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Title 24

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Title 24

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Subpart I - Electrical Systems
§ 3280.801 Scope.

(a) Subpart I of this part and Part II of Article 550 of the National Electrical Code (NFPA No. 70-2005) cover the electrical conductors and equipment installed within or on manufactured homes and the conductors that connect manufactured homes to a supply of electricity.

(b) In addition to the requirements of this part and Part II of Article 550 of the National Electrical Code (NFPA No. 70-2005), the applicable portions of other Articles of the National Electrical Code must be followed for electrical installations in manufactured homes. The use of arc-fault breakers under Articles 210.12(A) and (B), 440.65, and 550.25(A) and (B) of the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70-2005 is not required. However, if arc-fault breakers are provided, such use must be in accordance with the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70-2005. Wherever the requirements of this standard differ from the National Electrical Code, these standards apply.

(c) The provisions of this standard apply to manufactured homes intended for connection to a wiring system nominally rated 120/240 volts, 3-wire AC, with grounded neutral.

(d) All electrical materials, devices, appliances, fittings and other equipment shall be listed or labeled by a nationally recognized testing agency and shall be connected in an approved manner when in service.

(e) Aluminum conductors, aluminum alloy conductors, and aluminum core conductors such as copper clad aluminum; are not acceptable for use in branch circuit wiring in manufactured homes.

[40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 FR 55019, Oct. 25, 1993; 70 FR 72051, Nov. 30, 2005; 71 FR 19639, Apr. 17, 2006]

§ 3280.802 Definitions.

(a) The following definitions are applicable to subpart I only.

(1) Accessible

(i) (As applied to equipment) means admitting close approach because not guarded by locked doors, elevation, or other effective means. (See readily accessible.)

(ii) (As applied to wiring methods) means capable of being removed or exposed without damaging the manufactured home structure or finish, or not permanently closed-in by the structure or finish of the manufactured home (see concealed and exposed).

(2) Air conditioning or comfort cooling equipment means all of that equipment intended or installed for the purpose of processing the treatment of air so as to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and distribution to meet the requirements of the conditioned space.

(3)

(i) Appliance means utilization equipment, generally other than industrial, normally built in standardized sizes or types, which is installed or connected as a unit to perform one or more functions, such as clothes washing, air conditioning, food mixing, deep frying, etc.

(ii) Appliance, fixed means an appliance which is fastened or otherwise secured at a specific location.

(iii) Appliance, portable means an appliance which is actually moved or can easily be moved from one place to another in normal use. For the purpose of this Standard, the following major appliances are considered portable if cord-connected: refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers without booster heaters, or other similar appliances.

(iv) Appliance, stationary means an appliance which is not easily moved from one place to another in normal use.

(4) Attached accessory building or structure means any awning, cabana, deck, ramada, storage cabinet, carport, windbreak, garage, or porch for which the attachment of such is designed by the home manufacturer to be structurally supported by the manufactured home.

(5) Attachment plug (plug cap) (cap) means a device which, by insertion in a receptacle, establishes connection between the conductors of the attached flexible cord and the conductors connected permanently to the receptacle.

(6) Bonding means the permanent joining of metallic parts to form an electrically conductive path which will assure electrical continuity and the capacity to conduct safely any current likely to be imposed.

(7) Branch circuit

(i) means the circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit and the outlet(s). A device not approved for branch circuit protection, such as a thermal cutout or motor overload protective device, is not considered as the overcurrent device protecting the circuit.

(ii) Branch circuit - appliance means a branch circuit supplying energy to one or more outlets to which appliances are to be connected, such circuits to have no permanently connected lighting fixtures not a part of an appliance.

(iii) Branch circuit - general purpose means a circuit that supplies a number of outlets for lighting and appliances.

(iv) Branch circuit - individual means a branch circuit that supplies only one utilization equipment.

(8) Cabinet means an enclosure designed either for surface or flush mounting, and provided with a frame, mat, or trim in which swinging doors are hung.

(9) Circuit breaker means a device designed to open and close a circuit by nonautomatic means, and to open the circuit automatically on a predetermined overload of current without injury to itself when properly applied within its rating.

(10) Concealed means rendered inaccessible by the structure or finish of the manufactured home. Wires in concealed raceways are considered concealed, even though they may become accessible by withdrawing them. (See accessible (As applied to wiring methods))

(11) Connector, pressure (solderless) means a device that establishes a connection between two or more conductors or between one or more conductors and a terminal by means of mechanical pressure and without the use of solder.

(12) Dead front (as applied to switches, circuit-breakers, switchboards, and distribution panelboard) means so designed, constructed, and installed that no current-carrying parts are normally exposed on the front.

(13) Demand factor means the ratio of the maximum demand of a system, or part of a system, to the total connected load of a system or the part of the system under consideration.

(14) Device means a unit of an electrical system that is intended to carry but not utilize electrical energy.

(15) Disconnecting means means a device, or group of devices, or other means by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from their source of supply.

(16) Distribution panelboard means a single panel or a group of panel units designed for assembly in the form of a single panel, including buses, and with or without switches or automatic overcurrent protective devices or both, for the control of light, heat, or power circuits of small individual as well as aggregate capacity; designed to be placed in a cabinet placed in or against a wall or partition and accessible only from the front.

(17) Enclosed means surrounded by a case that will prevent a person from accidentally contacting live parts.

(18) Equipment means a general term, including material, fittings, devices, appliances, fixtures, apparatus, and the like used as a part of, or in connection with, an electrical installation.

(19) Exposed

(i) (As applied to live parts) means capable of being inadvertently touched or approached nearer than a safe distance by a person. It is applied to parts not suitably guarded, isolated, or insulated. (See accessible and concealed.)

(ii) (As applied to wiring method) means on or attached to the surface or behind panels designed to allow access. (See Accessible (as applied to wiring methods))

(20) Externally operable means capable of being operated without exposing the operator to contact with live parts.

(21) Feeder assembly means the overhead or under-chassis feeder conductors, including the grounding conductor, together with the necessary fittings and equipment, or a power supply cord approved for manufactured home use, designed for the purpose of delivering energy from the source of electrical supply to the distribution panelboard within the manufactured home.

(22) Fitting means an accessory, such as a locknut, bushing, or other part of a wiring system, that is intended primarily to perform a mechanical rather than an electrical function.

(23) Ground means a conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electrical circuit or equipment and earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.

(24) Grounded means connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.

(25) Grounded conductor means a system or circuit conductor that is intentionally grounded.

(26) Grounding conductor means a conductor used to connect equipment or the grounded circuit of a wiring system to a grounding electrode or electrodes.

(27) Guarded means covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected by means of suitable covers, casings, barriers, rails, screens, mats or platforms to remove the likelihood of approach or contact by persons or objects to a point of danger.

(28) Isolated means not readily accessible to persons unless special means for access are used.

(29) Laundry area means an area containing or designed to contain either a laundry tray, clothes washer and/or clothes dryer.

(30) Lighting outlet means an outlet intended for the direct connection of a lampholder, a lighting fixture, or a pendant cord terminating in a lampholder.

(31) Manufactured home accessory building or structure means any awning, cabana, ramada, storage cabinet, carport, fence, windbreak or porch established for the use of the occupant of the manufactured home upon a manufactured home lot.

(32) Manufactured home service equipment means the equipment containing the disconnecting means, overcurrent protective devices, and receptacles or other means for connecting a manufactured home feeder assembly.

(33) Outlet means a point on the wiring system at which current is taken to supply utilization equipment.

(34) Panelboard means a single panel or group of panel units designed for assembly in the form of a single panel; including buses, automatic overcurrent protective devices, and with or without switches for the control of light, heat, or power circuits; designed to be placed in a cabinet or cutout box placed in or against a wall or partition and accessible only from the front.

(35) Raceway means any channel for holding wires, cables, or busbars that is designed expressly for, and used solely for, this purpose. Raceways may be of metal or insulating material, and the term includes rigid metal conduit, rigid nonmetallic conduit, flexible metal conduit, electrical metallic tubing, underfloor raceways, cellular concrete floor raceways, cellular metal floor raceways, surface raceways, structural raceways, wireways, and busways.

(36) Raintight means so constructed or protected that exposure to a beating rain will not result in the entrance of water.

(37) Readily accessible means capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal, or inspection, without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders, chairs, etc. (See Accessible.)

(38) Receptacle means a contact device installed at the outlet for the connection of an attachment plug. A single receptacle is a single contact device with no other contact device on the same yoke. A multiple receptacle is a device with two or more contact devices on the same yoke.

(39) Receptacle outlet means an outlet where one or more receptacles are installed.

(40) Utilization equipment means equipment that utilizes electric energy for electronic, electromechanical, chemical, heating, lighting, or similar purposes.

(41) Voltage (of a circuit) means the greatest root-mean-square (effective) difference of potential between any two conductors of the circuit concerned. Some systems, such as 3-phase 4-wire, single-phase 3-wire, and 3-wire direct-current may have various circuits of various voltages.

(42) Weatherproof means so constructed or protected that exposure to the weather will not interfere with successful operation. Rainproof, raintight, or watertight equipment can fulfill the requirements for weatherproof where varying weather conditions other than wetness, such as snow, ice, dust, or temperature extremes, are not a factor.

(b) {Reserved]

[40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 78 FR 73989, Dec. 9, 2013; 86 FR 2523, Jan. 12, 2021]

§ 3280.803 Power supply.

(a) The power supply to the manufactured home shall be a feeder assembly consisting of not more than one listed 50 ampere manufactured home power-supply cords, or a permanently installed circuit. A manufactured home that is factory-equipped with gas or oil-fired central heating equipment and cooking appliances shall be permitted to be provided with a listed manufactured home power-supply cord rated 40 amperes.

(b) If the manufactured home has a power-supply cord, it shall be permanently attached to the distribution panelboard or to a junction box permanently connected to the distribution panelboard, with the free end terminating in an attachment plug cap.

(c) Cords with adapters and pigtail ends, extension cords, and similar items shall not be attached to, or shipped with, a manufactured home.

(d) A suitable clamp or the equivalent must be provided at the distribution panelboard knockout to afford strain relief for the cord to prevent strain from being transmitted to the terminals when the power supply cord is handled in its intended manner.

(e) The cord shall be of an approved type with four conductors, one of which shall be identified by a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes for use as the grounding conductor.

(f) The attachment plug cap must be a 3-pole, 4-wire, grounding type, rated 50 amperes, 125/250 volts, intended for use with the 50-ampere, 125/250-volt receptacle configuration, as shown below. The cap must be listed, by itself or as part of a power-supply cord assembly, for the purpose, and must be molded to or installed on the flexible cord so that it is secured tightly to the cord at the point where the cord enters the attachment plug cap. If a right-angle cap is used, the configuration must be so oriented that the grounding member is farthest from the cord.

(g) The overall length of a power-supply cord, measured from the end of the cord, including bared leads, to the face of the attachment-plug cap shall not be less than 21 feet and shall not exceed 361/2 feet. The length of cord from the face of the attachment-plug cap to the point where the cord enters the manufactured home shall not be less than 20 feet.

(h) The power supply cord shall bear the following marking: “For use with manufactured homes - 40 amperes” or “For use with manufactured homes - 50 amperes.”

(i) Where the cord passes through walls or floors, it must be protected by means of conduits and bushings or the equivalent. The cord is permitted to be installed within the manufactured home walls, provided that a continuous raceway having a maximum size of 11/4 inch is installed from the branch-circuit panelboard to the underside of the manufactured home floor.

(j) Permanent provisions shall be made for the protection of the attachment-plug cap of the power supply cord and any connector cord assembly or receptacle against corrosion and mechanical damage if such devices are in an exterior location while the manufactured home is in transit.

(k) Where the calculated load exceeds 50 amperes or where a permanent feeder is used, the supply shall be by means of:

(1) One mast weatherhead installation installed in accordance with Article 230 of the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70-2005, containing four continuous insulated, color-coded, feeder conductors, one of which shall be an equipment grounding conductor; or

(2) A listed metal raceway or listed rigid nonmetallic conduit from the disconnecting means in the manufactured home to the underside of the manufactured home, with provisions for the attachment of a suitable junction box or fitting to the raceway on the underside of the manufactured home. The manufacturer must provide written installation instructions stating the proper feeder conductor sizes for the raceway and the size of the junction box to be used; or

(3) Service equipment installed in or on the manufactured home, provided that all of the following conditions are met:

(i) In its written installation instructions, the manufacturer must include information indicating that the home must be secured in place by an anchoring system or installed on and secured to a permanent foundation;

(ii) The installation of the service equipment complies with Article 230 of the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70-2005 (incorporated by reference, see § 3280.4). Exterior service equipment or the enclosure in which it is to be installed must be weatherproof, and conductors must be suitable for use in wet locations;

(iii) Means are provided for the connection of the grounding electrode conductor to the service equipment and routing it to the conductor outside the structure;

(iv) Bonding and grounding of the service must be in accordance with Article 250, NFPA 70-2005, National Electrical Code (incorporated by reference, see § 3280.4);

(v) The manufacturer must include in its installation instructions one method of grounding the service equipment at the installation site. The instructions must clearly state that other methods of grounding are found in Article 250 of NFPA 70-2005, National Electrical Code;

(vi) The minimum size grounding electrode conductor must be specified in the instructions; and

(vi) A red warning label must be mounted on or adjacent to the service equipment. The label must state the following: WARNING - DO NOT PROVIDE ELECTRICAL POWER UNTIL THE GROUNDING ELECTRODE(S) IS INSTALLED AND CONNECTED (SEE INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS).

[40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 52 FR 4589, Feb. 12, 1987; 58 FR 55019, Oct. 25, 1993; 70 FR 72051, Nov. 30, 2005; 78 FR 73990, Dec. 9, 2013]

§ 3280.804 Disconnecting means and branch-circuit protective equipment.

(a) The branch-circuit equipment is permitted to be combined with the disconnecting means as a single assembly. Such a combination is permitted to be designated as a distribution panelboard. If a fused distribution panelboard is used, the maximum fuse size for the mains shall be plainly marked, with the lettering at least 1/4-inch high and visible when fuses are changed. See Article 110-22 of NFPA 70-2005, National Electrical Code (incorporated by reference, see § 3280.4), concerning the identification of each disconnecting means and each service, feeder, or branch circuit at the point where it originated, and the type of marking needed.

(b) Plug fuses and fuseholders shall be tamper-resistant, Type “S,” enclosed in dead-front fuse panelboards. Electrical distribution panels containing circuit breakers shall also be dead-front type.

(c) Disconnecting means. A single disconnecting means must be provided in each manufactured home, consisting of a circuit breaker, or a switch and fuses and its accessories, installed in a readily accessible location near the point of entrance of the supply cord or conductors into the manufactured home. The main circuit breakers or fuses must be plainly marked “Main.” This equipment must contain a solderless type of grounding connector or bar for the purposes of grounding, with sufficient terminals for all grounding conductors. The neutral bar termination of the grounded circuit conductors must be insulated in accordance with § 3280.809(b).

(d) The disconnecting equipment shall have a rating suitable for the connected load. The distribution equipment, either circuit breaker or fused type, shall be located a minimum of 24 inches from the bottom of such equipment to the floor level of the manufactured home.

(e) A distribution panelboard employing a main circuit breaker must be rated not less than 50 amperes and employ a 2-pole circuit breaker rated 40 amperes for a 40-ampere supply cord, or 50 amperes for a 50-ampere supply cord. A distribution panelboard employing a disconnect switch and fuses must be rated not less than 60 amperes and must employ a single, 2-pole fuseholder rated not less than 60-amperes with 40- or 50-ampere main fuses for 40- or 50-ampere supply cords, respectively. The outside of the distribution panelboard must be plainly marked with the fuse size.

(f) The distribution panelboard must be located in an accessible location, and must not be located in a bathroom or a clothes closet. A clear working space at least 30 inches wide and 30 inches in front of the distribution panelboard must be provided. This space must extend from the floor to the top of the distribution panelboard. Where used as switches, circuit breakers must be installed so that the center of the grip of the operating handle of the circuit breaker, when in its highest position, will not be more than 6 feet, 7 inches above the floor.

(g) Branch-circuit distribution equipment shall be installed in each manufactured home and shall include overcurrent protection for each branch circuit consisting of either circuit breakers or fuses.

(1) The branch circuit overcurrent devices shall be rated:

(i) Not more than the circuit conductors; and

(ii) Not more than 150 percent of the rating of a single appliance rated 13.3 amperes or more which is supplied by an individual branch circuit; but

(iii) Not more than the fuse size marked on the air conditioner or other motor-operated appliance.

(h) A 15-ampere multiple receptacle shall be acceptable when connected to a 20-ampere laundry circuit.

(i) When circuit breakers are provided for branch-circuit protection 240 circuits shall be protected by 2-pole common or companion trip, or handle-tied paired circuit breakers.

(j) A 3 inch by 1-3/4 inch minimum size tag made of etched, metal-stamped or embossed brass, stainless steel, anodized or alclad aluminum not less than 0.020 inch thick, or other approval material (e.g., 0.005 inch plastic laminates) shall be permanently affixed on the outside adjacent to the feeder assembly entrance and shall read: This connection for 120/240 Volt, 3-Pole, 4-Wire, 60 Hertz, ________ Ampere Supply. The correct ampere rating shall be marked on the blank space.

(k) When a home is provided with installed service equipment, a single disconnecting means for disconnecting the branch circuit conductors from the service entrance conductors must be provided in accordance with Article 230, Part VI of the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70-2005. The disconnecting means shall be listed for use as service equipment. The disconnecting means may be combined with the disconnect required by § 3280.804(c). The disconnecting means shall be rated not more than the ampere supply or service capacity indicated on the tag required by paragraph (l) of this section.

(l) When a home is provided with installed service equipment, the electrical nameplate required by § 3280.804(j) shall read: “This connection for 120/240 volt, 3 pole, 3 wire, 60 Hertz, ________ Ampere Supply.” The correct ampere rating shall be marked in the blank space.

[40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975, as amended at 42 FR 961, Jan. 4, 1977. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 52 FR 4589, Feb. 12, 1987; 58 FR 55019, Oct. 25, 1993; 70 FR 72051, Nov. 30, 2005; 78 FR 73990, Dec. 9, 2013]

§ 3280.805 Branch circuits required.

(a) The number of branch circuits required shall be determined in accordance with the following:

(1) Lighting, based on 3 volt-amperes per square foot times outside dimensions of the manufactured home (coupler excluded) divided by 120 volts times amperes to determine number of 15 or 20 ampere lighting area circuits. e.g. [3 × length × width - [120 × (15 or 20)] = number of 15 or 20 ampere circuits. Lighting circuits are permitted to serve built-in gas ovens with electric service for lights, clocks, or timers, or for listed cord-connected garbage disposal units.

(2) Small Appliances. For the small appliance load in kitchens, pantries, dining rooms, and breakfast rooms of manufactured homes, two or more 20-ampere appliance branch circuits, in addition to the branch circuit specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, must be provided for all receptacle outlets in these rooms, and such circuits must have no other outlets. Countertop receptacle outlets installed in the kitchen must be supplied by not less than two small appliance branch circuits. One or more of the small appliance branch circuits may also supply other receptacle outlets in the kitchen, pantry, dining room, and breakfast room. Receptacles installed solely for the electrical supply to an electric clock and receptacles installed to provide power for supplemental equipment and lighting on gas-fired ranges, ovens, or counter-mounted cooking units are not subject to the requirements of this paragraph (a)(2).

(3) General appliances (Including furnace, water heater, range, and central or room air conditioner, etc.). There shall be one or more circuits of adequate rating in accordance with the following:

(i) The ampere rating of fixed appliances must not exceed 50 percent of the circuit rating if lighting outlets are on the same circuit (receptacles in the kitchen, dining area, and laundry are not considered to be lighting outlets);

(ii) For fixed appliances on a circuit without lighting outlets, the sum of rated amperes shall not exceed the branch-circuit rating. Motor loads or other continuous duty loads shall not exceed 80 percent of the branch circuit rating.

(iii) The rating of a single cord and plug connected appliances on a circuit having no other outlets, shall not exceed 80 percent of the circuit rating.

(iv) The rating of the range branch circuit is based on the range demand as specified for ranges in § 3280.811(a)(5). For central air conditioning, see Article 440 of the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70-2005.

(v) Where a laundry area is provided, a 20 ampere branch circuit shall be provided to supply laundry receptacle outlets. This circuit shall have no other outlets. See § 3280.806(a)(7).

(vi) Bathroom receptacle outlets must be supplied by at least one 20-ampere branch circuit. Such circuits must have no other outlets, except that it is permissible to place the receptacle outlet for a heat tape or pipe heating cable required by § 3280.806(d)(10) on a bathroom circuit. (See § 3280.806(b).)

(b) [Reserved]

[40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 FR 55020, Oct. 25, 1993; 70 FR 72051, Nov. 30, 2005; 78 FR 73991, Dec. 9, 2013]

§ 3280.806 Receptacle outlets.

(a) All receptacle outlets shall be:

(1) Of grounding type;

(2) Installed according to Article 406.3 of the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70-2005.

(3) Except when supplying specific appliances, be parallel-blade, 15-ampere, 125-volt, either single or duplex.

(b) All 125-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacle outlets installed outdoors, or in compartments accessible from outside the manufactured home, and in bathrooms, including receptacles in light fixtures, must have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel. Ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel must be provided for receptacles serving countertops in kitchens and receptacle outlets located within 6 feet of a wet bar sink, except for receptacles installed for appliances in dedicated spaces, such as dishwashers, disposals, refrigerators, freezers, and laundry equipment.

(c) There shall be an outlet of the grounding type for each cord-connected fixed appliance installed.

(d) Receptacle outlets required. Except in the bath, closet, and hall areas, receptacle outlets must be installed at wall spaces 2 feet or more wide, so that no point along the floor line is more than 6 feet, measured horizontally, from an outlet in that space. Receptacle outlets in floors shall not be counted as part of the required number of receptacle outlets, unless located within 18 inches of the wall. In addition, a receptacle outlet must be installed in the following locations:

(1) Over or adjacent to counter tops in the kitchen (at least one on each side of the sink if counter tops are on each side and 12 inches or over in width).

(2) Adjacent to the refrigerator and free-standing gas-range space. A duplex receptacle may serve as the outlet for a countertop and a refrigerator.

(3) At counter top spaces for built-in vanities.

(4) At counter top spaces under wall-mounted cabinets.

(5) In the wall, at the nearest point where a bar type counter attaches to the wall.

(6) In the wall at the nearest point where a fixed room divider attaches to the wall.

(7) In laundry areas within 6 feet of the intended location of the appliance(s).

(8) At least one receptacle outlet shall be installed outdoors.

(9) At least one wall receptacle outlet shall be installed in bathrooms within 36 inches (914 mm) of the outside edge of each basin. The receptacle outlet must be located on a wall that is adjacent to the basin location. This receptacle is in addition to any receptacle that is part of a lighting fixture or appliance. The receptacle must not be enclosed within a bathroom cabinet or vanity.

(10) On the underside of the home for the connection of pipe heating cable(s) or heat tape(s), and the outlet must:

(i) Be located within 2 feet of the cold water inlet;

(ii) Be connected to an interior branch circuit, other than a small appliance branch circuit;

(iii) Be located on a circuit where all of the outlets are on the load side of the ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel; and

(iv) Not be considered as the receptacle outlet required by paragraph (8) of this section.

(11) Receptacle outlets are not required in the following locations:

(i) Wall space occupied by built-in kitchen or wardrobe cabinets,

(ii) Wall space behind doors which may be opened fully against a wall surface,

(iii) Room dividers of the lattice type, less than 8 feet long, not solid within 6 inches of the floor,

(iv) Wall space afforded by bar type counters.

(e) Receptacle outlets shall not be installed in or within reach (30 inches) of a shower or bathtub space.

(f) Receptacle outlets shall not be installed above electric baseboard heaters.

(g) Receptacles must not be in a face-up position in any countertop.

[40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 FR 55020, Oct. 25, 1993; 70 FR 72052, Nov. 30, 2005; 78 FR 73991, Dec. 9, 2013]

§ 3280.807 Fixtures and appliances.

(a) Electrical materials, devices, appliances, fittings, and other equipment installed, intended for use in, or attached to the manufactured home shall be approved for the application and shall be connected in an approved manner when in service. Facilities shall be provided to securely fasten appliances when the manufactured home is in transit. (See § 3280.809.)

(b) Specifically listed pendant-type fixtures or pendant cords shall be permitted in manufactured homes.

(c) Where a lighting fixture is installed over a bathtub or in a shower stall, it must be listed for wet locations. [See also Article 410.4(D) of the National Electrical Code NFPA No. 70-2005.]

(d) The switch for shower lighting fixtures and exhaust fans located over a tub or in a shower stall shall be located outside the tub shower space. (See § 3280.806(e).)

(e) Any combustible wall or ceiling finish exposed between the edge of a fixture canopy, or pan and an outlet box shall be covered with non-combustible or limited combustible material.

(f) Every appliance shall be accessible for inspection, service, repair, or replacement without removal of permanent construction.

(g) In bathrooms, ceiling-mounted lighting fixtures and wall-mounted lighting fixtures must not be controlled by the same switch.

[40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 52 FR 35543, Sept. 22, 1987; 58 FR 55020, Oct. 25, 1993; 70 FR 72052, Nov. 30, 2005; 78 FR 73991, Dec. 9, 2013; 86 FR 2523, Jan. 12, 2021]

§ 3280.808 Wiring methods and materials.

(a) Except as specifically permitted by this part, the wiring methods and materials specified in the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70-2005, must be used in manufactured homes.

(b) Nonmetallic outlet boxes shall be acceptable only with nonmetallic cable.

(c) Nonmetallic cable located 15 inches or less above the floor, if exposed, shall be protected from physical damage by covering boards, guard strips, or conduit. Cable likely to be damaged by stowage shall be so protected in all cases.

(d) Nonmetallic sheathed cable shall be secured by staples, straps, or similar fittings so designed and installed as not to injure any cable. Cable shall be secured in place at intervals not exceeding 41/2 feet and within 12 inches from every cabinet, box or fitting.

(e) Metal-clad and nonmetallic cables shall be permitted to pass through the centers of the wide side of 2-inch by 4-inch studs. However, they shall be protected where they pass through 2-inch by 2-inch studs or at other studs or frames where the cable or armor would be less than 11/2 inches from the inside or outside surface of the studs when the wall covering materials are in contact with the studs. Steel plates on each side of the cable, or a tube, with not less than No. 16 MSG wall thickness shall be required to protect the cable. These plates or tubes shall be securely held in place.

(f) Where metal faceplates are used, they must be effectively grounded.

(g) If the range, clothes dryer, or similar appliance is connected by metalclad cable or flexible conduit, a length of not less than three feet of free cable or conduit shall be provided to permit moving the appliance. Type NM or Type SE cable shall not be used to connect a range or a dryer. This shall not prohibit the use of Type NM or Type SE cable between the branch circuit overcurrent protective device and a junction box or range or dryer receptacle.

(h) Where rigid metal conduit or intermediate metal conduit is terminated at an enclosure with a locknut and bushing connection, two locknuts must be provided, one inside and one outside of the enclosure. Rigid nonmetallic conduit or electrical nonmetallic tubing is permitted. All cut ends of conduit and tubing must be reamed or otherwise finished to remove rough edges.

(i) Switches must be rated as follows:

(1) For lighting circuits, switches must be rated not less than 10 amperes, 120 to 125 volts, and in no case less than the connected load.

(2) For motors or other loads, switches shall have ampere or horsepower ratings, or both, adequate for loads controlled. (An “AC general-use” snap switch shall be permitted to control a motor 2 horsepower or less with full-load current not over 80 percent of the switch ampere rating).

(j) At least 4 inches of free conductor shall be left at each outlet box except where conductors are intended to loop without joints.

(k) When outdoor or under-chassis line-voltage (120 volts, nominal or higher) wiring is exposed to moisture or physical damage, it must be protected by rigid metal conduit or intermediate metal conduit. The conductors must be suitable for wet locations. Electrical metallic tubing or rigid nonmetallic conduit is permitted to be used when closely routed against frames and equipment enclosures.

(l) Outlet boxes of dimensions less than those required in Table 314.16(A) of the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70-2005, are permitted provided the box has been tested and approved for that purpose.

(m) Boxes, fittings, and cabinets shall be securely fastened in place, and shall be supported from a structural member of the home, either directly or by using a substantial brace. Snap-in type boxes provided with special wall or ceiling brackets that securely fasten boxes in walls or ceilings shall be permitted.

(n) Outlet boxes must fit closely to openings in combustible walls and ceilings and must be flush with the finish surface or project therefrom. In walls and ceilings of noncombustible material, outlet boxes and fittings must be installed so that the front edge of the box or fitting will not be set back from the finished surface more than1/4 inch. Plaster, drywall, or plasterboard surfaces that are broken or incomplete must be repaired so that there will be no gaps or open spaces greater than1/8 inch at the edge of the box or fitting.

(o) Appliances having branch-circuit terminal connections which operate at temperatures higher than 60 °C (140 °F) shall have circuit conductors as described in paragraphs (p) (1) and (2) of this section:

(1) Branch-circuit conductors having an insulation suitable for the temperature encountered shall be permitted to run directly to the appliance.

(2) Conductors having an insulation suitable for the temperature encountered may be run from the appliance terminal connections to a readily accessible outlet box placed at least one foot from the appliance. If provided, these conductors must be in a suitable raceway or Type AC or MC cable, of at least 18 inches but not more than 6 feet in length.

(p) A substantial brace for securing a box, fitting, or cabinet must be as described in the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70-2005, Article 314.23(B), or the brace, including the fastening mechanism to attach the brace to the home structure, must withstand a force of 50 lbs. applied to the brace at the intended point(s) of attachment for the box in a direction perpendicular to the surface on which the box is installed.

(q) Where the sheathing of NM cable has been cut or damaged and visual inspection reveals that the conductor and its insulation has not been damaged, it shall be permitted to repair the cable sheath with electrical tape which provides equivalent protection to the sheath.

[40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 FR 55020, Oct. 25, 1993; 70 FR 72052, Nov. 30, 2005; 78 FR 73991, Dec. 9, 2013]

§ 3280.809 Grounding.

(a) General. Grounding of both electrical and nonelectrical metal parts in a manufactured home shall be through connection to a grounding bus in the manufactured home distribution panelboard. The grounding bus shall be grounded through the green-colored conductor in the supply cord or the feeder wiring to the service ground in the service-entrance equipment located adjacent to the manufactured home location. Neither the frame of the manufactured home nor the frame of any appliance shall be connected to the neutral conductor in the manufactured home.

(b) Insulated neutral.

(1) The grounded circuit conductor (neutral) shall be insulated from the grounding conductors and from equipment enclosures and other grounded parts. The grounded (neutral) circuit terminals in the distribution panelboard and in ranges, clothes dryers, counter-mounted cooking units, and wall-mounted ovens shall be insulated from the equipment enclosure. Bonding screws, straps, or buses in the distribution panelboard or in appliances shall be removed and discarded. However, when service equipment is installed on the manufactured home, the neutral and the ground bus may be connected in the distribution panel.

(2) Connection of ranges and clothes dryers with 120/240 volt, 3-wire ratings shall be made with 4 conductor cord and 3 pole, 4-wire grounding type plugs, or by type AC metal clad conductors enclosed in flexible metal conduit. For 120 volt rated devices a 3-conductor cord and a 2-pole, 3-wire grounding type plug shall be permitted.

(c) Equipment grounding means.

(1) The green-colored grounding wire in the supply cord or permanent feeder wiring shall be connected to the grounding bus in the distribution panelboard or disconnecting means.

(2) In the electrical system, all exposed metal parts, enclosures, frames, lamp fixture canopies, etc., shall be effectively bonded to the grounding terminal or enclosure of the distribution panelboard.

(3) Cord-connected appliances, such as washing machines, clothes dryers, refrigerators, and the electrical system of gas ranges, etc., shall be grounded by means of an approved cord with grounding conductor and grounding-type attachment plug.

(d) Bonding of noncurrent-carrying metal parts.

(1) All exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts that may become energized shall be effectively bonded to the grounding terminal or enclosure of the distribution panelboard. A bonding conductor shall be connected between each distribution panelboard and an accessible terminal on the chassis.

(2) Grounding terminals shall be of the solderless type and approved as pressure-terminal connectors recognized for the wire size used. Star washers or other approved paint-penetrating fitting shall be used to bond terminals to chassis or other coated areas. The bonding conductor shall be solid or stranded, insulated or bare and shall be No. 8 copper minimum, or equal. The bonding conductor shall be routed so as not to be exposed to physical damage. Protection can be afforded by the configuration of the chassis.

(3) Metallic gas, water and waste pipes and metallic air-circulating ducts shall be considered bonded if they are connected to the terminal on the chassis (see § 3280.809) by clamps, solderless connectors, or by suitable grounding-type straps.

(4) Any metallic roof and exterior covering shall be considered bonded if

(i) the metal panels overlap one another and are securely attached to the wood or metal frame parts by metallic fasteners, and

(ii) if the lower panel of the metallic exterior covering is secured by metallic fasteners at a cross member of the chassis by two metal straps per manufactured home unit or section at opposite ends. The bonding strap material shall be a minimum of 4 inches in width of material equivalent to the skin or a material of equal or better electrical conductivity. The straps shall be fastened with paint-penetrating fittings (such as screws and star washers or equivalent).

[40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 FR 55020, Oct. 25, 1993]

§ 3280.810 Electrical testing.

(a) Dielectric strength test. The wiring of each manufactured home shall be subjected to a 1-minute, 900 to 1079 volt dielectric strength test (with all switches closed) between live parts and the manufactured home ground, and neutral and the manufactured home ground. Alternatively, the test may be performed at 1080 to 1250 volts for 1 second. This test shall be performed after branch circuits are complete and after fixtures or appliances are installed. Fixtures or appliances which are listed shall not be required to withstand the dielectric strength test.

(b) Additional testing. Each manufactured home must be subjected to the following tests:

(1) An electrical continuity test to assure that metallic parts are effectively bonded;

(2) An operational test of all devices and utilization equipment, except water heaters, electric ranges, electric furnaces, dishwashers, clothes washers/dryers, and portable appliances, to demonstrate they are connected and in working order; and

(3) Electrical polarity checks to determine that connections have been made in accordance with applicable provisions of these standards and Article 550.17 of NFPA 70-2005 (incorporated by reference, see § 3280.4). Visual verification is an acceptable electrical polarity check.

[58 FR 55020, Oct. 25, 1993, as amended at 86 FR 2523, Jan. 12, 2021]

§ 3280.811 Calculations.

(a) The following method shall be employed in computing the supply cord and distribution-panelboard load for each feeder assembly for each manufactured home and shall be based on a 3-wire, 120/240 volt supply with 120 volt loads balanced between the two legs of the 3-wire system. The total load for determining power supply by this method is the summation of:

(1) Lighting and small appliance load as calculated below:

(i) Lighting volt-amperes: Length time width of manufactured home (outside dimensions exclusive of coupler) times 3 volt-amperes per square foot; e.g. Length × width × 3 = lighting volt-amperes.

(ii) Small appliance volt-amperes: Number of circuits time 1,500 volt-amperes for each 20-ampere appliance receptacle circuit (see definition of “Appliance Portable” with Note): e.g. Number of circuits × 1,500 = small appliance volt-amperes.

(iii) Total volts-amperes: Lighting volts-amperes plus small appliance = total volt-amperes.

(iv) First 3,000 total volts-amperes at 100 percent plus remainder at 35 percent = watts to be divided by 240 volts to obtain current (amperes) per leg.

(2) Nameplate amperes for motors and heater loads (exhaust fans, air conditioners, electric, gas, or oil heating). Omit smaller of air conditioning and heating except include blower motor if used as air conditioner evaporator motor. When an air conditioner is not installed and a 40-ampere power supply cord is provided, allow 15 amperes per leg for air conditioning.

(3) 25 percent of current of largest motor in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(4) Total of nameplate amperes for: Disposal, dishwasher, water heater, clothes dryer, wall-mounted oven, cooking units. Where number of these appliances exceeds three, use 75 percent of total.

(5) Derive amperes for free-standing range (as distinguished from separate ovens and cooking units) by dividing values below by 240 volts.

Nameplate rating (in watts) Use (in watts)
10,000 or less 80 percent of rating.
10,001 to 12,500 8,000.
12,501 to 13,500 8,400.
13,501 to 14,500 8,800.
14,501 to 15,500 9,200.
15,501 to 16,500 9,600.
16,501 to 17,500 10,000.

(6) If outlets or circuits are provided for other than factory-installed appliances, include the anticipated load. The following example is given to illustrate the application of this Method of Calculation:

Example:

A manufactured home is 70 × 10 feet and has two portable appliance circuits, a 1000 volt-ampere 240 volt heater, a 200 volt-ampere 120 volt exhaust fan, a 400 volts-ampere 120 volt dishwasher and a 7000 volt-ampere electric range.

Lighting and small appliance load Volt-ampheres
Lighting 70 × 10 × 3 2,100
Small Appliance 3,000
Total 5,100
1st. 3,000 Volt-Ampheres at 100% 3,000
Remainder (5,100 −3,000 = 2,100, at 35% 735
Total 3,735
Amperes per leg A Amperes per leg B
Lighting and small Appliance 15.5 15.5
Heater 240 volt 4.1 4.1
Fan 120 volt 1.7
Dishwasher 120 volt 3.3
Range 23.3 23.3
Total 44.6 46.2

(b) The following is an optional method of calculation for lighting and appliance loads for manufactured homes served by single 3-wire 120/240 volt set of feeder conductors with an ampacity of 100 or greater. The total load for determining the feeder ampacity may be computed in accordance with the following table instead of the method previously specified. Feeder conductors whose demand load is determined by this optional calculation are permitted to have the neutral load determined by Article 220.61 of the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70-2005. The loads identified in the table as “other load” and as “Remainder of other load” must include the following:

(1) 1500 volt-amperes for each 2-wire, 20-ampere small appliance branch circuit and each laundry branch circuit specified.

(2) 3 volt-amperes per square foot for general lighting and general-use receptacles.

(3) The nameplate rating of all fixed appliances, ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking units, and including 4 or more separately controlled space heating loads.

(4) The nameplate ampere or kVA rating of all motors and of all low-power-factor loads.

(5) The largest of the following:

(i) Air conditioning load;

(ii) The 65 percent diversified demand of the central electric space heating load;

(iii) The 65 percent diversified demand of the load of less than four separately-controlled electric space heating units.

(iv) The connected load of four or more separately-controlled electric space heating units.

Optional Calculation for Manufactured Homes With 110-Ampere or Larger Service

Load (in kilowatt or kilovoltampere) Demand factor
(percent)
Air-conditioning and cooling including heat pump compressors 100
Central electric space heating 65
Less than 4 separately controlled electric space heating units 65
1st 10 kW of all other load 100
Remainder of other load 40

[40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 FR 55021, Oct. 25, 1993; 70 FR 72052, Nov. 30, 2005]

§ 3280.812 Wiring of expandable units and dual units.

(a) Expandable or multiple unit manufactured homes shall use fixed-type wiring methods and materials for connecting such units to each other.

(b) Expandable or multiple unit manufactured homes not having permanently installed feeders and which are to be moved from one location to another, shall be permitted to have disconnecting means with branch circuit protective equipment in each unit when so located that after assembly or joining together of units the requirements of § 3280.803 will be met.

§ 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

(a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for use in wet locations, except that if located on the underside of the home or located under roof extensions or similarly protected locations, they may be listed for use in damp locations.

(b) A manufactured home provided with a branch circuit designed to energize outside heating equipment or air-conditioning equipment, other than room air conditioners, or both, located outside the manufactured home, other than room air conditioners, must have such branch-circuit conductors terminate in a listed outlet box, or disconnecting means, located on the outside of the manufactured home.

(1) A label must be permanently affixed adjacent to the outlet box. The label must be not less than 0.020-inches thick etched brass, stainless steel, anodized or alclad aluminum, or equivalent, and must not be less than 3 inches × 13/4 inches in size.

(2)

(i) The label must include the correct voltage and ampere rating and the following information:

THIS CONNECTION IS FOR HEATING AND/OR AIR-CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT. THE BRANCH CIRCUIT IS RATED AT NOT MORE THAN____AMPERES, AT____VOLTS, 60-HERTZ,____CONDUCTOR AMPACITY. A DISCONNECTING MEANS IS LOCATED WITHIN SIGHT OF THE EQUIPMENT.

(ii) The correct voltage and ampere rating shall be given. The tag must be not less than 0.020-inches thick etched brass, stainless steel, anodized or alclad aluminum, or equivalent. The tag must have a minimum size of not less than 3 inches × 13/4 inches.

[40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975, as amended at 42 FR 961, Jan. 4, 1977. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 FR 55021, Oct. 25, 1993; 78 FR 73992, Dec. 9, 2013]

§ 3280.814 Painting of wiring.

During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to paint metal raceways (except where grounding continuity would be reduced) or the sheath of the nonmetallic cable. Some arrangement, however, shall be made so that no paint shall be applied to the individual wires, as the color coding may be obliterated by the paint.

§ 3280.815 Polarization.

(a)

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the white conductor must be employed for the grounded (neutral) circuit conductors only and must be connected to the white terminal or lead on receptacle outlets and fixtures. The grounded conductor must be the unswitched wire in switched circuits.

(2) A cable containing an insulated conductor with a white or natural gray outer finish or a marking of three continuous white stripes may be used for single-pole, three-way, or four-way switch loops, where this conductor is used for the supply to the switch, but not as a return conductor from the switch to the switched outlet. In these applications, the conductor with white or natural gray insulation or with three continuous white stripes must be permanently re-identified to indicate its use by painting or other effective means at its terminations and at each location where the conductor is visible and accessible.

(b) If the identified (white) conductor of a cable is used for other than grounded conductors or for other than switch loops as explained above (for a 240 volt circuit for example), the conductor shall be finished in a color other than white at each outlet where the conductors are visible and accessible.

(c) Green-colored wires or green with yellow stripe shall be used for grounding conductors only.

[40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 FR 55021, Oct. 25, 1993; 78 FR 73992, Dec. 9, 2013]

§ 3280.816 Examination of equipment for safety.

The examination or inspection of equipment for safety, according to this standard, shall be conducted under uniform conditions and by organizations properly equipped and qualified for experimental testing, inspections of the run of goods at factories, and service-value determinations through field examinations.