the Secretary grants an extension, the Secretary must notify the manufacturer and publish notice of such extension in the Federal Register.

(d) Appeal of SAA determination. Within 10 days of a manufacturer receiving notice that an SAA has made a Final Determination that an imminent safety hazard, a serious defect, a defect, or noncompliance exists or that the manufacturer failed to make the determinations required under § 3282.404, the manufacturer may appeal the Final Determination to the Secretary under § 3282.309.

(e) Settlement offers. A manufacturer may propose in writing, at any time, an offer of settlement and shall submit it for consideration by the Secretary or the SAA that issued the Notice of Preliminary Determination. The Secretary or the SAA has the option of providing the manufacturer making the offer with an opportunity to make an oral presentation in support of such offer. If the manufacturer is notified that an offer of settlement is rejected, the offer is deemed to have been withdrawn and will not constitute a part of the record in the proceeding. Final acceptance by the Secretary or an SAA of any offer of settlement automatically terminates any proceedings related to the matter involved in the settlement.

(f) Waiver of notification.

(1) At any time after the Secretary or an SAA has issued a Notice of Preliminary Determination, the manufacturer may ask the Secretary or SAA to waive any formal notification requirements. When requesting a waiver, the manufacturer must certify that:

(i) The manufacturer has made a class determination in accordance with § 3282.404(b);

(ii) The manufacturer will correct, at the manufacturer's expense, all affected manufactured homes in the class within a time period specified by the Secretary or SAA, but not later than 60 days after the manufacturer is notified of the acceptance of the request for waiver or the issuance of any Final Determination, whichever is later; and

(iii) The proposed repairs are adequate to correct the noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard that gave rise to the issuance of the Notice of Preliminary Determination.

(2) If the Secretary or SAA grants a waiver, the manufacturer must reimburse any owner of an affected manufactured home who chose to make the correction before the manufacturer did so, for the reasonable cost of correction.

(g) Recordkeeping. The manufacturer must provide the report and maintain the records that are required by § 3282.417 for all notification and correction actions.

§ 3282.414 Replacement or repurchase of homes after sale to purchaser.

(a) Order to replace or repurchase. Whenever a manufacturer cannot correct or remove an imminent safety hazard or a serious defect in a manufactured home, for which there is a completed sale to a purchaser, within 60 days of the issuance of an order under § 3282.413 or any extension of the 60-day deadline that has been granted by the Secretary in accordance with § 3282.413(c)(3), the Secretary or, if authorized in writing by the Secretary in accordance with § 3282.413(a)(3), the SAA may require that the manufacturer:

(1) Replace the manufactured home with a home that:

(i) Is substantially equal in size, equipment, and quality; and

(ii) Either is new or is in the same condition that the defective manufactured home would have been in at the time of discovery of the imminent safety hazard or serious defect had the imminent safety hazard or serious defect not existed; or

(2) Take possession of the manufactured home, if the Secretary or the SAA so orders, and refund the purchase price in full, except that the amount of the purchase price may be reduced by a reasonable amount for depreciation if the home has been in the possession of the owner for more than one year and the amount of depreciation is based on:

(i) Actual use of the home; and

(ii) An appraisal system approved by the Secretary or the SAA that does not take into account damage or deterioration resulting from the imminent safety hazard or serious defect.

(b) Factors affecting order. In determining whether to order replacement or refund by the manufacturer, the Secretary or the SAA will consider:

(1) The threat of injury or death to manufactured home occupants;

(2) Any costs and inconvenience to manufactured-home owners that will result from the lack of adequate repair within the specified period;

(3) The expense to the manufacturer;

(4) Any obligations imposed on the manufacturer under contract, or other applicable law of which the Secretary or the SAA has knowledge; and

(5) Any other relevant factors that may be brought to the attention of the Secretary or the SAA.

(c) Owner's election of remedy. When under contract or other applicable law the owner has the right of election between replacement and refund, the manufacturer must inform the owner of such right of election and must inform the Secretary of the election, if any, made by the owner.

(d) Recordkeeping. The manufacturer must provide the report that is required by § 3282.417 when a manufactured home has been replaced or repurchased under this section.

§ 3282.415 Correction of homes before sale to purchaser.

(a) Sale or lease prohibited. Manufacturers, retailers, and distributors must not sell, lease, or offer for sale or lease any manufactured home that they have reason to know, in the exercise of due care, contains a noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard. The sale of a home to a purchaser is complete when all contractual obligations of the manufacturer, retailer, and distributor to the purchaser and conditions specified in § 3282.252 have been met.

(b) Retailer/distributor notification to manufacturer. When a retailer, acting as a reasonable retailer, or a distributor, acting as a reasonable distributor, believes that a manufactured home that has been sold to the retailer or distributor, but for which there is no completed sale to a purchaser, likely contains a noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard, the retailer or distributor must notify the manufacturer of the home in a timely manner.

(c) Manufacturer's remedial responsibilities. Upon a Final Determination pursuant to § 3282.412(f) by the Secretary or an SAA, a determination by a court of appropriate jurisdiction, or a manufacturer's own determination that a manufactured home that has been sold to a retailer but for which there is no completed sale to a purchaser contains a noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard, the manufacturer must do one of the following:

(1) Immediately repurchase such manufactured home from the retailer or distributor at the price paid by the retailer or distributor, plus pay all transportation charges involved, if any, and a reasonable reimbursement of not less than one percent per month of such price paid, prorated from the date the manufacturer receives notice by certified mail of the noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard; or

(2) At its expense, immediately furnish to the retailer or distributor all required parts or equipment for installation in the home by the retailer or distributor, and the manufacturer must reimburse the retailer or distributor for the reasonable value of the retailer's or distributor's work, plus a reasonable reimbursement of not less than one percent per month of the manufacturer's or distributor's selling price, prorated from the date the manufacturer receives notice by certified mail to the date the noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard is corrected, so long as the retailer or distributor proceeds with reasonable diligence with the required work; or

(3) Carry out all needed corrections to the home.

(d) Establishing costs. The value of reasonable reimbursements as specified in paragraph (c) of this section will be fixed by either:

(1) Mutual agreement of the manufacturer and retailer or distributor; or

(2) A court in an action brought under section 613(b) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 5412(b)).

(e) Records required. The manufacturer and the retailer or distributor must maintain records of their actions taken under this section in accordance with § 3282.417.

(f) Exception for leased homes. This section does not apply to any manufactured home purchased by a retailer or distributor that has been leased by such retailer or distributor to a tenant for purposes other than resale. Other remedies that may be available to a retailer or distributor under subpart I of this part continue to be applicable.

(g) Indemnification. A manufacturer may indemnify itself through agreements or contracts with retailers, distributors, transporters, installers, or others for the costs of repurchase, parts, equipment, and corrective work incurred by the manufacturer pursuant to paragraph (c).

§ 3282.416 Oversight of notification and correction activities.

(a) IPIA responsibilities. The IPIA in each manufacturing plant must:

(1) Assure that notifications required under this subpart I are sent to all owners, purchasers, retailers, and distributors of whom the manufacturer has knowledge;

(2) Audit the certificates required by § 3282.417 to assure that the manufacturer has made required corrections;

(3) Whenever a manufacturer is required to determine a class of homes pursuant to § 3282.404(b), provide either:

(i) The IPIA's written concurrence on the methods used by the manufacturer to identify the homes that should be included in the class of homes; or

(ii) The IPIA's written statement explaining why it believes the manufacturer's methods for determining the class of homes were inappropriate or inadequate; and

(4) Conduct, at least monthly, a review the manufacturer's service records of determinations under § 3282.404 and take appropriate action in accordance with §§ 3282.362(c) and 3282.364.

(b) SAA and Secretary's responsibilities.

(1) SAA oversight of manufacturer compliance with this subpart will be done primarily by periodically checking the records that manufacturers are required to keep under § 3282.417.

(2) The SAA or Secretary to which the report required by § 3282.417(a) is sent is responsible for assuring, through oversight, that remedial actions have been carried out as described in the report. The SAA of the State in which an affected manufactured home is located may inspect that home to determine whether any correction required under this subpart I is carried out in accordance with the approved plan or, if there is no plan, with the construction and safety standards or other approval obtained by the manufacturer.

§ 3282.417 Recordkeeping requirements.

(a) Manufacturer report on notifications and corrections. Within 30 days after the deadline for completing any notifications, corrections, replacement, or repurchase required pursuant to this subpart, the manufacturer must provide a complete report of the action taken to, as appropriate, the Secretary or the SAA that approved the plan under § 3282.408, granted a waiver, or issued the order under § 3282.413. If any other SAA or the Secretary forwarded the relevant consumer complaint or other information to the manufacturer in accordance with § 3282.403, the manufacturer must send a copy of the report to that SAA or the Secretary, as applicable.

(b) Records of manufacturer's determinations.

(1) A manufacturer must record each initial and class determination required under § 3282.404, in a manner approved by the Secretary or an SAA and that identifies who made each determination, what each determination was, and all bases for each determination. Such information must be available for review by the IPIA.

(2) The manufacturer records must include:

(i) The information it received that likely indicated a noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard;

(ii) All of the manufacturer's determinations and each basis for those determinations;

(iii) The methods used by the manufacturer to establish any class, including, when applicable, the cause of the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard; and

(iv) Any IPIA concurrence or statement that it does not concur with the manufacturer's class determination, in accordance with § 3282.404(b).

(3) When the records that a manufacturer is required to keep in accordance with this paragraph (b) involve a class of manufactured homes that have the same noncompliance, defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard, the manufacturer has the option of meeting the requirements of this paragraph by establishing a class determination file, instead of including the same information in the file required by paragraph (e) of this section for each affected home. Such class determination file must contain the records of each class determination, notification, and correction, as applicable. For each class determination, the manufacturer must record once in each class determination file the information common to the class, and must identify by serial number all of the homes that the class comprises and that are subject to notification and correction, as applicable.

(c) Manufacturer records of notifications. When a manufacturer is required to provide notification under this subpart, the manufacturer must maintain a record of each type of notice sent and a complete list of the persons notified and their addresses. The manufacturer must maintain these records in a manner approved by the Secretary or an SAA to identify each notification campaign.

(d) Manufacturer records of corrections. When a manufacturer is required to provide or provides correction under this subpart, the manufacturer must maintain a record of one of the following, as appropriate, for each manufactured home involved:

(1) If the correction is made, a certification by the manufacturer that the repair was made to conform to the federal construction and safety standards in effect at the time the home was manufactured and that each identified imminent safety hazard or serious defect has been corrected; or

(2) If the owner refuses to allow the manufacturer to repair the home, a certification by the manufacturer that:

(i) The owner has been informed of the problem that may exist in the home;

(ii) The owner has been provided with a description of any hazards, malfunctions, deterioration, or other consequences that may reasonably be expected to result from the defect, serious defect, or imminent safety hazard; and

(iii) An attempt has been made to repair the problems, but the owner has refused the repair.

(e) Maintenance of manufacturer's records.

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, for each manufactured home produced by a manufacturer, the manufacturer must maintain in a printed or electronic format all of the information required by paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, and must consolidate the information in a readily accessible file or in a readily accessible combination of a printed file and an electronic file. For each home, the manufacturer also must include in such file a copy of the homes data plate; all information related to manufacture, handling, and assembly of the home; any checklist or similar documentation used by the manufacturer in the transport of the home; the name and address of the retailer; the original or a copy of each purchaser's registration record received by the manufacturer; all correspondence with the retailer and homeowner that is related to the home; any information received by the manufacturer regarding setup of the home; all work orders for servicing the home; and the information that the manufacturer is required to keep pursuant to § 3282.211. The manufacturer must organize all such files in order of the serial numbers of the homes produced.

(2) The manufacturer must maintain each of these manufactured-home records at the plant where the home was produced. If that plant is no longer in existence, the manufacturer must keep the records at its nearest production plant in the same State, or, if such a plant does not exist, at the manufacturer's corporate headquarters.

§ 3282.418 Factors for appropriateness and amount of civil penalties.

In determining whether to seek a civil penalty for a violation of the requirements of this subpart, and the amount of such penalty to be recommended, the Secretary will consider the provisions of the Act and the following factors:

(a) The gravity of the violation;

(b) The degree of the violator's culpability, including whether the violator had acted in good faith in trying to comply with the requirements;

(c) The injury to the public;

(d) Any injury to owners or occupants of manufactured homes

(e) The ability to pay the penalty;

(f) Any benefits received by the violator;

(g) The extent of potential benefits to other persons;

(h) Any history of prior violations;

(i) Deterrence of future violations; and

(j) Such other factors as justice may require.